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Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

From DNA to Proteins

Study Guide B
Answer Key
7. The sugar-phosphate backbone is like the
twisting handrails of the staircase, and the
nitrogen-containing bases are like the steps
that connect the railings to each other.
8. Because A only pairs with T and C only
pairs with G, the amount of A will be equal
to the amount of T, and the amount of C will
be equal to the amount of G.

SECTION 1. IDENTIFYING DNA AS


THE GENETIC MATERIAL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

8.
9.
10.

11.

Mice lived
Mice died
Mice lived
Mice died
the S form
Griffith concluded that a transforming
principle had been transferred from the heatkilled S bacteria to the live R bacteria.
Result: DNA is present, but protein is not.
Averys Question: What is the chemical
makeup of the transforming principle?
Result: enzymes that destroy DNA
sulfur, phosphorus
phosphorus, sulfur
Experiment 1: sulfur; radioactivity absent.
Experiment 2: phosphorus; radioactivity
present
A bacteriophage is a virus that infects
bacteria. It consists of a DNA molecule
surrounded by a protein coat.

SECTION 3. DNA REPLICATION


1. the process by which DNA is copied during
the cell cycle
2. nucleus
3. S stage
4. so that every cell will have a complete set of
DNA following cell division
5. something that serves as a pattern
6. ATCCATG
7. Proteins help unzip the DNA strand, hold
the strands apart, and bond nucleotides
together.
8. hydrogen bonds connecting base pairs
9. because each molecule consists of one old
strand and one new strand
10. Enzymes unzip the helix.
11. DNA polymerase binds nucleotides together
to form new strands that are complementary
to the original strands.
12. Two identical DNA molecules result.
13. origins of replication
14. proofreading
15. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that makes
DNA by forming bonds between
nucleotides. The -ase ending signals that it
is an enzyme. The first part of the word tells
that the enzyme makes DNA by stringing
together lots of monomers to form polymers.
16. Replication is the process by which DNA is
copied during the cell cycle. Accept any
reasonable answer. Students may compare
replication to making copies on a copier.
17. Share the best bumper stickers with the
class.

SECTION 2. STRUCTURE OF DNA

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Nucleotide: Refer to the Visual Vocab in


Section 2 for visual answers. Students
should label: phosphate group; nitrogencontaining base; and deoxyribose sugar.
4
the phosphate group and the deoxyribose
sugar; the nitrogen-containing base
that it was of uniform width
by building models
The sugar-phosphate backbone is on the
outside. Inside the structure, a base with two
rings always pairs with a base with only one
ring.
A; G
DNA Double Helix: drawing should include
sugar-phosphate backbone; nitrogencontaining bases; and hydrogen bonds

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins

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Study Guide B continued


SECTION 4. TRANSCRIPTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

SECTION 5. TRANSLATION

replication (nucleus)
transcription (nucleus)
translation (cytoplasm)
Contains the sugar ribose
Has the bases A, C, G, and T
Typically single-stranded
RNA polymerase
A large transcription complex, including
RNA polymerase and other proteins,
assembles at the start of a gene and begins to
unwind the DNA. Using one strand of the
DNA as a template, RNA polymerase
strings together a complementary strand of
RNA. The RNA strand detaches from the
DNA as it is transcribed, and the DNA zips
back together.
mRNA: intermediate message that is
translated to form a protein; rRNA: forms
part of ribosomes; tRNA: brings amino
acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to
help make the growing protein
Both occur within the nucleus of eukaryotic
cells, are catalyzed by large enzymes,
involve unwinding of the DNA double helix,
involve complementary base pairing of the
DNA strand, and are highly regulated by
the cell.
Replication occurs only once during each
round of the cell cycle and makes a doublestranded copy of all the DNA in a cell.
Transcription occurs repeatedly throughout
the cell cycle to make proteins, rRNAs, and
tRNAs as needed by a cell. Transcription
makes a single-stranded complement of only
a particular DNA sequence.
mRNA is a form of the DNA message that
tells the cell what type of protein to make.
rRNA is a key component of ribosomes.
tRNA transfers, or carries, amino acids from
the cytoplasm to the ribosome.
the process of copying a sequence of DNA
to produce a complementary strand of RNA

1. the process that converts an mRNA message


into a polypeptide, or protein
2. sequences of three nucleotides that code for
an amino acid
3. RNA
4. the order in which nucleotides are read; they
are read as a series of three, nonoverlapping
nucleotides
5. arginine (Arg)
6. stop codon
7. UGG
8. glycine (Gly)
9. Ribosomes, tRNA molecules
10. small
11. large
12. amino acid, anticodon
Cycle Diagram:
A. An exposed codon attracts a
complementary tRNA bearing an amino
acid.
B. the ribosome forms a peptide bond
between the amino acids. It breaks the bond
between the first amino acid and tRNA.
C. the ribosome pulls the mRNA strand the
length of one codon. The first tRNA exits
the ribosome, and another codon is exposed.
13. codons
14. anticodon
15. Stop codons indicate where translation is to
stop. (Students may mention that methionine
is also a start codon.)

SECTION 6. GENE EXPRESSION AND


REGULATION
1. Regulation allows the cells to better respond
to stimuli and to conserve energy and
materials.
2. transcription
3. promoter
4. operon, promoter, operator, genes
5. RNA polymerase is blocked by the
repressor.
6. The genes are not transcribed.

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From DNA to Proteins

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Study Guide B continued


7. Lactose binds to the repressor protein, and
the repressor cannot bind to the operon.
8. RNA polymerase can transcribe the genes.
9. Lactose is broken down.
10. because they express different sets of genes
11. Transcription factors bind to the DNA and
help RNA polymerase know where a gene
starts.
12. A TATA box is a promoter that is found in
almost all eukaryotic cells.
13. a protein that helps control the expression of
many other genes and plays an important
role in establishing body pattern
Diagram legend: exon; tail; cap; intron
14. An exon is a sequence of nucleotides that is
expressed in a protein, whereas an intron is
an intervening sequence of nucleotides that
will be removed during processing.
15. Answers will vary. Sample answer: A
promoter is like a choir director who shows
you when to start singing.

SECTION 7. MUTATIONS
1. point mutation/substitution; frameshift
mutation
2. gene duplication; translocation
3. chromosomal mutation
4. unequal crossing over
5. the attachment of a piece of one
chromosome to a nonhomologous
chromosome
6. Answers will vary.
7. Answers will vary.
8. noncoding regions
9. premature stop codon
10. no change
11. lack of regulation
12. altered splice site
13. germ cells/gametes
14. no
15. an agent in the environment that can change
DNA
16. UV light can cause neighboring thymine
nucleotides to break their hydrogen bonds to
adenine and bond with each other instead.
17. a change in an organisms DNA
18. a frameshift mutation

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From DNA to Proteins

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 1: Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.


VOCABULARY

bacteriophage
MAIN IDEA: Griffith finds a transforming principle.
Write the results of Griffiths experiments in the boxes below.

Experiments

Results

1. Injected mice with


R bacteria
2. Injected mice with
S bacteria
3. Killed S bacteria and
injected them into mice
4. Mixed killed S bacteria
with R bacteria and injected
them into mice

Found live S
bacteria in the
mices blood

5. Which type of bacteria caused disease, the S form or the R form?


____________________________________________________________
6. What conclusions did Griffith make based on his experimental results?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 1: Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


MAIN IDEA: Avery identifies DNA as the transforming principle.

7. Avery and his team isolated Griffiths transforming principle and performed
three tests to learn if it was DNA or protein. In the table below, summarize
Averys work by writing the question he was asking or the results of his
experiment.
Averys Question

Results

What type of molecule does the


transforming principle contain?
The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in
the transforming principle is similar to
the ratio found in DNA.
Which type of enzyme destroys the
ability of the transforming principle to
function?
MAIN IDEA: Hershey and Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material.

8. Proteins contain __________________ but very little __________________.


9. DNA contains __________________ but no __________________.
10. Summarize the two experiments performed by Hershey and Chase by
completing the table below. Identify what type of radioactive label was used in
the bacteriophage and whether radioactivity was found in the bacteria.
Experiment

Bacteriophage

Bacteria

Experiment 1
Experiment 2

Vocabulary Check
11. Explain what a bacteriophage is and describe or sketch its structure.
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 1: Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 2: Structure of DNA

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

DNA structure is the same in all organisms.


VOCABULARY

nucleotide

base pairing rules

double helix
MAIN IDEA: DNA is composed of four types of nucleotides.
In the space below, draw a nucleotide and label its three parts using words and
arrows.

1. How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?


____________________________________________________________
2. Which parts are the same in all nucleotides? Which part is different?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 2: Structure of DNA

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


MAIN IDEA: Watson and Crick developed an accurate model of DNAs threedimensional structure.

3. What did Franklins data reveal about the structure of DNA?


____________________________________________________________
4. How did Watson and Crick determine the three-dimensional shape of DNA?
____________________________________________________________
5. How does DNA base pairing result in a molecule that has a uniform width?
____________________________________________________________
MAIN IDEA: Nucleotides always pair in the same way.

6. What nucleotide pairs with T? with C?


____________________________________________________________
In the space below, draw a DNA double helix. Label the sugar-phosphate
backbone, the nitrogen-containing bases, and the hydrogen bonds.

Vocabulary Check
7. Explain how the DNA double helix is similar to a spiral staircase.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
8. How do the base pairing rules relate to Chargaff s rules?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 2: Structure of DNA

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 3: DNA Replication

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

DNA replication copies the genetic information of a cell.


VOCABULARY

replication

DNA polymerase

MAIN IDEA: Replication copies the genetic information.

1. What is DNA replication?


____________________________________________________________
2. Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?
____________________________________________________________
3. When is DNA replicated during the cell cycle?
____________________________________________________________
4. Why does DNA replication need to occur?
____________________________________________________________
5. What is a template?
____________________________________________________________
6. If one strand of DNA had the sequence TAGGTAC, what would be the
sequence of the complementary DNA strand?
____________________________________________________________
MAIN IDEA: Proteins carry out the process of replication.

7. What roles do proteins play in DNA replication?


____________________________________________________________
8. What must be broken for the DNA strand to separate?
____________________________________________________________
9. Why is DNA replication called semiconservative?
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 3: DNA Replication

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


Use words and diagrams to summarize the steps of replication, in order, in the
boxes below.

10.

11.

_______________
_______________

12.

_______________
_______________

_______________
_______________

MAIN IDEA: REPLICATION IS FAST AND ACCURATE.

13. Human chromosomes have hundreds of _________________, where the DNA


is unzipped so replication can begin.
14. DNA polymerase has a __________________ function that enables it to detect
errors and correct them.

Vocabulary Check
15. Explain what DNA polymerase is by breaking the word into its parts.
____________________________________________________________
16. Write a short analogy to explain what replication is.
____________________________________________________________

Be Creative
17. People sometimes like to display bumper stickers that relate to their trade or
field of study. For example, a chemist may have a bumper sticker that says It
takes alkynes to make the world. Then, chemists or other people who know
that an alkyne is a molecule that contains carbon atoms joined by a triple bond
get a nice little chuckle out of the play on words. Use your knowledge of DNA
replication to write a bumper sticker.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 3: DNA Replication

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 4: Transcription

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

Transcription converts a gene into a single-stranded RNA molecule.


VOCABULARY

central dogma

messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA

ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

transcription

transfer RNA (tRNA)

RNA polymerase
MAIN IDEA: RNA carries DNAs instructions.
Label each of the processes represented by the arrows in the diagram below.
Write where each of these processes takes place in a eukaryotic cell in
parentheses.

1. _______________
DNA

RNA
2. _______________
_______________

Proteins
3. _______________
_______________

Fill in the table below to contrast DNA and RNA.

DNA

RNA

4. Contains the sugar deoxyribose


5.

Has the bases A, C, G, and U

6. Typically double-stranded

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 4: Transcription

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


MAIN IDEA: Transcription makes three types of RNA.

7. What enzyme helps a cell to make a strand of RNA?


____________________________________________________________
8. Summarize the three key steps of transcription.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
9. Write the basic function of each type of RNA in the chart below.
Type of RNA

Function

mRNA

rRNA
tRNA

MAIN IDEA: The transcription process is similar to replication.

10. List two ways that the processes of transcription and replication are similar.
____________________________________________________________
11. List two ways that the end results of transcription and replication differ.
____________________________________________________________

Vocabulary Check
12. How does the name of each type of RNA tell what it does?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
13. What is transcription?
____________________________________________________________
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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 4: Transcription

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 5: Translation

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

Translation converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide, or protein.


VOCABULARY

translation

stop codon

codon

start codon

anticodon

MAIN IDEA: Amino acids are coded by mRNA base sequences.

1. What is translation?
____________________________________________________________
2. What is a codon?
____________________________________________________________
3. Would the codons in Figure 5.1 be found in a strand of DNA or RNA?
____________________________________________________________
4. What is a reading frame?
____________________________________________________________
Refer to Figure 5.1 to complete the table below.

Codon

Amino Acid or Function

5. AGA
6. UAG
7.

tryptophan (Trp)

8. GGA
MAIN IDEA: Amino acids are linked to become a protein.

9. _______________ and _______________ are the tools that help a cell


translate an mRNA message into a polypeptide.
10. The _______________ subunit of a ribosome holds onto the mRNA strand.
11. The _______________ subunit of a ribosome has binding sites for tRNA.

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Study Guide B

From DNA to Proteins


Section 5: Translation

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued

12. A tRNA molecule is attached to an _______________ at one end and has an


_______________ at the other end.
Fill in the cycle diagram below to outline the steps of translation.

Ribosome assembles on
start codon of mRNA
strand.

A.

B.

C.

When the ribosome


encounters a stop
codon, it falls apart and
the protein is released.

Vocabulary Check
13. What are AGG, GCA, and GUU examples of?
____________________________________________________________
14. What is a set of three nucleotides on a tRNA molecule that is complementary
to an mRNA codon?
____________________________________________________________
15. What do codons code for in addition to amino acids?
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

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From DNA to Proteins


Section 5: Translation

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 6: Gene Expression and Regulation

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

Gene expression is carefully regulated in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.


VOCABULARY

promoter

exon

operon

intron

MAIN IDEA: Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling transcription.

1. Why is gene expression regulated in prokaryotic cells?


____________________________________________________________
2. In prokaryotic cells, gene expression is typically regulated at the start of
_______________.
3. A _______________ is a segment of DNA that helps RNA polymerase
recognize the start of a gene.
4. An _______________ is a region of DNA that includes a _______________,
an _______________, and one or more _______________ that code for
proteins needed to carry out a task.
Complete the cause-and-effect diagram below about the lac operon.

The
repressor
medium
continues
without lactose to bind to
added
the
operator.

5.

6.

8.

The
resulting
transcript is
translated
into 3
enzymes.

Bacteria
growing
in culture
7.
medium
with lactose
added

9.

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Study Guide B

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From DNA to Proteins


Section 6: Gene Expression and Regulation

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


MAIN IDEA: Eukaryotic cells regulate gene expression at many points.

10. Why do the cells in your body differ from each other?
____________________________________________________________
11. What role do transcription factors play in a cell?
____________________________________________________________
12. What is a TATA box?
____________________________________________________________
13. What is sonic hedgehog an example of?
____________________________________________________________
The diagrams below represent unprocessed and processed mRNA in a eukaryotic
cell. Using the diagrams as a reference, fill in the legend with the corresponding
element: cap, exon, intron, tail.

Legend
Unprocessed mRNA

Processed mRNA

Vocabulary Check
14. What is the difference between an exon and an intron?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
15. Make an analogy to help you remember what a promoter is.
____________________________________________________________

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Study Guide B

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From DNA to Proteins


Section 6: Gene Expression and Regulation

Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Section 7: Mutations

Study Guide B
KEY CONCEPT

Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype.
VOCABULARY

mutation

frameshift mutation

point mutation

mutagen

MAIN IDEA: Some mutations affect a single gene, while others affect an entire
chromosome.

1. List two types of gene mutations.


____________________________________________________________
2. List two types of chromosomal mutations.
____________________________________________________________
3. Which type of mutation affects more genes, a gene mutation or a chromosomal
mutation?
____________________________________________________________
4. What leads to gene duplication?
____________________________________________________________
5. What is a translocation?
____________________________________________________________
Below is a string of nucleotides. (1) Use brackets to indicate the reading frame of
the nucleotide sequence. (2) Copy the nucleotide sequence into the first box and
make a point mutation. Circle the mutation. (3) Copy the nucleotide sequence into
the second box and make a frameshift mutation. Use brackets to indicate how the
reading frame would be altered by the mutation.

AGGCGTCCATGA
6.
7.

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Study Guide B

13

From DNA to Proteins


Section 7: Mutations

10.
12.
Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________

Study Guide B continued


MAIN IDEA: Mutations may or may not affect phenotype.
Fill in the cause-and-effect diagram below to explain how a point mutation may or
may not affect phenotype.

nonfunctional protein
coding regions

Point
mutations

result
in

9.
10.

may
occur
in

11.
result
in

8.

12.
no change

13. For a mutation to be passed to offspring, in what type of cell must it occur?
____________________________________________________________
MAIN IDEA: Mutations can be caused by several factors.

14. Can DNA polymerase catch and correct every replication error?
____________________________________________________________
15. What is a mutagen?
____________________________________________________________
16. How does UV light damage the DNA strand?
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Vocabulary Check
17. What is a mutation?
____________________________________________________________
18. If a nucleotide is deleted from a strand of DNA, what type of mutation has
occurred?
____________________________________________________________
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Study Guide B

14

From DNA to Proteins


Section 7: Mutations