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EE 334: Power Systems

Course Overview
Anupama Kowli

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India

Outline of Todays Lecture

Introduction to each other


Course overview
Background and motivation

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My Background
I was born and brought up in Mumbai, completed my B. E. in 2006
from University of Mumbai (VJTI)
I got my Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2013
While at UIUC, I interned with Kema Inc and Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory
My research interests include power grid operations, resource
planning, electricity markets, ancillary services and integration of
emerging resources as well as technologies
On a personal front, I am married to Prof. Ankur Kulkarni and am
the proud mother of Ananya (shes just completed 2 years)
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Course Contents
Evolution of Power Systems, Energy sources structure of bulk power
systems, Basic three phase system concepts, Power system
components: Generators, Loads, Transformers, Transmission Lines
etc, Modeling, performance and constraints of these components,
Formulation/solution of steady state equations for interconnected
systems: Balanced and Unbalanced systems. Positive Sequence
Network, Per Unit System, Ybus formation Simple example of a
load-flow solution Introduction to generator swing equations and
stability issues, Simple Example of Loss of synchronism Interconnected
System Operation and Control: Operational Objectives, Frequency
Control, Voltage Control and Power Flow Control: introduction to
HVDC transmission and FACTS Economic Issues in Power Systems.
Analysis of Faulted Power Systems and Protection: Unbalanced
System Analysis using Sequence Components, Equipment Protection
Schemes: Overcurrent, Differential and Distance Protection, Relay
coordination Preventive Control and Emergency Control System
Protection Schemes) Blackouts and Restoration
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A Historical Perspective
1830s Discovery of electricity, development of generators
1860s Practical use of electricity with telegraph and arc lighting
1880s Setting up of electric distribution companies in UK, US,
Germany,India; discovery of motors and transformers
1890s Introduction of three-phase systems
1900s Monopoly systems, growing reliance on electricity
electric trains, motor loads, and so on; privatization
2000s Increasing use of renewables, introduction of electric
vehicles, complex electricity trading
Electrification was calledthe greatest engineering achievement of the
20th Century by the National Academy of Engineering
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A Look at Indian Scenario


Growth of Installed Generating Capacity in India
300

Generating Capacity (GW)

250

200

150

100

50

0
1947

1950

1956

1961

1966

1969

1974
Coal

1979
Gas

1980
Diesel

1985
Nuclear

1990
Hydro

1992

1997

2002

2007

2012

2013

2014

2015

RES

Private sector foray into electricity business


Emphasis on rural electrification
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One Sychronized Indian Grid

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Associated Challenges

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Key Perspectives

System point of view


Large-scale, nonlinear, interconnected system
Modeling issues and assumptions entailed in system analysis
Course objectives:
teach analytic aspects of power systems
study the modeling, analysis and problem formulation
introduce major considerations in operations of power systems
equip students with skills to read the relevant literature

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Power System Basics


Major components
Generators: produce electricity
Loads: consume electricity
Lines (T&D): transport energy from generators to loads

Three-phase AC systems
generation and transmission equipment is usually 3-
industrial loads are 3-
residential and commercial loads are often 1- and distributed
equally among the phases

Reliability and economics have driven the need for interconnection


of power systems it allows for transmission of power over a wider
region with subsystems operating at different voltage levels
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Power System Basics


Generators are usually synchronous machines (except wind, solar),
with output voltages typically ranging in 13.8 kV to 24 kV (except
wind and solar with output voltages of few hundred volts)
While residential loads usually operate at 220 V, commercial and
industrial loads may consume power at voltage levels ranging upto
a few kV
The transmission network forms the backbone of the
interconnection and operates at high voltages (110 kV and above)
= lower losses
Transformers are used to suitably step up/down voltages

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The Energy Delivery System


Generators convert energy from one source to electricity while loads
consume electricity produce heat, light, sound, mechanical energy, etc

The widespread use of electricity is due to its ability to transport and


control efficiently and reliably
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Fundamental Characteristics

Absence of large-scale storage capabilities results in a


just-in-time type manufacturing system
Constraints: physical laws, limits on generation and transmission
Power flows through paths of least resistance, and the transfer is
almost instantaneous
Supply and demand balance is critically monitored at all times to
prevent grid collapse
Reliability, economics and environmental considerations are the key
drivers in power system operation and planning

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Requirements from a Power System


The system must track load continuously and maintain balance
between supply and demand
Electric power delivery by the system must meet minimum
standards of power quality
minimal frequency deviations
minimal voltage fluctuations
adequate reliability

System must be able to deliver power even when subjected to


credible contingencies, such as the loss of a transmission line or
outage of a generator
System operator plays a crucial role in ensuring these requirements
are met analytical tools are needed to enable decision making
This is a foundation course in power system analysis
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Course Contents
Evolution of Power Systems, Energy sources structure of bulk power
systems, Basic three phase system concepts, Power system
components: Generators, Loads, Transformers, Transmission Lines
etc, Modeling, performance and constraints of these components,
Formulation/solution of steady state equations for interconnected
systems: Balanced and Unbalanced systems. Positive Sequence
Network, Per Unit System, Ybus formation Simple example of a
load-flow solution Introduction to generator swing equations and
stability issues, Simple Example of Loss of synchronism,
Interconnected system operation and control: Operational Objectives,
Frequency Control, Voltage Control and Power Flow Control:
introduction to HVDC transmission and FACTS Economic Issues in
Power Systems, Analysis of Faulted Power Systems and Protection:
Unbalanced System Analysis using Sequence Components, Equipment
Protection Schemes: Overcurrent, Differential and Distance
Protection, Relay coordination Preventive Control and Emergency
Control System Protection Schemes) Blackouts and Restoration
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Reference Books

Power system analysis by J. J. Grainger and W. D. Stevenson


Electrical Energy System Theory by O. I. Elgerd
Power System Analysis by A.R. Bergen and V. Vittal
Modern power system analysis by D. P. Nagrath and I. J. Kothari
Power System Stability and Control by P. Kundur

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Other Resources

Course/lecture notes from UIUC, UMD, UWash, Imperial College


NPTEL: Power System Analysis and other courses for stability and
mathematics
Presentations by Tom Overbye, Daniel Kirschen, George Gross and
others
Google!!

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Grading Scheme

Midterm exam
Final exam
Two quizzes

45 %
30 %
25 %

Attendance is mandatory!

Institute attendance policy will be followed

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