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Material Requirements for Steel and

Concrete Structures
Chiew Sing-Ping
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Scope

Materials
Concrete
Reinforcing steel
Structural steel

Seismic Requirements (BC3: 2013)


Materials for seismic design
Detailing for seismic design

Structural Eurocodes
SS EN 1990 (EC0):
SS EN 1991 (EC1):

Basis of structural design


Actions on structures

SS EN 1992 (EC2):
SS EN 1993 (EC3):
SS EN 1994 (EC4):
BS EN 1995 (EC5):
BS EN 1996 (EC6):
BS EN 1999 (EC9):

Design of concrete structures


Design of steel structures
Design of composite steel and concrete structures
Design of timber structures
Design of masonry structures
Design of aluminium structures

SS EN 1997 (EC7):
SS EN 1998 (EC8):

Geotechnical design

Design of structures for earthquake resistance

Concrete structures (EC2)


BS EN 10138
Prestressing
steel

BS EN 13670
Execution of
structures

BS EN 206-1
Specifying
concrete

SS EN 1992
Design of concrete structures

National Annex
BS 8500
Specifying
concrete

BS EN 10080
Reinforcing
steel

BS 4449
Reinforcing
steel

BS 8666
Reinforcing
scheduling
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Concrete
Normal concrete

Strength class C12/15 C90/105

Density 2400 kg/m3

Lightweight concrete

Strength class LC12/13 LC80/88

Density 2200 kg/m3

Six density classes of lightweight concrete are defined in EN206-1.


Density class

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Density (kg/m3)

8011000

10011200

12011400

14011600

16011800

18012000

Density
(kg/m3)

Plain concrete

1050

1250

1450

1650

1850

2050

Reinforced concrete

1150

1350

1550

1750

1950

2150

used in design to calculate self-weight


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Concrete
Strength and deformation characteristic for normal concrete
fck (MPa)

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

fck,cube (MPa)

15

20

25

30

37

45

50

55

60

67

75

85

95

105

fcm (MPa)

20

24

28

33

38

43

48

53

58

63

68

78

88

98

fctm (MPa)

1.6

1.9

2.2

2.6

2.9

3.2

3.5

3.8

4.1

4.2

4.4

4.6

4.8

5.0

fctk, 0.05 (MPa)

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.5

2.7

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5

fctk, 0.95 (MPa)

2.0

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.8

4.2

4.6

4.9

5.3

5.5

5.7

6.0

6.3

6.6

Ecm (GPa)

27

29

30

31

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

41

42

44

c1 ()

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.25

2.3

2.4

2.45

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.8

cu1 ()

3.5

3.2

3.0

2.8

2.8

2.8

c2 ()

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

cu2 ()

3.5

3.1

2.9

2.7

2.6

2.6

2.0

1.75

1.6

1.45

1.4

1.4

c3 ()

1.75

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.2

2.3

cu3 ()

3.5

3.1

2.9

2.7

2.6

2.6

Concrete
Strength and deformation characteristic for lightweight concrete
flck (MPa)

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

flck,cube (MPa)

13

18

22

28

33

38

44

50

55

60

66

77

88

flcm (MPa)

17

22

28

33

38

43

48

53

58

63

68

78

88

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

3.1 1

2.9 1

2.7 1

2.6 1

flctm = fctm 1

flctm (MPa)

flctk, 0.05 (MPa)

flctk, 0.05 = fctk, 0.05 1

flctk, 0.95 (MPa)

flctk, 0.95 = fctk, 0.95 1

Elcm (GPa)

Elcm = Ecm E

lc1 ()

kflcm (Ecm E)

lcu1 ()

lc1

lc2 ()

2.0

lcu2 ()

3.5 1

2.0

1.75

1.6

1.45

1.4

lc3 ()

1.75

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.2

lcu3 ()

3.5 1

3.1 1

2.9 1

2.7 1

2.6 1

1 = 0.40+0.60/2200

E = (/2200)2

Modulus of elasticity Ecm

The modulus of elasticity of a concrete is controlled by the


moduli of elasticity of its components. Approximate values
for the modulus of elasticity Ecm, for concrete with quartzite
aggregates are given in Table 3.1 (EC2).
For limestone and sandstone aggregates the values should
be reduced by 10% and 30% respectively. For basalt
aggregates the values should be increased by 20%

Creep and Shrinkage


Creep coefficient is determined by the following factors:

Relative humidity
Element geometry
Strength class
Age at loading
Cement class
Stress/strength ratio at loading

Creep and Shrinkage


The total shrinkage is taken as the sum of the autogenous shrinkage and
drying shrinkage:

cs = ca + cd
The autogenous shrinkage is related to concrete class.
The drying shrinkage is estimated by the following factors:
Relative humidity
Element geometry
Strength class
Cement class

250

Autogenous shrinkage

200

C90/105
C80/95

150

C70/85
C60/75
C55/67
C50/60
C45/55
C40/50
C35/45
C30/37
C25/30
C20/25

100

50
0
0

100

200
300
Time (days)

400
10

Stress-strain relations
Parabolic-Rectangular

n

c
c fcd 1 1
for 0 c c2
c2
c fcd for c2 c cu2

n 2.0 for fck 50MPa


n 1.4 2.34 90 f ck / 100

c2(?

2.0 for fck 50MPa

c2(?

2.0 0.085 fck 50

for f ck 50MPa

0.53

cu2(?

3.5 for fck 50MPa

cu2(?

2.6 35 90 fck / 100

Bi-Linear

c3(?

1.75 for fck 50MPa

c3(?

1.75 0.55 fck 50 / 40 for fck 50MPa

cu3(?

3.5 for fck 50MPa

cu3(?

2.6 35 90 fck /100

for fck 50MPa

for fck 50MPa


4

for fck 50MPa

11

Stress-strain relations
Higher strength concrete shows more brittle behavior.
70

c (MPa)
C90/105

60

C80/95

50
C70/85
C60/75
C55/67

40

C50/60
C45/55
C40/50
C35/45
C30/37
C25/30
C20/25

30
20
10
0
0

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

0.003

0.0035

0.004

Concrete stress-strain relations

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Stress-strain relations
EC2 permits a rectangular stress block to be used for section design
= 0.8
= 0.8 (fck 50)/400

for fck 50 MPa


for 50 < fck 90 MPa

= 1.0
for fck 50 MPa
= 1.0 (fck 50)/200 for 50 < fck 90 MPa
: defining the effective height of the compression zone
: defining the effective strength.

fck (MPa)

50

0.800

1.00

60

0.775

0.95

70

0.750

0.90

80

0.725

0.85

90

0.700

0.80

Rectangular stress distribution

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Reinforcing steel

Reinforcing bars

Welded fabric

Coils

Lattice girders
14

Cold-reduced steel wires

Hot-rolled Wire Rod


Dia. 5.5mm to 14mm
YS : 300 N/mm2

Profiling Rollers
- Dia. Reduction
e.g. 8mm > 7mm

Finished Wire Coils


Dia. 5mm to 13mm,
YS : 500 N/mm2
15

Welded fabric

Computerised Machine
Wires in coil / pre-cut
form

Straightening & Cutting

Cold
Rolled
Resistance WeldingWire

Welded Mesh

16

Reinforcing steel
EC2 does not cover the use of plain or mild steel reinforcement.
Principles and rules are given for deformed bars, de-coiled rods, welded
fabric and lattice girders.
There is no technical reason why other types of reinforcement should not
be used. Relevant authoritative publications should be consulted when
other types reinforcement are used.

EN 10080 provides the performance characteristic and testing methods but


does not specify the material properties. These are given in Annex C of
EC2.

17

Reinforcing steel
Performance requirements
Strength (fyk or f0.2k, ft)
Ductility (uk and ft/fyk)
Weldability
Bendability
Bond characteristics (fR)

18

Reinforcing steel
Strength
Yield strength fyk or f0.2k and tensile strength ft.

Ductility
Ratio of tensile strength to yield strength ft/fyk
Elongation at maximum force uk.

Stress-strain relations for reinforcing steel

19

Tensile test

Universal Testing Machine

Tensile Test Coupon

Computer and Datalogger

Analog Datalogger

Extensometer

Analog Datalogger

Weldability
Weldability is usually defined by two parameters:
Carbon equivalent value (CEV)
Limitations on the content of certain elements
The maximum values of individual elements and the carbon equivalent
value are given below.
Table Chemical composition (% by mass)
Carbon Sulphur Phosphorus

Nitrogen

Copper CEV

Max.

Max.

Max.

Max.

Max.

Max.

Cast analysis

0.22

0.050

0.050

0.012

0.80

0.50

Product analysis

0.24

0.055

0.055

0.014

0.85

0.52

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Properties of reinforcement
Properties of reinforcement (Annex C EC2)
Product form
Class

Bars and De-coiled rods


A

Characteristic yield strength


fyk or f0.2k (MPa)

Wire fabrics

400 to 600

k = (ft/fy)k

1.05

1.08

1.15
<1.35

1.05 1.08

1.15
<1.35

Characteristic strain at
maximum force uk(%)

2.5

5.0

7.5

2.5

7.5

Bendability
Maximum
bar size
deviation from
8mm
normal mass (%) > 8mm

Bend/Re-bend test

5.0
-

6.0
4.5

The UK has chosen a maximum value of characteristic yield strength, fyk= 600 MPa,
But 500 MPa is the value assumed in BS4449 for normal supply.
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Higher strength reinforcing steel


There is a push to use reinforcing steel with higher yield
strength of 600 MPa because EC2 permits it.

Advantage of higher strength reinforcing steel:


Reduces congestion
Fewer bars needed
Increases bar spacing
Reduces bar diameter
Faster construction
Placing/tying bars (labor)
Less weight (crane)
Concrete placement is easier

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Structural steel (EC3)


Performance requirements
Strength able to carry load

Ductility able to sustain permanent deformation


Weldability able to transfer load

Toughness able to absorb damage without fracture

24

High strength steel (HSS)


Normal strength steel: Steel grades S235 to S460
High strength steel: Steel grades greater than S460 up to S700
Compared to normal strength steel, high strength steel has lower
ductility.

25

Why use HSS


When strength-to-weight is important, for example, in
bridges to facilitate construction and crane structures.
Studies show that the ratio of the tensile residual stress
to yield stress of the member seems to decrease with
increasing yield strength in hot-rolled sections.
More favorable buckling curves may be used for high
strength steel for S460.

Higher buckling resistance due to favorable buckling


curves.

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Buckling curves

27

Buckling curves

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Ductility requirements
EC3 has additional ductility requirements compared to
BS5950 in terms of stress ratio, elongation and strain ratio.
Normal strength steel
(fy 460 N/mm2)
fu/fy 1.10

high strength steel


(460 N/mm2 <fy 700 N/mm2)
fu/fy 1.05 (EC3-1-12)
fu/fy 1.10 ( UK NA to EC3-1-12)

Elongation at failure not less


than 15%

Elongation at failure not less than


10%

u 15y

u 15 y

y is the yield stain

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Problem
Some product standards only have requirements on nominal yield and
tensile strength, or their minimum values. The stress ratio calculated
according to these nominal values cannot comply with EC3.
Standard

Grade

Nominal yield strength (MPa)

Nominal tensile strength (MPa)

Stress ratio

G450

450

480

1.07

G500

500

520

1.04

G550

550

550

1.00

CA 500

500

510

1.02

S 550MC

550

600

1.09

S 600MC

600

650

1.08

S 650MC

650

700

1.08

S 700MC

700

750

1.07

EN 10326

S550GD

550

560

1.02

ISO 4997

CH550

550

550

1.00

AS 1397
AS 1595

EN 10149

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Structural steel and reinforcing steel


Comparison of structural steel and reinforcing steel
Reinforcement
A

Yield strength
(MPa)

400 to 600

Modulus of
elasticity (GPa)

200

Structural steel
C

Normal strength

High strength

460

> 460
700
210

ft/fy or fu/fy

1.05

1.08

1.15
< 1.35

1.10

1.05
1.10 (NA)

Elongation (%)

2.5

5.0

7.5

15

10

Ultimate strain

u 15y

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Material comparison
EC2
Normal
Concrete

Light
weight

Reinforcing steel
Structural steel

EC3

C12/15- C90/105

EC4
C20/25 - C60/75

LC12/13 LC80/88

LC20/22 - LC60/66

400 - 600 N/mm2

400 - 600 N/mm2

700 N/mm2

460 N/mm2

These ranges in EC4 are narrower than those given in EC2 ( C12/15
C90/105) and EC3 ( 700 N/mm2) because there is limited knowledge
and experimental data on composite members with very high strength
concrete and high strength steel.

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Material for seismic design


Material limitations for primary seismic members
Ductility Class

DCL
(Low)

DCM
(Medium)

DCH
(High)

Concrete grade

No limit

C16/20

C20/25

Steel Class (EC2,


Table C1)

B or C

B or C

Only C

only ribbed

only ribbed

Longitudinal bars

DCL - ductility class low


DCM - ductility class medium
DCH - ductility class high
For secondary seismic members, they do not need to conform to
these requirements.

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Detailing for seismic design


In addition, for seismic detailing, there are stringent
requirements for reinforcing steel mainly focusing on:

Bar diameter
Bar spacing
Minimum bar numbers

Minimum reinforcement area


Maximum reinforcement area

34

Detailing for primary seismic beams


DCH

DCM

Longitudinal bars
min
max
dbl/hc bar crossing
interior joint

dbl/hc bar anchored at


exterior joint

0.5 fctm/fyk

Max 0.26 fctm fyk ; 0.13%(EC2)

'+0.0018fcd/(sy,dfyd)

0.04 (EC2)

6.25 1+0.8v d fctm

fyd
1+0.75

max

6.25 1+0.8v d

fctm
fyd

In critical
regions

spacing

fyd
1+0.5

max

fctm
fyd

Min {0.75d; 15; 600} (EC2)

min
dbw,min

7.5 1+0.8v d fctm

7.5 1+0.8v d

Transverse reinforcement
Out critical spacing
regions

DCL

0.08 fck fyk

(EC2)

6mm

Min{hw/4;24dbw;175;6dbl} Min{hw/4;24dbw;225;8dbl}

35

Detailing for primary seismic columns


Cross-section hc,bc,min
Longitudinal bars
min

DCH

DCM

DCL

250 mm

max
dbl,min
Bars per column side
Transverse reinforcement

1%

Max 0.1NEd fyd ; 0.002A c (EC2)

4%

4% (EC2)
8 mm

2 (EC2)

Out critical regions


spacing
dbw
Within critical regions

dbw,min
spacing
Volumetric ratio wd
wd
In critical region at
column base:
wd
wd

Min {20dbl;bc; hc; 400} (EC2)


Max {0.25dbl; 6} (EC2)

Max 6;0.4dbl fyd fywd

Min{b0/3;125;6dbl}
0.08

Max {0.25dbl; 6} (EC2)


Min{b0/2;175;8dbl}
-

30 d sy,d bc b0 -0.05

0.12

0.08

30 d sy,d bc b0 -0.05

36

Detailing for primary seismic walls


DCH

DCM

DCL

Boundary elements:
In critical region:
Longitudinal bars
min
max
Transverse bars
dbw,min
spacing
Volumetric ratio wd
wd

0.5%

0.2% (EC2)
4% (EC2)

Max 6;0.4dbl fyd fywd

Min{b0/3;125;6dbl}
0.12

6 mm
Min{b0/2;175;8dbl}
0.08

30 d sy,d bc b0 -0.05

Max {0.25dbl; 6} (EC2)


Min {20dbl;bc; hc; 400} (EC2)
-

Web:
Vertical bars
v,min
v,max
dbv,min
dbv,max
spacing
Horizontal bars
h,min
dbv,min
dbv,max
spacing

Wherever c >0.2%: 0.5%; elsewhere 0.2%


0.2% (EC2)
4% (EC2)
8mm
bwo/8
Min (25dbv; 250mm)
Min (3bwo; 400mm) (EC2)
0.2%
8mm
bwo/8
Min (25dbh; 250mm)

Max (0.2%; 0.25v) (EC2)


400mm (EC2)

37

Conclusions
There is a push to use higher strength concrete, higher
strength reinforcing steel and structural steel in
Structural Eurocodes.
Be careful with steel products, some product standards
may not comply with more stringent Eurocodes ductility
requirements, for e.g. AS1397, SS2 vs. SS560, etc.
For seismic design, there are more stringent
requirements for ductility in reinforcing steel in terms of
higher steel class (B or C only).
In addition, there are more stringent requirements for
seismic detailing for reinforcing steel in terms of bar
diameter and bar spacing, and minimum and maximum
reinforcement.
38