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DEFINITION OF FLOW

FLOW IS DEFINED AS THE QUANTITY OF FLUID (GAS, LIQUID, VAPOUR OR


SUBLIMATE) THAT PASSES A POINT PER UNIT TIME

A SIMPLE EQUATION TO REPRESENT THIS IS:

FLOW (F) = QUANTITY (Q)


TIME (T)

FLOW IS SOMETIMES WRITTEN AS Q (RATE OF CHANGE OF A


QUANTITY)
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CLASSIFICATION OF FLOW
PHENOMENA
STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOWS
FLOW DIMENSIONALITY
UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM FLOWS
ROTATIONAL AND IRROTATIONAL FLOWS
VISCOUS AND INVISCID FLOWS
INCOMPRESSIBLE AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS
LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS

SEPARATED AND UNSEPARATED FLOWS


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There are two kind of flow


a. Internal flow ( flow in pipes)
b. External flow ( flow over bodies, drag, lift)
Examples of internal flow
1. Water flow in pipes
2. Blood flow
3. Oil and Gas industry
4. Cooling system of a car (Radiator)
5. Air Conditioning (Chilled water system)

examples & pictures

TYPES OF FLOW IN A PIPE

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF FLOW:

LAMINAR FLOW

TURBULENT FLOW
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LAMINAR FLOW

SMOOTH, STEADY AND ORDERLY FLOW OF FLUID IN A TUBE

ALL THE FLUID MOLECULES MOVE IN A STRAIGHT LINE

THEREFORE THEY MOVE IN PARALLEL LAYERS OR LAMINAE WITH NO


DISRUPTION BETWEEN THE LAYERS
VELOCITY OF FLOW IS GREATEST IN THE AXIAL STREAM (CENTRE OF THE
TUBE). IT BECOMES PROGRESSIVELY SLOWER AS THE LAYERS MOVE TO
THE PERIPHERY

AXIAL STREAM VELOCITY IS TWICE THE MEAN FLOW VELOCITY

VELOCITY OF THE LAYER IN CONTACT WITH THE WALL IS VIRTUALLY ZERO

LAMINAR FLOW

Diagrammatic representation of laminar flow


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TURBULENT FLOW

FLUID DOES NOT MOVE IN ORDERLY MANNER

THE FLUID MOLECULES BECOME MORE DISORGANIZED

THEY FORM SWIRLS AND EDDIES AS THEY MOVE DOWN THE


PRESSURE GRADIENT IN HAPHAZARD MANNER
THERE IS INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FLOW AS THE EDDY CURRENTS
INTERFERE WITH EACH OTHER

THEREFORE GREATER ENERGY IS REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN FLOW RATE,


COMPARED TO WHEN THE FLOW IS LAMINAR
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Diagrammatic representation of turbulent flow


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IS THERE OTHER METHOD TO DISTINGUISH


THESE FLOW?
Yes, use Reynolds number, Re

kinematic viscosity, (m 2 s )
dynamic viscosity, (kg m.s )
density of flowing fluid (kg/m 3 )
Vavg Average pipe velocity
D Internal diameter of pipe

Re < 2300, Laminar flow

2300 < Re < 4000, Transition flow

Re > 4000, Turbulent flow

Reynolds number does not have any associated unit

It is a dimensionless number

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IS THERE OTHER METHOD TO DISTINGUISH


THESE FLOW?(CONT)
For non-circular pipes, hydraulic diameter, Dh is used
for calculating the Reynolds number.
4 Crosssectional Area (internal) 4 Ac
Dh

Internal Perimeter
p

however, in practical, type of flow depend on


smoothness of pipe, vibrations and fluctuation in the
flow.
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REYNOLDS NUMBER (EXAMPLE)


Q1: Water at 20C flow with average velocity of
2cm/s inside a circular pipe. Determine flow
type if the pipe diameter, a) 2 cm, b) 15 cm,
and c) 30 cm From table (Cengel book, 2010) At 20C
1.00210-3 kg m.s , 998kg/m3
a) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.02)

398

0.001002

(a) Laminar flow

b) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.15)

2988

0.001002

(b) Transition flow

c) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.3)

5970

0.001002

(c) Turbulent flow


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FACTORS AFFECTING FLOW

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VARIABLES
THAT
AFFECT
FLOW
PRESSURE: FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRESSURE
DIFFERENCE ACROSS THE TUBE

RADIUS: FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE FOURTH POWER


OF THE RADIUS (OR DIAMETER) OF THE TUBE

Q R4, OR Q D4

LENGTH: FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE


TUBE

Q P

Q 1/L

VISCOSITY: FLOW IS INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE VISCOSITY OF


THE FLUID

Q 1/

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HAGEN-POISEUILLE EQUATION

THIS EQUATION INCORPORATES THE


VARIABLES THAT DETERMINE FLOW
Q = PR4
8L
WHERE /8 IS A CONSTANT DERIVED THEORETICALLY
OR

Q = PD4
128L
WHERE /128 IS A CONSTANT
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PRESSURE/FLOW RELATIONSHIP
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESSURE AND FLOW
IS LINEAR WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITS

AS VELOCITY INCREASES, A CRITICAL POINT (OR


CRITICAL VELOCITY) IS REACHED WHERE FLOW
CHANGES FROM LAMINAR TO TURBULENT
BEYOND THIS POINT, FLOW IS PROPORTIONAL TO
THE SQUARE ROOT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT
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VISCOSITY

VISCOSITY () IS THE PROPERTY OF A FLUID THAT CAUSES IT TO RESIST FLOW

IT IS A MEASURE OF THE FRICTIONAL FORCES


ACTING BETWEEN THE LAYERS OF FLUID AS IT
FLOWS ALONG THE TUBE
= FORCE / VELOCITY GRADIENT
AREA

UNIT OF VISCOSITY IS PASCAL SECOND (PA S)


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ENTRANCE REGION
Between the entrance and fully developed flow
Uniform velocity profile at entrance
because of no slip boundary condition, friction at the
wall reduce the velocity of flow near the wall
to conserve mass, velocity at the center increase
(compensate velocity decreased near the wall)

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ENTRANCE REGION (CONT)


As the fluid move deeper in the pipe, the velocity
near the wall decreased further and velocity at
center increase (developing velocity profile)
Both (up & down @ left & right) velocity profile
increase till it merge with the other side

fully developed flow is when the velocity profile


stop to develop as it flows deeper inside the pipe

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ENTRY REGION (CONT)


entry length, Lh is evaluated from pipe entrance to
where wall shear stress achieve 2% of fully
developed value or approximately
Lh ,la min ar 0.05ReD

Lh ,turbulent 10D shorter length for

turbulent pipe flow

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ENTRY REGION (EXAMPLE)


Q4: Determine the hydrodynamic entry region for
Q1 (a & c).
LLhh,,lalamin
0.05ReD
minar
ar 0.05ReD
a) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.02)

398

0.001002

Lh ,turbulent 10D

(a) Laminar flow

Lh ,la min ar 0.05ReD 0.05 398 0.02 0.398 m


V aveD 998(0.02)(0.3)
c) Re ave

5970

0.001002

(c) Turbulent flow

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TURBULENCE VELOCITY PROFILE VS LAMINAR


VELOCITY PROFILE (FULLY DEVELOPED)

Velocity profile based on


analysis
Consist of 1 layer
Small velocity gradient
The average velocity in fully
developed laminar pipe flow
is of the maximum velocity
umax 2Vave

Velocity profile is based


on analysis and empirical
Consist of 4 layer

High velocity gradient


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Ideal Fluid Flow


WE MAKE FOUR SIMPLIFYING ASSUMPTIONS IN OUR TREATMENT OF FLUID
FLOW TO MAKE THE ANALYSIS EASIER:
1. THE FLUID IS NONVISCOUS

INTERNAL FRICTION IS NEGLECTED


2. THE FLOW IS STEADY

3. THE FLUID IS INCOMPRESSIBLE

THE DENSITY REMAINS CONSTANT


4. THE FLOW IS IRROTATIONAL

THE FLUID HAS NO ANGULAR MOMENTUM ABOUT ANY POINT

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STREAMLINES
THE PATH A PARTICLE TAKES IN STEADY
FLOW IS
A STREAMLINE
THE VELOCITY OF EACH PARTICLE
IS TANGENT TO A STREAMLINE

A SET OF STREAMLINES
IS CALLED A
TUBE OF FLOW

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Equation of Continuity
CONSIDER A FLUID MOVING THROUGH A PIPE OF
NONUNIFORM DIAMETER. THE PARTICLES MOVE
ALONG THE STREAMLINES IN STEADY FLOW.

THE MASS M1 IN THE SMALL PORTION OF


PIPE OF LENGTH X1, CROSSING AREA A1
IN SOME TIME T, MUST BE EXACTLY THE
SAME AS THE MASS M2 IN LENGTH X2,
CROSSING AREA A2 IN THE SAME TIME T.

m2 = mass of fluid
in this volume

WHY? BECAUSE NO FLUID PARTICLES LEAK


OUT OF THE PIPE!

THE FLUID HAS

m1 = mass of fluid
in this volume

CONSERVATION OF MASS!

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CONSERVATION OF MASS:

M1 = M2

(1)

FOR POINT 1 & POINT 2, THE DEFINITION


OF DENSITY IN TERMS OF MASS M &
VOLUME V GIVES: M = V.
FOR POINTS1 & 2, USE V = AX (1) GIVES
R1A1V1 = R2A2V2

(2)

FLUID IS INCOMPRESSIBLE SO, R =


CONSTANT
(2) GIVES: A1V1 = A2V2 (3)
(3) IS CALLED THE EQUATION OF
CONTINUITY FOR FLUIDS
THE PRODUCT OF THE AREA AND
THE FLUID SPEED AT ALL POINTS
ALONG A PIPE IS CONSTANT FOR AN
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID

Av mass flow rate


Units: mass per time interval
or kg/s

Av volume flow rate


Units: volume per time interval
or m3/s

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MASS FLOW RATE (MASS

OF FLUID PASSING A POINT PER


SECOND) IS CONSTANT: 1A1V1 = 2A2V2

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

PHYSICS: CONSERVATION OF MASS!!


FOR AN INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID (1 = 2 = )
THEN

A1V1 = A2V2

OR:

AV = CONSTANT

WHERE CROSS SECTIONAL AREA A IS LARGE, VELOCITY V IS SMALL, WHERE


A IS SMALL, V IS LARGE.

VOLUME FLOW RATE: (V/T) = A(X/T) = AV

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IMPLICATIONS OF EQUATION OF
CONTINUITY
A1V1 = A2V2

THE FLUID SPEED V IS LOW WHERE


THE PIPE IS WIDE (LARGE A)
THE FLUID SPEED V IS HIGH WHERE
THE PIPE IS CONSTRICTED (SMALL
A)
THE PRODUCT, AV, IS CALLED THE
VOLUME FLOW RATE OR FLUX.
AV = CONSTANT SAYS THAT THE

VOLUME THAT ENTERS ONE END OF THE


PIPE IN A GIVEN TIME EQUALS THE
VOLUME LEAVING THE OTHER END IN
THE SAME TIME (IF NO LEAKS ARE PRESENT!)

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PHYSICS: CONSERVATION OF MASS!!

A1V1 = A2V2 OR AV = CONSTANT


SMALL PIPE CROSS SECTION LARGER V
LARGE PIPE CROSS SECTION SMALLER V
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EXAMPLE: ESTIMATE BLOOD FLOW


RCAP = 4 10-4 CM, RAORTA = 1.2 CM
V1 = 40 CM/S, V2 = 5 10-4 CM/S
NUMBER OF CAPILLARIES N = ?
A2 = N(RCAP)2, A1 = (RAORTA)2

A1V1 = A2V2
N = (V1/V2)[(RAORTA)2/(RCAP)2]
N 7 109

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Daniel Bernoulli (1700 1782)

Floating ball

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A1

A1
A2

v1
Low speed
Low KE
High pressure

v2
high speed
high KE
low pressure

v1
Low speed
Low KE
High pressure

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p large

p large

p small

v small

v large

v small
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VENTURI EFFECT

high
pressure
(patm)

low pressure

velocity increased
pressure decreased

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force

high speed
low pressure

force
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What happens when two ships or trucks pass alongside each other?

artery

Flow speeds up at
constriction
Pressure is lower
Internal force acting on
artery wall is reduced

External forces causes


artery to collapse

Arteriosclerosis and vascular flutter


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x2

p2
m

v2

A2

X
time 2

p1

x1
y2

A1

y1

v1
time 1
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Bernoullis Equation
for any point along a flow tube or streamline

p + v2 + g y = constant
Dimensions
p [Pa] = [N.m-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

v2

[kg.m-3.m2.s-2] = [kg.m-1.s-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

gh

[kg.m-3 m.s-2. m] = [kg.m.s-2.m.m-3] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

Each term has the dimensions of energy / volume or energy density.


v2

KE of bulk motion of fluid

gh

GPE for location of fluid

pressure energy density arising from internal forces within


moving fluid (similar to energy stored in a spring)

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x2

p2
m

v2

A2

X
time 2

p1

x1
y2

A1

y1

v1
time 1
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Mass element m moves from (1) to (2)

Derivation of Bernoulli's equation

m = A1 x1 = A2 x2 = V where V = A1 x1 = A2 x2
Equation of continuity A V = constant
A1 v1 = A2 v2

A1 > A2 v1 < v2

Since v1 < v2 the mass element has been accelerated by the net force
F1 F2 = p1 A1 p2 A2
Conservation of energy
A pressurized fluid must contain energy by the virtue that work must
be done to establish the pressure.
A fluid that undergoes a pressure change undergoes an energy
change.

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K = m v22 - m v12 = V v22 - V v12


U = m g y2 m g y1 = V g y2 = V g y1
Wnet = F1 x1 F2 x2 = p1 A1 x1 p2 A2 x2

Wnet = p1 V p2 V = K + U
p1 V p2 V =
V v22 - V v12 + V g y2 - V g y1

Rearranging
p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2
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Applies only to an ideal fluid (zero viscosity)

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EXAMPLE
A very large pipe carries
water with a very slow
velocity and empties into a
small pipe with a high
velocity. If P2 is 7000 Pa
lower than P1, what is the
velocity of the water in the
small pipe?
3.74 m/s

Venturi Meter

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