Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 07

1.

Whatisatissue?Listthesignificantdifferencesbetweenplantandanimaltissues.(pp.139,
144149)
Atissueisagroupofcellsandtheirassociatedextracellularmatrix,whicharedifferentiatedtoperform
specificbiologicalfunctions.Eachorganwithinananimalorplantmaybecomposedofseveraltissues.
Themajordifferencesbetweenplantandanimaltissuesare:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Plant cells possess a cell wall that provides reinforcement against mechanical and osmotic
pressures, but which limitsinteraction between cells.In general, animal cellspossessathin,
flexibleplasmamembrane,gainingsupportfromasurroundingextracellularmatrix.
Anextracellularmatrixthatformsaflexiblesupportsurroundsanimalcells,whileplantcellsare
fixedwithinarigidstructure.Inlargeranimals,therefore,cellsgenerallyneedinternalorexternal
supportfromsomesortofskeleton.
Animalcellshaveplasmamembranesthatmaybeindirectcontact,atcommunicatingjunctions,
with those of other cells. This allows the passage of electrical or chemical communications
betweencells.
In contrast, the rigid plant cell walls prevent such direct contact. Instead, plant cells are
interconnectedbyplasmodesmata,whichareextensionsofthecytoplasmthatpassthroughcell
walls,allowingcommunicationbetweencells.

2. Howdoadherensjunctionsprovidesupportforanepithelialtissue?(pp.142144)
Adherensjunctionsanchorcellswithothercellsortheextracellularmatrix.Bundlesofactinfilaments
areconnectedtotheplasmamembraneviacytoplasmicplaques.(RefertoFigure7.7)
3.

Describe the types of connections that occur between animal cells. Use examples that
illustratethefunctionofeachtype.(pp.142144)
Threemaintypesofconnectionsoccurbetweencellswithinatissue:
1.

Occludingjunctions(ortightjunctions)bindtheoutermembraneofacelltothemembranesof
thosearoundit,preventingmovementofmaterialsintothespacesbetweencells.Atanoccluding
junction,theplasmamembranesoftwocellsareheldtogetherbyjunctionalproteinsthatspanthe
twocellmembranes.Theepithelialcellsliningthemammalianintestinepossessasealaround
themthatpreventsintestinalcontentsfromreachingthespacesbetweencells.

2.

Communicatingjunctions(orgapjunctions)allowchemicalorelectricalsignalstopassfromone
celltoanother.Thesejunctionsarechannelsbetweencellscomposedofsixsubunitproteinsthat
spantheplasmamembraneandlinktoasimilarcomplexonthemembraneoftheadjacentcell.
Heartmusclecellsareinterconnectedwithcommunicatingjunctions,sothattheycanrespondto
electricalimpulsesinaunifiedway,toachieveefficientpumpingofblood.(Thehexamericpore
containssixmoleculesoftheproteinconnexin,whichleaveaporeofabout1.5nminthecentreof
thegroup.Molecules<1000Daltonsmaypassthroughthesepores,althoughtheflowmaybe
regulated.)

3.

Anchoringjunctionsattachcellstoneighbouringcellsortoconnectivetissuewithinthematrix.
Adherentjunctionsattachingtointercellularglycoproteinsjoinneighbouringcellsandasimilar
mechanismmaybeusedtoconnectcellstotheextracellularmatrix.Structuresthatconnectcellsto
thebasallaminaarecalledhemidesmosomes,andarethetypeofjunctionthatfastensstemcells
within the epidermis to the basal lamina. (Desmosomes consist of filaments that attach to a
thickened plaque within the cytoplasm, and crosslink the cytoskeletons of adjacent cells.
Adherentjunctionsarejunctionsofcrosslinkedcontractileactinfilaments,whichplayarolein
themovementofcellsandtissuesduringembryonicdevelopment.Asimplediagramofthethree
typesisshownatwww.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/J/Junctions.html)

4.

Whataretheprinciplefeaturesof:

(a) epithelia?(pp.144145)
Epithelial tissues line the outer and inner surfaces of organs. They are usually stratified, with
differentiating layers of cells lying above a layer of stem cells that are attached to a basement
membrane.Cellswithinthetissuebecomemoredifferentiatedastheyapproachthesurfacelayer.The
basal layer is often cuboid or columnar, with the differentiating cells gradually acquiring a more
stratified,squamousmorphology.Differentiatedcellsthatareshedatthesurface,oraredamaged,are
replacedbyreplicationofstemcellswithinthebasallayer.Epitheliamayincludeglandsandfollicles,
andmayproduce protective materials suchashair,fingernails andthickened layersofkeratinised
squamouscells.
(b) connectivetissue?(pp.146148)
Themostabundant componentsinconnectivetissuearetheextracellular materials,whichmaybe
calcified(asinbonesandteeth)orfluid(asinblood).Theextracellularmatrixisproducedbycellsand
consistslargelyofproteinsandpolysaccharidesthatformameshoffibres.Connectivetissuesinclude
adiposetissue,inwhichlipidscanbestoredinenlargedvacuoles,andblood,whichsuppliesnutrients
andoxygentoanimaltissues.Ingeneral,connectivetissuesprovidemechanicalormetabolicsupport,
or protection, for other tissues. (Connective tissuesmay beclassified asLoose Connective Tissue
(LCT),suchasoccursinskinandvariousinternalorgans,orasaprotectivelayerovermuscles,
nervesorbloodvessels.ItcanalsobeFibrousConnectiveTissue(FCT)withcloselypackedcollagen
fibres, as occurs in ligaments and tendons, or as Rigid Connective Tissue (RCT), as in bone or
cartilage.Theprincipaltypeoffibrefoundinconnectivetissuesiscollagen,withreticulinimportantin
theconnectivetissuecoveringofe.g.kidneys,andelastinfibresimportantinprovidingelasticitytothe
dermisandthebladder.)
(c) muscle?(p.148)
Muscletissueiscomposed ofbundlesofsimilar,contractile cells,whichcontract inunisonwhen
stimulatedelectricallythroughnervecellsorothermusclecells.Contractionisafunctionofthehighly
organisedactinandmyosinfibrilswithinthecells.Striatedmuscle(orskeletalmuscle)hascontractile
filamentsorganisedinaregulararrangementthatappearscrossstriatedunderthelightmicroscope.
Eachcellhasmanynucleilocatedaroundtheperipheryofthecell.Incontrast,smoothmusclecells
haveasinglenucleusineachcell,withlessregularlyalignedmyofilaments,whichallowsthestriations
tobeseenonlywiththeelectronmicroscope.Musclecellsdonotreplacethemselves,butcanincrease
muscularbulkandstrengthbyincreasingtheircontentofcontractilefilaments. (Skeletalmuscleis
striatedbyalternatingIbandsandMbands.AdarklineknownastheZlineisvisibleinthecentreof
theIband.ThefunctionmuscleunitorsarcomereisdefinedastheregionbetweenadjacentZlines.)
(d) nervoustissue?(pp.149150)
Nervoustissueiscomposedofnonreplicatingcellsthatarespecialisedtoconductelectricalimpulses
(neurons)interspersedwithglialcellsthatcanperformrepairfunctionsandmaysurroundtheneurons.
Eachneuronconsistsofanucleatedcellbodythatpossessesmultipleshortbranchescalleddendrites
andasinglelongerprocesscalledtheaxon.(Electricalorchemicalsignalsarereceivedbydendrites,
andpassthroughthecellbodyandthroughtheaxontothenextneuronormusclecell.Electrical
signalsarecarriedthroughouttheorganismbyanetworkofneurons.Axonsarefrequentlyverylong.
Neuronsarenotcapableofreplicationinanadultanimal,butcanrepairtheircellmorphology,
includingextensivereplacementoflongaxons.)
5. (a)Whatisthedermaltissuesystemofplants?(pp.152153)
Dermaltissueistheoutercoveringoftheplant,whichactsastheinterfacebetweentheplantandits
environment.
(b)Whatistheroleoftheepidermis?(p.153)
Theepidermisisthemajorpartofdermaltissueandcomprisestheoutersurfaceoftheplant.Itconsists
ofoneormorelayersofcloselypackedcellsthatmaysecreteawaterresistantcoveringorcuticle,
whichprotectstheplantfromevaporationofwater,frominvasionbypathogensandfromphysical
damage.Epidermalcellscanbediverse,includingguardcells,whichlimitlossofwatervapourby
controllingtheopeningofthestomata;hairorspineliketrichomesthatmaybeimportantinreducing
waterlossorasprotectivemechanismsagainstherbivorousinsects;andglandularcellsthatsecrete
protectivechemicalsorsalts.(Thecuticleiscomposedofaninsolublepolymeroffattyacidscutin.)

(c)Whataretrichomesandwhataretheirfunctions?(p.153)
Trichomesareelongatedcellsorgroupsofcellsthatresemblespinesorhairs.Theirfunctionsinclude
trappingmoisture,reducingevaporation,discouraginginsectsthatmightfeedontheplant,orsecreting
chemicalsthatdiscouragebrowsingbyanimals.
6.

Definethetermssignalandreceptorinrelationtocellularresponsiveness.Listthetypesof
signalstowhichcellscanrespond.(pp.153154)
Signalsthatelicitresponsesfromcellscanbephysical,suchaslightorheat,orchemical,suchasfood
orhormones.Theymayoriginateintheexternalenvironmentorfromwithinthebodyoftheorganism.
Receptorsareproteinswithinthecellthatchangewheninteractingwiththeincomingsignal.Receptors
maybeclassedaccordingtothetypeofsignaltheyrespondto.Forexample,photoreceptorsrespondto
lightandchemoreceptorstochemicalsignals.Examplesofthetypesofsignalsthatcanbedetected
include:
1.
2.

chemicalsignals(lipidsoluble,watersolubleandsurfacebound)
physicalsignals(light,mechanicalstimuli,electricalfieldsandmagneticfields).

7.

What are the three main types of chemical signals to which cells respond? How does
receptorinteractionoccurineachcase?(pp.154155)
Chemicalstimuliinvolvelipidsoluble,watersolubleandsurfaceboundchemicalsignals.

1.
2.

Lipidsolublesignalsarehormonesthatcanpassintocellsacrossthemembraneandinteractwith
receptorsinthecytoplasmornucleusofthecell.Theyultimatelyhaveanaffinityforspecific
nucleotide sequences in DNA, to which they bind and alter the expression of nearby genes,
therebymediatingacellularresponse.

3.

Watersolublesignalscannotpassfreelythroughtheplasmamembraneandhencetheirreceptors
occuronthecellsurface.TheydonotregulateproteinproductionbyDNAdirectly.Instead,the
receptorsmaycoupledirectlywithionchannelsintheplasmamembraneorregulateactivityviaa
specificenzyme.Thesesystemsrelaythemessageintothecell,initiatingfurthersignalsthatlead
toaresponse.Examplesincludeneurotransmittersandsomehormones.

8. Howcanproteinsbecovalentlymodifiedinresponsetosignalling?(p.162)
Intermediate proteins such as Gproteins and secondary messages change the activity of
phosphorylatingenzymestoincreaseordecreaseproteinphophorylation.(RefertoFigure6.26)
9.

Whatisasecondmessenger?Useanexampletoshowhowtheyareinvolvedinintracellular
signallingpathways.(pp.159161)
SecondmessengersareassociatedwithGproteinlinkedreceptors.Theextracellularsignals(knownas
the first messengers) are detected by the Gprotein linked receptor, which in turn alters the
concentrationofsecondmessengermoleculesandbythisactionalterstheactivityofanionchannelor
anenzyme.Examplesofthesearelistedinthetextonpage150.Diagramsillustratingtheirmodeof
actionaregiveninFigures6.26and6.27.
10. Whatismeantbysignalamplification?Giveanexample.(pp.160161)
Signalamplificationoccurswhenmolecularresponsestotheactivationofasingularreceptoramplify
thesignalandincreasethesensitivityoftheentiresystem.Thedetectionofsexpheromonesbythe
mothBombyxmoriisanexample.Evenifthemothsantennaedetectasinglemoleculeofpheromone,
intracellularmolecularpathwaysamplifytheresponsetoenablethemothtomovetowardsapotential
mate.