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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material

Level N Grade 12
Week: 7

From: Feb. 05 Till Feb. 09, 2017

Exam Timetable:

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

AMS/HW
Questions in bold are Grid Questions
Questions in italic are Poorly Answered Questions in past exam(s).
AMS Material: 12017
HW Material: BNH27-WRCC
AMS-HW SQ answers
Chapter 25: Flowering plants: Nutrition and Support
1.

Identify the pathway taken by water and dissolved solutes from the soil to the xylem
vessels.
soil root hair cells within the epidermis cortex cells endodermis and casparian
strip pericycle xylem vessels

2.

Describe the two pathways taken by water as it moves from the root hair cells to the xylem
vessels.
Water will enter the root hair cells in the epidermis when osmotic pressure in the root tissue
is lower than osmotic pressure in the soil.
a.

Apoplast pathway- Water enters the cell walls. Water moves through the cell wall.
Water moves from the cell wall of one cortex cell to the cell wall of the next cortex
cell through the intercellular spaces.

b.

Symplast pathway- Water enters the cytoplasm by osmosis through the partially
permeable cell surface membrane. Water then moves into the cell sap in the
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


vacuole through the tonoplast by osmosis. Water then moves to the next cell
through the strand of cytoplasm extending between neighboring cells
(plasmodesmata).
3.

Once water reaches the endodermis the apoplast pathway is abruptly barred. Explain why.
The cells in the endodermis have a thick waxy band of suberin and lignin in their cell
walls called the Casparian strip. This forms an impenetrable barrier to water. The only
way for water and dissolved substances to cross the endodermis is through the cytoplasm
of the endodermal cells via the symplast pathway. This is a mechanism by which the
material entering the xylem may be controlled.

4.

Plants have the ability to take up minerals until they are many times more concentrated in
the plant than in the surrounding medium. Explain how minerals are actively transported
across a cell membrane. Refer to pg 469 fig 25.5

Minerals are absorbed in their ionic form. Nitrogen is absorbed as nitrates,


potassium as potassium ions. Nitrogen cannot be utilized in the gaseous state.

A plasma membrane pump, called a proton pump, hydrolyzes ATP and uses the
energy released to transport hydrogen ions outside of the cell, creating an
electrochemical gradient. This gradient drives positively charged ions such as
potassium through a channel protein into the cell.

The hydrogen ions are carried back into the cell down their concentration gradient
and any negatively charged ion hitches a ride with the hydrogen ions, without any
further use of energy.

5.

Describe the mutualistic relationships that assist roots in obtaining mineral nutrients.
a.

Leguminous plants such as the beans and clovers have a mutualistic relationship
with the Rhizobium bacteria. The bacteria live within root nodules. They convert
atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds to be used by the plants, so they
may make organic compounds such as proteins and nucleic acids. The bacteria in
turn are furnished with carbohydrates made by the host plant.

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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


b.

Mycorrhizae is a mutualistic relationship between the roots of plants and fungi.


The fungus increases the surface area for mineral and water uptake and breaks
down organic matter in the soil, releasing nutrients that the plant can use. In
return the plant furnishes the fungus with sugars and amino acids.

6.

Describe the structure and function of the xylem tissue.

Xylem is made up of strong walled, non-living hollow cells that function to


transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Being strong walled
(lignin)they give trees internal support.

Xylem tissue is made up of two kinds of cells.


a.

Tracheids- These cells are tapered at both ends. Pits within the tracheids
allow water to pass from one tracheid to the next.

b.

Vessel elements are long and tubular with perforation plates at the end.
Vessel elements placed end to end form a completely hollow pipeline from
roots to leaves.

7.

Describe the structure and function of the phloem tissue.

Phloem is a vascular tissue that transports organic nutrients to all parts of the
plant.
Roots cannot carry out photosynthesis, young leaves have not yet reached their full
photosynthetic potential, flowers are in the process of making seeds and fruits, and
depend on the organic nutrients made in leaves as a result of photosynthesis.

Phloem tissue is made up of two types of cells.


a.

Sieve-tube members are the conducting cells of the phloem. They lack nuclei.

b.

Companion cells have nuclei and provide proteins and metabolic support to
sieve-tube members.

8.

Describe root pressure and guttation.


Water enters the root cells, always moving from a region of higher water potential to a
region of lower water potential. When water enters the root cells it creates a positive
pressure called the root pressure. This pressure is responsible for pushing the xylem sap
upwards at the base of the stem, however is not the main force responsible for the mass

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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


flow up the xylem vessels. Root pressure is responsible for guttation. Guttation occurs
when drops of water are forced out of vein endings along the sides of leaves.
9.

Review the properties of water.


Cohesion refers to the tendency of water molecules to cling together because of hydrogen
bonding. Adhesion refers to the ability of water to interact with other polar molecules
making up the walls of the vessels in the xylem. Adhesion gives the water column extra
strength and prevents it from slipping back. Together, water properties like cohesion and
tension create a continuous column of water within xylem from roots to leaves.

10.

Describe the cohesion-tension model of xylem transport.

This is a mechanism by which the xylem transports water and mineral without the
expenditure of energy and is dependent on the properties of water. Tension is
created by the process of transpiration.

Leaves

Water will evaporate from the spongy cell layer into the intercellular spaces always
from a higher water potential within the spongy cell layer to a lower water potential
in the intercellular spaces. Water vapor will then diffuse out of the leaf through
the stomata to the surrounding air by transpiration when the stomata of the leaf are
open. Again water will move from a region of higher water potential in the
intercellular spaces to a lower water potential in the surrounding air.

The water molecules that evaporate from cells into the intercellular spaces are
replaced by water molecules from the leaf veins. As the water molecules are
cohesive transpiration creates a pulling force or tension that draws the water
column through the xylem to replace the water lost by leaf cells.

Stem

The pulling force or tension in the xylem created by transpiration of water from
leaves pulls the water column in the stem upwards.

The water column in the stem is continuous because of the cohesive properties of
the water molecules.

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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material

The adhesion of the water molecules to the sides of the xylem vessels ensure water
column will not break apart.

Root

Water enters the xylem vessels from the root cells passively by osmosis as the xylem
sap has a greater concentration of solutes than root cells.

Again the pulling force or tension in the xylem created by transpiration of water
from leaves pulls the water column in the roots upwards.

11.

Describe the mechanism by which the stomata open and close.


OPENING OF STOMATA

Each stoma is bordered by guard cells.

A proton pump run by the hydrolysis of ATP transports hydrogen ions(H+) to the
outside of the cell.

This establishes an electrochemical gradient that allows potassium ions(K+) to enter


by way of a channel protein. So potassium ions move into the guard cells by active
transport.

Water then enters the guard cells.

Turgor pressure in the guard cells increases, and the stomata open.
CLOSURE OF STOMATA

12.

When potassium exits the guard cells, water follows.

The turgor pressure in the guard cells decreases and stomata close.

*Identify factors influencing the opening or closure of stomata.


OPENING OF STOMATA

The blue light component of sunlight is absorbed by pigments within the guard
cells. This pigment then sets in motion cytoplasmic responses that lead to
activation of the proton pump and the opening of the stomata.
CLOSURE OF STOMATA

A rise in carbon dioxide or abscisic acid (produced by wilting leaves) cause the
stomata to close.

13.

Describe girdling as a process to show phloem tissue is responsible for sugar transport.
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When a tree is girdled the phloem is removed, but the xylem is left intact, by removing a
strip of bark from around a tree. The bark swells above the level of the cut and sugar
accumulates. This proves phloem is the tissue that transports sugars.
14.

*Describe phloem transport using the pressure-flow model.


At the source (leaves or portions of the stem that can photosynthesize)

The source refers to the site of photosynthesis, that results in the production of
sugars.

The sugar produces is actively transported into the phloem.

After sugar enters the sieve tubes, water follows passively by osmosis.

In the stem

The build-up of water within sieve tubes creates a positive pressure that accounts
for the flow of the phloem contents.
At the sink (roots, young leaves, flowers)

The sink refers to the site of sugar accumulation within the plant where the sugar
may be used for cellular respiration or stored for later use.

Sugar is actively transported out of the sieve tubes and into the cells of the roots
(sink).

Water now exits the sieve tubes of the phloem passively by osmosis to then enter the
xylem vessels, where it will be transported back to the leaves to be used for
photosynthesis.
Phloem contents continue to flow from the source to the sink.

15.

*Explain why solutions flow from bulb number 1 to bulb number 2.

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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material

a.

Explain why solutions flow from bulb number 1 to bulb number 2.


There is more solute in bulb 1 than in bulb 2, therefore water enters bulb 1. This
creates a positive pressure that causes water, along with the solute to flow toward
bulb 2.

b.

What does this model represent?


The pressure-flow model of phloem transport

c.

What does bulb 1 represent?


Bulb 1 represents the source, the site of photosynthesis that results in the
production of sugar. Ex)leaves or photosynthesizing portion of the stem.

d.

What does bulb 2 represent?


Bulb 2 represents the sink, the site of sugar accumulation within the plant.
Ex) roots, young leaves, flowers

Chapter 26: Flowering plants: Control of growth responses


1.

Identify the environmental stimuli plants are capable of responding to.


Light, gravity, carbon dioxide levels, pathogen infection, drought, and touch

2.

*Describe signal transduction.


Signal transduction is the binding of a molecular signal that initiates and amplifies
a cellular response.
a.

Receptors are proteins activated by specific signals, such as light or hormones.


These receptors may be located in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm.
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b.

Transduction pathway is a series of relay proteins or enzymes that amplify and


transform the signal into one understood by the machinery of the cell. A stimulated
receptor may directly communicate with the transduction pathway or a secondary
messenger such as calcium may initiate the response.

c.

Cellular response may be a change in gene expression or the end product of an


activated metabolic pathway.

3.

*State the function of the following hormones and their effect on plant growth and
regulation:
a.

Auxin: controls phototropism and gravitropism (geotropism), and apical


dominance (terminal bud produces new growth instead of axillary buds)

b.

Gibberellins: stimulates elongation of stem internodes-breakdown dormancy of


buds and seeds-stimulates amylase to be produced to breakdown starch into sugar
in barly seeds to provide energy for growth during germination.

c.

Cytokinins: always promote cell division and prevents senescence.

d.

Abscisic Acid (ABA): initiates bud dormancy and involved in the closure of
stomata.

e.

Ethylene: induce fruit ripening and hasten the ripening of green fruits. Can cause
abscission where the leaf dies, and falls off the plant. Kerosene stoves release
ethylene as a gas.

4.

Explain how auxins cause the growth of stems towards light. (Review level L Biology
Book 2)
When a stem is exposed to unidirectional light the auxins diffuse to the shady side. The
auxins which are signaling molecules, then enter the nuclei of the plant cells and bind to
a receptor. The auxin-receptor complex leads to the activation of a proton pump
(cellular response). Hydrogen ions enter the cell wall. Acidic conditions activate
enzymes that break down cellulose fibers in the cell wall. The cells are able to expand as
turgor pressure inside them increases. There is no longer a wall pressure. The stem
elongates on the shady side so that the stem bends towards light. This orientation of the
stem towards light is known as positive phototropism.

5.

*Use the diagram below, to answer questions a-f:


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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


The diagram shows the signal transduction in plants.

a.

Which of the above represents the relay proteins that convert the original signal into
an effective cellular machinery? B

b.

Represents the changes in gene expression. C

c.

Shows responses to stimulation by blue light. D

d.

Bending stem in flowering plants exposed to unilateral lighting is one of its effects. A

e.

State the ion that serves as a secondary messenger, which initiates an active signal
into the cell. Calcium ions

f.
6.

Exhibits transduction pathway.

Describe the tropic responses in plants.


Growth towards or away from a unidirectional stimulus is called tropism. Growth
towards a stimulus is called positive tropism while growth away from a stimulus is called
negative tropism.
The three types of tropisms observed in plants include
a.

Gravitropism- A movement in response to gravity. Ex) Roots show positive


gravitropism.
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


b.

Phototropism- A movement in response to a light stimulus. ex) Stems show positive


phototropism.

c.

7.

Thigmotropism- A movement in response to touch.

Explain nastic movements in plants with an example.


If water enters plant cells they become turgid. If water leaves the plant cells the plant
will go limp. Nastic movements are movements caused by changes in turgor pressure
within plant cells. Nastic movements are not involved in growth and are not directly
related to the source of stimulus. Ex) The leaves of the prayer plants fold upwards at
night.

8.

Discuss circadian rhythms in plants.

Activities that occur regularly in 24-hour cycles are called circadian rhythms.

Ex) The leaves of the prayers plant fold upward at night. Morning glory is a plant
that opens its flowers in the early part of the day and closes them at night. Most
plants open their stomata in the day and close them at night.

9.

To qualify as a circadian rhythm the activity must


a.

Occur every 24 hours

b.

Take place in the absence of external stimuli

c.

Be able to reset if external cues are provided

What is the biological clock and how is it synchronized?

The internal mechanism by which a circadian rhythm is maintained in the absence


of appropriate environmental stimuli is termed biological clock.

If organisms are sheltered from environmental stimuli, their biological clocks keep
the circadian rhythm going, but the cycle extends. In prayer plants, the cycle
extends to 26 hours when the plant is kept in constant dim light.

The length of daylight compared to the length of darkness, called the photoperiod
sets the clock.

10.

The biological clock involves the transcription of clock genes.

Define photoperiodism.
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


A physiological response prompted by changes in length of day or night within a 24 hour
period. For example violets open their flowers in the spring when days are
approximately 12 hours long.
Photoperiodism requires the participation of the biological clock as well as a
photoreceptor called phytochrome.

11.

*Discuss the action of phytochrome (active and inactive form) with reference to diagrams.
Pg.495 Fig.26.16

It is a blue-green leaf pigment found in the cytoplasm of plant cells.

It is made of two identical proteins, a portion of which is light sensitive and a


portion of which is an enzyme called kinase that can link light absorption with a
transduction pathway within the cytoplasm.

Red light prevalent in daylight activates phytochrome, and it assumes its active
conformation know as Pfr. Pfr moves into the nucleus where it interacts with
transcription factors to activate certain genes and inactivate others.

Far-red light prevalent in the evening change Pfr to Pr, which is the inactive form
of phytochrome.

Ex) The presence of Pfr in some seeds indicates that sunlight is present and
conditions are favorable for germination.

12.

Classify flowering plants:


a.

Short day plants flower when the day length is shorter than the critical length.

When the night is longer than the critical length the plant flowers.

When the night is shorter than the critical length the plant does not flower.

When the night is longer than the critical length, but interrupted by flashes of light
the plant will not flower.

Conclusion: It is the length of the dark period that controls flowering.


b.

Long-day plants flower when the day length is longer than the critical length.

When the night is shorter than the critical length the plant flowers.

When the night is longer than the critical length the plant does not flower.
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material

When the night is longer than the critical length, but interrupted by flashes of light
the plant flowers.

Conclusion: It is the length of the dark period that controls flowering.


c.

Day-neutral plants are not dependent on day length for flowering.

NB. The criterion for designating plants as short-day or long-day is not an absolute
number of hours of light, but a critical number that cannot be exceeded.

Grid Questions (T2W7)


1. Compare the role of oxygen for aerobic respiration and photosynthesis.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 8.4
Solution:
In aerobic respiration oxygen is used as a terminal acceptor of electrons while in photosynthesis
it is a waste product. O2 is formed as a product of water-splitting reactions.
2. In which way are ATP molecules formed according to the chemiosmosis theory?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 8.4
Solution:
Hydrogen ions flow down their electrochemical gradient through the ATP synthase, providing
the energy for the association of ADP + P to form ATP.
3. List the different types of changes in chromosome structure.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 10.6
Solution:
Deletion Duplication Translocation - Inversion
4. What is the expected phenotypic ratio for the F2 offspring in a one-trait cross?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 11.2
Solution:
3:1 (3 dominant : 1 recessive)
5. What is the phenotypic ratio common for the F2 generation in a dihybrid cross?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 10.2
Solution:
9:3:3:1
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


6. Label the 3- and 5-ends of the DNA molecule represented by the following diagram.

Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.3
Solution:
A- 5 end
G - 3 end
F- 5 end
C- 3 end
7. If 20% of nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule is represented by thymine, what is the percentage
of guanine in this DNA molecule?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.2
Solution:
30%
8. Why is DNA replication described as semiconservative?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.2
Solution:
During DNA replication, each of the two daughter molecules has one strand derived from
parental DNA and one newly-synthesized strand.
9. State the major features of RNA molecules compared to DNA.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.3
Solution:
- It is single-stranded.
- The pentose sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose.
- Uracil replaces thymine as one of the bases.
10. Specify the function of tRNA in the cytoplasm during protein synthesis.
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.5
Solution:
Its function is to bring the necessary amino acids to the ribosomes.
11. List the three major steps of transcription.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.4
Solution:
Initiation Elongation - Termination
12. At which codon does termination of translation occur?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 12.5
Solution:
At the stop codon
13. Define the term operator.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 13.1
Solution:
It is a short portion of DNA where an active repressor binds.
14. What is a point mutation?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 13.3
Solution:
A point mutation is a change in a single nucleotide present within the DNA sequence.
15. What is the probable consequence of a frameshift mutation?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 13.3
Solution:
A frameshift mutation results in the altered sequence of the produced protein, which leads to a
non-functional protein.
16. Describe individuals that have more reproductive success relative to other members of the
population.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 15.2
Solution:
Such individuals are more fit to their environment.

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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


17. Structures that are anatomically similar because they are inherited from a common ancestor
are referred to as _________________ structures.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 15.3
Solution:
homologous
18. State some molecular and biochemical evidence that support the evolutionary theory.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 15.3
Solution:
1. Closely related species will show similarities in amino acid sequences
2. Species have changed over time.
3. Closely related species will show similarities in nucleotide sequences
19. Answer each of the following questions:
1. What type of evidence of evolution is represented by the remains and traces of past life?
2. What type of evidence of evolution is represented by the range and distribution of plants and
animals in different places throughout the world?
3. What type of evidence of evolution is represented by the presence of homologous and vestigial
structures?
4. What type of evidence is represented by the presence of similarities between amino acid
sequences in organisms of different species?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 15.3
Solution:
Evidence for evolution:
1. Fossil evidence
2. Biogeographical evidence
3. Anatomical - developmental fossil evidence
4. Biochemical evidence
20. In the Hardy-Weinberg equation: (p 2 + 2pq + q 2 )
p 2 = frequency of homozygous dominant
2pq= frequency of heterozygous genotype
q 2 = frequency of homozygous recessive
Given: A flower population of 200 plants, 72 show the recessive color of white and all others are
red. Calculate the number of individuals in the population with each of the three genotypes.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 16.1
Solution:
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


72
0.36
200
q 0.6
q2

p = 0.4i.e.,1-0.6

2pq = 20.40.6 = 0.48

Nos. of AA individuals (p2) = (0.4)2200 = 0.16200=32


aa = 72
Aa = 0.48200 = 96
21. In a population of 2000 people, 180 have blue eyes which are recessive. What percent of the
population has hybrid (heterozygous) brown eyes?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 16.1
Solution:
Note: p represent frequency of dominant allele & q represent frequency of recessive allele
Recessive phenotype implies homozygous genotype so q2 = 180 / 2000 = 0.09
q = 0.09 i.e., 0.3
p+q=1
p + 0.3 = 1
p = 0.7
2pq = 2 (0.7 0.3) = 0.42
Answer: % population that is heterozygotes is 42%
22. List the conditions that enable the Hardy-Weinberg principle to hold true.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 16.1
Solution:
Five conditions of Hardy-Weinberg principle:
- No mutations
- No gene flow
- Random mating
- No genetic drift
- No selection
23. What is the founder effect an example of?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 16.1
Solution:
Genetic drift
24. What evidence supports the endosymbiotic theory?
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Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 18.2
Solution:
Evidence supporting this theory shows that chloroplasts and mitochondria:
- Have a size that matches the measured range of various bacteria
- Have their own circular DNA and the ability to synthesize their own proteins.
- Reproduce by binary fission.
- They are surrounded by a double membrane; the outer-membrane resembles that of a
eukaryotic cell while the inner membrane resembles that of a bacterial cell.
25. The figure below represents the phylogenetic tree constructed for several species.

List the existing species, which evolved from species 2, and state the two most related among
them.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 19.3
Solution:
Species B, C and D evolved from it. Among them, the most closely related are species C and D.
26. Name the protein commonly used in amino acid sequencing to examine evolutionary
relationships among organisms.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 19.3
Solution:
Cytochrome c
27. State the properties of water, which contribute to the formation of a continuous column in
xylem vessels.
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 25.3
Solution:
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AP Biology Weekly Exam Material


Cohesion and adhesion
28. To which cells are the sugars produced by photosynthesis transported?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 25.3
Solution:
To sink cells
29. Answer the following questions:
a. Which structures are responsible for the perception of the signals in a cell?
b. Which structures are responsible for the transformation of perceived signals into ones
understood by the machinery of the cell?
Reference:
Biology Study Guide, Level N, Chapter 26.1
Solution:
a. Receptors
b. The relay proteins

Note: Questions marked with an asterisk require more in depth understanding.

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