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The Itinerary

Fynes Moryson








































An Itinerary
Containing His Ten YeeresTravell through
the Twelve Dominions of Germany, Bohmerland, Sweitzerland, Netherland,


Poland, Italy, Turky, France, England,


5? Ireland

Written by




James MacLehose and Sons
Publishers to the University



The Contents of the severall Chapterscontained





of the





Of Germany, Bohmerland and Switzerland, touching the

Geographical! description, the situation, the fertility,
the trafficke, and the diet.



Of the united Provinces in Netherland, and of Denmark

and Poland,touching the said subjectsof the precedent

third Chapter.


Of Italy touching all the subjects of the third Chapter

going before. ........

The Contents of the severall Chapters contained

in the Third



of the Third



Of the geographicall description of Turky, the situation,

fertility, trafficke and diet.




The Contentsof the severallChapters-Continued. PAGE



Of France,touching the particular subjectsof the first





Of England,touching the particularsubjectsof the first




Of Scotland, touching the subjectscontained in the first




Of Ireland, touching the particular subjects of the first


The Contents of the severall Chapters contained

in the Fourth


of the Third



Of the Germans, Bohemians, Sweitzers, Netherlanders,

Danes,Polonians,and Italians apparell. .


Of the Turkes, French, English, Scottish,and Irish apparell.



Of the Germans and BohemiansCommonwealth, under

which title I containe an historicall introduction, the
Princes Pedegreesand Courts, the present state of

things,the Tributesand Revenewes,

the military state





The Contentsof the severallChapters-Continued. PAGE

for Horse,Foot,and Navy,the Courtsof Justice,rare
Lawes,morespeciallythe Lawesof inheritanceand of
womensDowries,the Capitall Judgements,
and the
diversitieof degrees
in Families,and in the Commonwealth. .



Of the particularCommonwealths,
aswell of the Princesof
Germany,as of the free Cities, suchof both ashave
absolutepower of life and death.


Of the Commonwealth of Sweitzerland,according to the

divers subjectsof the third Chapter. .






Of the Netherlanders Commonwealth, according to the

foresaidsubjectsof the third Chapter.

The rest of this Worke, not as yet fully finished,

treatethof the following Heads.
Chap. i. Of the Commonwealth of Denmarke, under
which title I containe an historicall introduction, the
Kings Pedegreeand Court, the present state of the

things,the TributesandRevenewes,
themilitary power
for Horse, Foot, and Navy, the Courts of Justice,rare
Lawes,more speciallythoseof Inheritance and Dowries
and Contractsfor mariage,the Capitoll or Criminal!
Judgements,and the diversitie of degreesin Families
and the Commonwealth.

Chap. 2. Of the Commonwealth of Poland,under which

title, &c.




The Contentsof the severallChapters-Continued. PAGE

Chap. 3. Of the Commonwealth of Italy, touching the
historical! introduction, the Princes pedegrees,the
Papall dominion, and the late power of the King of
Spaine,with someother subjectsof the first Chapter.
Chap. 4. Of the particular Commonwealth of Venice,
touching most of the foresaidsubjects.
Chap. 5. Of the Commonwealthof the Duke of Florence,
the Cities of Lucca and Genoa, with the Dukes of

and of Mantoua.

Chap. 6. Of the Commonwealth of Italy in generall :

touching the rest of the heads which belong to the
generall Stateof Italy, rather then of any part thereof.
Chap. 7. Of the Commonwealth of the Turkish Empire,
under which title &c. as followeth in the first Chapter.
Chap. 8. Of the Commonwealthof France, under which
title, &c.

Chap. 9. Of the Commonwealth of England, under

which title, &c.

Chap. 10. Of the Commonwealth of Scotland, under

which title, &c.

Chap. II.

Of the Commonwealth ol Ireland, under

which title, &c.

Chap. 12. Of Germany touching Religion.

Chap. 13. Of Bhemerland, Sweitzerland, the united
Provinces of Netherland, of Denmark and Poland,
touching Religion.
Chap. 14. Of Italy touching Religion.
Chap. 15. Of the Turkish Empire touching Religion.
Chap. 16. Of France, England, Scotland and Ireland
touching Religion.



The Contentsof the severallChapters-Continued. PAGE

Chap. 17. Of the Germans nature, wit, manners,bodily
gifts, Universities, Sciences,Arts, language,pompous
Ceremonies, specially at Marriages, Christnings and
Funerals: of their customes, sports, exercises,and
particularly hunting.
Chap. I 8. Of the Bohemians,Sweitzersand Netherlanders
of the united Provinces, their natures, wits, manners, &c.

Chap. 19. Of the Danesand Poloniansnature, &c.

Chap. 20. Of the Italians nature, wit, &c.
Chap. 21. Of the Turkes nature, Sec.
Chap. 22. Of the Frenchmensnature, &c.
Chap. 23. Of the Englishmensnature, &c.
Chap. 24. Of the Scotchmensand Irishmensnatures,wits,
manners, &c.

Chap. 25. A generall, but briefe discourseof the Jewes,

the Grecians, and the Moscovites.








The Itinerary of Fynes Moryson

Chap. III.

[III. ii. 75.]

Of Germany,BoemerlandandSweitzerland,touching the Geographical!description,the situation,

the fertilitie, the trafficke, and the diet.
He Geographerssearchout the greatnesse/ generall

of the Globe,and of all the partsin the Geograph

superficiesthereof, by the helpe of the
Celestiall circles, fitted to the Convex or

bending of the earth. The circles of

heavenare of two sorts, the greater and
the lesse. The greater are sixe in
number, the Equator, Zodiake, two Coluri, Meridian
and Horizon. Of which the Geographers
in the description of the World, onely make use of the Equator and
Meridian. The ./Equatorcompasseththe middle swell- -Equator.
ing of the CelestialSpherebetweeneboth the poles of
the world, and the greatestconvexitieor bending therof,
from the East towards the West, to which circle when

the Sun is come by his proper motion (in each yeere

twice) it makestwo Equinoctials(that is, day and night

of equalllength),onein the Spring,the otherat the fall

of the leafe. The circlein the convexor bendingsuperficiesof the earth, that is directly and perpendicularly
underthe said Equator, is calledthe Equator of the
earth, and compassingthe earth from the East to the
West, divides it into two Hemispheres(that is, halfe
Spheres), the Northerne and the Southerne. The

Meridian Circle is drawnethrough the Poles of the Meridian.

Heaven(in whichtheMeridians






verticallpoint(thatis thepointright overhead)of each

place,whetherthe Sunnebeingcomeby his accidental
motion(in eachday)it makesnooneabovethe Horizon,

The Circle in the convexor bending of the earth, directly

and perpendicularly
underthis circleMeridian, passing
by the extremepoints of the earth that are underthe
Poles, and by any appointedplacein the superficies(or

upperface)of the earth,is calleda Meridianof the earth.

And because there is no certaine number of particular

places on the earth, it follows that the Meridians are

innumerable,so as every place distant from another

towards the East or West, hath his owne peculiar

Meridian, divers from the Meridian of another place.

Yet for making of maps,and like uses,the Geographers
appoint one hundred eighty Meridians, namely, ninty
Easterly, and nintie Westerly.
Paralells. The lesser circles are called Paralells, that is, equally

havingrelationone to the other, or to

any of the great circles, they are in all parts equally


For al lesser circles have relation

to one of the

greater,and are calledthe paralellsof this or that greater

circle. But here onely mention is made of the Paralells
referred to the ^Equator,which are lessercirclesdrawne
neerethe Equator, from East towardsWest, or contrary,
by the vertical points of severalplaces in heaven,or
by the placesthemselvesin the upper face of the earth,
& they arethe greater,the neererthey areto the Equator,
the lesser,as they are more distant from the same towards

either Pole, and the Geographerscall them Northerne

Paralellswhich are nearethe Equator in the Northerne
Hemisphere, and SoutherneParalells, which are so drawne

in the Southerne Hemisphere. Also as there is no

certaine number of particular places, so the Paralells

are innumerable,insomuchas each place upon the

upper face of the earth, distant from another towards

the North or South, hath his pecularverticall Paralell.

Yet usually the Geographersnumber 180 Paralells,






namely,ninty Northerne,and ninty Southerne. Of this

number are the foure Paralells which include the foure

Zones(or girdles),by whichtheupperfaceof theearthis The

distinguishedinto Climes, and the /Equator in the '
middestof them, and greatestof them is joyned to them,
and makes the fifth Zone.

The whole circle of the /Equator or Meridian, con- [III. ii. 76.]
taines360 degrees,whereof eachconsistsof 60 minutes. Degrees.
About 500 stadia make a degree, 125 pacesmake a
stadium, an Italian mile makes 8 stadia, a French mile

12, a Germanmile 32, so as i degreecontaines62 Italian

milesanda half, or 15 commonGermanmiles,and a half,
and half quarter.
Although the earthbe convex(or bending) and spheri- Longitude

call(or round),yet in a certaine

theygive to the Lat"Ufiesame,from West to East, or contrarily, a Longitude in
the Equator and Paralells; and likewise from the South
to the North, or contrarily, a Latitude in the Meridians.

And howsoeverthe earth in his upper face, by nature

hath neither beginning nor ending, yet they appoint the
artificiall beginning of the Longitude in the Meridian
Circle, drawneby the Fortunate or Canary Hands; and
thereforecall it the first Meridian, and so proceeding
from it towards the West or the East, they reckon the
Longitude of the earth. For example,two Meridians
being drawne,the first by the CanaryHands,the second

by anyplacewhosesituationis inquired,asmanydegrees
asarefoundin the Paralellcircleproperto the saidplace,
from the first Meridian to the proper Meridian of the

place,of so manydegrees
is the Longitudeof that place
said to be. In like sort the circle Equator and the

Paralellcircle of the placewhosesituationis inquired

beingdrawne,as many degreesas are includedin the
Meridiancircleof that place,from the Equator to the
Paralellof the place,of so manydegrees
is the Latitude
of that place said to bee. As the Paralellsare of two
sorts, so is the Latitude, namely, Northerne from the

/Equator towards the Northerne Pole, and Southerne





from the same towards the Southerne Pole.

Also the

Longitudein like sort, but imaginarily,is saidto be

Easterly& Westerly,beginningat the first Meridian.

The placessituatedunderthe ./Equator,are saidto have
no latitude and the placesunder the first Meridian, no

longitude. The Zonescompassing
the earthlike girdles,
accordingto the Longitude thereof, devide it by the
/Equator,andfoureparalellsinto five parts,whereoftwo
are temperate,and three intemperate. One of the
intemperate,being the middle, lies under the /Equator,
betweenethe two Paralells called Tropici, and this is
calledthe Torride or burnt Zone, becauseit being under
the Ecliptick line, of the Sunnesyeerelycourse,is continually burnt with the beamesthereof. This Zone in
the Superficiesor upper part of the earth, containesthe
greater part of Affrick towards the South, yea, almost
all Affrick, (exceptingEgypt, and Mauritania, towards
the Northerne Pole, and the furthest parts of Affrick
towards the SouthernePole), and it containesthe chiefe
Hands of the East Indies.


to this middle


Zone towards the North, lies one of the temperate

Zones, seated betweene the two Paralells, called the

Tropick of Cancer,and the Artick circle,and it containes

the greatest part of America, the Northerne part of

and almost all Europe

and Asia.

The other

temperate Zone lies by the middle torride Zone, on the

other side of the /Equator, towards the South, seated

betweenethe two Paralells,called the Tropick of Capricorn, and the Antartick circle, and containesthe part of
AmericacalledPeru, and the extremeSoutherneparts of

Affrick, and greatpart of the SoutherneWorld as yet

undiscovered.Next to thesetemperateZoneslye the
other two Zones calledintemperatefor cold, as the first

are for heate, and one of them lies under the Northerne

Poleof the World, containingNoruegia,and the part

of Tartarialying within the Artick circle,the other lies
under the SouthernePole, which part of the World is
not yet discovered.






Clymesare tractscompassing
the earthcircularlyfrom Clymes.
the West to the East, and they are much more narrow
then the Zones,and not of equalLatitude amongthemselves,but asZonesare the greater,the neererthey are to
the Equator, and the narrower,the more they aredistant
from the Equator, towards either of the Poles, so are
the Clymes. The Latitude of eachClyme is so great,
as from the beginning to the end of it, the greatest
Solstitial day may increasehalfe an hower. And because
this variation of the day, in parts most remote from the
Equator, happensin shorterdistancesof the earth,therefore the Clymes also most remote from the Equator,
are made more and more narrow. In our age wherein

great parts of the World are discovered,which were

of old unknowne, this distribution of the earth from the

Artick circle to theAntartick, maybe madeinto 23 clymes,

the Equinoctial clyme not being numbred. But this
property must ever bee observed,that the Solstitiall day
of the following clime, is ever half an hour longer, then [III. ii. 77.]
the solstitial day of the foregoingclime. The first clime
aswellfrom the Equator towards the North, as from it
towards the South is placed, where the greatest day con-

taines12 houres& a halfe,& that is next to the ^Equator

on either side. The secondwhere the greatest day containes 13 houres. The third where it containes 13 houres

& an halfe. The fourth where it containes14 houres.

And so forward, till you have numbred the 23 clime,
making the day of 23 houres& a halfe,& socometo one
of the said circles, Arctick towards the North, or Antartick

towardsthe South, wherein the Solstitial day of the one

half of the yeere, the Sun shines 24 houresabove the
Horizon, & the night is but a moment,& on the contrary,
in the solstitial day of the other halfe of the yeere,the
Sun is hidden 24 hours under the horizon, & the day
is but a moment: but beyond thesecircles,this distribution of the earth into climes ceaseth,becauseafter the

dayis no moreincreased
by halfehoures,but the oblique
horizonon both sides,hideth certaineportionsof the





or hidings,& whenthe Sunpasseth
makescontinualday for someweekes,yea, for some
moneths,or the like continuall night, til you come to

one of the Poles,underwhichthereis continualday for

the six summer moneths,and likewise continuall night
for the sixe winter moneths.

The Earth is divided into

ofthe five parts, Asia, Africk, Europe, America,and Terra

Australis, or Southland (not yet discovered). Now I

must speake
of the partsof Europe& Asia seatedin the
temperateZone towards the North, and under the
Northern latitude & Easterly longitude, which must
alwaiesbe observedfor the understandingof the descriptions now following. The oriental longitude, (namely
Of Germany,
from the first meridian towards the East) of Germany,

with Sweitzerland& Boemerland,from the 23 degreeto

tf Bohemia.
it selfe23degrees.
latitude, (namelyfrom the Equinoctial to the North), of
the sameCountries,from the paralellof 45 degrees& a
halfe, to the paralel of 55 degrees& a halfe, extendsit
selfe 10 degrees. Germanyis divided into the upper &
the lower.

The upper lying upon the Alpes, & neere the

River Danow, is subdivided into n Provinces, Austria,

Styria, Carinthia, Athesis, Rhetia, Vindelicia, Bavaria,

Suevia, Helvetia, (or Sweitzerland)Alsatia, & the Tract
Germany, upon the River Rhein to Metz. i Austria was of old

called the upper Pannonia,of the bridgesor of the

Peonescomming out of Greeceto inhabit it, and also

Avaria, now it is vulgarly called Oestreich,that is, the

EasterlyKingdome. Danowthe greatriver of Europe

(whichgoing on the course,is calledIsther)runs through
it, & divides it into Austria on this side, & on the far

sideof Danow. It hath manyancient& famousCities

whereofthechiefeis Vienna,(vulgarlyWien)built upon

the banke of Danow, famous not so much for the

University, & the trafficke of the place,as for that it is

most stronglyfortified to keepeout the Turkes,& it is

subjectto the Emperour,as he is Arch-Duke of Austria.








2 Styria, of old calledValesia& lapidia, is a smallregion

in the midst of the Alpes, & was at first onely a
Marquisate,whereuponit is vulgarly called Stoirmark,
but after by the Emperour Fredericke Barbarossa,was
raised to a Dukedome, & was at this time subject to
a Prince of the House of Austria, by division of
inheritance. The Cities thereof areVolenburg, Hal, and
Griets, (the chiefeCity.) It hath two Rivers, Mour and

3 The Inhabitants of Carinthia, are called Carni,

vulgarly Kerntheine. The Easterly and Southerly part

thereof is called Carniola, vulgarly Krein, and the
inhabitantsthereof were of old called lapides. Here are
the spring headsof the Rivers Dravus and Savus,in the
middest of the Alpes. The Cities Philac and Clagefort
are of small moment. 4. The Athesine Province lies

under Bavaria towards the Alpes, betweenCarinthia &

Helvetia (or Sweitzerland) and hath the name of the

river Athesis,vulgarly calledEtsch, which runs into Italy

by Trent and Verona, and is there called 1'Adice, and so

falles into the River Po. This Province is commonly

calledthe County of Tyrol, the Cities whereof are Brixia
and j^Enipons(vulgarly Inspruck, a faire Citie.)
5. The namesof Rhetia, Vindelicia& Norira, in these
dayesare out of use, and the limits of them are often
confounded. That is properlyRhetia, which lies between
the lake of Constantia (or Costnetz) towards the North,

and the high top of the Alpes towardsthe South, whose

chiefeCity is Bregants,& the inhabitantsof theseAlpes
arevulgarly called Grisons.
6 Vindelicia is the other part of that tract, lying [III. ii. 78.]
betweene the Danow and the Alpes, which hath faire

Cities,as Augusta Vindelicorum, (vulgarly Augsburg, a

famousCity), Ulme, Ingolstad, Ratisbona,(vulgarly

Regenspurg)and Passaw. Observe that the old limits

of Rhetia, did reach to Verona and Como in Italy, but
now great part of it is laid to Suevia in Germany, as
namelythe Cities, Augsburg and Ulme, aforesaid.





7 The Countriesof Bavaria,and of the Bishopricke

of Saltzburg,wereof old calledVindeliciaNoracum,and
the Inhabitantsthereof, Taurisci, and it hath theseCities,
Scherdung,Saltzburg, and Lintz.
Suevia stretcheth into old Vindelicia, and that which at

this day is so called,containes

the greaterpart of Rhetia
and Vindelicia. The Suevians(vulgarly Schwaben)
old forsooketheir dwelling upon the River Elve, and
invadedupperRhetia,whichto this day they hold. The
Citiesthereofare Nerlingen,Gepingen,and the foresaid
Ulme and Augsburg.

9 Helvetia (or Sweitzerland)

wasof old part of Gallia
Belgica,nowis reckonedaspart of Germany. The head
spring of the Rheine,(the secondRiver of Germany,next

in greatnesse
to the Danow),is in the highestAlpesof
Helvetia, where it riseth in two heads,and the Northerly

headfalling from the MountainesFurca and Gotardo, is

called the fore Rheine, and the Southerly head, falling
from the Lepontine Mountaines, is called the hinder
Rheine,both which running towardsthe East, are united
at Chur, and then with the nameof Rheine, it fals towards
the North violently from the Mountaines. Helvetia hath

manyand very famousCities, namely,Schaffhusen,

housesof boatsor ships)Constantia(vulgarly Costnetz),
Tigurum (vulgarly Zurech) Solodurum (or Solothurn),
Bern, Lucern, & Geneva, with Losanna, which two last

of old were reckonedin Savoy,but now are confederate









commonlycalledSweitzers,and amongthemselves
will be called Eidgenossen,that is; partakers of the
sworne league. The part of Helvetia betweene the

Rheineand the lake of Constantia,is calledBrisgoia,

vulgarly Brisgaw,(Bris signifiesa price, and Gaw a
meadow),and thereinis the spring-headof the River
Danow, and the Townes thereof are Rotwill, Brisach,

Friburg, (an University)Basil(a famousUniversity),of

old belonging to Alsatia, now confederatewith the








10 Alsatia, so calledof the river Ilia running through

t, is divided into the upper& the lower: The upper

from Basilto Strasburgis calledSingaw,andthe Inhabitants of old were called Tribocchi, and Tribotes : some

hold Strasburgof old to have beenethe chiefe City

thereof, but it hath now three Cities, Basil, Selestade,

and Rusach. The lower lying above Strasburgto the

Mount Vogasus,hath theseCities, Haganawand Sabern.
ii. For the Tract upon the Rheine: first, above
Alsatia towardsMetz, the Nemetes(whosechiefeCity is
Spira),and the Vangiones(whosechiefeCity is Worms),
the West sideof the Rheine. The tract adjoyning is called Vetus Hannonia (vulgarly Alt-henegaw.)
Something further from the Rheine towards the
Dukedome of Luxenburg, are these Provinces. The
County Sweybrucken(also called Bipontanus in Latin,
of two Bridges), and the Cities are Sweybruckenand
Sarbrucken. Secondly,Austracia(vulgarly Uestreich,as
a vast Kingdome.) Thirdly, the Territory of the Elector
Bishop of Trier, whereof the chiefe Citie is Treveris
(vulgarly Trier.)
On the other side of the Rheine towards the East, the

Marquisate of Baden lyes next to Helvetia, whose

inhabitants of old were called Vespi.

Next lies the

Dukedome of Wirtenburg, the Cities whereof are

Tubinga and Sturcardia, whereof the former is an

Then followes the Palatinate of Rheine,

the Inhabitants whereof were of old called Intuergi &

Phargiones,and are now calledPhaltzer,and Heidelberg,
seatedupon the River Neccaris the chiefeCitie, and the
seate of the Palatine


The lower Germany is devided into nineteenePro- '9 Province

vinces,Franconia,Bohemia,Moravia, Silesia,Saxonia,fiower
Lusatia,Misnia, Turingia, Marchia,the Dukedomeof

Brunswicke, the Dukedome of Meckleburg, Hassia, Bohemia

Juliacum,Chvia, Westphalia, Frisia Orientalis, Pomer- reckoned.

& Livonia,(for I omit GalliaBelgicato be
handledin his proper place.)



[III. ii. 75.]



i Franconia is an ancient and noble Nation, the

inhabitantswherof driving the Romansout of Gallia,

the same,andgavethe nameof Franceto that
Kingdome. This Province hath old and faire Cities,
namely,Bamberg(a Bishopsseate),Rotenburg,Francfort
(famousfor the yeerely Marts or Faires), Wirtzberg (a

Bishopsseate),Mentz or Metz (the seateof the chiefe

Elector Bishop), and Nurnberg (a famous City, which
some hold to be in Bavaria, but the Citizens doe more

willingly acknowledgethemselvesto be Franckes.) All

the Province (excepting the free Cities, and the three
Cities belonging to Bishops)is subject to the Margrave
of Brandeburg.
2 Bohemiahath a languageproper to it selfe,and hath
two Provinces belonging to it, Moravia (having his
proper language),and Silesia (using the Dutch tongue)
and thesethree make a Kingdome, which is subject to
the Emperour, and it is joyned by Geographersto the
Provinces of Germany, because the same compassethit








Counties,but accordingto the Teritories, belonging to

the King, or to Noble men and Gentlemen; this being
called the Kings land, that the land of the Baron of
Rosenberg,or the land of the Popells, and so of the
rest. The chiefeCity and seateof the Emperour their
King, is Prage. The River Elve hath his head spring
in Bohemia,being the third River of Germany,and it
runs through Saxony to Hamburg, and after falls into









Dalmatia, as their languagewitnesseth.

3 Moravia was of old inhabited by the Marcomanni,
and had subjectto it Bohemia,Silesia,and Polonia: but

at this day it is onelya Marquisate,subjectto Bohemia,

and hath the name of the River


The chiefe

City thereof is Bromia, vulgarly Prim.

4 The inhabitantsof Silesiawere of old calledLugii,
Dantuli, and Cogni. The River Viadrus, or Odera,
runnes through it into Pomerania,and so falles into the







sea. Silesiais annexedto Bohemia,and so is likewise

subjectto the Emperour,as King of Bohemia,and the

chiefeCity thereofis Uratislavia,vulgarly Bressell,and
the inhabitants of this Province are Germans, as well in

languageas manners.
5 Saxony containes all that lies betweene Hassia,
Silesia,Polonia, Bohemia, and the Baltick sea,so as at this

day, Lusatia, Misnia, Turingia, both the Markes, and the

Dukedomesof Brunswick,and of Meckleburg, are contained


6 Lusatia is a little Region,annexedto the Kingdome

of Bohemia. In the upper part are the Cities Gurlitz
(anUniversity), andPautsan,and Siltania. In the lower,
Soravick and Cotwick, and the River Sprea runnes

through them both.

7 Misnia was of old inhabited by the Hermonduri,
and Sorabi, of the Sclavonian Nation. It is a fertill

Region, and therein begin the Mountaines which

Ptolomy callesSuditi, in which are minesof mettals,and
especiallyof silver. The Cities thereof are Misnia
(vulgarly Misen), Torg, Leipzig, and Witteberg (two
Universities),Fryburg (the fieldswhereofhaverich mines
of silver), Dresden (the seateof the Saxon Elector),
Remnitz, and Suicania.

8 The Province of Turingia is said of old to have

beeninhabitedby the Gothes,becausethe chiefeCity is
called Gota. The Metropolitan City is Erford, being
large and ancient, and one of the free Cities of the
Empire. This Province is subject to the Duke of
Saxony,with the title of Langrave, as Misnia is also,
with the title of Marquis.
9 The River Odera hath his head spring in Marchia,
and runnesthrough it, deviding it into the new Marke,
and the old.

The chiefe Citie

of the old is Franckford

upon the Odera, (so called in difference of the more

knowneFranckfordupon the Maene). The new Marke

hath these Cities, Berlin, the seate of the Elector, and

Brandeburg,of which the Elector of Brandeburghath







that stile, and both the new and old are subject to the
said Elector.

10 Brunswickgivesthe nameto that Dukedome,and

hath the name of Bruno that built it, and is a free Citie

of theEmpire,stronglyfortified,andnot anywaysubject
to the Duke of Brunswick, though upon someold title
heehath the namethereof, and possesseth
the rest of the

Dukedome,holdinghis Court at Wolfenbeiten,not farre


[III. ii. 76.]



11 The Dukedom of Meckelburg, was of old

inhabited by the Pharadini, as Ptolomy writes. It hath
two Cities, both on the Seaside,Wismar, and Rostoch (an

12 Hassiais a mountanousCountry, in which Ptolomy

placeth for old inhabitants the Longobardi, the Chatti,
the Teucteri, and the Chriones. At this day it is subject
to the Family of the Landgravesof Hassia. It hath
these Cities, Casseils(the chiefe seat of the elder brother

of that Family) Hersphild, and Marpurg (an Universitie.)

The tract upon the River Lovia, is devided into the
County of Nassaw(whereof the chiefeTowne is Dillenberg) and the County of Catzmelbogen(so calledof the
Chatti inhabitants,and Melibots a famousMountaine.)
The Bishoprickof Colengives title to one of the Clergie
Electors,and wasof old inhabitedby the Ubii, of whom
the chiefeCitie was first calledUbiopolis, which Marcus

Agripparepaired,and calledit Agripina Augusta: but

MarcomirusKing of the Francksor French,conquering
it, called it Colonia. It is a small Country, and the
BishopElector hath most part of his revenuesfrom other

13 Juliacumis a little Region,and hath title of a


14 The Dukedomof Clevewasof old inhabitedby the

Usipetes,and the City Cleve is the seateof the Duke.

15 Westphaliais a large Region, inhabitedby the

Teucteri,Bructeri,andthe Vigenones,

hath theseCities,Padeborn,Munster (which the Ana12







baptistsheldin time of Luther),Breme(a freecity of the

Empire,fairelybuilt uponthe RiverVisurgis),andMindawe.

16 Easterly Freeslandlyes upon the River Amesus,

vulgarlyEmms,andis a County,subjectto the Countof

Emden, who hath his name of the chiefe Citie Emden :

but of late upon somedifferencehe wasfor a time driven

out of that City, so as it seemeshee hath not absolute
power over it.
17 Pomerania was of old inhabited by the Hermiones,

and lies upon the Baltike seaor Oest sea,and is subject

to the Duke



hath these Townes,


Coberg, (both on the Sea-side),Sund, Stutgard, and

Grippwalt (which lies also on the sea,and is an old Universitie, but hath few or no Students.)
18 Borussia or Prussia, is at this day subject to the

King of Polonia, by agreement made betweene the

Poloniansand the Knights of the Teutonick order, but
the inhabitantsare Germans,both in speechand manners.
The chiefe Cities are these, Dantzk (a famous Citie,
acknowledgingthe King of Poland for tributes, yet so,
as they will not receive him into the Citie, but with
sucha traine as they like.) Another Citie is Konigsperg
(the seateof the Duke of Prussen,who is of the Family
of the Elector of Brandeburg,but hath the Dukedome
in Fee from the Kings of Poland,to whom it fals in want
of heiresmales.) The other Cities are, Marieburg, Elbing and Thorn (which lies upon the confinesof Poland,
and witty Copernicuswasborne there.)
19 Livonia is a part of Germany,but hath neither the
speechnor the manners thereof.

It was subdued some

two hundred yeeres past, and was brought from the

worshipping of Idols and Devils, to Christian Religion,
yet in the Villages they have not at this day fully left
their old Idolatrie. It is inhabited by the old Saxons,
and hath these Cities, Refalia (on the sea-side)Derbt

(within land), and the MetropolitanCitie Riga (on the

sea-side,which the Duke of Moscovy hath often, but

in vaine,attemptedto subdue.)






Thesituation Old Writers affirme(as Munsterwitnesseth)that the

Germaneshad perpetual!Winter, and knew not Harvest
for want of fruites. This opinion no doubt proceeded

rather from their neglector ignoranceof tyllage and

husbandrie,then from the indisposition of the ayre or
soyle. Yet I confessethat they have farre greater cold

then Englandlying moreNortherly,especiallyin lower

Germany and the Provinceslying upon the Baltick or
Oest Sea,moreespeciallyin Prussen(part of that shoare,
which the more it reacheth towards the East, doth also
more bend towards the North) where in September my
selfe did feele our Winters


And since the Baltick sea is little subject to ebbing

and flowing, and the waterstherof are not much moved,
except it bee upon a storme, it is daily seene, that in

winter upon a North or North-West wind, this seafor a

good distancefrom the land is frosen with hard yce, to
which the inland Rivers are much more subject, which
[III. ii. 77.] argues the extreme cold that this part of Germany
suffereth. Also nearethe Alpes, though Southerly,that
part of Germany,having the said Mountainesinterposed
berweeneit and the Sunne,and feeling the cold winds
that blow from those Mountaines perpetually covered
with snow, doth much lesse partake the heat of the

Sunne,then others under the sameparalell, having not

the said accidents. Upon theseAlpes (whereof I have
formerly spokenin this booke)the snowlyes very deepe,
and coversall the ground for nine monethsof the yeere,
yet notwithstanding the vallyes and discents of them
lying open to the South Sunne,and taking life from the

heatethereof, are very fruitful!. Lastly, in generall

through all Germany, the aboundanceof Lakes and
Mountaines, doth increasethis cold of the aire in divers

places,exceptthey beesomethingdefendedfrom the same

by Woods adjoyning, and in someplaces(as namely at
Heidelberg) where the Cities are almost fully inclosed
with Mountaines,

the cold windes in Winter

doe more

raginglybreakein on that sidethe Mountaineslye open,







the more they are restrainedand resistedon the other

sides. As likewise by accident the Sunne beamesin

SummerreflectingagainstthoseMountaines(though in
a cold Region)are soviolently hot, asthe Citiesat that
time are much annoyedwith multitudes of flies, which
not onely vex men, but so trouble the horses,as they
are forced to cover them with cloathes from this annoy-

ance. The foresaid intemperatenesse

of cold pressing
great part of Germany, in stead of fier they use hot
stoves for remedie thereof, which are certaine chambers

or roomes,having an earthenoven castinto them, which

may be heatedwith a little quantity of wood, so as it
will make them hot who come out of the cold, and incline

them to swetting if they comenearethe oven. And as

well to keepe out cold as to retaine the heate, they keepe

the doresandwindowescloselyshut; soasthey using not

only to receiveGentlemeninto thesestoves,but even to
permit rammish clownesto stand by the oven till their
wet clothesbe dried, and themselvessweat,yea, to indure
their little children to sit upon their close stooles,and
easethemselves within this close and hot stove (let the

Readerpardon my rude speech,as I bore with the bad

smell), it must needes be, that these ill smelles, never

purged by the admitting of any fresh ayre, should dull

the braine, and almost choke the spirits of those who

frequent the stoves. When my selfe first entred into

one of them, this unwonted heate did so winde about

my legges,as if a Snakehad twined about them, and

made my head dull and heavy: but after I had used
them,customebecameanothernature,for I never injoyed
my health in any place better then there. This intemperatenesseof cold, is the cause that a Lawrell tree is

hardly to be found in Germany,and that in the lower

parts towards Lubeck, they keepe Rosemarywithin the
housein earthernepitchersfilled with earth,asotherwhere
men preservethe choicefruits of the South, yet can they
not keep this Rosemary(when it prospersbest) above

threeyeeresfrom withering. For this causealso, they






have no Italian fruits in Germany,onely at Prage I did

seesomefew Orangetrees,preserved
in pitchersfull of
earth,by settingthemfourth in the heateof the Summer
dayes,and after drawing them into houses,where they

were cherishedby artificial! heate. And the like fruits

I did seeat Heidelberg in the PallatineElectors Garden,

growingopenin Summer,but in winter a housebeing

built over them, with an oven like a stove,and yet these

trees yeeldednot any ripe fruit, when as at London and
many parts of England more Northerly then thoseparts
of Germany, we have Muske Mellons, and plenty of
Abricots growing in Gardens,which for quantitie and
goodnesseare not much inferiour to the fruits in Italy.
Also this cold is the cause, that in Misen (where they

plant vines) and in the highestparts of Germanyon this

sidethe Alpes (wherethey makewine thereof) the Grapes
andthe wine areexceedingsower. Onely the winesupon
Neccar,and thoseupon the West sideof the Rheine,are
in their kinds good, but harsh and of little heate in the

The cherriescalled Zawerkersen,are reasonablegreat,

but sower. And the other kind called Wildkersen, is

little and sweete,but hath a blacke juyce, unpleasingto

the taste. They have little storeof pearesor apples,and
those they have are little, and of small pleasantnesse,
onely the Muskadelpeareis very delicate,especiallywhen
[III. ii. 78.] it is dried. And the Germansmake good use of those
fruits they have,not so much for pleasurewhen they are
greene,asfor furnishing the table in Winter. For their
Peares,andApples, they parethem, and drie them under
the Oven of the stove,and then dressethem very savorly

with Cynamonand Butter. In like sort they long

preservetheir cheriesdrie, without sugar,andthe greater
part of their cheriesthey boyle in a brassecauldron,full

of holesin the bottome,out of whichthe jucefallesinto

anothervessell,which being kept, groweslike marmalade,
and makesa delicate saucefor all roasted meates,and
will last very long, as they use it. The Italians have a







Proverb,Dio du i panni secondo

i freddi; that is, God
gives cloathesaccordingto the colds, as to the cold
Muscovitesheehath given furres,to the Englishwooll
for cloth, to the French divers light stuffes, and to
Southerliepeoplestooreof silkes,that all Nations abounding in somethings, and wanting others,might be taught,
that they have needeof one anothershelpe, and so be
stirred up to mutuall love, which God hath thus planted
betweene mankind by mutuall trafficke.

For this must

be understoodnot onely of clothes,but also of all other

for human life.
Germanydoth abound with many things necessaryfor Thefertility

to betransported.For greatJGermany
Cities, and Cities within land (of which Germany hath
store) those argue plenty of commoditiesto bee transported,and theseplenty of foode to nourishmuchpeople.
And sincethat paradoxof Cicero is most true, that small
causesof expencerather then great revenues,make men
rich, surely by this reasonthe Germansshould bee most
rich. They never play at Dice, seldomeat Cardes,and
that for smallwagers. They seldomefeast,andsparingly,
needingno sumptuaryLawesto restrainethe number or
costlinesseof dishes of sawces. They are apparrelled
with homely stuffes, and weare their clothes to the utter-

most of their lasting, their housholdstuffe is poore, in

gifts they are most sparing, and onely are prodigall in
expencesfor drinking, with which a man may sooner
burst, then spend his patrimony. They have Corne
sufficient for their use, and the Merchants in the Cities
upon the sea coast, export Corne into Spaine, aswell of

their owne, as especiallyof that they buy at Dantzke.

Theywant not Cattle of all kinds, but they arecommonlie
leaneand little, so are their horsesmany in number,and
little in stature,onely in Bohemiathey havegoodly horses,
or at leastgreatand heavy,like thosein Freeseland
: but
I remembernot to havescenemuchcattle,or greatheards
thereof, in the fields of any Towne, the reason whereof

may be gatheredout of the following discourseof the

M. iv






Germansdiet. Their sheepeare very little, bearinga

coursewooll, and commonly blacke, which they export
not, but make course cloath thereof for the poorer sort,

the Gentlemenand for the most part the Citizens wearing

English cloath. The libertie of hunting commonly

reserved to Princes, and absolute Lords, and they have

greatstoreof red Deare,feedingin openWoods,which

the Princes kill by hundredsat a time, and send them

to their Castlesto be salted,usingthemin steadof beefe

for the feedingof their families. They have no fallow
Deare, except somewild kinds upon the Alpes. They
havegreatstoreof freshfish in Lakes, Ponds,andRivers,
among which the Lakes of Sweitzerlandare most commended. At Hamburg they catch such plentie of
Sallmons,as it is a common report, that the servants
made covenant with their Masters, not to bee fed therewith more then two mealesin the weeke, and from thence

great plentie of Sturgeonis exported. Either the cold

drives away birds, or else they labour not to take them;

for I did seldomeseethem servedat the table,but onely

Sparrowes,and some few little birds.

In all their Rivers I did never seeany Swannes,yet

they say, that at Lubeck, and about private Castlesof
Gentlemen, they have some few. They say that they
have someminesof Gold: but surely they aboundwith
minesof Silver aboveall Europe, and all mettalswhere
so ever found, are by a Law of the GoldenBull appropriated to the Emperour,andto the Electors,in their severall
dominions. Also they abound with copper and brasse,
wherewith they cover many Churches,but within forty
yeerespast, the English havebrought them Leade,which
[III. ii. 97.] they use to that and other purposes. Also they have
great plenty of Iron, and they have Fountainesyeelding
most white Salt, in Cities farre within the land, which

Citiesare commonlycalledHalla. Austria beyondthe

DanowyeeldsexcellentSaffron,andat Judiburgin Styria
growesstore of SpicaCeltica(asthe Latin Herbalistscall

it.) In the season

of the yeereyellowAmber is plenti-







fully gathered upon the Sea coast of Prusia and

Pomerania. The Germansexport into forraigne parts,

and theresell manycuriousand well prisedworkesof

manuall Art.


it is worth

the consideration,


the Citizensof Nurnberg,dwellingin a sandyandbarren

soile,by their industrie, and more speciallyby their skill

in thesemanuall Arts, live plentifully, and attaine great
riches,while on the contrary, the inhabitantsof Alsatia
the most fruitfull Province of all Germany, neglecting
theseArts, and content to enjoy the fatnesseof their
soylein slothfull rest,arethe poorestof all other Germans.
Moreover, the upper part of Germany abounds with
Woods of Firre, which tree (as the Lawrell) is greene
all Winter, and it hath many Okes also upon the Alpes,
andnot elsewhere,andlower Germany,especiallytowards
the Baltick Sea, aboundeth with Woods of Oke.


conveygreat storeof wood from the Alpes into the lower

parts, by the River Rheine, cutting downe whole trees,
andwhen they are marked,castingthem oneby one into
the River, to be carried downe with the violent streame

thereof, or otherwisebinding many together, to floate

downe,with men standing upon them to guide them.
And at many Cities and Villages, they have servants,
which know the trees by the markes,and gather them
up in places,where they may best be sold.



are on the

Sea-coast on the North

Of thetrafick

sideof Germany,
havevery greatships,but morefit for "f Germany
taking in great burthen, then for sayling or fighting,
which the Netherlander more commonly fraught with
their commodities, then the Germans themselves, neither








The German Sea in good part, and the Baltick Sea

altogether,are free from Pyrats, which is the causethat
their shipsare little or not at all armed,onely somefew
that trade into Spaine,carry great Ordinance, but are

generallymadelarge in the ribs, ratherfit for burthen,

then fight at Sea. I never observedthem to have any
commonprayersmorning or eveningasour English ships





havewhile they bee at Sea,but the Marrinersof their

owne accordusecontinually to sing Psalmes,and they are
punishedby the purse who sweare,or so much as once
name the divell, from which they abhorre.
And herein they deserve to be praysed above the
Holanders, in whoseships a man shall heareno mention
of God or his worship. The saidfree Cities of Germany
lying on the Sea-coast,
are calledHansen-stetten,that is,
free Cities, becausethey had of old in all neighbour
Kingdomsgreat priviledges,of buying any waresas wel
of strangersasCitizens,andof sellingor exchangingtheir
own waresto either sort at pleasure,and to bring in or
carry out all commodities by their owne shippes, with

like immunities equall to Citizens in all the said

Dominions, and no lesse prejudiciall to them, then
advantageousto themselves.
In England they were wont to dwell together at
London, in the house called the Stilyard, and there to

enjoy theseliberties, which long since have laine dead,

the Germansseldomebringing ought in their ships into
England, and the English having now long time found
it more commodiousto use their owne shipping, and
justly complaining, that the English had not the like
priviledges in the said free Cities, for which causethe
priviledgesof the Germanswere laid dead in England,
though not fully takenaway. Caesar
witnesseth,that the
Schwabeninhabiting Suevia, then containing great part
of Germany,admitted Merchantsnot to buy any thing
themselves,but onely to sell the spoyles they got in

But Munster a German writes, that these

Sueviansof schwabenare now the onely forestallersof

all things sold in fairesor Markets, and that for this cause

they are excludedfrom buying any thing throughGermany, except it bee sold in their owne Townes of trafficke.

In generall,the Germansdoe appliethemselvesindustriously to all traffickeby land, which onely the free Cities

on the Sea-coast
exercisesomewhatcoldly by sea. At
[III. ii. 80.] homethe Germansamongthemselves
spendand export







an unspeakable
quantity of Beerewith greatgaine, which
yeeldsgreatprofit to private Citizens,and to the Princes,

or publikeSenatein freeCities,therebeingno Merchandize of the World that more easily findes a buyer in
Germany, then this. For the Germans trafncke with

I will omit smallcommodities
sold, though in lessequantitie, yet with more gaine then
greater)and in this placeI will onely speakeof the commoditiesof greatermoment,aswellthosethat the Country
affords,as thosethat buy in forraigne parts to be transported in their owne ships. The Germansexport into
Italy, linnen clothes,corne,wax (fetcht from Dantzk and
thoseparts)and coynedsilver of their owne, which they
alsoexchangeuncoinedwith somequantity of gold. Into
England they export boards,iron, courselinnen clothes
(and of that kind one sort called Dyaper, wrought in
Misen), and bombast or cotton.

Into Spaine they export

linnen cloth, wax, brasse,copper, cordage, Masts for

shippes,gun-powder,bombastor cotton, and Nurnberg
wares(so they call small wares.) Againe, they receive
all kinds of silkes from Italy, whereof they use little
quantity for their owne apparrell, but send great store
over land, to those Cities on the Sea-coast, where the

English Merchantsreside,to be sold unto them.

For the English Merchants had their Staple first at
Emden, the Count whereof used them well, yet in the
warre betweeneEngland and Spaine, this place grew

for them, for the enemieoften tooke their
goods, and made them prisoners, at the very mouth of

the Harbour. Whereupon they removed to Hamburg,

wherebeing oppressedwith new impositions,and being
deniedthe publike exerciseof their Religion, they went

from thence,and settledtheir Stapleat Stoade. In like

sort the English Merchantstrading for Poland and those
parts, first had their Staple at Dantzk in Prussen (by
StapleI meanetheir residencein a City, giving them
priviledge to stop any forraigne wares, intended to be
carried further, and to force the Merchant to sell them





there,exceptheehad ratherreturnewith themto the

placefrom whenceheecame.) But whenthe DantzJcers

underpretenceof the Suevianwarre,exactedof thema
doller for eachwoollen cloath, and asmuchfor a last of

any other goods,and after when the warrewas ended,

would remit nothing of this imposition. And further
when they forbadthe English by a Law to dwell in
Poland, the commoditieswhereof were onely sold there,
lest they shouldlearnethe language,andfind the mysteries
of the trade. And lastly when they exactedas much
weekelyof an Englishmandwelling in the City, as they
did of a Jew dwelling there. The English made agreement with the Senateof Melvin for eleven yeeres,to pay

them sixe groshfor eachcloth, or other last of goods,

and to pay asmuch morein the Citie Kettle, to the Duke
of Prussen,for his giving them free passageto Melvin,
and so they settled their Staple there. Wherupon the
Dantzkers being offendedwith the Citizens of Melvin,
and the Hamburgersno lessewith thoseof Stoade,procured the free Cities by a publike writing to outlaw, not
onely Melvin and Stoadefor receiving the English, to
the commonprejudice of the rest, but also Konigsperg
(the seate of the Duke of Prussen), and the free Citie

Lubeck, for favouring the English in this course,and

permitting them being strangersto sell their goods to
any other, then the Citizens of each severall Citie.

But I will returne to the trafficke of Germany. I

formerly said, that the Germansreceivedall kindes of
silke stuffes from Italy. From the Enoflish they receive
woollenclothes,lead,and suchlike things. From Spaine
they bring in their owne ships wine, fruites, oyle, salt,
wooll, and more commonlycoined silver. And because
the trade of Prussen (a German Province, but lately
annexed to Poland) is of great importance with all
strangers,I will addethis, that the English bring thither
great quantitie of tynne, and woollen cloathes,with

copper,andlike things. And that theybringfrom thence

Pitch, liquid Pitch, Hempe, Flaxe, Cables, Masts for







shippes,boardsand timber for building, Linnen cloathes,

Wax,mineral!Salt(whichin Polandthey dig out of pits

like greatstones,and the samebeingput to the fire is
madepure,andbeingblacke,his colouris moredurable,
andlessesubjectto giving againe,then our boiledsalt.)
Also they bring from thencepine ashesfor makingof
Soape,and great quantity of Corne. Yet the English
seldomehaveneedeof their Cornefor the useof England,
which many times of their owne they transport to other

Nations,but they buy it asthe free Cities doe,to transport

it to others, and the Low-Countrey men buy it as well

for themselves,as to serve Spainetherewith, so as great

quantity thereof is distracted into all parts of Europe.
The Amber that is brought from these parts, is not
gatheredat Melvin or Dantzke, but on the seaside of
Konigsperg(wherethe Duke of Prussenholdshis Court),
and all along the Coast of Curland, where howsoeverit
lies in great quantity scatteredon the sand of the Sea,
yet is it as safe,as if it were in warehouses,since it is
death to take away the least peecethereof. When it is
first gathered,it is all coveredover with drosse,but after
it is polished,becomestransparantlybright. At Dantzke
I did seetwo polished peecesthereof, which were esteemed

at a great price, one including a frogge with eachpart

cleerelyto be scene,(for whichthe King of Polandthen

being there, offered five hundred dollers), the other
including a newt, but not so transparantas the former.
Somethinke this Amber to be a gumme distilling from
trees,and by thesepeecesfalling upon froggesand like
things, this opinion should seemetrue, but those trees
from which they hold this Amber to distill, abound in
Germany,yet Amber is onely found upon this Coastof
the Balticke








generatedby the Sea,and it is most certainethat Marriners

soundingfarre from the Land, often find sandof Amber

sticking to their plummets,whereof my selfewas an eye
witnesse. And Munster holds them to be deceived, who

thinke Amber to be a gumme distilling from trees, and






it is fat,andburnesbeingput to thefier, concludes
it to be a fat clay, or bituminous matter, affirming that
it is not onely found upon the SeaCoast,but often caught
at Sea in nets, and he adds that being liquid, it often
fals upon, and includeslittle beasts,which growe with
it to the hardnes of stone, and that it smels of mirh.

TheGermans The diet of the Germansis simple, and very modest,

if you set asidetheir intemperatedrinking : For as they
are nothingsumptuous,but rather sparingin their apparell
and housholdstuffe, so they are content with a morsell
of flesh and bread, so they have store of drinke, and

want not wood to keepetheir stoaveswarme. And in

generall,sincethey affect not forraignecommodities,but
are contentwith their own commodities,and are singular
aswell in the Art asindustry of making manuallworkes,
they easilydraw to them and retainewith them forraigne
Coynes. The free Cities use to have alwaiesa yeeres
provision of victuals laid up in publike houses,to serve
for homely food for the people,in casethe City should
happen to be besieged. They commonly serve to the
Table sowerCabbages,which they call Crawt, and beere
(or wine for a dainty) boyled with bread,which they call
Swoope. In upper Germany they-moreovergive veale
or beefe in little quantities, but in lower Germanythey
supply the meale with baconand great dried puddings,

whichpuddingsare savoryand so pleasant,as in their

kind of mirth they wish proverbially for Kurtz predigen,

langeworsten,that is; Shortsermons

andlong puddings.
Sometimesthey alsogive dried fishes,and applesor peares
first dried, then preparedwith cinamon and butter very
savourily. They usemanysawces,
and such as comfort

the stomacke offended

with excessive

drinking: For which causein upper Germany the first

draught commonly is of wormewoodwine, and the first
dish of little lampreys,(which they call nine augen,as
having nine eyes)servedwith white vinegar; and those
that take any journey, commonlyin the morning-drinke
a little Brant wein, (that is, their Aquavita) and eate a







peeceof PfefFerkuchen,(that is, Ginger-bread)

usethto be soldat the gatesof the City. They havea
mostdelicatesawce(in my opinion)for rostedmeats,of
cherriessod and brused,the juice whereof becomeshard
like Marmalade, but when it is to be served to the Table,

they dissolveit with a little wine or like moisture. And

asthey have abundanceof fresh fish in their Ponds and
Rivers, so they desire not to eate them, except they see

themalive in the Kitchen, and they preparethe samevery

savourly, commonly using anniseedsto that purpose,
especiallythe little fishes, wherof they have one most
delicatekinde, called Smerling, which in PrussenI did
eate, first choked, then sodden in wine, and they being [III. ii. 82.]

very little, yet sixty of them were sold tor nineteene

grosh. The foresaidsawceof cherries,they thus prepare
andkeepe,They gathera darkeor blackishkind of cherry,
and casting away the stalkes, put them into a great

cauldronof brasseset upon the fier, til they beginne to

be hot, then they put them into a lessecauldrenfull of
holesin the bottome, and pressethem with their hands,
so as the stones and skinnes remaine in this cauldron,

but the juice by the foresaidholesdoth fall into another

vessell. Then againethey set this juyce upon the fier,
continuallystirring it, lest it shouldcleaveto the bottome,
and after two howersspace,they mingle with it the best
kind of pearesthey have,first cut into very small peeces,
and so long they boile it and continually stirre it, till it
waxe hard, and notwithstanding the stirring beginne to
cleave to the vessell. This juyce thus made like a
Marmalade,may long be preservedfrom moulding in
this sort. They which desire to have it sweete,mixe
sugar with it, and others other things accordingto the
tastethey desireit should have. Then they put it into
earthenpitchers, and if it beginne at any time to waxe
mouldie, they put thesepots into the Oven, after the
breadis bakedand taken out. Also thesepitchersmust
be closestopped,that no aire may enter, & must be set
whereno sunneor continuallheatecomes. Lastly, when





they will makereadythis sawce,they cut out a peeceof

the saidjuice,andminglewith it a little wineto dissolve
it, (with vineger,or sugar,or spices,accordingto their
andsoboileit againesomehalfehower.
In Saxony, Misen, and those parts, they sometimes
serve to the Table

a calves head whole

and undevided

into parts, which to us strangersat the first sight seemed

a terribledish gapingwith the teethlike the headof a

Monster, but they so prepareit, as I never rememberto

haveeatenany thing that morepleased

my taste. They
use not for commondiet any thing that comesfrom the
Cow, neither have I observed them to have any butter

in Saxony,or the lower parts of Germany,but they use

a certaine white matter called smalts in stead of it, not

tasting like our butter. They doe not commonly eate

any cheese,neither remember I that I ever tasted good

cheesethere, exceptingone kind of little cheesemadeof

Goatsmilke, which is pleasantto eate: but salt andstrong
they sometimesuseto provokedrinking, for which
purpose the least crum is sufficient.

These Cheesesthey

round with thred or twigges,and they beginne
them in the midst of the broade side, making a round
hole there, into which hole, when the cheeseis to be set

up, they put somefew dropsof wine, that it may putrifie

against the next time, when they eate the mouldy peeces

and very creepingmaggotsfor dainety morsels,and at

last the cheese becomes

so rotten

and so full

of these

wormes,that if the saidbinding that compasseth

it chance
to break,the cheesefals into a million of crumsno bigger
then moates. They have a kind of bread brownish &

sowrish,and made with anniseeds,which seemedvery

savouryto me. They servein steadof a banquet,a kind

of light breadlike our fritters,savethat it is long,round,

& a little more solid, which they call Fastnachtkuchen,

thenand uponS. Martinsday,
and somelike Feaststhey use to make it. They usenot
in any place almost, to offend in the great number of
dishes,onely somefew Innesof chiefeCities give plenti26







full meales. And for the Saxons,they for the most part

seton the pot or roastmeateoncefor the wholeweeke:

Yet in the goldenbull they havea law, that Hostsshall
not servein more then foure dishes,the price of them

to be setby the Magistrate,& that theyshouldnot gaine

in the reckoning more then the fourth or at most the

third penny,and that the guestsshouldpay severallyfor

their drinke, the Germansdrinking so largely as it was
unpossibleto prescribethe rate thereof. It were to be
wished by strangers,that not onely drinke should be
paid for a part from meate,but that eachman should pay
the sharehimselfedrinkes, and no more, so the charges
of soberpassengers
in Germany,having all things reasonably cheape,would not in such measureincrease,as
otherwisethey doe through their companionsintemperancy. The said Saxonsset the disheson the Table one
by one, for the most part grossemeates,whereuponI
have heard some merrily compare them to the Tyrants

of Sicily, of whom one being dead, stil a more terrible

Monster succeeded
him. Here & in theseparts of the [III. ii. 83.]
lower Germany, they use to serve in sower crawt or

cabbageupon a voide circle of carved Iron standingon

three feete, under which they serve in one large dish,
roastflesh andpullets,and puddings,andwhatsoeverthey
have prepared,which dish a Countryman of mine did
not unproperlycompareto the Arke of Noah, containing
all kinds of Creatures. Also in Saxony,for the first dish
they serve in stewed Cherries or Prunes, then tested or
sodden Pullets, or other flesh, and last of all Bacon to

fill his bellie that hath not enough. Almost all their
Tables are round, and of so great a compasse,as each
dish being servedoneby one, (not aswe use to havethe
Table fully furnished with meate),they that sit at the
corners of the Table, are forced to stand on their feete

as often as they cut any meate. The Germansseldome

breaketheir fasts,except it be in journies, with a little

and Aquavity. They sit long at Table,
and evenin the Innesas they take journies,dine very





largely,neitherwill they rise from dinneror supper,till

thoughslowly,yet fully theyhaveconsumed

all thatis

set beforethem. And they cannot speakmore reproch-

fully of any Host, then to say; Ich hab mich da nicht

satt gefressen,
that is, I did not eatemy belly full there:

Yea, at Berne,a Citie of Sweitzerland,they have a Law

that in Feaststhey shall not sit more then five howers
at the Table.

And at Basell, when Doctors and Masters

take their degrees,they are forbiddenby a Statute,to

sit longer at Table, then from ten of the clocke in the
morning, to sixe in the evening, yet when that time is
past, they have a tricke to cozen this Law, be it never

so indulgentto them, for then they retire out of the

publike Hall into private Chambers,where they are

content with any kinde of meate, so it be such as pro-

voketh drinking, in which they have no measure,so long

as they can stand or sit.

Let the Germans pardon me

to speakefreely, that in my opinion they are no lesse

excessivein eating, then drinking, save that they onely
protract the two ordinary mealesof each day, till they
have consumed all that is set before them, but to their

drinking they canprescribeno meanenor end. I speake

of their ordinary diet, especiallieat Innes by the way as
they travell: In Feaststheir provision is rather full then
sumptuous. At Leipzig for meerecuriositie, I procured
my selfeto be invited to a marriageFeast,in one of the
chiefeCitizenshouses,the marriagewasin the afternoone,
and at supper they served in a peeceof roastedbeefe
hot, and anothercold, with a sawcemadewith sugarand
sweetwine, then they servedin a Carpefried, then Mutton
roasted, then dried Peares prepared with butter and
cinamon,and therewith a pieceof broiled Salmon,then
bloted Herrings broiled, and lastly a kind of breadlike
our fritters, savethat it is madein long roules,and more
drie, which they cal Fastnachtkuchen, that is, Shroftide
baking, together with Cheese. And thus with seven
dishesa Senatorsnuptiall Feast was ended,without any

of fowle,or change
of fishes,
or banquetting







which other Nations use, onely there wasendlessedrink-

ing, whole barrels of Wine being brought into the

Stoave,and set by us upon a Table, which we so plied,
as after two howers,no man in the companywas in case
to give accountnext morning, what he did, said, or saw,
after that time. To nourish this drinking, they use to
eate salt meats,which being (upon ill dispositionof my
body) oncedispleasing& unholsomefor me, and I complaining therof to my Host, he betweenjeast and earnest
replied,that the useof Salt wascommendedin Scriptures,
alleadgingthat text: Let all your speeches
be seasoned
with salt, and then said he much more should our meates

be thus seasoned. Salt thus pleaseththeir pallat, because

it makesthe samedry, and provokesthe appetiteof drinking. For which causealso, when they meet to drink,
as they dine with dried pork, and beefe heavily salted,
together with cheesesharpe like that of Parma, so when
the cloth is taken away, they have set before them rawe
beanes,waternuts, (which I did see onely in Saxony),

and a loafe of bread cut into shives,all sprinckledwith

salt and pepper, the least bit whereof will invite him to
drinke that hath least need. And to say truth, Porke

dried, or Bacon,is so esteemedof the Germans,as they

seemeto have much greater care of their Hogges then

of their Sheepe,
or other Cattle. For in the morning

whenthey turne them forth, they scratchthem with their

fingers, as Barbers doe mens heads; and blessethem

that they may safelyreturne,and in the eveningwhen

they are to come backe with the Heard, a servant is [III. ii. 84.]
commandedto attend them, who washeth the dust from

themasthey passeby the fountaine,and so followesthem

till they comehomeof their owneaccord,without any

beatingor driving. The priceof a fat Sowis at least

yea,at Heidelberg,
it wascrediblytold me, that a Sow,beingso fat, asshee
couldnot at one feedingeatea raw egge,all her intrels

beingclosedup with fat, hadlatelybeenesoldfor fifty

Guldens. With this fat they larde many rosted and







broiled meates,aswell flesh as fish : And they never eate

any Pigges, but nourish them to full growth, so as my

selfe and some of my Countrey-men at Wittenberg,

desiringto eatea Pigge, hardly bought one for halfe

a doller, and were our selves forced to kill, dresse, and

roastit, the servantsabhorringfrom sucha strangeworke,

neither could we intreat any one to eate the least bit
thereof. When they roast a shoulderof Mutton, they
beate the upper part thereof with the backe-sideof an
Hatchet, or like Instrument, before they put it on the

Spit, to make that part tender, which they carve as the

most dainty part:

yet use they seldome to carve any

man, iest they should seemeto desirethat morsell themselves,for they hold it a point of civility not to take that
is carved, but to force it upon the Carver. They dip
their bread in sawces,but thinke it ill manners to dip
meat therein, as likewise to reach bread with the point

of a knife, and not rather to call for it by hand. Lastly,

when the Table is to be taken away, they think to offer
him curtesie whose trencherthey offer to take up, and
put into the Voyder, and will in curtesie strive to doe


Hee that will abide in any City, may easily obtaine

to be entertained for bed and board at a convenient rate,

by some chiefe Citizen or Doctor, as I have formerly


Now somethingmust be said of Innes by the high

way. ErasmusRoterodamussaith, that the Inne keepers
of Germanyare sordide,that is, baseor slovenly: but I
would rather say, they are churlish and rudely proud,
or rather grave and surley. When you come in, you
must salutethe Hoste, and happy you if he saluteyou
againe. You must drinke with him, and observe him

in all things. For your carriage,you must lay it in the

common eating roome, yet there it shall be most safe;

and if you will put off your bootes,you must doe it in

the sameroome, and there lay them aside. You must
expectthe hower of eating, for they nothing regard him
that desireseither to hastenor protract it. You must







take in good part what is set beforeyou, demanding

nothing for your owne appetite. The shot demanded,
for the Hostsseldome
deceivestrangersor others,and never remit one halfe
penny of that they demand. Above the table hangs a
bell (especiallythrough all lower Germany),by sounding
whereof they call the servantsto attend. And at Nurnberg there hangssuch a little bel under the table, which
they soundif any man speakeimmodestlyof love matters
or any like subject,and though it beedone in sport, yet
it serves to remember

a wise

man of

his errour.


lower Germanyafter supper, they leade the guests into

a chamberof many beds,and if any man have no companion, they give him a bed-fellow. Lastly, all things
must be desired and intreated, as if the guests were
intertained of free cost, for the Host thinkes you beholden

to him for your intertainement,without any obligation

on his part.

Through all Germanythey lodge betweenetwo fether- TheLodging

wherethey useone bedtfGermany
under them, and are covered with woollen blankets) and

these fetherbedsfor softnesseand lightnesse are very

commodious,for everywinter night the servantsarecalled
into the warme stove, whereof such fethers as are reserved,

they pull the fethersfrom the quill, using onely the softest
of them for making of beds. The bed lying under is
greatand large, and that above is narrow and more soft,
betweenewhich they sleepeaswellin SummerasWinter.
This kind of lodging were not incommodiousin Winter,
if a man did lie alone: but sinceby the high way they

forcemento havebedfellowes,
onesidelies opento the
cold, by reasonthat the upper bed is narrow, so as it
cannot fall round about two, but leavesone side of them

both open to the wind and weather. But in Summer

time this kind of lodging is unpleasant,keeping a man
in a continual!sweatfrom headto foote. Yet in Country

Villages,and manypartsof Saxony,passengers

causeto complaineof this annoyance,since all without [III. ii. 85.]





exception,rich and poore, drunken and sober, take up

their lodging amongthe Cowesin straw,wheresometimesit happens,

that heewho lying downehada pillow
of straw under his head, when hee awaketh finds the same

either scatteredor eatenby the Cowes: yea; where they

have beds, I would advise the passengerto weare his
owne linnen breeches,for their sheetsare seldomeor never

cleane. They advise wel, who wish passengersto offer

the servantdrinking mony, that he may shew them the
best bed, yet when that is done, this best bed will prove
farreunfit to be enterednaked,thoughperhapsthe servant
will judge it very pure and cleanly. This by experience
I often found, oncewith extremelaughter observingthe
servants speciall curtesie to me, who taking my reward,

brought me to a bed with cleanesheetes

ashe calledthem,
wherein he swore deeply that no body had lien but his
owne mother, which was an old trot of 90 yeeresage.
Theseservantsin Innesexpectasit wereof duty drinking
moneyfrom all passengers,
and boldly demandit, as if it
were their right whether the passenger
will or no, which
they doerudely in the lower partsof Germany,by offering
them a pot to drinke at parting, and more civilly in the
upper parts, the maide servants offering a nosegayto
each severallguest. This is peculiar to the Germans,
none serve or attend more rudely, none more boldly

I have formerly advisedEnglish Travellers, first to
passeby Germany,that they may there learne patience
by serving themselves. For if you come to a shop to
buy shooes,the Master bids you to find out your selfe
those that will fit you, and then to put them on your

selfe,which done,he askesthe price,whereof he will not

bateone halfe penny,and when you havepaid his asking,
then the Prenticeschallengedrinking moneyas of duty,
andthe like manneris observedin all othershops,wherein
you buy any thing. In the meanetime, if in your Inne,
you bid the servantreach any thing to you, the same
man that when you take horse will in this sort exact








drinking money of you, will not reachthat you call for,

but mumbling that you have as many feeteand handsas
he, will goe away, as if he heard not, or regardednot
what you said. The Germansof PrussianeerePoland,
are much to be praisedfor Hospitality, who not onelie
entertainestrangersat a goodrate, and with muchcleanlinesse,and good fare and lodging, (wherein they give
cleanesheetes,and if the passengerstay long, change
them often, as once each weeke, which in so cold a clime

may seemelesserequisite),but also have in custome,(I

speakeof the Cities of Melvin and Dantzke), to give
their guestsweekely a bath to wash their feete, and as
often besidesas they returne from any journie, which






me, but once in Germany at Lubecke.



The Innes of

Germanyhang out no signesat their gates,but they are

vulgarlyknowne,and somay be easiliefound out, besides
that many of them may be knowne by the Armes of
Noblemenand Gentlemen: For they hold it a point of
reputation, to passeother Innes in the number of these
Armes, fixed on the front of their Inne, and upon the
walsof the commoneating roome,soas I havenumbered
three hundred

or foure


such Armes

in one Inne.

Howsoever Germany abounds with all necessariesfor The

life, yet the expence

by the wayis greater,by reasonof Dutcknunt

Dutchmens large drinking. In.. lower Germany,
where drinking.
they dnnke beere, a passengershall pay each meale com-

monly three or foure grosh, or about 4 lubeck shillings.

In upper Germany,where they drinke wine, he shall pay
"commonlysixe or sevenbatzen eachmeale, and if he have

a servant,he shall pay asmuchfor him as for himselfe.

I passedfrom Stoadeto Emden,in the disguisedhabit of
a servant,where I first by experiencefound, that he who
vilifies himselfe,doth not thereby saveone penny, since
poore fellowes sit at the sameTable with Gentlemen, and

pay to the uttermostfarthing asmuch as they, howsoever

they sit lower, and aswell at board as for bed, are more

courselyhandled. Yet I say not but such a man may







savethe pooreexpenceof drinking money,which the

servantsperhapswil not expectfrom men of basecondition.

All Dutch consorts drinke stiffely, and assoone

as ever the cloth is taken away after supper, exceptyou

presentlyrise beforethey set the pot of Schlaffdruncke

(or sleepingcup) on the Table,and if you doe but slip
one drop, you shall besidesyour ordinary, pay equall
sharewith thosethat drinke all night, till they be drunke
and soberagaine.
[III. ii. 86.] And to say truth, the Germansare in high excesse
subject to this vice of drinking, scarcenoted with any
other nationall vice, so that as their Doctors and Artisans,

affecting the knowledgeonely of one science,or manuall

art, doe become excellent therein, so this nation in

generall, and every part or member thereof, practising

night and day the faculty of drinking, becomestrong &
in invincible professorstherein. In Saxony,when the gates
Saxony. of the Cities are to be shut, while they that dwell in the
subburbs,passingout, doe reele from one side of the
streete to the other, as if it were too narrow for them

to walke in, while they stumble and fall in the durt, while

they by stradling with their leggesas if a Cart should

passebetweenethem,doefor the most part beareup them-

selvesfrom falling, yet jostle every post, pillar, and

by the way, while the gatesof the City seeme
not wide enoughfor them to passe,except the wals also
were pulled downe.
Spectatum admissirisum teneatis amici ?

Friendsadmittedto behold,from laughtercanyou

then withhold.

For howsoeverthe richer sort hide this intemperance

for the mostpart, by keepingat home,surelythe vulgar
yeeld this daily spectacle. Yet in truth it is no shame,

in Saxony,evento spewat the Tablein their
next fellowesbosome,or to pisseunder the Table,and
afterwards in their beds. And I know not how the

of drunkards
is sopleasing
to them,asa man






shallwith no otherquality makesomanyfriendsaswith

this, so as he that wil be welcome in their company, or

desiresto learnetheir language,must needspracticethis

excessein some measure. When they drinke, if any
man chanceto comein and sit in the roome, though he
be a stranger of another Nation, they doe not onely
conjurehim to pledge them by the bond of friendship,
of his Fathers Nobility, and his Mothers chastity, but

(if need be) compell him by force therunto, vulgarly

crying,Kanstunightsauffenund fressen,
hern wol dienen; If thou canst not swill and devoure,
thou canst serve no Master well.

In the meane time,

they like not to drinke great draughts, wherein our

Countrey-menput them downe, but they will spendan
Age in swoping and sipping. Their Coachmenare in
this kind so tender hearted to their Horses, that out of

a fellow feeling of thirst, they will suffer them to drinke

in standing water, scarcecovering their shooes,when they

sweatby the high way. The Germansrepute it such

honour to them to have abundanceof wine, as the very
Princes strive, as for a Princely perheminence,who shall Princes

have the hugest and most capablevesselsin his Cellar. far thekttSest
Some of these vessels containe



a thousand

eachof seventyCansor Pots, and are ascended
by twenty or thirty staires. Out of this vessellthey daily
drawwine, andbeinghalfeemptied,they fill it up againe:
but at the birth of a child, or any like feast,they turne
this Monster loose for all commers to tame it, and drinke

it out to the bottome. Passengers

in the Innes of lower
Germany,so make their reckoning at dinner, as they
reservea great proportion to drinke before they take
Coach. OnceI observedthat my selfeand sevenconsorts

afterdinnerupon a full gorge,had sixteenegreat pots

to drinke at parting, at which time one of our consorts
beinga Horseman,and not fit to ride, wastaken into our

Coach,and sitting by me, now laughing,then weeping,

andoftenknockinghis headagainstmine,at last defiled
me by casting his stomackein my bosome,with no





reprochto himselfeamonghis Countreymen,but unspeakeable

offenceto me. When they are sit downeto
drinke, if any mancomein by chance,eachone at the
Table salutes him with a Cup, all which garausseshe
must drinke as for a fine, before he can be admitted into

their number, for they are very jealous that any man
being sober, should behold their quaffing, so as a man

hadbetterfall amongthe thickestof hisenemies

then into the companyof his friends drinking. He that
readesthis, would thinke that they drunke sweetNectar
at the least, or somelike drinke inviting excesse; but
in lower Germany, sometimesand rarely they drinke
RhenishWine, commonlyBeere,and that so thicke and
ill smelling,andsometimesmedicinall,asa strangerwould
think it more fit to be eaten(or castinto the sinke),then
to be drunke, wherof a drop once falling on my hand,
seemed to me foule puddle water. Their Wines in
generallare sharpe,and thoseof the Rheine small,which
[III. ii. 87.] are to be had in their Cities, and when I first passedto

Leipzig, and being ignorant of the language,was forced

to commit my selfe to a Conducter, and after my covenant

with him for my diet, desiredhim to carry someglasse

bottels of wine in our Coach,yet he could not in the
way use it temperately,but either would allow us no
wine at all, or at one meale drunke off a whole great
bottell, as if he thought it a shameto taste it, and not
drinke all out at once.

Thus as often it fals out in Princes

Courts, that a strangermay die of thirst, but he that is

acquaintedin Court, shallhardly escapesober,so he gave
me either no wine, or too much. In upper Germanyfor
the most part they drinke wine, and that with some lesse

excesse,then is usedin the lower parts, yet so as in this

vice they degeneratenot from their Countreymen. The

of Prussiaformerlypraisedby me,mustpardon
me if I taske them with this vice as much as the rest.

When I passed
from Melvin to Dantzke,my companion
by the way shewedme a Tower called Groske, where

certaineHusbandmenbeing upon a wager to drinke







twelve measuresof wine, which we call lasts, and use tor

proportionsof Merchantswares,not for wine or beere,

did roast upon a spit one of their consorts,becausehe
left them before the taske was performed,and to save
their lives for this murther, paid their Prince as many
silver grosh as could lie betweenethat Tower & the City
of Dantzke. In generall, the Germanswant not many
exemplary punishments and effects of this vice:

For Punishments

manyquarrellingin drink are killed, and he that kils, a>"?

never escapesif he be taken.

I remember that a Gentle-

manof Brunswicke,riding from Hamburgeto his home,

when he was extremely drunken, was next day found
torne in many peeces,by the striking of his Horse when
he fell out of the saddle, which was a miserable and

exemplarykinde of death. And the like mischiefebefell

anotherwhile I wasat Torge in Misen. And a Physician
a familiar friend of mine, tolde mee that many Germans
dying suddenlyupon excesse
of drinking, wereordinarily
(for hiding of the shame)given out to die of the falling
sickenesse.In their drinking they use no mirth, and
little discourse, but sadly ply the buisinesse, sometimes

crying one to the other, Seytefrolich, Be merry, Drinke

aus,Drinke out, andas (accordingto the Proverbe)every
Psalme ends in Gloria, so every speechof theirs, ends

in Ich brings euch, I drinke to you. For frolicks they

pinch,and that very rudely their next Neighbours arme
or thigh, which goes round about the Table. So for
equalitythey drinke round, especiallyin Saxony,except
in curtesie they sometimesdrinke out of course to a
Guest; and this equall manner of drinking, they say
had his first originall from a pleasantor rather wicked
Act, of an undutifull Sonne,who receivinga boxe of the

earefrom his Father,and daringnot strike him againe,

did notwithstandingstrike his next Neighbour as hard
a blow as hee received,desiring him to passeit round
about the Table as a frolicke, in these wordes: Lasset

umb gehen,so kriagt der vatter auch was; Let it goe

round, so my Father shall have it in his course, and so





moremodestlyor lessewickedlyheerevengedhimselfe.
While all drinke in this manner circularly out of one

andthe samepot, they scoffeat him that drinkesthe last

remainder,sayingproverbiallythat heeshallmarryan old

Dnnkmg trot At Nurneberg,

and someotherInnesof higher
Germany,eachguesthath his peculiardrinking glasseset
by his trencher,which when he hath drunke out, if he
set it downewith the mouth upward, it is presentlyfilled
againe, (in which filling the servants use a singular
dexterity, standing in great distancefrom it), but if hee
turne the mouth downeward,they expect till in signe
of thirst it bee turned upward; for they are such
Masters in this Art of drinking as they are servedby
dumbesigneswithout speakinga word. In Saxonytwo
use to begin a pot to two, and when each receivesthe
pot, or gives it to his fellow, they curiously looke upon
certainepegsor markesset within of purpose,that they
may devide the drinke by the equall ballanceof Justice.
Sometimesthey take threeglassesat onceupon 3 fingers,
and beginning to another, drinke them all of at once,
which kind of karaussingthey call the crowning of the
Emperor. If you begin to any man, you must fill the
cup for him with your owne hands,or at least deliver
it to him your self, or otherwisefor a penalty you must
drinke it againe,andsomedoewillingly maketheseerrors,
that they may seem to be compelled to this pleasing
[III. ii. 88.] penalty. When they are extraordinarilymerry, they use
a kind of garaussing,calledkurlemurlebuff,wherein they
use certainetouchesof the glasse,the beard, someparts

of the body, and of the Table, togetherwith certaine

whistlings,and phillippings of the fingers,with like rules,
socuriouslydisposedin order, asit is a labourof Hercules

to observethem. Yet he that erresin the leastpoint of

ceremony,must drinke the cup of againe for penalty.

They hold it a point of reputation,if themselves

senseand memory, can send their guestshome voide of
senseor reason,or full (asthey moregently call drunken-

nesse);and the better to performethis, they will now







and then goe out of the warme stove to ease their

stomacksby casting,which use makeseasieand familiar
to them. They seldome or never drinke with their hats

on, tor sitting in a warme stove bare-headed,they find

their headsmore speedilyeasedof the vapoursthat arise
from drinking. Many of the Germansgoing to sleepe,
doeby the advice of the Physitian, put little stonesinto Physitians

theirmouthes,to keepethemopen: for asa boylingpot advice.

better seethesthe meat if the fier be covered, so the fier

be moderate: but if it be extraordinariliegreat and hot,

the potlid must be taken off, lest it boyle over; so it is
good to helpe a mansconcoction,if he sleepewith his
mouth shut, so his diet be sparingor moderate: but in
such excesseas the Germans use, not onely the mouth,

but (if it might be) the very brest is to beeopened,that

the heateof the inward partsmay havevent. The Germanssparingly and rarely give any gifts to those with
whom they drinke : but if they doe, then (contrary to
the customeof the Turkes and Polonians)they willingly
makethem good when they are sober. And for the most
part Merchants,and all traffiquersof businesse,makeall
their contractsof buying and selling and otherwisewith
the counsell of the pot.

Likewise when they sell houses

or lands, they bring a tun of beere or vessellof wine

into the streete,and sealethe bargaineby drinking with
their neighbours,in like sort concluding all their contracts,which agreedupon when they are halfe drunken,
yet are confirmed by them when they are sober.

At Prage I remember the Germans did scoffe at a

PolakeGentleman, to whom a Dutch Abbot giving a
gold ring in his cups, the Polake in requitall gave him
his horse of price, and though he did earnestlyrefuse
sogreata guift, by instanceforced him to acceptit, yet
in the morning being sober sent for his Horse againe.
To conclude,hardly any man will give his daughter in
marriageto a man whom he hath not scenedrunken, by
whichin a moment they are confidentto conjecturewhat
life sheeshall leadewith him, since in drinke men lively





bewray their dispositions,which they can cloake and

dissemble when they are sober. And they find by
experience,that in drinke cholerike men are prone to

quarrels,sanguinemen to dancingand imbracing,men

with melancholyto tearesand complaints,and
they who areflegmatiketo dull astonishmentand spewing.
of The trade of brewing is more commodiousamong the

brewing. Germans,
thenanyothertrafficke. Soasat Torg,(where
the best beere is brewed

and from

thence distracted


other Cities)onelythe Senatehath the priviledgeto sell

the sameby small measures(as also to sell wine), and
in the rest of lower Germany,as onely the Senatebuies

and selles wine, so the chiefe Citizens by turnes brew

beare,admitting troopesof poorepeopleinto their houses

to drinke it out. As the gaine of brewing is great, so
Princesraisegreat impositionsfrom it, and the most rich
Citizens or Aldermen (as I said) not onely disdainenot
to brew, but even greedily expect their turne, at which
time they also sell it by Cannes,and have their lower
roomes full of drinking tablesfor the commonpeople,
where every man payesfor his drinke before his canne
be filled, that at leasttheir pursemay teachthem measure,
which otherwise they cannot observe. Yea, my selfe,
not without

wonder, have seene in a Senators house,

poore soulespawnetheir cloths for drinke, and goe home

halfe naked, yet sufficiently armed with drinke against
the greatestcold.
The beereof Torge is most esteemed
in higher Saxouy,
and the most part at Leipzig drinke no other, yet for



a small

beere called beere of


covent, and a kind of most small beere,which the students

call Rastrum,that is rake. There is an ImperiallLaw

in the golden Bull againstHosts, Mariners, and Carters,

whoeitherin Cellers,or Carriageby the high-way,mingle

[III. ii. 89.] brimstoneor water with wine, whereinnotwithstanding
theydaily offend,putting in brimstoneto makeit heady
strong, and water to fill up the measure. There be in

the samegoldenBull manyLawesmadeagainstdrunken40






nesse,at suchtime as the Germanshaving warre with the Lawsmade

to looke into
reforming aS.atnst
' .beganne

1 .. /drunkenness.
or notorious

vices ; wherein

it is decreed, that Courtiers

given to this vice, should be expelledthe Courts of

Princes, and that all Magistrates should search out
drunkards,and severelypunish them: But give me one
Prince free of this vice, who may thus punish his
Courtiers. My selfe being at a great Dukes funerall,
did see a Prince his neere cozen, drinke so stiffely to

expellsorrow,asall his sencesand almost his spirits were

suffocatedtherewith, and of many Princesthere present,
(pardonme to speaketruth) I did not seeone sober at
this funerall Feast, what would these Princes have done

at a Marriage? Princes have a custometo drinke by Princes

Attourney, when they are sickely or ill disposed,and h
manytimes they reward this substitute strongly bearing
muchdrinke, asfor a good serviceto the Common-wealth,
yet exceptthey be very sicke, few are found which will
not in personperforme their owne taske. Give me one
Magistrate of so many thousands,who with his owne
innocencyis armedwith boldnesseto punishothers. Give
meeone, (I am ashamedto say it, but truth is truth); I
saygive me one Minister of GodsWord, who preacheth
of drinking. My selfe have heard some
hundrethsof their Sermons,yet never heardany invective
against this vice.

Turpe est Doctori, cum culpa redurguit ipsum,

The teacher needs must be ashamed,

for the same offence

is blamed.

Onely the Weomen of Germany are most temperateTheWeomen

in eatinganddrinking,andof all I did eversee,mostfGermany

modestin all kinds of vertue:

yet the Weomen of

useasgreat(or little lesse)excesse
in drinking,

as Men, not without a staine to their reputation of

chastity. The Weomen of Germanyhave a custometo

helpetheir Husbandsor Friends,by sippingof the cup;

but I did neverseeany chastwoman,(asmostof them







are)drinke largely,muchlesseto be drunken: But for


of all sorts whatsoever.

Si quoties peccant,toties sua fulmina mittat

Princeps,exiguo temporeinermis erit:
If the Prince smite, as oft as they offend,

Sword and Arme


faile him ere the end.

Thus howsoever the Germans be honest, deceiving

neither strangernor Countreyman,and have abundance

of all things to sustainelife, yet strangers,by reasonof
the generallintemperance
of the Nation, areeither allured
to participatethis vice of drinking with them, or at least
by ill customeare drawne to partake their punishment
in paying of the shot, and through their churlishrusticity
are ill entertained,and yet forcedto reward the servants,
whoseattendancedeservesnothing lesse.

It remaines that I should enforme passengershow to

travelers.apply themselves
to the Germansin this drinking
custome, so as at least with lesse hurt or offence, they
may passethrough their territories. For those who passe

suddenlythrough the samewithout long abodein any

place,nothing is more easiethen to shunneall participation of this vice, by consorting themselveswith fit
companionsin their journey, so as they being the greater
part as well in the Coach,as at the Table, may rather
draw the lesserpart to sobriety,then be inducedby them
to excesse. But they who desire to converse with the

Germans,and to learne their language,cannot possibly

keepe within the bounds of temperance,and must use
art to shunnegreat or daily excesse. Such a passenger
sitting downeat Table, must not presentlydrinke of all
the Cups begunneto him from others: for the Germans
aresoexceedingcharitableto all Men, asthey will furnish
him presentlywith new Cuppeson all hands for feare
[III. ii. 90.] that hee should suffer thirst.

He shall doe better to set

the cups in order before his trencher,and first to drinke

of, thoseof lesserquantity,but ever to keepeone or

two of the greatest,to returnein exchange
to him that






drinkesto him. For this kind of revenge(asI may terme

it) the Germans feare, more then the Irish doe great
gunnes,and to avoide the same,will forbeareto provoke
him with garausses. For they love not healthsin great
measures(which they call In floribus), but had much
rather sip then swallow. In this kinde I remember a

pleasantFrench Gentleman much distasted them, who

invited to a feast, and admonished that hee could not

possiblyreturne sober, did at the very beginning of

supper,drinke great garausses,

of himselfecalling for
them, besides the small healths commended to him from

others,which unwonted kind of skirmishing when they

disliked, he presently replied: Why should we leese
time ? since we must be drunken let us doe it quickly,
the sooner, the better; and therewith hee so tyred those
at the table, as hee found no man would in that kind

contendwith him. But to the purpose. If the cuppes

set about his trencher increase in number, he may easily

finde occasion(as when his consortsgoe out to make

water) either to conveysomeof them to their trenchers,
or to give them to the servantto set away: After supper
he may nod and sleepe,as if he were drunken, for,
Stultitiam simulareloco prudentia summa.
Sometimesthe foole to play,
Is wisdomegreat they say.
And so hee shall bee led to a bed, which they have in Thesloth
all their stoves,and call the Faulbett, that is, the slothfull bed.

bed. Otherwisehee may faine head-ach,or feareof an

ague; or if theseexcusesprevaile not, as seldomethey
doewhile hee staiesin the roome, becausethey cannot
indure to have a soberman behold them drinking, then
as if heewent out to make water, or speakewith some
friend, hee shall doe best to stealeaway,and howsoever
hee have confidently promised to returne, yet to come
no more that night, no not to fetch his cloake or hat,
which arealwaieslaid up safelyfor him, especiallyif hee
foreseethe skirmish like to bee hot. But above all, let






take heede of the old fashion

to take leave of his

companionsand bid them good night, for the Germans

upon no intreaty or excuse will suffer any man to goe

to bed so sober. If there bee musicke and dancing,

their dancesbeing of no Art and small toyle, hee had
much better dauncewith the women till midnight, then

returneto the tableamongthe drinkers,for oneof these

foure he must doe, drinke, sleepe,daunce,or stealeaway,
no fifth courseremaines. Lastly, let him warily chuse
his companionsof that Nation, with good triall of their
honest dispositions. But with strangers, as English,
French and Polakes,let him carefully eschewexcesseof
drinking. For these, and especiallythe English, when
they are heatedwith drinke, are observedto bee mad in
taking exceptions,and in the ill effects of fury, being
more prone to quarrelsthen the Dutch, and having no
meanein imitating forraigne vices or vertues, but with
Brutus, that they will, they will too much.
For Bohemia and Switzerland, that seatedin the center
and Switzerland.

of Germany,this on the Northwest side of the Alpes, I

have contained their Geographicalldescription in that
of Germany, and have spoken something of them in
this discourseof Germany. It remainesto adde something of them, touching the particular subjectsof this
Chapter. The Bohemiansdrinke the Wines of Hungarie,
being much better then those of Germany, and have
much better Beere,in regard they have great plenty of
Corne, and the Sweitzers drinke the delicate Wines of


Italy. Neither of their traffickesis comparableto that

generall. of Germany,
Bohemiais farrewithin landand
hath no greatcommoditiesto beeexported,and Sweitzerland is addicted to the mercinarieservice of forraigne
Princes in their warres, changing their cattell for the

Winesof Italy, andcontentwith their owne,sotheywant

not plenty of good drinke.

Some Cantones of the Sweitzers make great o;aineof

of clothsome
of privatemenmight






prejudicethe commongood, they appointoverseersto [HI.ii. 91.]

this trade, who punish all fraudes severely and some
capitally. For foode, they abound with Hony, Butter,
and Milke, and haveplenty of Vensonfound in the wilde
Alpes, and especiallyof excellentsorts of fish, by reason
of their frequent Lakes. In publike Innes a meale is

given for sixe or sevenbatzen. They are hospitall

towards strangers, and among themselves,they have
publike houses where they meete, and shoote with
Crosebow and musket, with like exercises. There they

sometimeseatetogether,andinvite gueststo thesehouses

as to a Taverne. And to the end all things may there
be donewith more modesty,the tablesof the Magistrates
and all other sorts of men, are in one and the sameroome.

In meatesthey use moderation,and for drinking use

farre lesse excessethen the Saxons, somewhat lesse then

they of upper Germany. They have strict lawes to

imprison Drunkards for a yeere,and at solemnefeasts,
the vulgar sort are admonishedto behave themselves
modestly,yet drunkennessehath such patronageamong
the best sort, as it cannot be banished. They bragge

of their ancient temperance,and say, that excessecame

into the Commonwealth,togetherwith the acceptingof
military stipendsfrom forraigne Princes.
Bohemiaaboundswith Corne, Cattle, Fish (as plenty Bohemerlan

of Salmons),
but heavylike thoseParticularb
of Freesland,and with Niter, which it is death to carry
out, yet for gaineof fifty in the hundred, therewant not
who hazardthat danger. I say it hath the commodities,
andalsoproducethWines,but very sharpeandunpleasant,
and hath

some mines






muchmore Southerlythen England, yet the Italian fruits

(as figges) are there most rare, which in Winter they
keepe in cellers, and onely in Summer time set them

abroadin Gardens,and in like sort, but with great

difficulty they preserve Rosemary, but they have no
Lawrell at all. The men drinke (if it be possible)more

andaremuchmoresubjectto gluttony,





and their women swill Wine and Beeredaily, and in

whichto the Germansis most reprochfull.
In the Innestheygive largedyet for somefive Bohemish
grosha meale,anduponthe confinesof Germanytowards
Nurnberg,for sometwenty creitzersa meale. But the
Bohemianseateoften in the day, andsit almostcontinually
at the Table, and since at Prage, and in many other

all thingsaresoldout of the Innes,afterthe maner
of Poland, the Bohemians seldome eat at an ordinary,

but demandwhat meatethey will upon a reckoning. For

the rest, Boemerland and Sweitzerland little differ from

Germany,for the diet, the Hosts, the Innes, excesse

drinking, or any like things.

Chap. IIII.

the united


in Netherland,

and of

Denmarke and Poland, touching the said subjects of the precedent third Chapter.
Of the United


~ He longitude of Netherland lyes, or

extendssevendegreesand a halfe, from
the Meridian of twenty two degrees
and a halfe, to that of thirty degrees,
and the Latitude lyes or extends five

degrees,from the paralell of forty eight

degreesand a halfe,to that of fifty three
degreesand a halfe. It is calledNetherland,asa Country
lying low, and the peoplefor languageand mannershath
greatamnitie with the Germans,both being calledDutchmen by a common name. Of old this Country was a
part of Gallia transalpina (that is, beyond the Alpes
from Italy) which was subdevided into Comata and
Narbonensis,and againeComata(so calledof the peoples

long haire)wassubdevided
into Aquitanica& Celtica,or
andBelgica. This partcalledBelgica,containes the Lowcountries,whose dominion hath been by

[III. ii. 92.] marriagederivedfrom the Burgundianfamily to that of

Austria, and some divide this Countrie into seventeene






whereofsomestill remainesubjectto the King
of Spaine,others(of whichI am to speake)beingunited
in league,have recoveredtheir libertie by the sword,

and at this time did makewarre with the Spaniardabout

the same. But some Maps, among these seventeene
Provincesreckon the County of Valkenburg, which is

part of the Dukedomeof Limburg, other Maps make

Mechlin and Antwerp to bee Provinces,which are both

contained in the Dukedome

of Brabant.


better approvethose,who divide the whole Country into

fifteeneProvinces, namely, the Counties of Artois, of
Flanders,of Hanaw, of Zeland, of Holland, of Zutphan,
and of Namurs, and the Dukedomesof Luxenburg, of
Brabant,of Limburg, and of Gelderland,and the territories,of West-Freesland,of Groning, of Utrecht, & of

i The Countyof Artois hath manyfaire Cities,whereof

Arrasis the chiefe,giving the nameto the Province, and
to thoserich hangings,wherwith our great men adorne


2 Flanders is the largest County, the chiefe Cities ofFlanden

whereof are Chant (where the Emperour Charles the particularly.
fifth was borne), and Bruges (whether great concourse
of Merchantswasmadeof old, so asthe strangershearing
no other name but Flanders, did by custome impose the
name of Flanders on all the fifteene Provinces, and the

name of Flemmings on all the inhabitants.) Flanders

hath other Cities, namely,Calleis,Dunkerk, Ostend,and
Sleuse,all lying on the Seacoast; whereof Sleuseis a

MunicipallVillage of Bruges,but at this time was it

selfe strongly fortified, and Ostend taken from the
by the Statesof the united Provinces,was at

this time committedby them, and under their pay, to

the custodyof an English Garrisonunder Sir Edward
NorreysKnight. This Provinceyeeldsplentyof Corne
and Flax, and is very rich with making Linnen and
Woollen Cloathes. It hath excellentpastures,and is

Butter,Oylemadeof Rape-rootes,





Salt,and the fishingof Herrings,but it yeeldsno Wine.

The famous Wood Ardvenna lies in the confines thereof

towards land, where it aboundeth with Wood, but towards

the Seathey burneTurfe, madeof earth,and alsoburne

Cow dung.

3 The County of Hanaw hath the Principality of

Arscot, united to the Dukedome of Brabant, by which
the Dukes

sonne hath

the title

of Prince.



Cities of this County are Mons and Valinciennes. It

hathminesyeeldingLeadeand Marbleof manycolours,

and a good kind of Coales.
OftheCounty 4 The County of Zeland is by situation, the first of
ofZeland. the United Provinces,consistingof manyHands,whereof
sevenareprincipall,andthe chiefeis Walcherne,the chiefe
Citie whereof is Midleburg, famousfor trafficke,andthe
Staplefor Spanishand FrenchWines. Neere that is the
City Vlishing, strongly fortified, being the chiefe of the
Forts then ingagedto the Crowneof England, and kept
by an English Garrison,under the commandof Sir Robert
SidneyKnight (for the secondFort ingaged to England,

lyesin anotherHand,andis calledBrill, beingthenkept

by an English Garrison,under the commandof the Lord
Burrows.) All theseHandsarefertile, and yeeldexcellent
Corne, more plentifully then any other Province, so as
one aker thereof is said to yeeld double to an aker of

Brabant. But they haveno sweetewater,nor goodaire,

and for want of wood burne turffe. They take plenty
of sea-fishes,which they Salt, and carry into other

Countries. Madder for dying of wooll, growesthere

plentifully, which likewisethey export, and grow rich
by selling thesecommodities,as likewise Spanishand
French Salt, and like trafficke.
5 The County of Holland called of old Battavia, and

inhabitedby the Chatti (asTacitus writes), is in situation

the second of the united Provinces, but the first in

dignity. The Citieswhereofare Amstelrodam(famous

for trafficke),Rhoterodam(whereErasmuswas borne),

Leyden(an University),Harlem,Dort (the staplefor








the Rhenish Wines), and Delph, all very faire Cities.

And I may not omit the most pleasantVillage of the
Hage, calledGravenhage,becausethe Counts Court was
there,andit is now the seateof the united States,wanting [III. ii. 93.]
onelywals to makeit numbredamong the most pleasant
Cities,being no doubt a Village yeelding to nonefor the
pleasantseat. This Province doth so abound with lakes,

poolesof water, and artificiall ditches,as it gives passage

by water as well as by land to every City and poorest
Village,(which areinfinite in number). And theseditches
it owethfor the most part to the River Rheine.
For the Rheine of old running towards Leyden, did
fall a little below it into the Sea,but at this day by reason
the Land is low and subject to overflowings, it hath
changedthe bed, and at Lobecum in the Dukedomeof TheJim
Cleve, devides it selfe into many branches. The first

runnesto Arnheim,(a City of Gelderland)

thento Vava,
Rena, and Battovodurum, where Leccareceiveshis waters,

and takesaway the name from the Rheine, yet so as a

little branch thereof still holds the name of Rheine, which

running to Mastricht, theredevidesinto two, onewhereof

fals into Vecta, and so into an arme of the Sea neere

Munda, the other runnesby Woerden, and after a long

course,neere Leyden is devided into five little branches,
whereof three fall into a lake, and the fourth turnes to

Renoburg,and leeseth it selfe in mountainesof sand,

neerethe Village Catwicke. I rememberthat the water
falling through Leyden is called Rheine, so as I thinke
it probablethat all the standing waters lying betweene
the severallpasturesthere, come from the Rheine after










Battovodurum is called Lecca, which runnes to Culen-

burg and to Viana, where in a ditch is the fountaine

of Isala, which runnes to Iselsteine. Thus (to omit the
little branch at Battovodurum) the first branch of the Thesecond
Rheine is lost in the Rivers Lecca and Isala. The branch.

secondbranchbendsfrom Lobecum to Neomagum,and

fals into the Brooke Merovius (taking the name of the







old Family of Kings among the Gals, where is an old

with the Brooke,andof the samename),

then runningto Dort in Holland, it receivesthe foresaid

Lecca and Isala, and so neere Rhoterodame fals into the
Thethird Mosa, and under that name fals neere Brill into the

Sea. Thethirdbranchof theRheinerunning
from Lobecum, within two miles of Arnkeime, fals into

the ditch of Drusus, (or rather of Germanicus)and so

runnes to Dewsborows(the City of Drusus) where it
receivesthe old Isala, (springing in Westphalia),and by

the nameof Isala or Isell, running to Zutphane,and

then to Deventry, fals into Taius at Amstelrodame, and

by an armeof the Seais carried to West-Freesland,and

so fals into the German Sea neere the Hand Flye.

5 To returne to my purpose, Holland is little in

circuite, but abounds with people and dwellings, and
being poore of it selfe, is most rich by Industrie, and
wanting both Wine and Corne, yet furnisheth many
Nations with both. Neither Wooll nor Flax grow there,
but of both brought in to them, they makelinnen clothes
much prised and also WToollen,both carried to the very

Indies. I neednot speakeof Holland Cheeses

knowne and much esteemed. Lastly, Holland is famous
for the traffique of all commodities,and the Romansso
highly esteemedthe Fortitude and faithfulnesof the old
Battani,as they had a Band of them for their Guard.
6 The County of Zutphane is accomptedpart of
Gelderland,and subduedby the StatesArmie, wasjoyned
to the united Provincesin the yeere 1591.
7 The County of Namures so called of the Cheese
Citie, hath Mines of Iron and plenty of stony Coale,
contrarieto all other Coalesin that it is quenchedby the

infusionof Oyle. It hath alsoan ill smell,whichthey

take awayby the sprinckling of Salt, and it burnesmore

cleerehavingwatercastuponit. This Countyhathalso

quarriesof Free-stone,and of Marble of divers colours.
8 The Dukedome cf Luxenburg hath the name of

the chiefeCitie, and the inhabitantsof the upperpart







are Germanes,but they of the lower parts, are like the

Frenchin languageand Manners.
9 The Dukedom of Brabant hath faire Cities, namely
Antwerp, most famous before the civil War, because
Maximilian, of Austria, brought thither from Bruges in
Flanders,the famoustraffique of all Nations, by a ditch
drawneto Sluce(onely to bee sailedupon at the flowing
of the Seatides). At this day forsakenof Merchants,
it lies overgrowne with grasse,and the said tramcke








City is Brissell, of old the seateof the Dukes, and now

of the Spanish Governours. Then Lovan a famous
University. Then Mechlin subjectto the united States.[III. ii. 94.]

a fortifiedCity, at this time com-

mitted to the custody of Sir Thomas Morgan Knight,

with an English Garrison. The Inhabitantsof this Dukedomewere of old calledTungri.
10 The Dukedome of Limburg hath Mastricht for
the chiefe City, & the Bishoprick of Liege pertainesto
it, wherein the City of Liege is the Bishopsseate,and
the territory thereof yeelds a little quantity of a small
wine, and hath Mines yeelding a little Iron, someleade,
and brimstone,and a very little quantity of good gold.
The Mountaines yeeld a black Alablaster, with marble
andotherstones,especiallystony coalesin greatquantity,
whichbeing there found at first, are now calledgenerally
Liege Coales.
11 The Dukedome of Gelderland, was of old inhabited

by the Menapii and Sicambri, and aboundeth with

excellentpasturesand meadowes,so as great Heards of
Cattle brought thither out of Denmarke to be sold,

are for great part fatted there. The chiefe City is

Nimmengen,the secondHarduike, a fortified City subject
to the united States,and the third Arnheim, also subject
to them.

12 The Territory of West-Freeslandis divided, as

Holland, with artificiall ditches, and aboundeth with

excellentpasturesfor fatting of the greatestheardsof






Cattle, and yeeldethit selfe all kinds of cattle of extra-

ordinary bignesse,as Horses of Freeslandvulgarly

knowne. It hath many Cities, whereof the chiefe are
Lewerden, Dockam, Fronikar (an University) and
Harlingen, not to speakeof nine other Townes,fortified
with wals and ditches. This Territory is subject or

to the united


13 The Territory of Groningen, made part of Freesland by Cosmographers,

is also subject to the States,and
hath the name of the chiefe City, strongly fortified and
seatedin a fenny soyle.
14 The Territory of Utrecht is also associatedunder
the sameunited States,whose chiefe and very pleasant
City is called Utrecht.

15 The Territory of Transisole, vulgarly called De

land over Yssell (the Land beyondYssell) is alsoassociated to the united States, whereof the chiefe City is

Deventry, which besiegedby the StatesArmy in the yeere

1591, was then subdued, and it lies neerer to the Sea.
It hath another City called Swoll.

Thesituation. The united Provincesof Netherland, (through which

onely I did passe) have a most intemperate Aire, the

Winter cold,being excessive,

and the Summersheatfarre
exceedingthe ordinary heateof that clime. The reason
of the cold is, that the Northerne winds of themselves

ordinarily cold, doe here in a long courseon all sides

glide upon the German Sea, thereby gathering farre
greater cold, and so rush into those plaine Provinces,
no where stopped either by mountaines or woods, there

being no Mountaines, scarceany hils, no woods, scarce

any groves, to hinder them from violent passagewith

their uttermostforce. Like reasonmaybe given for the

heate: For the sameopen Plaine, no way shaddowed

from the beames

of the Sunneby oppositionof Woods
or Mountaines,must needsin Summerbe subjectto the
heate of the Sunne and winds from land.

Adde that

in Winter the frequent Rivers, Lakes, and Poolesor

standing waters, infinitely increase the coldnesseof the







aire. Thesewatersaswellrunningasstanding,arealmost
all Winter frosen over with a thicke ice, so as they will

bearesomehundrethsof young men and women, sliding

uponthemwith pattins,accordingto their custome. Yea,
the Arme of the SeacalledZwidersea,lying within land,
betweeneHolland and Freseland,though it be large and
deepe,having only two flats or shoales,yet being compassedwith Handsand the Continent, is many times in
Winter so frosen over, as Victualers erect Tents in the

middest of it, having Beereand Wine, and fier made

upon iron furnaces,to refreshsuchas passeupon sledges,
or sliding upon iron pattensfrom one shoareto the other.
This cold is the cause,why their sheepeand cattell are
kept in stables,to bring forth their young. And howsoeverthe samebe done in Italy, subject to great heate,
yet it is not of necessitie,as here, but out of the too
great tendernesse
of the Italians, towards the few cattle
they have. And this is the cause, that howsoever they
usenot hot stoaves,as the Germansdoe, yet the Weomen,
as well at home, as in the Churches, to drive away cold,
put under them little pannes of fier, covered with boxes

of wood, beared full of holes in the top. And this [HI. "" 95.]
sordidremedythey carry with them, by the high way in
waggons,which the Danes or Moscovites use not, though

with greater cold: onely someof the more
nobleWeomen, disliking this remedy, chooserather to
wearebreeches,to defend them from the cold.

In this distemperof Aire, it cannot be expectedthat ThefertUi::

there should be plenty of flowers and summer fruites. oftheunited

No doubt,in regardof thefatnesse

of thesoile,wateredPravinceswith frequent ditches,and through the foresaidheat of
the Summer,they might haveplenty of flowersandfruits,
wereit not impossibleor very difficult to preservethem

from perishingby the winters cold, and were not the

Inhabitantscarelesseof such dainties, though in later
times,asthey haveadmittedforraignemanners,so luxury

hath morepower with them, then formerly it had. I

haveoft seeneone Apple sold for a blancke,and those






greatCherrieswhicharebroughtinto England,grow
not here, but in Flaunders, and the Territories within

Land. They have abundanceof Butter, Cheese,and

Rootes,and howsoeverthey have not of their owne full

sufficiencyof other things to maintainelife, yet they

aboundwith the samebrought from other parts. Some

provinces,(asthe Bishoprickof Utrecht) yeeldcorneto

be transported,but in generallthe united Provinces(of
which only I discoursein this place) have not sufficient
corne for their owne use,yet by traffick at Dantzke, they
furnish themselves
& manyothernationstherewith. They
F"h- have little plenty of River fish, exceptingonely Eales,
but in the Mosa, as it fals from Dort to the sea, they

have plenty of Salmons,and other fish, which fishing did

of old yeeld great profit to the Prince and Merchants.
And for Sea fishes salted and dried, they make great
trafficke therewith. My selfe lying for a passagein the
Hand Fly, did seegreat quantity of shell-fish sold at a
Oxen, very low rate. Great heards of Oxen and Calves, are

yeerely brought into theseparts out of the Dukedome

of Hoist, united to the Kingdome of Denmarke, (in
which parts they feed most on dry and salt meates),and
theseHeardsare fatted in the rich pasturesof Gelderland
and Freesland. There is great abundanceof SeaFowles,
(especiallyin West-Freesland)and they want not land
Fowles. They carefully nourish Storkes, as presaging
happinesseto an Aristocraticall governement, making
them nestson the tops of publike houses,and punishing
any that drive them away, or trouble them. In which
kind also they preserve Hernes making nests in those
groves,which are onely in few Cities. They have a race

of heavyHorses,andstrong,whichthey sellin forraigne

parts, using onely their Mares to draw Waggons, and
for like uses at home.

The Provinces on the Sea Coast

(asI formerlysaid)burnetheirowneearth,by thefrequent

digging whereof,they say the Seaor lake at Harlem was
first made. And of these turffes they make fiers, both
cleere and of good smell, without smoke, and com54






modious to dresse meat, to starch linnen, and like


They are notableMarriners, yet in that to be blamed, Thetraficke.

that being at Sea,they use no publike prayers,that ever

I heard: And severallCities have great numbersof

ships,wherein they tradewith suchIndustry and subtilty,
as they are in that point envied of all Nations.
The very Italians, who in foreseeingwisdome,would
beeaccountedPromethei,wereby them madeEpimethei,
wise after the deed, too late repenting, that when they
came first to settle their trade in Flaunders, they tooke

young youths of that Nation to bee their Cassiers,who

by writing letters for them, learned the secretsof that
trade,and after, to the Italians great prejudice,exercised
it themselves. Some three Flemmings, brethren or

partners,use to settle themselves

in as many Cities of
great trade, where they keepe such correspondency,
by buying all things at the well head, where they are
and transportingthem farre off, where they are
dearest,and especiallyby living sparingly,both in dyet
and apparrell,and not shamingto retaile any commodity
in small parts (which great Merchants disdaine to sell,
otherwise then by whole sale), they have attained the

highestknowledgeand richesof trading. Thus they buy

rawe silke of the Turkes, and weave the same into divers

stuffes in Italy, which they sell not there, but transport

them into England, and the Northerneparts, where they
bearehighestprice,and thereretaile them by the smallest
proportions. They haveof their owne,very fine Linnen, [III. ii. 96.]
andWoollen cloathes,of divers kindes,and many clothes

of Cotton,Arras hangings,plenty of Hops (aswellon

the Sea-coast
of Brabant,asin the East part of Holland)
and great store of Butter, Cheese,and Fish saltedand

dryed,all whichthey transport. Againethey bring from

Dantzkestoreof Hemp, whereofthemselvesmakeRopes
and Cables,neither transport they any rude matter, but
by working it at home, inrich many populous Cities.

Also from Dantzkethey bring corne,all kindesof pitch,






of that place,andfrom Italy many
kindes of silke stuffes. Also by the diligent fishing,

of Herrings,on the Sea-coast
of England,they
grow rich, sellingthe sameto all Nations,andto thevery
English,whoarenot soindustriousin thattrade. Lastly,
they draw the commodities
of all Nationsto them,and
fetch them from the very Indies, and in like sort they
transport them to the remotest parts, where they yeeld
most gaine.
j the,~


\[ Js not amisse to adde the veryj words of Marchantius,

writing of the olde trade of Brugesin Flanders,since

what I have written, is onely to bee understoodof the
united Provinces.

Thus he saith.


Crassus in

the yeere 1323. granted a staple to Bruges, which his

sonne Malanus confirmed. The Staple is a priviledge
of staying forraine Commoditiesin the place,exceptthe
seller and bringer chuserather to returne whencethey
came. Bruges hath a Market place, with a house for
the meeting of Merchantsat noone and evening, which
house was called the Burse, of the housesof the extinct

Family Bursa, bearing three purses for their Armes,

engravenupon their houses. The Marchantsof England,
Scotland, France, Castilia, Portugal, Aragon, Navar,
Catalania,Biscaia,the Hans Cities of Germanic; (namely
Lubeck, Hamberg, Rostoch,Dantzke, Riga, Revel, and
divers other Cities,) the Marchants of Venice, Florence,

Genoa,Luca, and Milan (namely fifteeneNations,) had

eachtheir Colledgeor househere. The Italians brought
Chamblets and Grograms, made of Goates hayre, in

Galatiaa provinceof theLesserAsia,theybroughtHides,

thred of Silke, of Silver, and of Gold, and cloathes made

of them, they brought Jewels,Wines of Candia,Allum,

Brimstone,Oyle, Spices,ApothecaryWares, Mithridate,
Rhebarb, Mummy, Sena, Cassia,and the soile of Brasse.

The Frenchbrought Salt,Red and white Wines,Oyle,

and Paper. The English brought Wooll, Leade,Tynne,
Beere,Woollen cloathes,especiallythose to make vailes

for theLow countreywomen. TheScotsbroughtskinnes








of sheepe
The Spaniards
and Portugals,broughtgrainefor Scarlet
Dye, Gold, Silver, raw Silke, thred of Silke, the wood
Guiacum, Salsaparilla,Unicornes Home, and Spices.
The Germans, with the Danes and Polakes, brought
Honey, Waxe, Corne, Salt-Peter, Wooll, Glasse,rich
Furs, Quick-silver, Armes, Rhenish Wines, Timber tor

building. Againe,they exportedout of Flanders,faire

and great Horses, fat Beeves,Butter, divers kindes of
Cheese,pickeld and fumed Herrings, divers Sea-fishes
salted,Woollen and Linnen clothes,Tapestry of great
varietyand beauty,rare pictures,andall manuaryworkes.
Thus Flandersgave the nameto all Netherland. Bruges
in the yeere 1414. got a priviledge, that they who were
free of that Citie, by Birth, Gift, Buying or Marriage,
shouldbe free from all confiscationof their goods,which
the priviledgesof any otherCitie in Netherland,
for thoseof Ypre having the like, yet looseit upon any
Forceofferedto the Prince. The tradeat Brugesbeganne
to decayin the yeere 1485, partly for the narrownesse
and unsafelyof the Port of Sluceand the River leading
from thenceto Bruges,partly by the Fameof the large
and commodiousRiver Scaldisat Antwerp, and partly
by the civill Warres. For first the Portugals having
taken Callicut in the East Indies, carried their famous

Spicesto the Fayre of Antwerp in the yeere 1503. and

contractingwith that Citie, drew the Fuggari and Welfari
German Merchants


And after the Merchants


FlorenceLucca, and the Spinolseof Genoa, and those

of otherNations(excepting
partof the Spaniards)
Bruges,seatedthemselvesat Antwerp about the yeere

1516. And they wereinvited thither by the priviledge

of MarriageDowries,which becameshadowes
to many
frauds. For when Husbandseither breakein life time, [III. ii. 97.]
or be found banckeroutsat death,the Wives are preferred
to all debtersin the recoveryof their dowry. NotwithstandingBrugesat this day by the third generalltaxe of
Flaundersyet in use, payessomethingmore then Ghant





for publike uses. Thesebe the wordsof JacobusMarchantius.


The foresaid trade of the united Provinces, hath at

by the Rivers,(as
the Rheinebringingdownethecommodities
of Germany),
and by the standing or little moving waters,which are
most frequent, and by channelsor ditches wrought by

hand,and bearingat leastlittle boatesfor passage

to each
City and Village: but these waters for the most part

endingin standingpooles,by reasonthey fall into a low

ground neerethe Sea,the Ayre is unholsome,the waters
are neitherof good smellnor taste,neitherdoe they drive
Mils, as running waters doe elsewhere,of which kind
they have few or none. My selfe in a darke rainy day
passingone of thesesaid narrow channels,numberedan
hundred little boates at least, which passedby us, (and

are hired at a low rate) whereby the great trade and

singular industry of the Inhabitantsmay be conjectured.
Adde that besides,the German Sea,lying upon divers
of theseProvinces,they have many Armes of the Sea,
that runne

farre within



the Rivers

fall from

Germany, which in this lower soyle often overflowing,

havechangedtheir old beds,and falling into ditchesmade
by hand, doe no morerunne with their wonted force,but
(as I have said in the description of Holland) doe end

(as it were) in lakes. By reasonof the foresaidindustry

of the peopleinhabiting the united Provinces,the number
of their ships,andthe commodityof their Seasandwaters,
howsoeverthey want of their owne many things for
necessityand delight, yet there is no where greater
abundanceof all things, neithercouldany Nation indowed
with the greatestriches by nature, have so long borne
as they have done a civell warre, and intollerable exactions

and tributes, much lessecould they by this mischiefehave

growne rich, as this people hath done. One thing not
used in any other Countrey, is here most common,that
while the Husbands snort idly at home, the Weomen

of Holland,for traffickesayleto Hamburg,and







managemost part of the businesseat home,and in

neighbourCities. In the shopsthey sell all, they take
all accompts,and it is no reprochto the men to be never

inquiredafter,abouttheseaffaires,who taking moneyof

their wives for daily expences,gladly passetheir time in

Touching this peoplesdiet, Butter is the first and last Diet.

dishat the Table, whereofthey makeall sawces,
for fish, andthereuponby strangersthey aremerrily called
Butter-mouths. They are much delighted with white
meats, and the Bawers drinke milke in stead of beere,

and as well Men as Weomen, passingin boates from

City to City for trade, carry with them cheese,and boxes
of butter for their foode,whereuponin like sort strangers
call themButter boxes,andnothing is moreordinary then
for Citizens of good accomptand wealth to sit at their
dores, (even dwelling in the market place) holding in
their hands,and eating a great lumpe of breadand butter
with a lunchenof cheese. They useto seethlittle peeces
of fleshin Pipkins, with rootesandgobbetsof fat mingled
therewith, without any curiosity; and this they often
seethagaine,setting it eachmealeof the weeke on the
Table, newly heated, and with some addition of flesh

rootesor fat morsels,as they thinke needfull, and this

dish is vulgarly calledHutspot. They feed much upon
rootes, which the boyes of rich men devoure raw with

a morsellof bread,as they runne playing in the streetes.

They use most commonlyfresh meates,and seldomeset
any salt meateson the board, except it be at Feaststo
provokedrinking. They useno spits to roast meat, but
bake them in an earthenpipkin as in an oven, and so

likewiseseeththem: And thesemeatesbeingcold, they

often heat and serve to the Table, so as I have come into

anInne,andbeingin the Kitchen,couldseenothingready

for supper,yet presentlycalledto supper,havescenea
long Table furnishedwith theseoften heatedmeats,which
smoakedon the outside, yet were cold on the inside.
This peopleis proverbially saidto excellin bakedmeates,





especiallyin bakingof Venison; yet to my knowledge

they haveno red Dearein theseProvinces,neitherhave
[III. ii. 98.] theyanyinclosedParkesfor fallowDeare,nor anyConnygrees. Onely Count Mauritz hath of late had out of
EnglandsomeBuckesand Doesof fallow Deare,which
runne in the grove at the Hage, and there be some
ConniesneereLeyden upon the sandybanke of the Sea,
which are not sufficient

to serve the Inhabitants

of those

parts,but areaccountedgoodandpleasantto eat. Neither

in forraignepartsdoethey muchdesireto feedon Connies,
either becausethey are rare, or becausethe flesh is not
savoury. They use to eate early in the morning, even
before day, and the cloth is laid foure times in the day
for very servants,but two of thesetimes they set before
them nothing but cheeseand butter. They seethall
their meatein waterfalling of raine,and kept in Cesternes.
They eate Mushromesand the hinder parts of frogges

for great dainties,which froggesyoung men use to

catch and presentthem to their Mistressesfor dainties.
I have scenea hundreth of Oysters in divers Cities
sold sometimesfor eight or twelve, yea for twenty
or thirty stivers. They dresse fresh water fish with

butter more then enough, and salted fishes savourly

with butter & mustard: where they eate not at an

Ordinary, but upon reckoning (as they doe in Villages

and poorerInnes),therethey weigh the cheese

is seton Table,andtakenaway,beingpaid by the waight;
and I have knowne somewaggishSouldiers,who put a
leadenbullet into the Cheese,making it thereby weigh
little lessethen at first sitting downe, and so deceiving
their Hosts: But in the chiefe Innes, a man shall eate
at an Ordinary, and there Gentlemen and others of
inferiour condition sit at the same Table, and at the same


The Innes are commodiousenough, and the Cities

being frequent scarcesomeeight miles distant one from

the other,commodities
of lodgingare as frequent,yea,
they hang out signesat the doore, (which fashionis not









in usein manyCities of Germany,in Denmarke,Poland,

Scotland,and Ireland, where the Innes are onely knowne
by fame); andthis mademe marvell, that notwithstanding

this signeobliging them to lodge strangers,my selfe

thoughwell apparelled,have divers times beenerefused
lodging in many of those Innes, which seemedto me a
scorneand flat injury. At the faire City of Leyden not
wantingmany faire Innes, I was refusedlodging in sixe
of them, and hardly got it in the seventh,which made
me gatherthat they did not willingly entertaineEnglishmen : neither did I attribute this to their inhospital
nature, but to the licentiousnesseof our Souldiers, who

perhapshad deservedill of them thereby,or perhapsby

ill payment,for which I cannotblamethe English in that
case,but rather the unequallLaw of England, giving all
to the elder brothers, lying sluggishly at home, and
thrusting the younger brothers into the warres and all
desperatehazards,and that in penury, which forcibly
driveth the most ingenious dispositions to doe unfit

things. By reasonof the huge impositions (especiallyHuge

upon wines,) the passengersexpence is much increased, Impositions.

for the exactionsoften equall or passethe value of the

thingsfor which they arepaid. And thougha mandrinke
beere, subject to lesse imposition and lesse deere then
wine, yet he must understand that his companionsdrinke

largely,and be he never so soberin diet, yet his purse

must pay a share for their intemperance. After supper
passengersuse to sit by the fier, and passesome time in

mirth, drinking upon the commoncharge,and to warme

their beere till it have a froth : yet doe they not use
thesenight drinkings so frequentlynor with suchexcesse,

as the Germans


I rememberthat having beeneat Seain a great storme

of wind, thunder, and lightning, about the moneth of

. November,whensuchstormesare rare,and being very

wearie and sad, I landed at Dockam in West-Freesland,

where at that time some yong Gentleweomenof that

Countrey, passingthrough that City towards Groning,






accordingto the fashionof thoseparts,we did eateat

an ordinary Table, and after supper sat downe by the

fier, drinking one to the other; whereafter our storme

at Sea, the custome of Freesland did somewhat recreate
us: For if a woman drinke to a man, the custome is

that sheemust bring him the Cup and kissehim, he not

moving his feete nor scarcelyhis head to meeteher, and
men drinking to them are tied to the like by custome.
A strangerwould at first sight marvell at this custome,
and more speciallythat their very husbandsshould take
[III. 11.99.]it fr a disgrace,and be apt to quarrell with a man for
omitting this ceremonytowards their wives, yet they
interpret this omissionas if they judged their wives to
be so foule or infamous,or at least base,as they thought
them unworthy of that courtesie. In the first Book of
this third Part, and in the Journall of the first Part, I

have particularly set downe the rates of expencesfor

passengersthrough those parts. They greatly esteeme
English Beere,either for the dearenesse
of wine, or indeed
the goodnesthereof; and I have observedsomein their
cups thus to magnifieit, English Beere,English verstant,
BeereEnglish beare makes an English wit. So in the Sea


townesof EnglandtheysingthisEnglishrime; Shoulder

of mutton and English Beere,make the Flemmingstarry
here. They say that there be 300 brewers at Delph, and

there they imitate the English Beere,and call that kind

Delphs English. But with no costcould they ever make
as good as the English is, though they provided to have
English Brewers,either by reasonof the differenceof
the waters, or rather (as by experienceI have found),
becauseour Beerecarried over Sea (whereby it workes
a new, and gets a better savour)doth drinke much better
then that we haveat home. They say,that of old there
were more then 700 brewersat Torgaw, till upon the

water diverted or corrupted,they forsookethat place.


is not


to sel Rhenish


and French


wine in the sametaverne, lest they should be mixed:

but one man may sell Frenchred wine and Rhenishwine,








which cannot well be mixed, without being easily perceived. And for the samecausethey may not sel in one
placedivers kinds of the samecountry wine, and of the
same colour.



use lesse excesse in

drinking then the Saxons,and more then other Germans.

And if you aske a womanfor her husband,she takes it
for an honest excuse,to say he is drunken and sleepes.
But I will truly say,that for every day drinking, though
it bee farre from sobernesse,
yet it is not with so great
excesseas the Saxonsuse, neither in taverns (where they,

and speciallythe commonsort most meet)and in private

feastsat home,doethey usesogreatexcesse
asthe Saxons.

doe drunken

men reele in the streets of Nether-

". land sofrequently,as they do in thoseof Saxony. Only

I did once see, not without astonishment, a man of

honorablecondition, as it seemedby his apparrell, of

: Velvet,and manyrings on his ringers,who lay groveling
on the ground, close by the carte rutt of the high-way,
with two servantsdistending his cloakebetweenethe Sun
and him, and when wee lighted from our waggon, to
"". beholdmore neerelythis spectacle,thinking the man to
: be killed or sorewounded,his servantsmadesignesunto
i us, that wee would not trouble him, who was onely

: drunken, and would be well assooneas he had slept a


At this we much wondred, and went on our

journey. At feaststhey have a fashionto put a Capons

- rump in the saltseller,& to contendwho shall deserveit,
by drinking most for it. The best sort at feaststor a
frolikewill changehats, wherebyit happensthat Gallants
shalweare a Burgers cap, and a Burger an hat with a

feather,crying, Tous folz a modede Liege, All fooles

afterthe fashionof Liege. Somewantingcompanions
to drinke, lay down their hat or cloke for a companion,
soplayingthemselvesboth parts,of drinking to, & pledg-

ing, till they haveno moresenceor useof reason,then

the cloke or hat hath. Lastly, all bargaines,contracts,
& solemnitieswhatsoever,are done in their cups.
The longitude of Denmark and Norway, extends 8 Denmarke.





degreesand a half, from the Meridian of 27 degree

and a halfe, to that of 36 degrees. And the latitude
extends 10 degrees,from the paralell of 58 degrees,to
that of 68 degrees. The Kingdome of Denmark is
divided into sixe parts, Finmark, Norway, Gothia,
Scandia,Seland and Jutland.
i Finmark reacheth towards the North, beyond the
Artick circle, to the Castle Warthouse, and therefore must


be desart



2 Norway in the Germanstongue signifies the way

to the North, and it is so large, as of old it had and still
retaineth the nameof a Kingdome,and towardsFinmark
it reacheth to the Artick


The Cities are named,

Anstou not farre from the narrow Sea,called Der Soundt,

and Nidrosia, formerly called Trondia, lying upon the

samesea,and Bergis the seateof a Bishop, and Salzburg
a Citie of tramck. In Norway they catch great store
of Stockfish,which they beatewith cudgels,and dry with
cold, and great store of a fish, from the Greekeword
calledPlaise, for the bredth thereof, and they sell great
quantity of this fish to the GermanCities upon the sea,
which they keep to feede the people,in casethe cities
should be besieged.
[III. ii. ioo.] ^ The Hand Gothia is annexed to the Crowne of
Denmark, yet the Succianstooke it in our time, but the
Danes recovered it againe. Histories report, that the
Gothes came out of this Hand, yet old Writers under
the name of

Scandia containe

all the tract

of the neck

of Land, lying from the Hiberborian Sea,betweenethe

Northerne Ocean, and the Bodick Gulfe ; from whence

it is more probable,that the Gothescameout, then onely

from this little Hand, who after seatedthemselvesupon
the Euxine sea,and the banke of Danow, and from thence

made incursionsupon the Roman Empire. And hereupon the said tract, containing not onely Scandiaand
Gothia, but all Norway and Succia,was by old Writers
calledthe shopand sheathof Nations. The HandGothia
yeeldsthe rich Furres calledSabels.








4 The HandScandiais alsocalledScondia,and Scandinavia, and Schonlandia,that is, faire land, the beauty

whereofthe Daneshighly extoll, and for the firtiltie

preferreit to Sealand,thoughit passethe samein the
buildingsof the Kings Court and other houses. The
Citiesthereof are Helsenburg,Lanscron,and London the
Metropolitan Citie.
5 The Handof Seland,(whencethey hold the ZelandersTheHand
of Netherlandto havecomeinto thoseparts),is beautified Seland.
with the City Copenhagen(that is, the Haven of Merchants)where the King hath his Court, and there is an
University. It hath also the strong CastellCronemburg,
built in the Village Elsenar, and the City Roschild, so
calledof a Fountaine,being the seateof a bishop,where
the Kings are buried. Betweenethe CastleCronembirg
in Seland,and the CastleHelsenburg in Scandia,is the
famousstraight of the Sea,calledDer Soundt,by which
the shipsenter into the Baltick Sea,and returning from
Dantzk and Righa, ladedwith preciouscommodities,pay

greattributes to the King of Denmarke,both at the

entrie and going fourth of that Straight.

6 Jutland signifying a good land in the German Jut/and.
language,is the Northerne part of the Cimbrian Chersonesus(that is, neckeof land) whencethe Cimbri came,
whomadewar upon the Romans. And this Jutland with
the foresaidSeland,are properly called Denmarke, the
other parts being peculiar Regions, at divers times
annexedto that Crowne. The chiefe Townes of Jutland,

areAleburg, Nicopia and Wiburg.

The rest of the tract

of the Cimbrian Chersonesus,containes the Dukedome

of Hoist, vulgarlycalledHolstein,whichof old waspart

of Saxony,but so, as the Danes often forced it to the
payingof tribute, and at last about the yeere 1465 they

fully subduedit. Part of this Dukedomelying upon

the Brittan Sea,betweenethe Brooke Idera and the River

Elve,is calledDitmarcia,all fenny,soasby castingdowne

certainebankes,they may drowne al the Countrie, and

by this strength,the inhabitantskeepingtheir enemies

M. iv







out, long preserveda rude or rurall liberty, but at last

in our time, Frederike King of Denmarke,upon advan-

tageof a great frost in thoseFennes,suddenlyassaile

and subdued them, joyning that Country to the said

of Hoist.




the chiefe

Townes are Flensburg,Slesvick(whereof old the Dukes

held their Court) being seatedon the Sea towards the
East, and Gottorp, and Meldorp in Ditmarcia upon the
Seatowards the West. Upon the confinesof Hoist lye
the faire Imperiall free Cities Lubeck and Hamburg, to
the freedomewhereofthe Dukes of Hoist weregreatand
neereenemies,challengingthe sameto beebuilt in their
soyle,for which causethe Kings of Denmark possessing
that Dukedome, are much suspectedby these Cities,
whom they more and more feare, as their power more
increaseth. Somereckon the HandsOrcadesfor part of
Denmarke,and they say, that the inhabitantsspeakethe
Gotheslanguage: but Histories witnesse,that howsoever
of old they belongedto the Danes, yet they have long
been subject to the Kingdome of Scotland.
Thesituation. Denmarke lying neere the Artick circle, must needs
be subjectto greatcold, howsoeverthe mistie aire,caused
by the frequent lies, doth in some sort mitigate the
extremity thereof.
TheFertilty. In regard of the clime, it cannot be expected,that
fruites should grow here,which are onely ripenedby the
heateof the Sunne. They have cornesufficientfor their
[III. ii. ioi.] own use,and plenty thereof (asof all other commodities)
is brought to them from Dantzk and all other parts,by
reasonof the frequent concourseof Merchantsinto the
Soundt, which they injoy at good rates, and with much

Thetrafficke. The Danesexchangegreat plenty of dried and salted

fishes, and of other smal commodities, for necessaries

clotheand feedethem; and being in both thesekinds

frugaland sparing(asthe Germansare),they alsoattaine
to some small riches by this poore traffick. And since
they feedefor the most part on dried fishes,bacon,and








salt meates, and little use fresh meates as veale and

mutton,they carrygreat heardsof oxenand calvesout

of Hoist into Netherland. Lastly, since they have no
other commoditiesof their owne to transport,and Merchantsthat passethe Baltike Sea,of necessitylanding
at Elsenar,bring themall necessaries
from forraigneparts,
andalsotake of them suchcommoditiesasthey can spare,
surelyhowsoeverthe ships of Denmark are in strength
sayling and lasting next to the English, yet their
Merchantsseldomemakeany other voyagesthen towards
the Northerne lies to take fish.

In diet they are much Thediet.

like the Germans,and especiallythe neighbouringSaxons.

Their dainties are bacon and salt meats, but the common

peoplefeedsmuch on divers kinds of dried fishes,which

at the first view of them a stranger may wel perceive,
by their leaneand withered faces,and they likewise feede
on bread very black, heavy and windy.

I did see no

commonInnesat Copenhagen,
Elsenar,or Roschilde,but
someare there licensedto keepeTaverns for selling of
wine,wherethe commontable for that purposeis alwaies
readycoveredwith linnen. But passengers
must obtaine
diet and lodging with someCitizen, and in their houses
they shal find honest manners, moderate diet, and cleane

bedsand sheets. To conclude,the Danes passe(if it

be possible)their neighbourSaxonsin the excesse
of their

Poland hath the name of Pole in that languagePoland.

signifying a plaine, and is a vast kingdome. The
longitudethereof extends 16 degreesfrom the Meridian
of 38 degrees,to that of 54 degrees,and the latitude
extends9 degreesfrom the paralelof 47 degreesto that

of 56 degrees. It is divided into the greaterand the


i Of the greater Poland theseare the chiefe townes

Bosnau seated on the Brooke Barta, and Genesua, and

Ladislauiaseatedupon the River Vistula or Wexel.

2 The lesser Poland lies towards the South, wherein

is Cracouia
(vulgarlyCrakaw)the seatof the Kings. The





inhabitants come of the Scithians, and the manners of

the commonpeopleat this day little differ from the old

Sarmatians.This Regionis fenny,andgreatpart thereof

is woody, but it so aboundethwith corne and pastures,

as it suppliesall Europe with corne, and the neighbour
Countries with heards of Cattell.

It hath no vines, but

it yeelds plenty of pit coale,and much wax and hony,

and it no lesseaboundethwith many kinds of the said
cattell, aswell wilde as tame.

Other Provincesare annexedto this Kingdom, namely,

Samogitia, Massovia, Lithuania, Volhinia, Russia, and
Podolia,for I omit Borussia,though subjectto this Kingdome under a free yoke, becauseI formerly said, that it
is numbred among the Provinces of Germany, the
inhabitantsbeing Germansin languageand manners,and
becauseI havein that placeformerly describedthe same.
3 Samogitiahath no walled Towne, but the people
live in Cottages,and being rude and of great stature,
only apply themselvesto the plough,andfeedingof cattle,
not knowing any use of mony, scarcethe serviceof

4 The Metropolitan City of Massovia is Warsovia

(vulgarly Warsaw), where the Parlamentsof the Kingdome are held.

5 Lithuania gives the title of Great Duke, and is a

most large Province, fenny and woody, so as in Summer

there is no passageinto it, but in winter when the Fenns
are frozen, Merchants trade with the inhabitants. Vilna

is the Metropolitan city, and seateof the Bishop. It hath

very few Townes,and the Villages are commonlydistant
20 Germanmiles one from the other. They haveplenty
of hony, wax, a kind of beastlike an oxe calledAlee,
wilde beastsand rich furres,but they scarceknow the use
of mony.
6 Volhinia is the most fertile province of that Kingdom, and fullest of faire townes and Castles.

[IILii. 102.]

7 Russiaor Reuteniahath manyTownes,whereofthe

most knowneis Leopolis(vulgarly Leimpurg)and it is









famousfor swift and good horses,not to speakeof the

rich furres and other commodities.

8 Lastly, Podolia aboundethwith excellentPastures,

but hath few Cities

or Townes.

In general,Polandis subjectto as greatcold, as the Thesituation.

lowerpart of Germany,lying under the sameParalell,
and the Countries, as they lie more Northerly, so they
suffer more cold; for the coast of the Baltike Sea, the

moreit lyes towardsthe East, the more it still bendsto

the North, besidesthat, the plainenesof the Countrie,
andthe frequencyof Lakesand Fennes,doemoreincrease
the cold. They use stoves heated with earthen ovens,

for remedyagainstcold, as the Germansdoe.

The revenewsof the King andGentlemenaremoderate,Thefertilty.
scarcesufficient to maintaine a plentiful table, and to
exchangewith Merchants for Wines and Spices(which
they much use, especiallyin dressingof fish) and for
forraigneStuffesand Clothesof Silke andWooll. Poland
aboundethwith beasts,aswellwild as tame, and yeeldeth
excellent horses, not great, but quicke and stirring.
Neither doe the Gentlemenmore delight in any thing,
then in their horses,so as they hang gold chainesand
Jewelsat their eares,and paint them halfe over with
exquisite colours, but in that uncomely, that they are
not naturall for horses,as the Carnatian colour, and their

hinder parts they adorne with rich Furres and skinnes

of Lions and Leopards and the like, aswell to terrifie
their enemies, as to adorne and beautifie their horses.
Poland likewise aboundeth with Flesh, Whittmeate, Birds,

Fish (it beingfarrewithin land),andal kind
of Pulse,as Peaseand the like.

It hath some,but very

few mines of Gold and Silver towardsthe Carpatian

Mountainesof Hungary, and of Iron and Brimstone.
It aboundswith Hony, which they find in hollow trees
and caves of the earth, besides the Husbandmans hives.

It yeeldsgreat quantity of Wax, Flax, Linnen clothes

made thereof, Hempe, Pich of both kinds, Masts for
shippes,Boardsand Timber, rich Furres, Salt digged out






of pits, Amber,Soape-ashes,
and all kindeof Graine,
especiallyRye, which hath madeDaniske famous,tor
relievingall Nationstherewithin time of dearth.

Thetraffick. No marvell then if Merchantsbring unto them Silkes

of Italy, Cloth of England,Wine of Spaine,and the

very Spicesof India, with most remote commodities,

sincethey not onelysell themat what pricetheylist, but

alsobring fromthencesuchpreciousforesaidcommodities.
Poland is all farre within land, excepting Borussia
(vulgarly Prussen),which with immunities is subjectto
this Kingdome, though I have describedit among the
Provincesof Germany,becausethe peopleare Germans

in languageand manners. And the very inhabitants


Borussiahave but few ships, using strangersto export






the foresaid

most necessarycommodities,and the peoplelive content

with their owne; yet are they not rich, becausethey
want the foresaid forraigne commoditiesfarre brought,
and so deare. And they have so little Gold and Silver,

as despisingall in respectof it, they sell all commodities

at a most low rate, especiallythose which are for daily
foode, and unfit to be exported.
And in truth, my selfe having in Poland and Ireland,
found a strange cheapenesse
or all such necessaries,
respectthey want, and so moreesteemeSilver, this observation makes me of an opinion much contrary to the
vulgar, that thereis no morecertainesigneof a flourishing
and rich commonwealth,then the deare price of these
things (exceptingthe yeeresof famine), nor any greater
argument of a poore and weake State, then the cheape
price of them, and it makes me confident to conclude,

that old wives snaredwith papisticall superstition, doe

foolishlyattributethe late dearepricesto the changeof

Religion in our time, while they ignorantly extoll former
times,wherein twenty foure Eggs weresold for a penny:

for in our Age, our Kings havemore royall Tributes,

our Nobles farre greaterrevenews,our Merchantsmuch
greater wealth, then ever our progenitors had, and this







is thecausethat all thingsfor diet andapparrell,andour

verywantondesires,are soldat muchhigherpricesthen
in former ages,becauseour richesmake us not able to [III. ii. 103.]
wantany thing to serveour appetite,at what price soever

it is set. Againefor Italy, it hathno greatstoreof flesh,

birds, fish, and like things for food, in regard of the
thereof, yet the Inhabitants holding it no

disgraceto be sparingin diet, and modestin apparell

(so it be clenly), in regard of this generall temperance,
and that the Nobility disdaineth not to weave silkes, and

tradefor them, being the sinewof that Countrey,howsoever all things are sold there at most deare prices, yet
no Princes (considering things to be considered)no
Gentlemen, no Merchants of the universall World, have

greatertreasuresand wealth, then thoseof Italy.

I have

said that Poland doth abound with all kinds of flesh,

whitmeates,fresh water fish, and all things necessaryfor

foode, and that it yeelds no Wine, which the Inhabitants

seldomedrinke, but in placethereof they useBeere,which

they of Dantzk brew very strong and good, and they
makea drinke of Hony, which they esteemealmost as
muchas wine, and the best compositionthereof is made
in the Province of Massovia. They have such store of
Butter, as I have scene them anoint Cart wheeles therewith, but it is more white and lesse savoury then ours.

This Kingdome hath few Cities; and if a strangerwill

for a time sojournein any of them, he shall easily find
a German or Netherlander to be his Host, who will

entertainehim more commodiouslythen any of that

Nation, though perhapsat extraordinaryrates,asmy selfe
found, abiding with a Netherlanderat Crakaw.
The Innes in the chiefe Cities, affoord convenient beds, Thelines.

and plenty of flesh and fresh water fish. And thesefish

they dressewith pepper and spice more then enough,
for which kinde of Cookery, the Poloniansare praised
above the Germansor any other Nation, yet the spice
being farre brought and deerely sold, makesthe sawce
farre more costly, then the fish it selfe. There is scarce





any Gentleman
who hath not the skill, and doth not use
to dressefishfor his owneeating. In Villagesandsmall
Cities, by the high way a passenger
shallfind no bed,
but he may carry a bed in his Coach,and sit upon it
conveniently. Others use to sleepeupon straw, lapped
with a furred horsemanscoate, which they use to weare,

and if they have no such coate,they must be contentto

sleepeupon cleane straw: And all the passengers

togetherin the warmestoave,with thoseof the Family,

both Men and Weomen. Neither shall they find in such

placesany Wine or choicemeates,which they useto bring








in such

placesare poore naked houses,having nothing to sell,

but closeby them are the shambles,the Bakers& Brewers
houses,where the passengers
buy beere& such meatas
they like, andbring it to the Inne, which a pooreHostesse
will dresse,affoordingthem onelyfier, anda courseTablecloth. And it seemedto me, that the Lord of the place
usethto imposeupon somevassallthis chargeto entertaine
strangers: for the Hostessewill give her labour for
nothing, except in curtesie you desire her to eate with
you, and if you freely give her a small reward, as three
pencefor the whole Company,sheewill thinke you deale
bountifully with her, but shee will aske you nothing.
Also you may freelie carrie away in your Coach,flesh,
bread, wine, or anie thing that remaines,which I have
scene done many times. No Countrey in Europe
ata affoordesvictuals at a lower rate. My selfeand a Com-


panion,did in a CountreyTowne invite two Guests,

and our dinner for foure personscamebut to foure Grosh
and a halfe. I have tormerly set downe the ordinary
expencesgenerally,in a Chapter treating of that Subject
in the first Booke of this thirde Part, and particularlie,
in the journey through Poland in the first Part. Now
I will onelie adde, that in the Villages and little Cities
by the high way, I have bought tenne Egges for one
Grosh,a Goosefor three, a Partridge for two, a loine of
Mutton for two, a Pigge for three Grosh, and all like







thingsat a very smallprice. Soas if a passenger

a Cooke in his companie,or have himselfe any skill to
dressemeate for his owne appetite, I thinke hee shall
therewant nothing for necessaryor delicatefoode. But
hee may not expect, that a Countrey Hostesseshould
seekeout, or curiously dresseany daineties for him.

Lastly, the Poloniansare as stout drinkers as the [lll.ii. 104.]

andpassethemall, exceptingonelythe Saxons,The
yea above all that ever I observedgiven to this vice,
they seemedto me to be mad in this kind, that in
drinking they are prone to quarrels, brawling and
fighting. Give me leave to adde one observation,
which to me seemedvery strange. At Malvin and
Dantzke in Prussen, betweene Michaelmas and Christ-

mas, the Country people bring in sledgesladed with

dead Hares, all frozen over, which are so preserved
aswell and better, then if they were powdred with Salt,

till our Lady day in Lent, about which time the frost
beginsfirst to breake. And if they will eate a Hare in
the meanetime, they thaw it at the fier, or the oven of
the warmestove,or by castingit into water, and so they
presentlyset it to the fier, either to be rostedor boyled.
In like sort they preservePhesants,or any kind of flesh,
being frozen over, aswell as if they were salted. And
if anyman thinke this a Travellersfiction, let him know,
that a most credible person told mee, of his certaine
knowledgeand experience,that the Moscovitesin Russia,
bring the deadbodiesof men in winter thus frozen over,
andsolay themon heapesin the Bellfreesof the Churches,
where they lie without rotting, or ill smell, till about
our Lady day in Lent the Snow begins to thaw, and

theearthto be fit for digging (for till that time the earth
is coveredwith deepeand hard snow,and if it werenot
socovered,yet is so hard by continuallfrosts,asit cannot

beedigged.) And at that time eachfamily takesthe

bodies of their dead, and takes care to burie them.

[Chap. V.






Chap. V.

Of Italy touchingall the subjectsof the third


Chapter going before.

He Longitudeof Italy extends
degreesand a halfe from the Meridian
of twenty sevendegreesand a halfe,to
that of forty two degrees. And the

Latitude extendseight degreesfrom the

paralellof thirty eight degreesto that
of forty sixe degrees. Italy of old was

it had the name of Italy. It was called Saturnia of
Saturne, who banished from his Country, taught the
Inhabitants of this Country the Art of Husbandry, as
Poetsfable,andis accountedthe first King of this people,

thencalledAborigines,asbornethere,not commingfrom
any forraigne part to inhabite there. It was called
Janiculaof Janusor Noha, whom they affirme to have
come thither after the deluge, and to have taught them
the art to plant vines and sow corne,& to have built the
Citie Janua, now called Genoa. It was called Oenotria,

either of the excellentwines, or of Oenotrius King of

the Sabines, as likewise it had the name Ausonia of

Ausonius,the son of Ulisses. Lastly, it wascalledItaly

of Italus King of Sicilie, or of an old Greekeword signifying oxen, and shewing the inhabitants to have been
Heardsmen. Ptolomy describesit in the forme of a
(that is, neckeof land) or Peninsula(that
is, almostan Iland), and Pliny in the forme of an Oaken
leafe, but others more aptly compareit to a mansleg,
from the thigh to the sole of the foote.
Old Writers dividing Italy from Gallia Cisalpina,or
togata, incloseGallia with a line drawnefrom the River
Varus beyondGenoa,by the Apenine Mountaine to the
Brooke Rubico, where it falles into the SeaneereRavenna,

and this line is obliquely stretchedfrom the East to the








West,and so they divide it from Italy, and makePie-

mount,the Dukedomeof Milan, theDukedomeof Ferrara,

the TrevisauMarquisate,andall Histria, to be a peculiar

part of Europe. But theseProvincesbeingat this time
part of Italy, it is betterinclosedand confinedby a line
drawnefrom the headof the Brooke Varus, through the
CoccianAlpes to the Mountaine Adula, (which lies upon

theAlpesof Furcaor Mount Gothard)andso through[III.ii.105.]

the RhetianAlpes towardsthe East, to the BrookeArsia,
(confining Histria); and the rest of Italy is compassed
with the Sea. Also the Mount Appeninederived from
the Alpes, runnes all the length of Italy, in the forme
of a fishes backe bone, and almost in the midst devides

it into two tracts, one lying towards the upper or Adriaticke Sea, the other towards the nether or Tyrrhene
Sea. For howsoever the Appennine about Ancona,
seemes to bend towards the Adriaticke

Sea, and there to

end; yet after it turnes from thence,and devides the

restof Italy, till it endsupon the straight of the Sicilian
Sea. Italy worthily called the Queeneof Nations, can
never be sufficiently praised, being most happy in the
sweeteAyre, the most fruitfull and pleasantfields,warme
sunnyhils, hurtlessethickets,shaddowinggroves,Havens
. of the Sea,watering brookes,baths, wine, and oyle for
delight, and most safe forts or defencesas well of the
Seaasof the Alpes. Neither is any part of Europe more
, inhabited, more adorned with Cities and Castles, or to

be comparedthereuntofor tillage and husbandry.

The Provincesthereof are numbred 14. First beyond
theAppeninetowardsthe TyrrheneSea,lie five Provinces,
Liguria, Tuscia, Campania, (subdevidedinto Umbria,
:; Latium, and Campania,the happy): Lucania (vulgarly
and Calabria,(the upper andthe lower). Also
on this side the Appenine towards the Adriaticke Sea,
:. lie five Provinces,(going backe from the East to the
West), Salentinum,Apulia, Samnium,(vulgarly Abrotzo),
Picsenum,(vulgarly Marca Anconitana) and Flaminia,
(vulgarly Romandiola),whereof part beyond the brooke






Rubico, reacheth into Gallia Cisalpina. Againe in the

part called of old Gallia Cisalpina,are foure Provinces,
Lombardia, Marca, Trevisana,Forum Julii, and Histria.


i The chiefeCity in Liguria, is Genoa,a free City,

(or at least having the shewof liberty), to which all this
Province is subject, which lieth all upon the Tyrrhene
Sea, and is now vulgarly called La Riviera di Genoa,
being of all Italy the most rocky and barren tract: yet
whether by Husbandmensart and labour, or by lying
upon the South Sun, I know not; but sure I am, and

well remember,that passingthat way in the beginning

of Winter, I tooke great pleasurein the plenty andgoodnesseof the fruites thereof:

Besidesthat, all Men extoll

the fertility of Mount Ferrate,(a part of Liguria, inclosed

and wateredby the Rivers Tanoro and Po.)
2 Tuscia had the nameof Franckensence,
which they
used for Incense,and was formerly called Hetruria, at
this day named Toscana. It was an old Dukedome

erectedby the Longobards,and after was devided into

many territories of free Cities and Commonwealths,the
liberty whereof (namely of Florence,Pisa, and Sienna)
the Family of Medici, invaded in the time of the
Emperour Charles the fifth, and now possessethall
Toscanywith title of great Duke, onely the City of Lucca
still preserving the old liberty of that Commonwealth.
It hath very many Cities, of which theseare the chiefe;
Florence,Pisa, (an University), Sienna,and Lucca,(which
still is a free City).
Campania.3 Campania(vulgarly Campagna)is subdevided(asI
said) into Latium, Umbria, and Campaniathe happy.
Latium hath the name of the Fable of Saturne,lurking
there in banishment, and it is the Fountaine of the famous

Latin tongue, and the headCity thereof is Rome, which

City together with the whole Province, is at this day
subject to the Pope, & the Province is vulgarly called
Campagnadi Roma. The secondpart is Umbria, which
was held part of Latium, & lieth beyond Rome, amidst
the Mount Apenine of whoseshaddowit had the name







of Umbria, but is now called the Dukedomeof Spaleto,

to which dignity it was raised of old by the Lombards,
and it is subject to the Pope of Rome. The Cities
thereof are Volgineum, Assisium, Spoletum, Perusium,
and Otricoli. The third part is Campaniathe happy,
vulgarly calledTerra di Lavorr, having the nameof the
most fertile Plaine of Capua,seatedupon the banke of
the River Volturnus;

and to that Citie it was of old

subject,but at this day it is the chiefe Province of the

NeapolitanKingdome, the headCitie whereof is Naples,
of old called Parthenope, and Dystarchia, now adorned

with stately Pallaces,of Dukes, Earles, and Gentlemen,

especiallythoseof the Duke of Gravina,and the Prince

of Salerno,
theseNoble mendwelling therethe greatest[III. ii. 106.]
part of the yeere. The Capuandelights, corrupting the
Army of Hanniball, are knowneto all the World. This
Province is an earthly Paradise, where Bacchusand Ceres

strive for principalitie. I passeover Cuma, of old a

famousCitie, and Linternum, famous for the banishment

and Sepulcherof Scipio the Africane, since at this day

onely remaine some ruines of Cuma, and scarceany
memoryof Linternum. Neere Suessa,is the Mountaine
Valerius or Falernus, famous for the wine it yeeldeth,
and the famous Mountaines Gaurus, Massicus and








Somma,out of the top whereof,of old great flamesMountaine

broke out, burning the neighbourplaces,in which flames
Pliny (living in the time of Trajan) was choakedand
perished,while hee curiously searchedthe causeof those
flames. In our age this Mountaine burned, and now
daily fire breakesout of it. Here the beautieof all the
World is gatheredas it were into a bundle. Here be

the famousdwellingsof the Romans,in the Territorie

of Naples. Here are the AcherusianFennes,the Lake
of Avernus, the Ditch of Nero, the Bridge of Caligula,

by Poets. TheKingdome
of Naplesis subjectto the King of Spaine,
with the Dukedome of Milan, also subject to him, is





thought to containemore then halfe Italy, besidesthe

Handof Sicily,annexedto this Kingdome,whereofthis
is the chiefe Province, and the bounds of it reach to the

Sea, and so lye backward on this side the Apennine

towardsSamnium,whereit is confined,and divided from
the Mark of Ancona,by the Brooke Truento.
Lucania. 4 Lucania,vulgarly Basilicata,is a smallTerritory, the


are Folia and Laina.

Calabria. 5 Calabria a Province of this Kingdome, is divided

into the upper and the lower. The upper is calledgreat
Graece,being of old inhabitedby the Greekes,and using
still that languagecorruptedwith the Italian. The Cities
thereof famous of old, are Rudia (where Ennius was

borne), Croto (where Milo was borne, who carriedan

Oxe), Tarentum now the chiefeCity, and Locris. The
lower Calabria is called Brutium, the chiefe City whereof

is Reghio, so called, becauseSicily is said to have been

there divided from Italy by an Earthquake.
Salentinum.6 Salentinum vulgarly Terra di Ottranto hath the
Cities Ottranto, and Brundusium.


7 Apulia vulgarly Puglia, is divided into Pencetiaand


In Pencetiaor Mesapia,vulgarly calledTerra di Barri,

are the Cities Basignoand Bitonto. In Daunia,vulgarly
called Puglia Piana, are the Cities Mansfredonia,Beneventum (madea Dukedomeby the Lumbards),Asculum,
and the Village Cannae,famous by the old defeateof
the Romans. And here is the Mountaine Garganus,
vulgarly calledSant' Angelo.
Samnium. 8 Samniumof old calledAprusium, at this day hath
the name of Abrozzo, where is Sulmo, in which Ovid

wasborne,and herethe Kingdome of Naplesis confined

on this side the Apenine Mountaine.

Picaenum. 9 Picsenum,vulgarly Marca Anconitanais subjectto

the Pope, and hath the nameof the chiefeCity Ancona,
so called of the crookednesseof the Haven, which is

held the best Haven of Italy. Persaurum,vulgarly

Pesaro,belongsto this Province.







10 Flaminiaor Romandiola,vulgarly Romagna,hath Flaminia.

faireCities,Urbinum,subjectto the Duke thereof(which
somemakepart of Picsenum),
Rimini, Bologna,subject
to thePope,and ancientRavenna,which with the greatest

partof thisProvinceis subjectto thePope,whoerected

Urbine from a County to a Dukedome, with covenant
of vassalage(which the Popesseldomeomit) yet some

partof the Provinceis subjectto the Venetians.

11 Lombardy of old was part of Gallia Cisalpina,Lombardy.

which the River Padus (vulgarly Po, and of old called
Eridanus)divides into Cispadan(on this side the Po)
and Transpadan(beyond the Po.) Cispadan (of old
calledEmilia, now vulgarly di qua del' Po) containes
Piemont(so called, as seatedat the foote of the Mountaines),whereof the chiefe Citie is Turin (of old called
AugustaTaurinorum), and this Province is subject to
the Duke of Savoy,Also it containesthe Territory of
Parma,subjectto the Duke thereof, wherin are the cities
Parma& Piacenza. Transpadane,vulgarly di la del' Po,
the Dukedom of Milan, the chiefeCity whereof [Ill.ii. 107.]
is Milano, and it hath other Cities, namely Como, where

both Plinies were borne, seatedon the most pleasant

LakeLarius; vulgarly di Como,aboundingwith excellent
fishes. Also Ticinum vulgarly Pavia, (wherethe French
King Francisthe first, was taken prisoner by the Army

of Charlesthe fifth). Lastly, Cremona,amongother

things famousfor the Tower. This Dukedome is the

largestand richestof all other,(as Flaundersis among

the Counties)and it is subjectto the King of Spaine.

12 Also TranspadaneLombardy containesthe Duke- Transpadane

domeof Mantua,(subjectto the Duke thereof)andLf>mbard3

MarcaTrevisana,or Trivigiana (subject to the Stateof

Venice). Mantua is the chiefe City of the Dukedome,
and Marca Trevisana hath the famous Cities, Venice,

The Tyrrheni of old inhabitedall CisalpinaGallia, who

gavethenameto theTyrrhene
by the Galles,and of them the Insubresinhabited the






part,andtherebuilt Milano,andtheSenones
inhabited the Cispadane part.


13 Histria is devidedinto Forum Julii, and Histria,

properly so called. Forum Julii vulgarly Frioli, and
Patria (becausethe Venetiansacknowledge
they came
from thence),wasa Dukedomeerectedby the Lombards,
the chiefeCity whereofis the most ancientAguilegia
adorned with the title of a Patriarchate, which at this

day is almostfallento the ground. Neerethat City is

a Towne, in which they write that S. Marke pennedhis
Gospell: Now the chiefe City is Frioli. The confines
of this Region lie upon Marca Trevisana, and all the
Province to the River Tagliamonte,is subjectto the State
of Venice. The other part is subjectto the Arch-Dukes
of Austria. Here growesthe wine Pucinum, now called
Prosecho, much celebrated by Pliny.


14 Histria, properly so called, is almost in the forme

of a Peninsule,(almostan Hand) and the chiefeCity is
Justinopolis,vulgarly Capod' Istria, andall the Province
is subject to the Stateof Venice.
Thesituation. Italy in Winter time, (namely the moneths of
December, January, and February) hath a temperate
cold, with little or no frosts or Ice:

And howsoever

my selfe did see,not onely the Rivers of the Stateof

Venice, but the very Inland Seasof Venice, frozen and

coveredwith thicke yce, for the spaceof three weekes,

yet the Venetians said it was a rare accident. In Summer

the heate is excessive,and the dew falling by night is

very unwholsome,
frequent, which doe great hurt both to man and beast
then abroad,as sadexperienceoften shewesthem. But
in the Dog-daiesno man is so hardy as to put his head

out of his dores,or to goe out of the City. For they

proverbiallysay; Quandoil Solealbergain Leone,chi
so mantienesano, guadagnaassai: that is, When the

Sunnelodgethin the Signeof theLion, he that preserves

his health, gainesenough. This excesseof heate they

carefullyavoid, by inhabiting upon the sidesof the








Mountaines and Hilles towards the Sea, which cooleth

n the windes,and by retiring into vaults under ground,

or open Tarrasseslying upon Rivers, and free from
the Sunne. Yea, some have found the meanes, by an
artificiall Mill, to draw Winde into a vault, and from

thenceto disperseit into any roome of the house. All

Italy is divided with the Mount Apennine, as a back is
with thebone,andupon both sidesthereof,aswelltowards
the North as South, the Hilles and Plaines extend towards
the Tirrhene and Adriatike Seaes,in so narrow compasses,

asmanytimes a man may at onceseeboth the Seas,from

the top of the Mountaine, so asthe freshwindesblowing
from eachSea,doe not a little mitigate the heateof the
clime. For the Sea windes blowing from any quarter
whatsoever,while they gather cold by long gliding on
the water, must needes refresh where they blow, as on

the contrary, winds sweepingupon the earth, increase

the heate. Thus in the West part of Sicily, when the
SouthEast wind blowes,and sweepesupon the plaine,
parchedby the Sun, it brings excessiveheate, yet the
samewind, yea the very South wind in his nature most
hot, when they sweepeupon the Sea,and after beate
upon the Mountaines of Liguria, doe bring a pleasant
coolenesse with


Touching the fertility of Italy, beforeI speakeof it, Thefert'tlty.

'":. give me leave to remember,that JeromeTurler writing

;;: of Travell into forraigneparts,relatesthat a Princeof

. Napleshavinga kinsemanto his pupill, who desiredmuch [III. ii. ioS.]

:. to seeforraigneKingdomes,he could not deny him so

; just a request,but onely wished him first to seeRome,
whetherhe went, and after his returne, the Prince tooke

ii an accomptof him, what he had scene,and finding him

::;- sparinglyto relate his observationsin that place,he made

" this answereto his request. Cozenyou have sceneat

;";"Rome faire Meadowes, Plaines, Mountaines, Woods,

":: Groves,Fountaines,Rivers, Villages, Castles,Cities,

.. Baths,Amphitheaters,Play-houses,Temples, Pillars,
triumphallArkes,Pyramides,AcadeM. iv






mies, Gardens, Water Conduits, Men good and ill,

learned and unlearned, more you cannot see in the
universall World, then be content, and stay at home.
And so he restrainedthe young Man in his desireto
travell, wherein perhapshe rather sought to get liberty
then experience. This I write, to shewthat the Italians
are so ravishedwith the beauty of their owne Countrey,

ashavingby sharpenesse
of wit morethen the true value
of things, magnifiedand propoundedto strangersadmiration, eachBrooke for a River, eachvice for the neighbour
vertue, and eachpoore thing, as if it were to be extolled
above the Moone, they have thereby more wronged

themselvesthen us. For we passing through Italy,

though we find our selvesdeceivedin the fameof things,
yet still we heare and see many things worthy to be
observed; but of the Italians,holding Italy for a Paradice,
very few sharpentheir wits with any long voyage,and
greatpart of them havenot seenethe Villagesand Cities
within ten miles of their dwellings. Hence it is that
great part of the Italians have nothing to boastof, but
their naturall wit, while our Nations beyondtheir Alpes,
besidesnaturallgifts, havewisdomegainedby experience.
Italy is most populous, so as GentlemensPalaces& Lands

belonging to them, are commonlyconfinedwithin some

few inclosures. The Castles,Cities,Villages,andPallaces,
are most frequent, whenceit is, that the Land being
narrow, and not well capableof so much people,they
plant and sow in the very ditchesof the high wayes,in
the furrowesof Land, upon the walsand ditchesof Cities
and Castles,yea, to the very dores of private houses,
fitting each least corner, as well to profit as beauty.
OnelyLombardyhath large andopenfields,with pastures

to feedSheepe
andCowes,andwith plentyof whitmeats:
For they have delicate Butter, which is not otherwhere

to be found,exceptin the valeyof Pisa,(or of the River

Arno), all other placesusing Oyle in steadof it. Neere
Parma and Piacenza,it yeelds excellent Cheese,much

prizedof veryPrincesin forraigneparts,whethergreat








thereofis transported,
otherparts of Italy.
Lombardyalso affoords sheepeto Toscany,and other

partsof Italy, as Sicily doth Corne,wherebyof old it

deservedto be called the Garner of Rome. Italy hath

greatstoreof Goates,the milke whereofis so nutritive,

as they give it to the weakestbodies for a restorative.

Great Heards of cattle are brought into Italy out of Cattle.

Hungary,and from diversCountriesof the Alpes,but

the HungarianOxen growingleanewith driving farre,
and finding in Italy no Pastureswherein they may be
fatted, this makes Italians basely to esteemeof Beefe.
Out of Lombardy the Italians have few or no Catle, all

Italybeinglike a mostpleasantGarden,and havingfew



this makes the Italians

so tender towards

the few Cattle they have, as for feareof cold forsooth

in that hot Clime, they leade them into stables,when
they are to bring forth their young. In the plaine
Countreyof Lombardy they use Horses, and especially
Mares,(of an exceedinglittle race) to ride upon, and
for bearingof burthens; and Oxen to draw Carts, and
: sometimesCaroches,(vulgarly Carozzi): but in the
Mountainesand hilly Countries they use Asses and
Mules,seldomeHorses to ride upon, and for burthens.
In the Roman territory I have seenemany Beastscalled

Buffoli,like Oxen,but greaterandmoredeformed,having Buffoli.

; greathomeswith foule nostrelscastup into the Ayre:
: It is a slow and dull Beast,yet being provoked, hath

f'( maliceenough,and the backethereofis commonlybare

of haire,and ever almostgalled. They eate not the
'""_.flesh thereof, but trade with the hides, as with those of

Oxen,andthis beastis held commodious

for Husbandry
andpatient of labour. They have no race of Horses

- for beautyor service,but onelyin the Kingdomeof

,[ Naples.Asses
soldfor 10crownes
a peece,
\ anda Mule for 50 or 60 gold crownes,
onelyusedin all Italy, exceptingonely Lombardy. Of

theMule I observed,
that he will goe undera heavy[III.ii.109.]





Mules. burthen from day-breakein Summer,to darke night,

withoutanybatingor restby theway,onelyhismeate

is tied in a net before his mouth, so as he eates while he

goes,and his paceis slow,andwhenhis burthenis taken

off at night, he tumblesand rubs his backein the dust

to cooleit, and is therebymorerefreshedfrom wearinesse

then a Horse canbe with lying halfe the night, otherwise
he lies not downe in the stable scarcelyonce in sixe
moneths. A Mule is begottenbetweenea Horse& a shee
Asse, but a Mule mounting a she Mule, an Asse,

or any beastwhatsoever,
doth neveringenderof them,
and the heate of his seedis yeelded for causethereof.
Narrow Italy cannotbearered or fallow Deare,onely the
woodsof Toscanyyeeldsomefew wild Boares,whichare

for the greatDukesgame,otherwisea fewwild
beastsmight soonemakegreat spoilein so rich and well
tilled fields, as be these of Italy.

Husbandry.The hils and mountainesthereof lying upon the South

Sunne,are in generallmost fertile or fruitfull of all other,
such are the fields and hils of the Neapolitaneterritory,
such are the mountainesand hils of Liguria, lying upon
the Tyrrhene Sea, such is the territory about the Lake

of Gardo, (vulgarly II lago di Gardo) lying at the feete

of the South-sideof the Alpes. The fields of Lombardy
are lesse happy in yeelding fruites, but give excellent
pasture and corne, where the Husbandman makes use of

the very furrowesbetweenethe Akers, for asin the Aker

he soweth Corne, so in the furrowes he plants Elme
Trees, the loppings whereof serve him to burne, and

likewiseplantsVines,which shooteup in heightupon

the bodiesof thosetrees,but thesevines yeeldbut a small
wine, by reasonthey grow so high, and in a plaine

Country. In the upperpart of Italy, they plant in one

and the same field, Olive and Almond trees, and under

them sow Corne,and in the furrowesplant Vines, which

shooteup, restingupponshort stakes,and yeeldstrong

wineof diverssorts,because
they grow not high,and

the ground being hilly, hath more benefitfrom the Sunne








beatinguponit. The soyleof Toscany

beinghilly and
to meat the first sightto bebarren,but

afterI found it not onely to yeeld fruites plentifully,

but alsogoodincrease
of Corne,asof onemeasure
commonlyeight or ten measures,
often rourteene,and
twenty five ; neitherdoe they give the ground
restby laying it fallow, as we doe, but eachsecondyeere

theysowpartof it with Beanes

andPulse,yeeldingplentifull increase,and then burying the stubble to rot in the

ground,makeit therebyfat to bearewheateagaine. My

selfe observed, that at the foot of the South-side of the

Alpes, they gather Wheate and Rie in the moneth of

June,and then sow the samefields with lighter kinds of
Graine,which they gather in the moneth of October:
yet by reasonof the multitude of the people,and the
of the Land, the Italians not onely carry not
anygrane into forraigne parts, but also the Merchants
bringing grane to them, are cherishedby the Princes,
with faire wordsandrewards,that they may comeagaine,
morespeciallyby the Duke of Florence,who takescare
to providefor his Countrey,not onely grane from Sicily
andall other parts, but also sheepeout of Lombardy,
whichhe devidesamonghis Subjects,at what pricehe list,
a takingthis chargeupon him to seethat his peoplewant
not victuals, as wel for the publike good, as his owne
greatgaine. Italy yeeldsplenty of Oranges,which Tree Fruits.
is mostpleasantto behold,yeeldingfruit three timeseach
: yeere,and bearingat one time ripe and greeneOranges,
andbuds. They have like plenty of Citron, Limon, and
Cedartrees, which in Lombardy grow upon the bricke

walsof Gardens,asVinesdoewith us, and are kept in

" earthenvessels,but uponthe mountainesand hils of upper
Italy, the fields abound with these Trees, which both in

bodyandfruit areasbiggeasour Apple-trees,

and they
greatstoreof thesefruitesinto forraigneparts.
,. Therebe many woodsof Chesnuts,which they little
esteeme,onely poore peopleeating them, and with the
, rest they feed Hogges, as with Acornes. The Chesnut






tree is not unlike the Oake tree, but that it is more

small,high,andstraight. Therebesomewoodsof Pine

trees,whichare high, without any boughsor leavesto
the very top, wherethey havea round tuft, and they
beare at one time the fruit of three yeeres,one pine

Appleroundandsharpeat the top,havingsomehundreth

[III.ii.i io.] or moreknobslike hasellnuts,in whichknobthekernell

is of little bignesse,
but of suchvertueto provokewantonnesse,asthey serveit at all feasts. All the fieldsarefull
of figtrees,not small as with us, but as big in the body

as someAppel-trees,
and they havebroadleaves. The
fruite haththe formeof a long peare,anda blackeskinne,
and a red juyce, being to be suckedlike sugar in taste.
Neither doe I thinke any fruite to bee more pleasant
then this pulled from the tree, I say pulled from the
tree, becausethe drie figges exported, are not in taste
comparablethereunto. In the fields of upper Italy
are great plenty of Almond trees, so as you would say,
that a whole Province is but one Garden. Like plenty

have they of Olive trees, which yeeld a sweet oyle,

used by them in stead of butter, and in forraigne
parts for wholsomnesse,
yet I cannotthink that it canbe
wholesomewhen it is heated,as the Italians use it to fry
meates. They have some, but not so great plenty of
which tree is not unlike that of the white
Rose, but the leaves are little,
buds of a red colour.

and the flowers and the

The Husbandmen

about the rootes of all these fruite

make ditches

trees, and the

inhabitantsof pleasantItaly are notable in all kind of

Husbandrie. The Cypresse,
in many places,but are little esteemed,as bearing no
fruite. Italy upon the Hilles and Mountaines lying
towardsthe Sunne,yeeldsrich Wines, and very nourishing, yet someout of experience
say,they arenot wholsome

for fat men, as causingobstructions,and hindring the

passageof the urine, and other evacuations: but I am

sure they aremore pleasantin taste,then any other wine
whatsoeverbrought into England that ever I tasted.







But of all the kinds of Wine to be namedin my following

discourse,I have spokenmore at large in the first Part,
writing my journall through Ytaly.
I have seenePease,Attichokes, cloved Gilly flowers,
and other flowers of the best kinds, sold in the Market-

placeof SaintMarke in Veniceall the monethof Februarie,but they had not the odoriferoussmell of Summer

c flowers. Also at Genoa in the moneth of December, I

did seethe sameflowers and fruits sold, and many of

them for one bolineo, yea the flowers were odoriferous
in smell,and newly gathered,which mademe thinke, that
those I did see at Venice, were preserved by Art, and

not newly gathered. And they of Genoaacknowledge,

thatthey learnedthe art to makeflowersgrow in Winter,
of Cowesby chancenipping of somebudds in Summer,
which they observed to bud and put forth againe in
Winter: for the Gardners upon this observation,did
nip of somebuds newly put forth in Summer,
andforbearingto water that roote all Summertime, did
uponapprochof Winter digge about the roote, and sow
cloves about it, to make the Winter flowers have the

bettersmell,andthen coveringthe roote with earth,began

daily to water it, and with this Art sooner or later used,

theymake the earth yeeld Roses,or any flowersin what

monethof the yeere they will, so that the ground lye
upon the South Sunne, and fenced from cold windes.

The Gulfe of Veniceaffbardsfishing to servethat City Thefishing.

in good plenty, the Seaof Romeaffoardslesse,and that
of Genoa none at all.

But in the Sea of Genoa neare

the HandsSardiniaand Corsica,they fish Corals,sold at

Genoafor three lyres the ownce. In the markets at
Venicethey have great oysters,but in no great plenty,
and divers kinds of shell-fish,as Cockles,Scalops,and
Rasers,called in the Italian tongue Cape tonde, (round

andthesethey havein moreplenty,then in most parts
of England: but the Oystersareverydeare,sometwenty
for a lyre; andI doenot remember
to haveseeneshelfish





in anyotherCity of Italy,but onelyin Venice. Neither

havethe Italiansany storeof fresh-water

of their Markets are furnished in very Lent-time with

saltedand dried fishes,or at leastnewly dead,which the

Germanscannotindure, using to seethem alive before

they will eatethem. They haveat certainetimesof the
plentieof birds,but not greatin number
or variety of kinds, but Hens, and especiallythoseof
Turkey or the Indies seememore plentifully servedin
the Markets, becausethe commonsort feedesonely upon

rootes,divers kinds of pulse,hearbs,and smallmeates

dried or salted. I remember not to have scene any

Storkes in Italy, no not in the free Cities and States,

where fabulousWriters say, they most willingly live, as
[III. ii. in.] under more just Lords and Governours. The Italian
Gentlemenmuch delight in the art to catch birds, and
in Gardensfitted to that purpose,with nets, bushesand
glades,sparingno cost or industrie in that kind.
Thetraffick. Not onely the Gentlemen,but even the Princesof
Italy openly professeto be Merchants(which our men,
with leavemay I say,foolishlydisdaine)andonely permit
the retailing of their goods to men of inferiour sort,
keeping all trade in grosseor whole sale to themselves,
or at least by their treasures(commonly great) and
authoritie (suchas it is) drawing the chiefeprofit thereof
into their owne purses. And by this coursethey keepe
the Patrimoniesdiscendingfrom their Ancestors,anddaily
increasethem (while our Gentlemenprodigall in expence,
and ashamed to make honest gaine, destroy their
Families.) But of all trades,they are most inriched by
silke and clothesmade of it, especiallythey of Florence
and Lucca, where the Gentlemen for exerciseof this trade,
keepe open shops.

Silkwormes. The Silke-wormesare vulgarly called Farfalli, which

infold themselvesin a piece of silk they weave of an
ovall forme and yellow color, and some of them so

infolded,are let out for preservation

of the kind, by
clippingthat pieceof silketheyweaved; the otherpieces







areset in the Sunne,that the infolded wormesmay die,

wherebythe silke is madeexcellent,which otherwise

would beelittle worth. They feedeon the leavesof
Mulberry trees, and the Duke of Florenceplants these

treesin the ditchesupon the highway,from whichif any

pul a bough,he paiesa greatpenalty. Wondring at this makingof silke, and the art to weavethe
same,after I returned into Englond, by acquaintance
somthat for experiencekept thesewormes,I found, that
aboutthe moneth of August they cast seedupon paper
or linnencloth wheron they are laid, and sooneafter die.
That this seed laid aside al winter, is set forth in the

Sunthe next May, or assooneasthe Mulbery treesyeeld

leavesto feede the wormes. That by the Suns heate,
the wormes

take life

of that seede in the forme

of an

horsehaireat the first; after growing to a strangebignes,

feedinggreedily upon those leaves. That they begin
thento be sick, & growing of a yellow color leave their
feeding. That they are then put into a placefitted for
their work, with corners little distant one from the other:
that they then weave and infold themselvesin their webs

(asI said.) That part of the websare laid asideto preservethe wormes,out of which they eat out their way,
andcomeforth winged like butterflies,but little use the
wing, and thesewebs yeeld no silke thread, but being
dressedand severed, do serve for baser uses. That the

rest of the webs are put into an oven, to choke the

wormes,which webs yeeld excellentsilke, dissolving it

selfeinto smallthreads. Lastly, that the wormespreservedby spoiling their webs, out of which they eate
their way, do (as I said) casta seedor glutinous matter
upon a paper or linnen cloth, and then die.

And that

all thesethings,namely,to cometo life, to be fed up, to

weavetheir web, to leave seedefor generation,and to
die, arefinishedin the spaceof foure moneths.

After takingmyjourneyinto Turkey,I did seeinfinite

of thesewormesin the greaterand lesserAsia,
whereI found, that thesewormesgrow to full bignes






from the monethof Februaryto the monethof May,

then leave their meate,then have housesmade of reedes

for them of purposelike the hivesfor Bees,but more

large,where(as I said)they involve themselves
in their
owne webs, which being set in the Sunne,the wormes
die within them, and the webs moistned with hot water,
are with wheeles drawne into small threads.

That some

of thesewebs for preservationof the kind, arelaid aside

within the houses,wherethe wormeseateout their way,
and commingforth winged, are laid upon a linnen cloth,
upon which they leave the foresaid seed or glutinous
matter, and so die.

That these clothes are laid asidein

winter, but in the moneth of February next following,

are set out in the sun, or more frequently cariedin the
bosoms of country people, both men and women, by
which heat the seedyeeldsworms at first no greaterthen
a graine of mustardseed,but after growing to the length
of a mans haire as he usually weares it on his head, &

to the thicknesof a manslittle finger. Formerly in the

Thetraffick.chapterof Proverbs,I saidthat proverbiallythe Merchants
of Florencewere called crafty, those of Lucca greedy,
[III. ii. 112.]thoseof Venicebold (ventring al in one vessel)thoseof
Milan faithfull (professingif needebe, that the plague
is in the housethey desire to sell.) And I therementioned this proverb of the Venetian tramcke; Ilbianco
& il Nero (cioepepe& cottone)hannofatto venetiaricca.
Black and white (that is, pepperand cotton) have made
Venicerich. English Merchantsbring into Italy Tinne,
Leade, Herrings (especiallydried, which they esteeme
amongdainties),Conny skins,Veches,Kersies,andsometimes English Corne. They also bring thither divers
commoditiesfrom Dantzk, as Cordage,Hempe, Caviale,
Tallow, Waxe, Indian Hides, and like commodities of

Poland and Moscovy. The Netherlandersbring into

Italy dried fishes, and the commodities of all Nations

(with which they tradeboth hereand in all places.) Into

England, Netherland, and over parts, the Italians send
Velvets of Genoa, Taffaties of Florence and Lucca,







Sattensof Bolognaand other Cities, Stuffesof Milan

asFustians,and divers kinds of Silke woven and in thread,

Goldand Silver,Clothesof gold and silver, Alom, and

like commoditiesbrought to Veniceout of Turkey.
From the Hands of the Mediterranean Sea subject to

Venice,they send to us Malmsiesand Muskedinewines

of Candia,Corrandsof Zant and Cephalonia. The ships
of our partswhich bring Corne or any victuals into Italy,
arereceivedwith all courtesie,especiallyby the Duke of
Florencein the havenof Ligorno, and even by the Pope
in the havenof Civita Vecchia. The Italians have great
traffickwith the Turks in the MediterraneanSea(whereof
weshalspeakmore hereafter)but out of the straightsof
that Sea,they trade little in our age, or nothing at all,
(exceptsometimesinto Spaine)with their owne ships.
Andfor Navigation (whereofI must speakein the Chapter
of Commonwealths)they have small skill in that art.
Their shipsare of great burthen to receivecommodities,
andwell furnished with Ordinanceagainst the Turkish Turkish
Pyrates,but they are slow, and not easily turned, so as Pyrates.
the Turkes lessedaring at sea,yet take some
greatVenetianshipswith their small barquesor gallyes.
For the Italians andTurkes maketheir Navall fights with
gallies,and no other ships, whereof the Venetian and
Spaniardhave great numbersin this Sea. Wee reade,
that the Pope made league with the Venetians and

for bearingsomechargeof war againstthe
Turkes,andit is likely he hathsomegalleys,in that one
solehavenof Civita Vecchiabelongingto him, but I
neverchancedto seeany of the Popesgallies. The Duke

of Florenceat this time had readyarmedto spoilethe

Turkssome5 or 6 gallies: the otherPrinceshavenone
at al. Thesegalliesare much differentin bignes,and
of the numberof theoaresrowingthem,
as Triremes of three oares on each side, Quindeciremis

of fifteene
to smallebbingsor flowingsof tides,and little subject
to stormes,thesegalleyssafelyrow betweene
the neigh91





bouringshoares,and everynight put into someHaven

or Baye. The Italiansare so much inamoredof their
owneland,astheydesireto seeno othersoyle,andabhorre
from venturingthemselves
at Sea,so as they seldome
proveexpertin Navigation,neverbold. The Venetians
havea Law, that everyshipshallcarrya young Gentleman

of Venicein it, allowinghim diet anda stipend,andalso

shall bring up a Venetianboy in it. Thus their wise
Progenitors tooke care, that neither Gentlemen,nor the
inferiour sort should be ignorant in Navigation. But
the Gentlemenat this day so they may have the benefit
of the Law, by receiving the stipend and the value of
their diet for the Voyage, care not for the experience,
and rather desire to stay at home, then trouble the ship
any further. And for this causethe Venetiansaltogether
The Greekes use Greekes aswell for common



as for Officers

and Masters of their ships. And these Greekes(as I

mariners.haveoftenfoundby experience)
shoare(which by reasonof the narrownesseof the Sea,
and frequentlies, may often be seene),areoften in doubt,
sometimesignorant where they are, and the least storme
arrising, makesucha noiseand confusion,as they bewray
their ignoranceand want of courage. Our English ships
comming forth of the Harbour of Venice togetherwith
a Venetian ship, will saile into Syria and returne backe
againe, before the Venetian ship can come thither.
Whereof two reasonsmay be given. One that the
English Marriners are paide by the voyage, not by the
dayesor monethsof absence,contrarily the Greekesare
[III. ii. 113.]paideby the Italians after the dayesof absencenot after
the voyage. The other reason is, that not onely the
Italian ships are huge and great and slow of saile, but
also the Masters,upon the first changeof wind, or foreseeingof ill weather, either for feare, or becausethey
are paid by the day not by the voyage,presentlyput into
someHaven, whencecommonlythey cannotcomeforth,

but with one or very few windes,whereasthe English

on the contraryhavenot onlie nimble swift ships,but








aresoexpertandbold,asin regardtheir losse
is the greaterthe longerthey arefrom home,they either
saileif the windebe any whit favourable,or lye at hull,
if the winde be full contrary, and so are reedy to take
the first blast of winde serving their turne.

the divers kinds of diet in divers Italian Their
Cities, I have before related these things proverbially
said. The Neapolitansare magnificall, spending more
sugarthen bread. The Florentines are of spare diet,
butwonderfullclenlinesse. Thoseof Luccakeepegolden
mediocritiein all things. The Tyberine Peares and
Martioline cheesesare great dainties. Those of Genoa
areof mostsparediet, and no clenlines. The Mantuans
feedeon base beanes. The Ferrarians are inhospitall.
The Padoanssup with halfe a penniworth of fish. The
live sparingly. The Siennesimagnifically,and
their dainties are Goates flesh, and fresh cheese. The

Milanesilive plentifully, and provokeappetitewith sharpe

sawces. The Novocomenseseat without end, and drinke

stoutly. Thoseof Piemontdiet after the Frenchmanner,

and those of Ancona basely.

And these things may perhapsbe truly said, if the

Italian Cities be compared one with the other, but many

things may seemelesseaptly said, if generally they be

with the Cities of forraigne parts.
The Italians generally compared with English or
French,are most sparingin their diet. Generallythey
requiresmall preparationor furniture of their table, they
eateneatelyand modestly,but as they are not like the
who are said to eate sparingly at their owne
cost,largely at other menstables,so howsoeverthey are
not sogreat flesh-eaters
as the Northerne men, yet if the
breadbeeweighed,which one of them eatesat a meale,
with a great Charger full of hearbes,and a little oyle
mixedtherein, beleevemee they have no causeto accuse
Northernemen for great eaters.
They seldomemakefeasts,but if they makeany, then

out of their innatedpride,disdainingto be surpassed






any, they makethem sumptuous,and that muchmore

then ours,alwaiesmaking the comparison
equalof one
degreeagainstthe other. And this is mostcertaine,that
they infinitely passeus in the expencesabout their
Gardens,in fitting placesfor birding, in drawing water

to them,and adorningthe Conduitsheadwith Imagry,

in Chapels,and other buildings, of which things some

yeeld them fruite, the other last perpetually: for they

bestow their money in stablethings, to servetheir posteritie, where as our greatestexpencesend in the casting
out of excrements, which makes me lesse commend our

in great provisionsof meate,as well at feasts
as daily diet.

A paradox.

And give me leave to hold this paradox,or opinion

againstthat of the commonsort; that the English were
never more idle, never more ignorant in manuall Arts,
never more factiousin following the partiesof Princesor
their Landlords,never more base(as I may say)trencher
slaves,then in that age, wherein great men keept open
housesfor all commersand goers. And that in our age,

we have better learned each man to live of his

owne,and great men keepenot suchtroopesof idle servants,not onely the English arebecomevery industrious,
and skilfull in manuall Artes, but also the tyranny of
Lords and Gentlemen is abated, wherby they nourished
private dissentions and civill Warres, with the destruction

of the commonpeople. Neither am I moved with the

vulgar opinion, preferring old times to ours, becauseit
is apparant,that the Cloystersof Monkes (who spoiled
all, that they might bee beneficiallto few), and Gentlemens houses (who nourished a rabble of servants in

and in robbingby the high waies)lying open

to all idle people for meateand drinke, were causeof

fill. ii. 114.]greaterill then good to the Commonwealth. Yet I would
not beeso understood,as if I would have the pooreshut
out of dores,for I rather desire,that greater workesof
charitie should be exercised towards them, to which wee

shouldbee more inabledby honestfrugalitie,then by









foolishprodigalitie; I callit foolish,andthinkethevulgar

sortof prodigalsworthyof all ignominy,whowith huge

keepemanykennelsof dogs,and castsof

hawkes,and entertainegreat numbersof strangers,some-

times not knowne by name, often scoffing at the

alwaiesingratefull, and so not only use them
to live unlawfully without labour or sweate of their

browes,but also in the meane time themselveswill have

a brotherfor their Buttler, and are so niggardly towards

their kinsmen,yea, children and wives, as they provide
not necessariesfor them, and have no care of their

education,and meanesto live, but preferre
vaine-glory before these religious cares. How much
betterwere it for theseprodigall men to lay asidesome
goodpart of their revenue to nourish learnedmen, to
procuregood Preachersfor their companionsand guides,
to relieve vertuous men in their wants, and to spend the

sameto like noble and princely ends.

But I returne to my purpose. A strangermay live Livinggood
in Italy with lesseexpence,then in Germany,where he
mustbearethe chargeof his consortsexcessivedrinking.
And if any object the dearthof victuals,andwickednesse
of Hosts in Italy, he shal find, that this is his owne want,

not anyill of the Country; and when he hath experience

to do his owne affairesthere, he will be of my opinion.
id The Italians have small moneysof brasse,and for the
leastof them a man may buy bread,little papersof spice,
or anysuchthing that is to be sold. Thesesmallmoneys,
the aboundanceof people in a narrow land, and the
; commonpeoplespoverty, but most of all their innated

::; pride,suchasthey hadratherstarvefor want, thenbeg,

thesethingsmakethem doe any servicefor a stranger
for a smallreward,and makethe passages
of Rivers,or
:>.Channells(as at Venice), and all necessaries,
to be
affoordedfor a small piece of money. Neither is it a

smallcommoditieof theselittle brassemoneys,that it

n makesthe meanersort more ready to give almes. This

benefitthe Englishmay well know by the want of like







moneys,wherebythe hire of Porters,all rewardsandeach

almesbeinggiven in silver money,and the smallpieces
thereof being rare,all expencesaremuch increased. The
womenof Italy know not the price of any thing, or ever

goe to Markets (scarceare allowedto go to Church)

neither do they trust their servantsto maketheir market,

but the richestof all Italy, and most noble (especially
Venice) daily buy their owne victuals and other necessaries. And in all Market-placesstand little boyeswith
baskets,to carry any thing that is bought to their houses,
which they easily find, knowing all streetesand allyes,
and never faile to performe this honestly, though the
buyer leave them, and (accordingto their custome)goe
about his other affaires; for if they should fayle, they
cannot escapepunishment,being easily to be found in
the Markets where they use daily to stand, and well

knowneby faceand name. Yet in truth the Italiansdyet

is so sparing, as almost strangersalone use theselittle
Porters, and the very Gentlemenof Venice (which notofVenice withstandingarrogateto themselves
a preheminence

the ^,.... Gentlemenof Italy wjth the singulartitle of


Clanssimi), carry home what they buy to eate, either in

the sleevesof their gownes,or in a cleanehandkercher.

They spend much bread and oyle, and the very Porters
feedeon mostpure white bread,almostwithout anyother
meat, except it be some roots. And those that are richer,

do for the most part feedeon bread,neither rememberI

to have ever scenebrown bread in Italy, only they eate

salletsof hearbswith their bread,and minglethemwith

oyle. And I rememberthat I saw a barrel! of oyle sold
for twenty lyres, and a bushell of Wheate (containing
forty eight measures,called Sataby the Latines, & used
by the Hebrews)for 120 lyres, but the very Gentlemen

buy their breadof the Bakers. Many times,especially

in short dayesof Winter, they will breake their fasts

with a bit of cake-bread

or sweetbread(calledvulgarly
pastareale,ciambolini,and generallyGentilezze),anda
cup of sweeteWine, and so abstainefrom dinner.








For the most part at table they use blackeor bay salt,

whichthe Venetianshaving of their owne, forbid the

useof any whitesalt broughtinto the territory,so asit
isonelysoldby stealth,andwith dangerof penaltie. The t111""'' 5-]
daily usethto set the price of flesh,and all
thingssold in the Market, especiallyin the upper parts
of Italy, and namelyat Sienna,wherestrangerslive very
commodiously,and by this custome, a stranger can no
morebe deceived,then one of the Country. In the State

of Florence,and especiallyat Sienna,a strangermay live

morecommodiously,then in any other part of Italy,
becausethe inhabitants are most curteous (so as at Sienna

theyadmitstrangersto converseanddancewith the chiefe

Gentlewomenof the Citie), and becausethe language,
especiallyat Sienna,is held the most pure, as also for
that victuals are very cheape, and strangers neede not

standin feareof being murthered,as in Lombardy they

doe. In the State of Milan, thereis plenty of all kinds Milan.
of flesh,especiallyof mutton, and abundanceof whittmeates,being commendedaboveall other parts of Italy
for delicatebutter (not to be had otherwhere,except in
somefew large Valleys), and excellentcheeses(whereof
greatquantity is transportedinto forraigneparts.) And
they no lessethen the Netherlanders, serve in butter and
cheeseevery meale for the first and last dishes. In the

:ii Market placesof Venice, there is plenty of mutton and


veale,soldin little portionsand by weight (thereas in

all Italy), and thereis alsoplentyof fish,hennes,egges,
Turkey hennes,and some store of birds, with great
of red herringsand pickled herrings,Sardelle,
and like pickled fishes,of Caviale(a salt liquor
madeof fish) and Botargo(asI thinke the rone of a fish),
of Piacentinecheese,and cheeseof Parma,of mushroms,

snailes,the hinder parts of frogs (all held for great

rl dainties). And these things are to be had in more
abundance,because the common sort eate little or no

; flesh,or fish, or birds, but onely hearbs,pulse snailes,

androotes,with whitebread. I havespokenformerlyof







their fishingat Sea,and their shell-fishes


and Sea-fishes
are indeedrarely found,
but onelyat Venice. Alsothey havelittle storeof freshwaterfish,onelythereis greataboundance
of eeles,
the River Po endesin a Lake, neerethe Adriatick Sea,in

the Dukedome of Feraria. The upper parts of Italy

yeeldthe samethings,but in a farrelessequantity,and

in Toscanythey frequentlyeateyoung Goatesflesh,which

is very good and savory,and sometimes

therewill be

wild Bores to be sold, and they delight much in fresh

curds newly pressed,and made into little cheeses.The
Italians sell al kinds of flesh in little pieces,and all things

for diet in little portions,that the meanersort, if they

list, may at least taste the greatestdainties. The inner
parts of Goates(vulgarly Animale), and the stonesof
Rammesand Regies, (vulgarly Granella),are esteemed
great dainties,especiallyin Toscany,which we castaway,
being very good meatefried. And becausethe land is
more populousthen plentifull in victuals, they eatekyes
and other birdes, which we esteemeunwholsome.

Oftheir In generallthe Italians, and more speciallythe Florenmanner

of tJneS)
are mostneateat the Table, and in their Innesfrom
morning to night the Tables are spread with white
cloathes,strewed with flowers and figge leaves,with
Ingestarsor glassesof divers colouredwines set upon
them, and delicate fruits, which would invite a Man to

eat and drink, who otherwisehath no appetite,beingall

open to the sight of passengers
as they ride by the high
way, through their great unglasedwindowes. At the
Table, they touch no meatewith the hand, but with a

forke of silver or other mettall,eachmanbeingserved

with his forke and spoone,and glasseto drinke. And
as they servesmall peecesof flesh, (not whole joints as
with us), so thesepeecesare cut into small bits, to be
taken up with the forke, and they seeththe flesh till it
be very tender. In Summertime, they seta broadearthen

vesselfull of wateruponthe Table,whereinlittle glasses

filled with wine doe swimmefor coolenesse.Theyuse







nospitsto roastflesh,but commonly

stewthe samein

earthenpipkins, and they feed much upon little fishes

andfleshcut and fried with oyle. They haveno skill
in the Art of Cookery,and the meateis servedto the
tablein white glistering and painteddishesof earth

(wherofthe finestaremuchesteemed
with us.) They

arenotwillinglyinvitedto eatewith othermen,esteeming

of those,who live at othermenstrenchers,
themvulgarly scroccatorid' i pasti, shifters for meales.

And the reasonhereofis, that they would not be tied [HI.n.116.]

to inviteothersagaine,whichin their pride they would
doe,if they should be invited to them, and this is the
chiefe cause that







strangers. Of the Florentines, though most courteous,

yet sparing,other Italians jeast, saying, that when they
meetea man about dinner time, they askeVos' Signoria
ha desinato,Sir, have you dined? and if he answer,I,
they replie as if they would have invited him to dinner:

but if he answereno, they reply Andate Signor,ch' e otta,

Goe Sir, for it is high time to dine. They thinke it
best to cherrish and increase friendship by meetings in
Market placesand Gardens, but hold the table and bed
unfit for conversation, where men should come to eate

quickly,and sleepesoundly. Thus not provoking appetite with variety of meates,or eating with others for
goodfellowship,they must needesbe more temperate,
thenothersintisedby thesemeanesto eatebeyondhunger.
In Cities,where many take chambersin one house,they
eateat a common table, but eachman hath his owne meat

.- provided,the Hostessedressingit, and servingeachman

with his owne napkin, glasse,forke, spoone,knife, and

or glasseof wine,whichaftermeateareseverally
andneatelylaid up by the Hostesse. And at the table,
perhapsone man hath a hen, another a piece of flesh,

thethird potchedegges,andeachmanseverallmeatafter
his diet:

but it is no courtesie for one to offer another

partof his meate,whichthey rathertake to be donein

pride,asif hethoughtthathethathada salletor egges,






could not have a hen or flesh if hee listed for want of

money. To conclude,
theyhold it no honouror disgrace
to live plentifullyor sparingly,sotheylive of theirowne,
and be not in debt, for in that case they are esteemed

slaves. Thus living of their owne,they give due honour

to superiours,so they returnedue respectto them, otherwise they dispisehim that is richer, saying in scorne,Let
him dine twise a day, and wearetwo gounesif he will,
it is enoughfor meeto haveconvenientdiet and apparrell.
They have a very delicatesaucefor rosted meates,called
Savore,madeof slicesof bread,steepedin broath,with
as many Walnuts, and some few leavesof Marjoram,
beatenin a morter, and mingled therewith, togetherwith
the juyce of Gooseberries,
or somesharpeliquor put in
when it is set on the table.

In some Cities and Universities, especiallyfor the

Germanssojourning there, and unwilling to buy their
owne meate,they have ordinary tablesto be paid by the
weekeor moneth,at the rate of someeight or ten Crownes
the moneth, which living they call a la dozina (that is,
by dosensor by the great); but it is much morecommodious for him that hath someexperienceand skill in
the tongue,to buy his ownemeat,sincein Camerelocande
(that is, hired chambers)the Hostesseat a reasonable
rate of the chamber,is tied to dressehis meate,andgive
him napkins with like necessaries,
and there wantsnot
good commoditieto buy al things he wants,and to live
cheapely,asI haveshewedin the expences
of my journies
through Italy.
Thelines. The Italian Hosts arenotablein fawningandcrouching
for gaine,so as they meetepassengers
at the Citiesgates,
and emulouslyinvite them to their houses,with promise

of all dainties,as if they would give them for nought,

but when they are once come into the houses,all things

threaten famine, and for that meate they have, if the

passengerfirst agree not for the price, they extort so
asnothing canbeeaddedto their perfidiousnesseand covetousnesse.The Germanssay, theseare








and mostobsequious
men in all things,till
theycometo the shot: for if any manlove honourable
titles,capping,bendingof knees,and an humblelooke,
theywill observehim to the full, but in the endthe shot
will be intolerable, and he shall pay for their fained
courtesie and lowlinesse.


this extortion

is not


be avoidedby the best experienced,if they stand not

continuallyupontheir guardwith theseFencers,especially
in both the Marks (or Marquisates)where they are not
Hostes,but devourersof passengers:And howsoever
the Italian Hosts are more excusablein their extortions,

the Princesgranting licensesto keepetheseInnes,
doe not sheare but indeede devoure them, and he that

buyes,must needs sell, yet the Marchians inhospitall

natureis singular and aboveall others. For the Florentines oppressedwith like or greater exactions,yet use
strangersmuch more curteously. I would advise the
that therebeing in theseItalian
Innestwo ordinarie coursesof eating, one al conto, that [III. ii. 117.]
is uponreckoning,the otheral pasto,that is, by the meale
at a set rate (seldome exceeding three Giulii) the
for cheapnesshould take his breakfastupon
reckoning,or carry about him somealmonds,figs dried,
or Raysons,
that dining upon reckoning,in casethe Hosts
setan excessiveprice on meat (for wo to him that eates
withoutfirst knowing the price), he may seemecontent
toeateof hisowne,taking onelybreadandwine, (whereof
thepricesareknowneandordinary),and so may containe
their rapacity within somereasonablebounds: But at
" night becauseof his bed, he shall doe well to sup at the

:. Ordinary,and beforesupperto know his bed and get

: cleanesheetes: yet he must not expect a feather bed,

:, which that clime bearesnot, as too hot for the Rheines,

]:: but an hard mattresse,onely he shalhave cleanesheetes,

atleastif he curiouslydemandthem. Howsoever

r theworstevent,he shalldoewell to carrylinnen breeches,
-:';andto wearethemin the ordinarysheetes
; for the Italians

"; if theyhaveno kind of the Frenchpox, yet for the most







part are troubledwith an itch, witnessethe frequentcry

in their streetesof Unguentoper la rogna,Ointmen

for the Itch. I formerly said that a passenger

no care of his Horse by the way, for it is the custome
to agreefor their meateaswell ashire with the Vetturines,
(so they call those that let Horses, and goe on foot or
send a servant to meate them): But since the same
Vetturines will also offer a passengerto agreewith him
in like sort for his owne diet, surely (as I have said in

the Chapterof the mannerto take journies)the passenge

is in ill case,that is dieted by them, neither would I
adviseany so to doe, exceptonely in the way from Rome
to Naples and backeagaine,where a passengerin such
a tumultuary journey, and by reasonof that old custome
shouldotherwisebe worseentreated. Lastly, a passenge
shall doe wisely, especiallyat night to goe to the best
Inne and of most fame, that he may be more safefrom

the losseof his moneyor hazardof his life.

The Italians hold it a great shameto be drunken,they
sometimes salute one another with a cup, in mannerof

a health,but leaveit to his pleasurewhenhe will pledge

them, and then he salutes him that drunke to him, as
well as him to whom he drinkes, saying; Faccio ragione

a vos' signoria,brindisi a vos Signoria. Sir I pledgeyou,

and I drink to you Sir. The word Brindisi comesof the
Dutch phrase,Ich brings euch, I will bring it to you,
usedwhen they drinke to any man, and this shewesthe
customeis borrowedfrom the Germans,and usedby the
obsequiousItalians to pleasethem, yet abhorringfrom
so pleasingto the Germans.
Of theWines Italy yeeldesexcellent Wines, and the commonred


wineis heldvery nourishing,

soasthe fairestWeome
will dine with the same,and a sop of bread dippedin
it, thinking it will makethemfat, (which kind of Women

the Venetiansmost love, all things elsebeing equall),

yea, and more faire: So as they Proverbially say; Chi
beve bianco, piscia bianco, a chi beve rosso, avanzail
colore. He that drinkes white, pisseswhite, he that




drinkes red, gaines the colour: These are the most

Winesof Italy. La lagrimadi Christo,(the teare
of Christ) and like wines neereCinqueterrein Liguria:
La vernaza,and the white Muskadine,especiallythat of
in Toscany: Cecubumand Falernumin
the Kingdome of Naples,and Prosechoin Histria. In
generallthe grapesthat grow high upon Elme-treesin
the plaine, as in Lombardy, & especiallythe grapesof

Modena,yeeldvery smallWines, but thosethat grow

uponhils and mountaines,resting on short stakes,yeeld
very rich Wines. In the shopswhere they sell Muskadines,there be continually boyes attending with little
wiggesof sweetebread and Junkets, which the Italians
dip in the wine; and having thus broke their fasts in
wintertime, they commonlyeate no more till supper.

[The Third Booke




[Ill.iii. 118.]




Chap. I.

Of the Geographicalldescriptionof Turkey, the

Situation, Fertility, Trafficke, and Diet.
He Longitude of Turkey extendsfifty
five degreesanda halfe,from the meridian
of forty foure degreesand a halfe,to that
of an hundreddegrees,and the Latitude
extends forty degreesfrom the Paralell
of tenne degrees,to that of fifty degrees.
The Provinces of this Empire in Europe,
are thus numbred. Illyris, Albania, Epirus, Grascia,

Macedonia,Thessalia,Thracia,Mysia, Dacia (or Transilvania), Hungaria, and the Handsunder him, that lie in


i Illyris a part of Sclavonia,is subject partly to the

Turkes, partly to the House of Austria ; the chiefe Cities

whereof are Zara, (which together with the territory

thereof, the Turkes tooke from the Venetians; the rest

of the Province being still subject to the House of

Austria): and Scordona,lying upon the Sea,as doth the
former City and all the Province. Also Croatiavulgarly

Cranaten,and of old calledLiburnia, belongsto this


2 Albania hath these knowne Cities, Dir-

achium,(vulgarly Dorazzo,of old calledEpidaurus),

and Vallona. 3 Epirus hath these Townes Chimera,
Meiandria, Butrinto, Cestrina, and Nicopolis. Of old
part of Epirus wascalledAcarnania. Of the roiall blood







of thisProvincewasAlexanderScanderbeg,
up in the GreatTurkesCourt, anduponoccasion
from him, did so much trouble that vast Empire.

4 Grasciawas of old divided into Peloponesusand Gratia.

Helles. Peloponesus,
of old calledAiggealia,Appia, and
Pelasgia,is at this day named Morea, and it is a
Chersonesus,that is, a necke of Land almost an Hand,

onely joined to the continent with an Isthmus, that is

a narrowpeeceof Land. The rest is compassedwith
the Sea,and was of old divided into Sutionium (which
hath the Cities Sution and Carinthus); Argolis (which
hath the Cities Argos and Neapolis), Achaia or Elis,
(whereofthe chiefeCity was Elis); and Arcadia (whose
chiefe Townes are Psosis and Arcomenus.) And here

theRiver Emaus,or Erimanthus,springeth,and joyning

with the Brooke Alpheus, fals into the gulfe of Arcadia.
Also the River Inachus springs in the Mountaine
Parthenius,and fals into the gulfe of Neapolis. Moreover Peloponesushath a fifth Province called Lacedemonia

or Laconia,(whereof the chiefeCity was Lacedemonor

Sparta, most famous of old). The sixth Province is
Messena,in which is the City Metona now called Modon.

The straight neckeof Land joyning Peloponesusto the

Continent,was against the Turkes fortified with a wall
by the Christians, but the Turkes cast downe the wall,
and tooke all the Province. Helles or Achaia, the second

Provinceof Greece,containesAttica, Megaris, Boetia,

Phocis,Regio Locrorum, and ^tolia. Attica is more
famousthen the rest, in which was the famous City
Athens. Megaris is a small Region, the chiefe City
whereof was Megaria, in which Euclides was borne.
Boetiais a very largeRegion, so calledof an Oxe leading
Cadmusthither, who built the Boetian Thebes, so called
for difference

from nine other Cities called Thebes.


MountainesThermopulse,derived from the Mountaines

Acroceraunii,lying upon Epirus, devide Greecefrom the
West to the East, (as the Apennine divides Italy), and [Ill.iii.119.]
the famousmountainesOtris Pelion and Ossa,are parts





thereof. Of old Aulis wasa famousCity of Boetia,in

which Iphigenia Daughter to Agamemnonwas sacrificed.

Phocisis a smallRegion,the towneswhereofwereElatea,

and Delphis seatedat the foot of the Mountaine Parnassus,having the Temple of Apollo, not in the Towne,
but upon a Rocke of the Mountaine, where springsthe
Castalian Fountaine, sacredto the Muses, and the Mount

Helicon lies neerethe same. The Region of the Locri

is small,and the chiefeCity is now calledLepanto. Of
old a peoplecalledPieres,commingout of Thrace,dwelt
under Parnassus, of whom it was called the Pierian
Mountaine, and the Muses were called Pierides. Doris

pertainesto the Region of the Locri, and the chiefeCity

is Doricum, whence came the Doric Dialect. The last

Province of Helles and of all Greece,is ^Etolia, devided

from Epirus by the River Achelons, falling from the

Mount Pindus, and the chiefe Townes thereof are,

Naupactus,now calledLepanto,neerethe gulfe whereof,

the ChristianNavy under the commandof Don Juanof
Austria, gave a famousoverthrow to the Turkish Navy
in our Age. The other City is calledChaledon,whence
was the ChaledonianBoare, sung of the Poets.
Macedonia.5 The fifth Province of Turky is Macedonia,of old

calledMigdonia,and Emathea,the chiefeCity whereof

is Thessalonica,vulgarly now called Saloniche,to the
Citizenswherof S. Paul wrote his Epistle. The Mountains of this Province Olimpus Pelion Ossa,are famous
by the fablesof the Giants, & Athos is fained to passe
the cloudswith his top. 6 The lower part of Macedonia
is called Thessalia, or ^Emonia, of Thessalus the son of

jEmon, (or as others say of Jason) the chiefe Towne

whereof was Pharsalos,whosefields are famousby the
victory of CaesaragainstPompey. 7 Thracia hath faire
Cities, Trimontium (of old calledPoneropolisandPhilippopolis),Adrianopolis,andthe headCity Constantinopolis,
(of old calledBysantium,now Stambol)seatedupon the
Bosphorus of Thracia. It hath famous Mountaines,
Rhodope, Mela and Ismarus: Upon Propontis the







(or neckeof Land) lies upon the
Hellespont,in which are the Townes Sestoand Callipolis.
8 The upper Misia is devided into three parts, Rascia,
Bosniaand Servia, and the lower Misia into three parts,

Bulgaria, Wallachia and Moldavia. In Bulgaria the

RiverDanubiusbeginnesto be calledIsther,whichfals
into the Euxine Sea,with foure strong and three lesser
channels. 9 Dacia or Transilvania,wasof old possessed
by the Saxons,who there built sevenCities or Castles,
of which the Province is called Septem-Castrensis,
vulgarly Sieben burgen, and of old it belonged to the
Kingdomeof Hungary, but at this day is tributary to
theTurks. 10 Hungaria so calledof the peopleHunni, Hungana.
wasof old calledPannoniathe lower, andof right belongs
to the GermanEmperour, but of late the Turkes have
subduedthe greater part thereof. It hath many and
strongly fortified Cities, as Debrezinum, Varadinum,
Segedinum(vulgarly Seget); Castrum (taken by the
Turkes)Strigonium vulgarly Gran (taken by the Turkes
in the yeere 1543) Alba Regalis(at that time also taken
by them) Quinquecclesise
(the seateof the Bishop) Buda
seatedupon the Danow; (twice or thrice taken and
regainedon both sides,of old the Kings seate)called
vulgarly Offen, and Pesta (seatedon the other side of
Danow) vulgarly called New offen. The Hungarian
Nationyeeldsto nonein strengthand courage,not unlike
the Scithiansin languageand manners. 11 The Hands
of Europe, in the Ionian Seaare these,Corcira (vulgarly
Corfu) Cephalonia,and Zaintos, (in Latin Zazinthus,
vulgarly now called Zante); all three subject to the
Venetians. All the Handsin the ^EgeanSea,are subject
to the Turke, being innumerable,among them are the
Cyclades,so called becausethey lie round together, the
chiefewhereof are Cytnos, Cyphnos,(vulgarly Sifano);
Parus(now calledParis, famousfor the Marble), Tenos
(now called Tenasa), Naxus, Andros, and Delos the chiefe

of all, whereApollo and Diana were borne. Next them,

are the Sporades,so called of lying dispersed,among





which are Melos, Lera, Nicaria, ./Egina, and Lemnos

whetherthey fablethat Vulcanewas

castdowne.) The Hand Ibea, now vulgarly Negroponte

is attributed to Greece,beingseparated
from the continent
with solittle distance,asit canhardly be namedan Hand,
and it lies closeto the City of Athens.
The Turke hath great part of Asia, devided into Asia

andAsiathegreater. Thelesser
is nowcalled
Natolia or Anatolia ot a Greeke word signifying the

East, beinga kinde of Isthmusor neckeof land,lying

betweene two Seas,the Euxine towards the North, and
the Mediterranean

towards the South, as it hath the

Thracian Bosphorus(as passableby an Oxe swimming)

and Propontis (as lying before the Sea)and Hellespont
& the ^EgeanSea)towardsthe West, and is confinedwith
the River Euphratestowardsthe East. This lesserAsia
is all subject to the Turk, and hath 16. Provinces.
Bithinia, Fotus, Paphlagonia,Capadocia,Gallatia,Frigia
(the greater& lesser)Misia, Ionia, Charia, Lidia, Pamphilia, Lacaonia, Licia, Cilicia, the lesser Armenia &


i Bithinia is at this day calledMigtonia, and the chiefe

Cities thereof are Nicea (the Metropolitan Citie, famous
for the Councellin the yeere314. of 318. Bishopsmeeting
to beat downe the Arrian heresie,and there makingthe
Nicene Creed), Lybissa (where Hannibal was buried,)
Chalcedo(whereone of the eight olde Councelswasheld
by 530 Bishops,)Heraclia, Nicomedia,Phrasso,(where
Esculapius was born,) and Bursa seatedover against
Constantinople, where some Turkish Emperours lye
buried; and thither the great Turkes eldest sonneis
sent to governe,(or in a kinde of exile, for he never sees
his Father more till he be dead,) and thither he is sent

assooneas heeis circumcised. 2. SomeaccomptPontus

for part of Bithinia, 3. Paphlagoniais the third Province.

4. Capadocia
the fourthsocalledof the River Capadocis,
and the chiefeCitie is Trapesuntium,now calledGenech.

here the Amazones

are said to have lived


from the







destructionof Troy, to the time of Alexanderthe Great.

c Frigia the lesserwascalledFrixis of Frixus sonneto

theKing of Thebes,flying with his sisterfrom his step-

mother,who mountedon a Ramm with a golden Fleece

a Ship so called)his sister being drowned,&

givingthenameto Hellespont,
thispart of Asia,whichat this day is calledPalormi,&

yeeldsa most excellentWine, and in this Province are

Illium (or Troy) the Mountaines Ida and Tmolus, and
the River Pactolus. The ninth Sybilla that prophesied
of Christ, wasa Frigian, and hereraignedKing Tantalus
by covetousnesse
leesingthe use of his goods,of whom
the Poetsso fable. The greater Frigia is within Land.
6 The chiefeCities of Misia are Trajanopolisbuilt by
Trajan and Adramitbium, whereof mention is made in
the seventeenth
Chapterof the Acts of the Apostles,and
where Gallene was borne, who lived 140 yeeres. 7

Gallatiaor Gallogrecia,was possessed

by the Gals under
Brennus,whereof the chiefeCity is Laodicia,and to this
Province belongs Pisidia, the chiefe City whereof is
Antiochia. 8 The chiefe Cities of Ionia are Ephesus,
(wherewas the Temple of Diana; which Erostratesa
Gothedid burne, to be famous),Miletum (whereThales
andAnaximineswere borne) & Smyrna. 9 The chiefe
City of Charia,was of old Halicarnassus(in which was
the Sepulcherof Mausolius the King, held for one of
the sevenmiraclesof the World). 10 The chiefeCity
of Lydia was Sardis, where Crassusraigned. 11 The
chiefeCity of PamphiliawasZelotia, and in this Province
is the Mountaine Chimera,upon the wild top whereof

Lyonswerefound,asin the middlepart yeeldinggrasse,

Goatesdid feed, and in the bottomewere Serpents,
whereof came the fiction




12 In

of old werethesecities,Iconium(Metrapolitan)
& Lystre,whereTimothy SaintPauls Disciplewasborne,
and the River Xanthus runnes through this Province.
13 Licia lies upon the Sea,betweenPamphilia& Charia.

14 Cylicialies under the MountaineTaurus,upon the






farthest bosome of the Mediterranean Sea, or Iccian
Gulfe, where Alexander the Great overcameDarius, and
there is Tarsus, now called Bias, in which Towne Saint

Paul was borne. 15 Armenia the lesser,is thought by

some to be the Land Ararat, upon the Mountaines
whereof the Arke of Noah rested after the deluge.
Under this Province somecomprehend16 Chomagena,
being ful of Mountaines,and confining upon Asia the
lesser towards the East.

The Geographers
divide Asia the greaterinto five parts,
accordingunto five Empires, the first of the Duke of
Moscovia, the secondof great Cham over the Tartars,
the third of the PersianKing, the fourth of diversIndian
Kings, the fifth of Ottomon over the Turkes. And this
last onely belongsto my purpose,thereforeomitting the
rest, I will speakeof it. The great Turke hath these
Provinces in Asia the greater, namely, Syria, Arabia,
Babylonia, Chaldea, Assyria, and divers Hands.

i. Siriais vulgarly calledSorya,andcontainesPalestina,
Phaenitia,Caelosyria,Damascena,Sirophaenitia,(and as
some account) Mesopotamia. Palestina of old called
Canaan, is subdevided into Idumaea, Judaea, Samaria,
Galilea. Idumea of old called Edom, is not unfertil,
and aboundswith Palme-trees,but where it confinesupon
Arabia, is said to bee barren, and there are the Mountaines

calledSur in Scriptures. It had thesechiefeCities of old,

Maresa, Ascalon, Asotos. Judea is the secondProvince

of Palestina,socalledof the Tribe of Juda,andJerusalem

the chiefeCity thereof is at this day calledChutz. The
most famous places therof are Bethlehem, Bethania,
Mount Olivet, Jerico,JoppewhereS. Peter raisedDorcas
from the dead,)Lydda (wherehe healedthe man sickeof
the Palsie,) Arimathia (where Josephwas borne), and
Hebron (where Saray the wife of Abraham and foure

Patriarkeslye buried), The Hebrewessay,that the vally

called Sittim by Moses, was most fertill, where now is
the Lake Asphaltis, and in this valley stood Sodomand
Gomora. BeyondJordanis the desartof Betabora,where







and Moabites dwelt of old.

Samariathe third Province

of Palestine,had theseCities, Sichim,Capernaum,seated


widowesson, Betzaida& Coratzen,& beyond the Lake

Gaderais Samaria,the chiefeCity of the ten Tribes, that
fel from Juda. Galilea the last Province of Palestine,is
devidedinto the upper and the lower. The upper called
Gallile of the Gentiles, containes the Kingdome Basen,

andhaththeseCities, Ghanathe Greater,CesareaPhilippi,

Seleutia,and Gaulon, and this Province had the title of

The lower had the same title, and containes

theRegionsof Decapolis,and Traconitis,beyondJordan.

The chiefe Cities thereof were Betsaida,Ghana the lesser,
and Nazaret.


here is the Mount



Christwas transfigured: And the River Jordan running

throughall Palestine,hath two heads,Jar and Dan upon
the Mount Antilibanus, and running thenceinto the lake
Asphaltis,by the way makes two Lakes, Samachonitis
(uponthe confinesdeviding the two Galilies), and Genezaretor Tyberias, (upon the confinesbetweene the lower

Galily and Samaria). Pheniciathe secondpart of Syria,

lies upon the Sea, and reacheth to Serophenicia,from
the City Dora upon the Sea, to the Mount Carmelus,

whereit is confined with the Mount Lybanus. The

chiefeCities thereof were,Dora, Ptolemais,Aeon,Tyrus,
Sarepta,and Sydon. Selosiriathe third part of Syria,
so called as crooked or hollow, had of old the title of

Tetrarch,in which is the City Damascus,which gives the

name Damascenato the fourth part of Syria, and

hereAllabastergrowes,of which they make vessels.

is thought to be built by the servantsof
Abraham,and neere the City is a place, where Christ
to Saint Paul, and the Sepulcherof Zacharias

is saidto be there; and they shewa place,whereCaine

is saidto havekilled Abell. The soile is most fertile, so
as Writers and the consent of all Men witnesse, that

grow thereall the yeere,and that thereis plenty





of Quinces,Figges,Almonds, and DamascoPrunes.

Sirophenitia the fifth part of Syria, hath these Cities,
Beritum (of old called happy Julia) Biblus, Tripolis,
Laodicia, Antiochia (of old called Reblatha)which after
it had beenedecaiedby a great Earthquake,wasrebuilt
by the EmperourJustinianandcalledTheopolis,a famous
City in which the Professoursformerly called Disciples,
first had the name of Christians, and Histories testifie

that Saint Peter was the first Bishop thereof. Mesopo-

tamiathe lastpartof Syria,is socalledaslying betweene

two Rivers, swift Tygris (so called of the swiftnesse,

Tygris in the Medes tongue signifying an Arrow) and
Euphrates. And by the yeerely overflowing of these
Rivers after the Solstice(as Egypt by that of Nilus) the
soyle is made most fertile, whereof Writers report
wonders,namely that one measuresowed, yeeldesfifty
and in someplacessixty measures,and that plantsperpetuallyflourishthere,yet that the inner partswantwater,
so as the Inhabitants finding a spring, use to keepeit
secret, that it may not be knowne to their enemies. At

this day the Turkes call this Province Diarbecke,the

Cities whereof are Edessaand Carra (which Moses in the

twelfth Chapterof Genesiscals Haram) whereAbraham

dwelt when hee came out of Chaldea.


2 Arabia is the secondpart of the Turkish Empire in

Asia the greater,which is subdevidedinto Petrea(rocky),
desert, and happy Arabia. The Israelites lived forty
[Ill.iii. 122.]yeeresin rocky Arabia, being full of Mountainesand
barren, whereof proceededtheir murmurings.

There is

famousMount Sinay, upon which Gods Law was published, and over against it Mount Horeb. In Sinayis
the Region Nabathea,and the City thereof Petra (after
calledArech)is in the ScripturescalledPetraof the desart,
andneereit lies the RegionAgra or Agara,the Inhabitants
whereof were called Agarens, as comming of Hagar







destitute of waters and covered with deepe sand,the

Inhabitantswhereofdoelive in Tents, having no certaine








r' abiding;but neereEuphratessomedwellingsare,where

is the famousTowne Tapsacum,after called Amphipolis.
Happy Arabia lies almost in the forme of a Chersonesus

or neckeof Land, betweene

the two greatgulfesof the
" Sea,the Arabian gulfe and the Persian, and it yeelds
- Cinnamon,Franckensence,Mirh, the Gumme Ladanum,
and other precious Odours, and abounds with Hony,

Waxe,and all kinds of Cattell, exceptingSwine onely.

It is said that Granesof Gold as bigge as Acornesare
foundhereamongthe cloddesof the Earth. It hath the
Bird Phoenix, of which kinde there is never more then

:" oneonely,which by striking of stonestogether, kindles

a fier andburnesher selfein her nestof myrh, andof the
Ashes comes a worme, which becomes a Bird, and so the

Phoenixlives againe. They fish pearlesin the Arabian

:: gulfe,and Jewelsare found upon the Sea shore. The
Nation of the Saboeans,is more famous then any other

in this Province,whoseRegion calledSaba,is celebrated

b for plentyof Franckensence,
and it hath woodsof Trees,
whichbeing cut, yeeld a frothy humour that turnes into
that odour. The Cities of happy Arabia are, Medimnat
Tolnaby (that is, the City of the Prophet, because

Mahomet is said to have written his Alcorane there) and

Mecha(famousby Mahomets Sepulcher.) The Kingdomeof Ormusis part of happyArabia,having a peculiar

King, but tributary to the King of Spain,as he is King
of Portugal!, the Metrapolitane City whereof rich in
trade, is called Ormus.

3 Babiloniathe third part of the Turkish Empire in Babilonia.

Asia,hath the metrapolitaneCity of old called by the
- samename,but in thesedayescalledBagdet.
4 Chaldeathe fourth part lies on the East side of chaldea.
Babilonia,whereof the chiefe City is called Uhrr in the
from whenceAbrahamupon Godscommande. mentwent to Haran a City of Mesapitania.
5 Assiria the fifth part is so calledof Assur the sonne Aisma.
Shem, whereof the chiefe Cities are Ninus, called

Ninive in the Scriptures,(the old seateof the Kings,







built by Assur) and Aruela (famousby the victoryof

Alexanderthe Great againstDarius the PersianKing.)

6 The Handsof Asia arethe sixth part of the Turkish

ofAsia. Empirein Asiathegreater,

andtheylie eitherin the
Mediterranean Sea, or in the Archipelagus, or in the

Indian Seas. In the MediterraneanSea,lies Candia(of

old calledCreta) famousof old for having one hundred
Cities, and by the labyrinth of Daedalus,
and it wascalled
Creta of the Earths whitenesse,from whencegreat
quantity of Muskadine Wines are exported into divers
parts of Europe, and it is subjectto the Stateof Venice.
Rhodes lieth in the same Sea, and was of old famous

for the residenceof the Knights of Hierusalem,but

at this day is possessedby the Turkes driving out
those Knights, (who now have their residencein
Malta an Hand, neere that of Sicily). Cyprus is an
Handin the sameSea,and is most fertile, yeeldingCanes
of Hony, whence Suger is made, and rich Wines,
and abounding with many things required for life and
for pleasure,and this Hand the Turks in the last Age
took from the Venetiansby force of Armes, the chiefe
Cities whereof are Famagostaand Nicosia, The Archipelagushath innumerableHands,whereof the principall
and most fruitfull are, Tenedos (small in circuit) but
famousby the Navy of the Greekesharbouringthereat
the siege of Troy) Lesbos, Lemnos, Mitelene, (at this
day called Metalon of the chiefeCity); Samnusof old
called Sicania,(whereHypocrateswas borne) and Chios
(now calledZio) more esteemedthen any of the rest,for
the Marble, Malmesey wine, Masticke, (the juyce or
gummeof the tree calledLentiscus),and no lessefor the
many rich commoditiesit yeelds, then for the goodnes
and largenesof the soyle.
[III.iii.i23.] The Handsof the Indian Seabelongnot to the Turkes,
and therefore

I will



The Turkish Empire stretchethit selfe yet farther,

containing great part of Affrica, which by the Grecians

wascalledLibia, andtheword in the Greektonguesigni114







fyinghorrorandcold,gavethenameto Africa,asbeing
voidof cold. The MountaineAtlas in AfFrick (asTaurus
in Asia,whichin somepartsis calledCaucasus

asthe Mountainesof Europe are generallycalledthe

Alpes),doth divide this Countrie into manyparts,stretching; it selfe towards the East, and so forward to Nilus;

whichparts or Provinces are knowne by these names;

Mauritania, AfFrica the lesser, Syrenaica, Marmarica,
Lybia, Ethiopia, the Regionsunderthe Mountainesof Luna, and the Hands.

i Mauritania Tingitana, containes two Kingdomes,Mauritania.

Fessa(whereofthe King of Spaineholds somepart) and
Morocco(subject to the Turkes.) Of old it had these
townesTingis (Metropolitane)and Luxon, (neerewhich
aretheGardensHesperides,which the Poetsfableto have

Aplesand treesof gold.) At this day the two chiefe

Citiesare called Fessaand Morocco.

At the Straight Sea,

Spaineand AfFricke, the mountainesAbila in
AfFrick,and Calpain Spaine,are of that forme, as men
wouldjudge they wereoncejoyned,whereuponthe Poets
fable, that Hercules devided them, and did let in the
Ocean,and so made the Mediterranean sea, and for this

causethe Straight is calledthe narrow Seaof Hercules,

and the Pillars




erected on Affrickes

side,which the Emperour Charlesthe fifth added to his

Coateof Armes. Mauritania Caesariensis,
was also called

Numidia; for the peoplebeing rich in Cattell, and dwelling in Tents, and when they had eaten the grasseof
oneplace,thenremoving to another,wereof their pastures

and after changinga letter, becameto
bee named Numidae.

2 AfFricathe lesse,a most fertile Region of old, is at Africathe

thisday calledthe Kingdomeof Tunis, and the chiefe

Cities,areHippon (Metropolitan, whereSaintAustin was

Bishop),Utica (renownedfor having Cato a Citizen),

(whereTertullianwasborne),Tunis (at this day

(wheretheVinesaresaidto yeeldGrapes






in the yeere.) The BrookeRubricatusis famousfor the

Serpentkilled thereby Attilius Regulusin the timeof the
first Punike warre. The quick-sandsor sholesof the Sea

adjoyning,aremuchfearedof Marriners,lying sometime

deepe,sometimesshallow, as the sandsare driven into
divers parts, by divers winds blowing and stormes,and
they are two. The lesse not farre from Carthage,the

greatertowardsSyrenaica.At this day all this Sea-coa


is calledBarbary,and is subjectto the Turkish Ottoman.

3 Sirenaicahath the nameof the chiefe Citie Syrene,
which of old hademulationfor greatnesse
with Carthage,
and therein were borne, Aristippus the Philosopher,
Calimachusthe Poet, and Eratostines the Mathematician,

and(assomesay)Symonwhocarriedthe Crosseof Christ.

Marmarica. 4 Marmarica is sandy, and of old therein was the
Templeof Jupiter calledHammonof the sands,andthese
two Provincesare annexedto Egypt.
5 Egypt is most fertile, the very garner of the universallWorld, andfamousfor the antiquitie of the Kingdome.
The upper part thereof was called Thebais, the lower
(towards the MediterraneanSea)was called Deltica,of
the letter


The Cities


no lesse famous in

thesedayesthen of old are these. Alexandria,built by

Alexander the great at the mouth of the River Nilus
(whosebody there buried, was sceneby Augustus),and
heerePtolomy was borne, who did gather in this Citie
the famousLibrary of sevenhundredthousandvolumes,
which were all consumedby fier. The next chiefeCitie
is Canopus,wherestoodthe Temple of Syrapisor Osyris.
Then Pelusium, at this day called Damiata, seatedupon
the mouth of Nilus calledPelusium. Lastly, the chiefe

Citieof all, is Babylon,built by theBabylonians

to dwellthere,whichat this day is hugelyincreased,
is calledAlcaiero(that is, This Caiero),from whencesome

[III.iii.i24.] fortie stadiadistant towardsthe North, lye the three

famousPyramides. Three dayesjourney towardsthe
East,in a GardencalledMateria,beingwell fortified,of
old grew,and still growesthe hearbBalsamum,






out of theboughes,
andbeingcut with a knife,

the moreprecious
andat this
is foundevenat Caiero
in theGardens
therichersort. They sayalsothat Corrall is found in
the Red Sea. I had almost omitted the Citie Arsinoe,
also called the Citie of the Crocadiles, because the

Crocadilewas there worshipped. Nilus falles into the

Seain sevengreat Armes, which havethe
namesof the adjacentTownes, namely, Heracleoticum

(or canopicum),Bolviticum, Sebaniticum,Patinicum,

Mendesium,Caniticum, and Peluseacum: the first and
thelastwhereof are one hundred and seventy miles distant

onefrom the other. The Nilus doth yeerelyoverflow, Theoverflow

andtherebygives incrediblefertility to the ground, and ofNilus.
thesnowmelting upon the Mountainesof Luna, or the
of the Moone and Mercury, are thought to
of this overflowing. And the samehappening
to beegreateror lessethen usuall, or comminglater or
soonerthen usuall is a signe of dearth to them, whereof
Pliny saith, that Egypt in twelve cubites height of the
floud,feelethfamine,at thirteene cubitesis hungry, but
that fourteenemakesthem merry, fifteenesafe,and sixteenebrings plenty and dainties. It is strange,that all
otherRivers eating and consumingtheir bankes,Nilus
ratherincreaseththem, by bringing with it a mud, that
coversthe sand,and doth as it were dung the fields, to
makethem more fertill. In sixty dayesafter the floud,
the fields are cleare of water.

The floud increaseth from

theSummerSolstice,to the Sunsentring into Libra, and

after the water retires into his owne bed.



twelfthof Octoberthey sow their fields,and in May

followingreapetheir harvest. Egypt with the Provinces
to it, hathlong beensubduedby the Turkes.
6 Lybia hath divers Provinces. Biledurgeret,that is, Lybia.

theRegionof Dates,is inhabitedby the blackGetuli.

Fromthencetowardsthe River Niger, lye the Desertsof
Lybia,waste,and full of Lyons,Pardes,and otherfierce
and venemousbeasts(whereof came the fictions of






Medusaand Perseus.) The inhabitantsof Atsanaga,are

of a colour betweenetawny and blacke. At the Promon-

tory calledthe white Cape,is the Citie calledArgen, where

the Arabians and Portugalls trade together. At the
Promontory, called the greene Cape, the River Niger
falles into the Atlantick Ocean, and the inhabitants are

called Nigrite. This tract containesmany Kingdomes,

namely,Senige,Gambrey,Tambot, Guangara(wherethe
Garamantesdwelt of old), two Kingdomsof Nubia, and
other Kingdomes, which I omit as subject to their
Kings, or to Pretz Jan, and so not belonging to our

^Ethiopia. 7 Ethiopia is divided by Nilus into inward and outward. Inward .^Ethiopiais divided by old Writers into
Ethiopia properly so called, Trogloditica, and Barbaria,
and in the middesthereof is the Hand Meroe, madeby
Nilus, in which wasa City calledMeroe, the seateof the
old Kings, after calledSaba,whencewasthe queenewhich
came to Salomon, and the Eunuch of Queene Candaces,

whom Philip baptized. The Trogloditeslive in cavesof

the earth, and their kingdom is at this day calledAdel.

the promontorycalledCapodi Guardavi,to the Gulfe of
Barbary,andwasso calledof old. The outward^Ethiopia
is called^Egisimbaby Ptolomy, and containesthe Kingdome of Amatzen, and of Vangue, seatedunder the
/Equinoctiall line. All Ethiopia, and part of Libia, are

saidto beesubjectto Pretz Jan,thereforeI sayno more

of them, nor of the Kingdomesunder the Mountainesof
Luna, as pertaining not to my purpose.

8 Onely of the manyProvincesunder the Mountaines

of Luna beyondthe Equinoctiallline, I will adde,thatthe
inhabitantsof Capodi buonasperanza(the capeof good
hope) are exceedingblacke,and nothing different from

andLybians,thoughtheyhavea greater

latitude by thirtie degreestowardsthe South,equallto the

latitude of the farthestpart of Spaine,and live underthe
temperate Zone.






9 The greatestHandof Affrick calledMadagascar

by [III.ill.125.]

theinhabitants,and Saint Laurenceby the Spaniards,is Madagascar.

of the MahometanReligion, and is said to aboundwith
themedicinallwood Santalum,with Amber and Elephants.

The CanaryHandscalledof old the fortunate Handsare

sixe(or moreas somewrite) in number,whereofCanaria
thegreatestgave the nameto the rest, which are subject
to the King of Spaine,as are likewise the Hesperides,
little Handsseatedover against the greeneCape. The
TurkishEmperour hath (to my knowledge)no other He
of Affricke

under him.

The Turkish Empire being so vast, and containing Thesituation.

greatpart of Europe,Asia, and Affrick, the temperof

theairecannotbeeotherwisedescribed,then by particular
partsthereof. But out of the descriptionof this Empire
(in the journall of the first Part), and by comparingthe
particularProvinces,with others of the samelongitude
andlatitude,and by the fruits and exportedcommodities
hereto be mentioned, the temper of the ayre may bee

knowne,or at least conjecturedmore easily. To this

purposeI will onely adde, that I landing in Palestine
aboutthe end of May, found their wheate harvest almost

inned,and in the Haven of Joppa, bought about a

Abricotsfor sixeAspers. And the yeerefollowingwhenI sailedfrom ConstantinopletowardsItaly, that
aboutthe middst of March, I did eate peaseand other
pulsein the Greeke Hands.

Lastly in Palestine,Cyprus and those parts, partly I

by others,partly I found by experience,that
it seldomeraines,and that about Septemberand October

andnot oftenat that time, but soviolentlyfor the
time,asif it would beatedownethe very houses,

(asit were) by palefullsat once,and that the fields are

watredwith night dewes, at the fall whereof no man
stirresout of dores,but with his headwell covered,for

of sicknesse,
all menusingto keepein the house
till thedewbe dried,whilein the meanetime by day the

is so excessive,
as a mancanhardlyindurehis






apparrell,though it be of linnen or silke, if it hangnot

loose but

be close about


fertility. The fertilitie of the soyle generally through this
Empire, is exceedinggreat,andthe goodnesse
of the fruits, equallethand in someplacespassethItaly.
The wines of Greece,of Mount Libanus, and especially
of Palermoin Natolia, areexceedingrich and good. Yet
have the Turkes lesseplenty of all things then Europe,
for they very sparinglyandonely to servenecessity,
set plant or sow, great part of the peoplebeing wasted
with warres, and they that remaine, having not free
fruition of their owne goods,in the great tyrannyunder
which they live, aswell of the Emperour, as of underGovernourschangedat leastoncea yeere,and the generall
rapacityand licentiousnesse
of the souldiers. Henceit is
that there be vast solitudes

and unfilled

Desarts on all

sides,whereyet the ground of it selfebrings forth divers

wild fruits without tillage. They have divers kinds of
graine, Wheate, the graine called Milet, Early, Gates,
Rye, Pease,andal kinds of Pulse,which for the kindsare
like thoseof Europe, but the Wheatefor the bignesse
the graine, and so the rest, are to bee preferredbefore
them. There is great abundanceof Rice, Flax and
Cotton growing in the fields. They havegood plentyof
all kinds of Cattell, yet areno moreindustriousin grasing
and feedingheards,then in sowing or planting; andso
they haveEgges, Hennes, Rice, Hony (which in a composition they drinke), Fruits and Bread for daily foode,
they desireno other daintiesor greaterriches,sincethey
can neither injoy their goods while they live, nor yet
bequeath them at death, and nothing is more dangerous,









Monkes in Candia, with whom I abode for a time, shewed

meefields, which the yeerepast had yeeldedthem ninety

five measuresof graine for one sowed: but Candia,
though it lie in the compasseof the Turkish Empire
almoston all sides,yet is subjectto the Stateof Venice.
The HandChios(vulgarly Zio) is subjectto the Turkes,








andis famousfor the pleasantnesse,

asalsofor the fertilitie,

yeeldingMastick (the fruit of the tree Lentiscus),and

of Patridges,& of all kindsof foule.
I havein my Journalof the first Part spokenof the most [HI.iii.i26.]
fertile Hands,Cyprus and Mettilene.

In Syriathey have sheepeof strangebignesse,whereof

many have tailes weighing twenty, and some thirty Cattcll.

bearingwooll,andbeingwrethedto their heeles,
more then the homes of Rammes are.


let no man

thinkethis incredible,sincethe sameis reportedof Sheepe

in Affrick ; and this is confirmedby consentof all, who
havebeen in these parts. Mules are somewhatrare, but

theyhaveinnumerableCamels,a beastmost apt to carry

burthens,and lying patiently downeto receivethem, and
mostable to bearehunger, and especiallythirst. When
themale and femaleingender, they lye downe on their
bellies,with tayle to tayle, and their heades many Elles

distantone from the other, and in the time of the yeere

whenthey are naturally prone to generation,they are
fiercewith a kind of madnesse,so as their masters then

takeheedeof any violence they may doe them. The

TurkesalsohavemanyDromedaries,a kinde of beastnot
unlikethe Cammell,but farrepassinghorsesin swiftnesse,
andvery Cammelsin patienceof labour. Their Horses
arerather faire then strong, and they make their skin
shine,by laying them upon their owne dung dried.
Thesehorseseither runne, (which often they put them to
torspurts,and in bravery)or goea footepace(asthey use
to follow laded Cammelsin journies), but they are not
taughteither to trot, or amble,asours are, and aregood

forshortjournies,but not ableto induresolong journies

asours doe. Thereforethe Turkish Cavalleryfor warre
is of more swiftnessethen strength, and the Germane

beingheavy,they easilyovertakethemflying, and
aseasilyflye whenthey arebeaten.
The Turkes have great plenty of seaand fresh water
fish,and of birds and all foule, and for Christian buyers

(whereofare great multitudes,especiallyat Constanti121






nople) they furnish their markets therewith. And in

truth at Constantinople,there is as great varietie and
goodnesseof thesekinds as can be wished. Onely the
Oysters,though plentifull, yet have not the delicatesalt

tastethat ourshave,the Mediterranean


so salt as the Ocean. But in generall,the Turkes, by

reasonof the foresaidtyranny, and of their temperance
in diet, doe little use fishing or fowling, or any like


TheTraffick. Yea, by reasonof the sametyranny of the Emperour,

Governoursand Souldiers,the Turkes careleslyandcoldly
exercisetrafficke with Merchants. I grant, that they
trade in Natolia, and other parts of their owne Empire
atter a cold manner,but they makeno voyageby seainto
forraigne parts, exceptingsomefew that cometo Venice.
For they doe not labour in any kind more then necessitie
forceth, and are so far from the insatiable desire of riches,

asthey avoidenothing more, then the opinion to beerich.

So as the Jewes,the Greekessubject to the Turkes, and
other confederate
Christians,exporting their commodities,
they themselveshavevery few ships,the Emperouronely
having sometwelvegreat ships,well armed,to bring him
from Egypt to Constantinople. In like sort
they have few Marrines, and those unexperienced and

fearefull,using the Greekestheir vassals,and other slaves

taken in warre, to that purpose,and they much esteeme

(that is gently treate) captivesskilfull in Navigation.

SomeTownes keepeat their private chargea few small

Gallies and Barkes, to rob the Christians, and the great

Turkes Navie consistsall of Gallies, nothing comparable

to thoseof Venice,and they winter at Constantinople,and
another Haven in Greece, whereof I shall write more

largely in the discourseof the Turkes Commonwealth.

Among other Cities of trade, they have two very
famous, one in Asia, the other in Affrick.

That of Asia

is called Haleppo, and it being within land, the Port

thereof is called Scanderonaby the Turks, and Alexan-

dretta, by the Christians,whencethe commoditiesof








Merchantsare carried upon Cammels,and the fifth day

arriveat Haleppo,whether the commoditiesof Persiaare

broughtby the River Euphrates,and upon Cammels

backes,from the Citie Taurus, of old subject to the

but in our age subduedby the Turkes. The
Indiancommoditiesare brought thither by the red sea,
and the Gulfe of Arabia.

The famous Citie for trade in [111.111.127.]

Affricke wascalledBabylon, and now is namedAlcaiero,

the commoditiesof India, Egypt, and all Affricke
areexported. Moreover, upon the mouth of the greatest
armeof the River Nilus, the City Alexandria is seated

uponthe Sea,somefew dayessailefrom Alcaiero.

The Venetiansbring into Turkey woollen clothes,TheVenetian
whichthey call broad,being died Scarlet,Violet, andof all
colours,and they are so strong & well made,as they will
lastvery long, so as the Turks prefer them before our
Englishclothes. And because
the Venetiansfurnish them
in greatquantity, they usefew other clothesof that kind.
Also the Venetiansbring to them Sattins, and Damasks
(madein Italy of Dalmatian silk) and great quantity of
Gold and Silver, to buy the pretious commoditiesof
Turkey. Whence they carry out raw silke. For by
of the foresaidtyranny, asthe Turkes arenegligent
in Husbandry and trade, so are they in manuall Arts, not

drawingtheir Silke into threads,nor weaving the same

intoclothes. And howsoeverthey haveinfinite numbers
of Silke-wormes,especiallyat Tripoli, and in most parts
of Asia, which make great quantitie of Silke, (as I
formerlysaidin the discourseof Italy), yet they sell this
Silkeraw and unwoven, and buy of the Venetiansthe
foresaidclothes made of their owne silke, so as the silke-

wormes,may well be said to beemorediligent, and more

to promotethe publike good, then the inhabitants; for
theyswarmingin all Gardens,diligentlie finish their web,
whilethe idle inhabitantsyeeld the commoditiethereof to

The Venetiansalso export from Turkey, Spices,and

wares,and greatquantitieof the Dye called





Indico. They export Galles, Gotten, wooll, Cotton

threads,Chainletsor Grograms,madeof the finesthaires

of Goates,not shearedbut pulled off" from their backes,

and woven in Galatia, a Province of the lesser Asia.

They export Turkey Carpets,Goatesskinnes wrought,

and died into divers


TheEnglish The English bring to the Turkes Kersieswrought and

Traffic*.dyedof diverscolours
andkinds,but theybringlittle
Broad-cloth,wherewith they are aboundantliefurnished
from Venice. They alsobring to them Tinne, andblacke
Conni-skinnesin such quantitie, as the Turkes admiring
the same,a Frenchmanmerily taxing our womensaffabilitie, said, that in England there was such plenty of
Connyes,and they so tame, as they were taken in the

Taverns. The English export from them Spicesand

Apothecarywares(for the tradeinto the East Indieswas
not then set up), they also export the foresaid commodities, raw silke, Indico, and other preciousDyes of

Scarlet,Purple and the like, Galles,Mastick growing

onely in the Hand Zio, Cotton, and the thread thereof,

Turkey Carpetsfor tables,Chamlets,Grogramsof Goates

haire. The Merchants comming to Constantinople,
hardly find there any commodities to export; therefore

the English ships having unladed there, saile empty to

Alexandretta, and there receive the commodities of

Haleppo. Againe, the Italians who bring muchgold and

silver to Haleppo for the commoditiesthere to beesold,
doe againereceivegold and silver for such commodities
as they bring to Constantinople,and carry the samebacke
to Venice. The English lying at the Handsof Zant and
Cephalonia,subject to the Venetians,and at Petrasso,
seatedin the Gulfe of Corinth, and subjectto the great

Turke, exportCorrands: othersfrom Algier (a Portof

Barbary) export Sugar: others from the Hand Candia
(subjectto the Venetians)export Muskadines: andothers
from divers Hands export earthen dishes and vessels
painted,which for the purenesseare much esteemedand
usedin Italy, and in our partsNorthward.








The swords of Damasco are famous for the mettall,

piercingiron, and cutting a naile in pieces,but the

exportationof them is forbidden, though our Christians
supplythe Turkes with all warlike munitions, which they
mightshameto have particularly namedin this discourse
of traffick. The preciousOrientall commoditiesof Persia
and the East Indies, have made the Trade of Turkish

Citiesto beefamous,namely, their spicesand rich dies,

andJewels,which notwithstandingthe Turkes have in
part of their owne. For I formerly said, that Arabia
yeeldsFrankinsence,Mirrh, Cinnamon,and Jewels,and
./EgyptyeeldesBalsam,and Opobalsam(the moreprecious[Ill.iii. 128.]

gummeof the Balmetree) in great quantity,omitting

manycommodities,which besidesthey have of these

kinds. I speakenot of Thessalonica
a City of Macedonia,
now called Saloniche, nor other Havens and Cities of

traffickein Greece,as being of lessemoment. All the

precioustraffick of Turkey, by reasonof the inhabitants
slothfulnesse,is in the hands of Jewes and of Christians,

andwaslong in the sole handsof the Venetians,but the

Frenchin the agepast,and the English in our age, have
had(as I may say) a trafficking leaguewith the Turkes,
andso partakethat trade. And thesethree Statesonely
(notto speakeof the Germans,who at this time hadwarre
with the Turkes,

and never saile so farre to exercise

trafficke)amongso many Statesof Christians,have their

at the Turkish Court. And if any other
arrive in that Empire (as the Flemmingsoften
doe),they usedat this time to comeunder the Bannerof
one of these three Nations.





stand,that when I was in Turkey, the English and

Flemmingshadnot asyet beguntheir traffick in the East
Indies,which is like to destroy the trafficke in Turkey,
bringingmanyrich commoditiesfrom the well head.
For their dyet, the Turkes live sparingly,I had said Theirdiet.

slovenly,but that I remembredtheir frequentbathings

andwashings,and the curious clenlinesseof the linnen,
andall other clotheswhich they weare: but I will bee






bold to say, they feede negligently, and without any

pompeor magnificence. The richer sort doe sit at meate
like Tailors with their knees bended, upon carpets,or

upon the grassewhen they eate by Rivers sidesandin

Gardens,as they doe more frequently then in the house.
And their table is so low, as they may well reachto it

sitting upon the ground. About this table they casta

long towell to wipe their hands,but passengers

by the
high-way,and generallythe ordinary sort of Turkes, use
grassein steadof this towell. Otherscarry about a table
of leathercolouredred or yellow, which table shutsand
opens like a purse, and upon it they can set but one dish

at once, it hanging hollow upon certaine buckels.

Commonlythey eate by the high-way upon the ground,
and alwaies with their knees bended like our Taylors.

They seeththeir meat till it be very tender, so as they

may breakeit with their fingers,for they have no knives,
neither have they variety of dishesset beforethem, but
all sitting in a circle, fall upon one dish. Taking meat,
they all togethersaya shortprayeror grace,andtalke not
whilest they eate, but silently fall hard to their worke.
They have aboundance
of all things for foode,aswellof
asof birds,andothermeates,
but they abstainefrom fish. They have plenty of Corne
(at least sufficient for their temperatedyet), which is
exceedinggood, and farre bigger then ours. They are
ignorant of the Arts of birding, fouling, hunting, or
cookery,and having no lasciviousapetiteprovoking them
to gluttony, are content with simple meates. Their
sobrietiein this kind cannot sufficientlybe commended,
and sincetheir greatestmen can beecontentto feedeon
rice, anddrinke water, it is no marvell, that with easethey
keepe great Armies in the field.

All the Turkish housholdstuffeis contained,in one

poore pot to seethmeatein, one spooneof wood, one

cup of leatheror wood to drinke in, a poorebed or

matresse,yea often a single coverledalone,and the earth

themfor bedsteed,








no needeof a troope of cookesand scullionsto dresse

meate,and make cleane dishes. They willingly eate
curdsturned sower and mingled with bread and water,
commonlycalledMishmish, and freshcheeseor curds,and
haveplentie of milke, aswellof cowesas of goates. In
steadof bread, they eate unleavenedcakes, baked on
thecinders,which commonlyare mingled with a kind of
seede.They feede commonly on hens,and rice (either
sod alone, or with a hen or mutton, in a vessell full of

holes,without any liquor put in when it is set on the fier,

soastherebeing no other juce, but that of the meat, the
riceis madevery thick.) Within thesenarrowboundsis
theirmostcostlyfeedingrestrained. In time of the yeere
theyfeedmuchupon fruites, and keepegrapesall winter,
soas you would judge them fresh. They abhor from
swinesflesh, as the Jewesdo, for the rest I did never see,

norheareby relationsof others,that the richest of them

didaffectany othervarietyof meate,thenI havenamed,[IH.iii.iz9.]

andI haveoften seeneMen of the better sort, eating out
of the seethingpot, without any dish set before them.
Theabovenamedflesh of Muttons is very savoury,and
thesheepeof Syria and the adjoyning parts of Asia, are
of suchgreatnesse,
asmanytimesa taile of them, hanging
to their heeles,and very woolly and fat, and closewoven
in many plights, doth weigh thirty or more pounds.
TheyhavealsoVenyson,for in the woodestherebe many
wild Goatesdispersed,and I have seenea kind of fallow
Dearein SyriacalledGazelle,of which kind I have seene
somebrought out of Barbaryinto England.
And they muchdelighting in fruites, have excellentof Fruites.
manykindes,and in great quantity, namelyAbricots, and

anddiverskindsof Pumpions,
onecalledAngouria,asbigge asour Pumpions,is exceeding full of a very cold juyce, being most pleasantfor the

in any great heat,whichcoolenesse
taketo be unwholsomefor one sickeof an ague,yet my

selfealmostwastedwith the burningof that disease,

vehementlydesire to eate of this fruite, and found it





nothinghurtfull or ratherhealthfullto me. In theHaven

of Alexandretta(or Scanderona)
a Graecianthe Masterof
a Venetianship, gaveme a presentof foure or five Apples,

whichhecalled(astheyvulgarlydoe)the Appleof Adam,

and I never in my life tastedso delicetea fruite. It was

of forme like a long Peare,or rather for the crookedness
like a Cucumer of the lessersort, and it had a most thinne

skinne, of colour like a Peechesskinne, the least part

whereof being opened,the juyce waseasily to be sucked
out, which wasvery pleasant,and not muchunlike to the
juyce of a figge newly pulled from the tree. If I should
particulariseall the kindesof pleasantfruites, I might be


The Turkes whenthey haveeaten,not while they eate,

goe like good fellowestogether,and like Horsesat once
drinke for that meale,as greedily as if the water were
turned into wine, which kind of drinke those that are

zealousof their Law, and thosethat journey by the high

way, more specially, and all Turkes in generall most
commonlyuse, for which cause,thosethat journey useto
pitch their tents, upon the banks of pure fountainsor
running waters,which they no lesseknow, or ascuriously
search out, as we doe the best Innes or Tavernes : Besides

commonlythey have a cup (if I may so call it, beinga

purse of leatherthat opensor shutswith strings)hanging
at their Horsessaddlepomell,which asthey sit on Horsebacke,they put downeinto the fountaines,anddrawwater
to drinke, not omitting to tastea good spring of water,
no more then we would a peeceof rare Wine. Their
water, especiallyin Provinceslying neere the Sunne,is
in this property contrary to ours, that it loosensthe body
no lesse, then the rice binds it. In Cities divers kinds
of drinkes are to be sold, some esteemed as much as wine

with us. One kind I rememberpresentedunto us in

Palestineby the Sobashaof Ramma,which was madeof
medicinallhearbs,to purifie and coolethe blood, andthey
drinke it hot, so as it seemesa very physicall potion.
They drinke sugar or hony mingled with water, and








watersoddenwith grapes, rosewater,and hony:


theyhavewhole Tunnesof the juyce of Cytronsand

Limons,which they willingly drinke; andall thesekinds
areto be sold in their Cities. Wine is forbidden by Wines

law, which permitsAquavitevulgarly calledbidden
Harech, which Aquavite they often drinke even to
drunckennes. And whether it be out of the common

error of mankindeto desire forbidden things, or out of

the licentiousnesof Souldiers,which every day growes

in Idlenestheyobeytheire

lawein not planting Vines, yet not only the Janizaries,

buteventhe religious men,will drinke wine largely,even
to drunkennesse,with Christians as well Ambassadoursas

others,yea,if Christian passengers

carry wine by the way
for their owne drinking, and have a Janizary to protect
them,yet they will familiarly cometo drinke with them,
andif they have no protector,they will take their wine
they haveelseat their pleasure,soastheir
falseProphethath onely provoked vice by forbidding it.
ManyProvincesyeeld rich wines, the chiefe wherof are
theGreek wines, (which notwithstandingseemedto me
for the most part to be corrasive,fretting the stomacke
andentrals); andaswell the white asred winesof Mount
Lybanusand Antilibanus, which are carried to Tripoli, [Ill.iii. 130.]
andasfarreasHaleppo,(the winesabout Jerusalembeing
and small): but the best wine of all is the white
wineof Palormo in Natolia, which is like the Spanish
but morepleasantto the taste,being not so sweete
astheCanarywines,nor so harshand strongasthe Sherry
sacke. This Wine is carried to Constantinople,where

alsogoodwinesgrow, plantedby Christiansthere,but

this is most esteemed: For onely Christiansplant Vines

andmake wine, and howsoever the Turkes are content to

takepart of them at the Christianscharge.

TheTurkish Souldiersbeing to fight, if they canfind

no wine,drinke the juyce of blackepoppy,calledOpium, Opium.
to raisetheir spirits to a kind of fury, thinking themselves
mademore valiant thereby: For howsoeverwe thinke
M. iv






this hearbe,especially
takenlargely,to be dangerous
the health, yet there is not a Turke from the highestto

the lowest,who doth not asit weredaily useit, nothing

being more frequentlysowed,nothing more plentifully
in Natolia,nothingmoreeasilyfinding
a buyer: yea,if their Cammels
theway,or uponnecessity
to journey, as sometimesit fals out in Armies andother
Journeys,then they give them this hearbe,by whichthey
report their spirits so to be stirred up, asthey will goetill
they fall downe dead.
NoInnes In this vast Empire I did seeno Innes, no not in their

Cities,and a man shallrarely find any bedsamong
Christians,and if he doe, yet the sheetesare madeof
cotten, intollerable for heate: For in Turkey generally
they lie upon Tapestry Carpets,and sometimesin Cities
upon a mattresse,with a quilt to cover them, and by the
high way they lye upon straw,hey, or grasse. And in all
placesneerePalestine,they either by night lie uponthe
house tops on a plasteredfloare, or in yards upon the
earthandin openAyre, having the spangledHeavensfor
their Canopy. And not onely passengers,
but all Turkes
daily wearelinnen breeches,so as in theseProvincesnot
subjectto cold, a man may better endurethis poorekind
of lodging : But the Turkish passengers,
in steadof Innes,
have certaine Hospitals, built of stone with Cloysters
after the manner of Monasteries,where by charitable
legacy of Alrnes, all passengersmay have meatefor
certainemealesor dayes,especiallythe Pilgrims towards
Mecha, for whose sake they were especiallyfounded:
And thesehousesare vulgarly calledKawne(or asothers
pronounceCain) andthe coveredCloystersof them,(built

after their mannerbut one roofe high), are common

well to Turkesasanyotherpassengers
to lodgein openly,
andlike goodfellowesaltogether,
theycarry,or uponthe bareground,if strawbe not tobe
had. For Christianpassengers
victuals,which failing, they supply themin







Citiesand every day in Villages may buy fresh meates,

butthey must dressetheir ownemeate.
Neitheris the Art of Cookery greater in Turkey then

withus in Wales,for toastingof Cheesein Wales,and

of Rice in Turkey, will enablea manfreelyto
the Art of Cookery.
No stranger
usethto travellwithouta Janizaryor someOf
'" Turkeyotherto guide him, who knowes the placeswhere most
lodging is to be had: but passengers
by the

wayusenot to goe into Cities,but onely to buy fresh

which done they returne to the Tents of their
which useto be pitchedin somefield adjoyning.
In hot climesneerethe Sunne,(as I have saidin the first
Partwriting my journey through Turkey) the Turkes
theredwellinguse to beginnetheir journeys towardsthe

and to end them two or threehouresafter the
rising,restingin their Tents all the heatof the day.
shall doe well to goe to the Italians
Friersat Jerusalem,and to Merchants their Countreymen,
or at least to Christians in Citties of traffick, and to the
Ambassadorsor Merchants of their owne Country at

who being themselvesstrangers,and not
ignorantof the evils incident to strangers,will no doubt
in curtesiedirect them to get convenientlodgings and
other necessaries.

Chap. II.
Of France,touching the particular subjectsof the
first Chapter.
He Longitude of Franceextendsthirteene
degreesfrom the Meridian of sixteene
degreesto that of twenty nine degrees,
and the Latitude extends eight degrees

from the Paralellof forty two degreesto

that of fifty degrees. Franceof old was
devided into Cisalpina and Transalpina.

In thedescription
of Italy I haveformerlyspokenof
whichwasalsocalledTogataof Gownes






Inhabitants wore, and Tonsa becausethey had short



i Transalpina,was subdevidedinto Comataand Nar-

bonensis. Comataso called of their long haire,was
into Belgica,(of whichI havespoken

formerlyin the descriptionof Netherland),into Aquitanica

and Celtica,or Lugdunensis. Aquitanicathe secondPart
of Comata,was of old called Aremorica,lying uponthe
MountainesPyrenei,and they differ in Languagefromthe
French, being more like to the Spaniards: next to the
Pyreni dwelt the Ansi or Ansitani, called vulgarly
Guascons,comming from Spaine. Their chief City is
Tolouse, where is a famous University, & the Parliament

of that Province. Another City called Bordeaux,hath

also an University, but is more famousby the generall
concourseof Merchants trading for French Wines.
Beyondthe River Garumnarunning through the midstof
Aquitania, dwell the Santones,an ancientpeople,whose
Countrey is called Santoigne. Next lie the Pictonesor
Pictani upon the River Loyer, whoseCountreyis called
Poictou, aboundingwith Fish, Fowle, and all Gamefor
Hunting and Hawking. It hath three chiefeCities,all
seatesof Bishops,Poictiers,Lusson,and Maillezais. The
neckeof Land adjoyningis calledAulone, andthe Hands,
Noir de Chauet, De Dieu, and Nostre Dame De Bouin,

&c yeeld great quantity of Salt to be transported. The

Countreyof the Bituriges is calledBerry, and the chiefe
City Burges,of old calledAvaricum,beingan University,
and the Citizens at sixe Faires in the yeere,sell great
quantity of woollen cloath: for the Countreyhath rich

feedingmanyflockesof sheepe,
of whosewool!
this cloath is made, besides that it aboundeth also with

Wine, Carne,andall kinds of cattell. The City is within

Land, and is calledin Lattin Biturigum of two Towers.
Next the same lies the Dukedome Burbonois, and other


Celtica or Lugdunensisanother part of Comata,con-

tainesthe part of Transalpina,that lies betweene







RiversLoyer and Seyne,beyondwhich last River France

of old extended,and included good part of Netherland.
First towards the West lies the Dukedome Bretaigne,
whichhath threeLanguagesin it selfe,all differing from
the French. The first is of the people called Bretons Bretons.
Bretonnant,comming from the English or Cornish
Brittons the first Inhabitants, and the chiefe Cities are

SaintPaul,and Treguiers. The secondpeopleare called

BretonsGalot, being of Languageneerethe French,and
thechiefeCities are Rhenes,(whereis the Parliamentof
thewholeDukedome),and Dol, and Saint Malo. The
thirdis mixt of the two former,andthe City thereofcalled
Nantes,is the Dukes seate,and chiefeCity of the Dukedome. From the SeaCoastthereof greatquantity of salt
madeby the heateof the Sunneis transported,and there
be mynes of Iron and Lead. Towards the East lies
Normandy,so called of Men of the North, namely the
Cimbri there inhabiting, and the chiefe City is Roane.
Within Land lies Turroyne, upon the Loyer, and the

chiefeCity is Orleance. Next lies the little Countreyof

France,like an Hand betweene two Rivers, so called of

a peopleof Germany,conqueringand giving

thatnameto the wholeKingdome. The chiefeCity and [111.111.132

seateof the Kings is Paris. Picardy lies towards the
North, and the chiefe City is Amiens. Upon France
within Land


the East lies the Province


paigne. Next to it lies the Dukedomeof Lorrayne, the

Dukeswhereof beare their Armes, an Arme armed break-

ingoutof Cloudes,
andholdinga nakedSword,to signifie

that the Dukes have supreme power from God alone.

And the chiefeCities of the Dukedomeare Nancy (the
seateof the Dukes), and Toul, and Neufchastell. The
next Countrey of old esteemedpart of Lorrayne, was

by theLingones,andby the Mediomatrices,
thechiefeCity by the Lattines calledMediomatricumand

Metis,is nowvulgarlycalledMetz, whichCity the King

of France
tookein the yeere1551fromthe Empire,in the
timeof the EmperorCharlesthe fifth, who besieged





samelong,but in vaine,the Kingsof Francestill holding

it. The Dukedomeof Burgundybelongedof old to the
Empire,but is now subjectto the Kings of France,the
chiefeCity whereofis Dijon, wherethe Parliamentof the
whole Dukedome is held. It hath other Cities, namely
Boanlue,Challon, Chastillon, Noyres, and a placecalled
Bourgougne,which gave the nameto the Dukedome,yet
others write that it had the name of Bourges,(that is
Townes). The County of Burgundy belongedof old to
the Empire, but is now subject to the King of Spaine,
whoseprogenitor married the daughterand heire of the
Duke of Burgundy, at which time the Kings of France
tooke the foresaidDukedomefrom the saiddaughterand
heire. And this County is vulgarly calledFrancheConte,
as free from tributes. It hath two free Cities, Dole (an
University) and Besancon.
Narboneniis.2 The secondpart of TransalpinaGallia is Narbonensis;
(which onely at this day, yet not all, may truly be called
Gallia): It wasof old calledBraccata,of the Inhabitants
apparell, and is called Narbonensisof the chiefe City
Narbona,lying upon the River Athesis, neerethe Mediterranean Sea,which Strabo witnesseth to have beeneof

old a famousCity for trafficke. The River Rhodanus

runnes through it, which falling from the Alpes, and
increasedby Araris, but still retaining the first name,fals
into the MediterraneanSea. This part called Narbonensis,by the benefitof the Ayre and Sunne,yeeldsFigges,
Wine, and all delicate fruites, and all the fields are made

odoriferousby wild Rosemary,Myrtels, Palmetrees,and

many sweetehearbes: and the Inhabitants have lately
planted Canesof sugar. To conclude,the Provinceis
very pleasantand plentifull in all things. On the West
side of Rhodanus,the Tectosagesdwelt of old in the
ProvincecalledLanguadoc,having that name,because
InhabitantsuseOc for the FrenchOuy. The chiefeCities

thereofare Narbona(aforesaid)Mompeliers(of old a

famousUniversity) & Clermont. The Dukedomeof







Savoylies in a corner,from the Alps to the mediterranean

Sea,of old inhabitedby the Focuntii, and it lying on the
sameside of the Alpes with France,is reckoneda part
thereof,but the Duke thereof is an absolute Prince, and

the chiefe City is Chambery. The Province is very

fertile,andwhereit is morebarren,yet affoordesexcellent
fruitesand all things for foode at a convenient price.
Dolphiny lies betweenethe River Rhodanus and the
Dukedomeof Savoy,and gives the nameof Dolphin to
the French Kings eldest sonne. Provence is a most
Territory, and hath the Cities, Marseile, (famous
bytradewith the Turkes), Aries, and Avignon (subjectto
thePope; for when manyPopeswere at one time, John
thetwo and twentiethdid long sit in this City, given by
JoaneQueeneof Naples to the Popes in the time of
Clementthe sixth, alienatedfrom the Kingdomeof Naples
byher, and annexedto the Patrimony of Saint Peter, in
the yeere 1360.) The Principalitie of Orange is an
absolutedominion, having the chiefe City of the same
name,andseatedbetweeneLanguedoc,Dolphiny, and the
Territorie of Avignon.
The ayreof the Northernepart of Franceis purer then Thesituation.
that of England, and being not covered with cloudes
drawneout of the Seaas England is, for that causein
winter becomesmore cold, and in summer more hot, and

farrelesseannoiedwith mists & rainy weather. But on

theother side, more & lesseaccordingto the clyme, the
partsof Francelying towardsthe MountainesPirenei and [10.111.133.]
neererto the Equinoctiall line, are subjectto intemperate
yet often allaiedby the winds blowing from the Sea,
andby the shaddowof the Mountaines. This Southerly
partyeeldesall the fruites of Italy, and in the Northerly
partsasin Normandy,they haveabundanceof Apple and
Pearetrees,of which they make great quantity of Sider
andPerry, and this part as towardsthe Seait yeeldsalso
plentyof Corne, so within Land it affoordsthe like of
Wines. And in the very Northerly Hand calledFrance,
they have plenty of Grapesupon pleasanthils watered





with sweet Rivers, but the wine made of them is small

and sharpe. All Franceis most pleasant,and not onely

about Narbona, but in many other territories (according
to the commodityof the clime), it yeeldsgreat plentyof
red and white winesexportedin great quantity, whichare
held excellentto be drunke, the white in the morning,
and the red with meate, which red is otherwise reputed

unholsome,as provoking and causingrhumes. France

with all thingsnecessary
for food,aswellCorne
as Cattell, red Deare, Fowle, and also with all kinds of

Fish, by reasonit is partly compassed

with the Sea,and
upon all sidesis wateredwith sweeteRivers. For fier
they use wood and coales,yet have they no pit coalesor
seacoales,but have their seacoalesout of Englandfor
their SmithsForges,and where they have lessestoreof
woodwithin land,therethey burnestraw,furres,andother
kinds of stubble. They havegood racesof Horses,which
the greaterpart usein the Warre, who arenot ableto buy
NeapolitanCoursers,SpanishJanets,or English Coursers,
bred of the NeapolitanHorsesand English Mares: but
for their journies they have no Gueldings or ambling
Nagges, as wee have, but commonly use trotting and
Thefertility The Gentlemendoe not meddle with trafficke, either
it wasof old forbiddento greatLords andGentlemen, lest the Kings impositions should thereby suffer
domage,they being by singularpriviledgesexemptedand
freed from all such burthens, or because in deed they

thinke suchtraffickeignobleand base,and so unfit for

them, which error the French no lessedeerelybuy then
the English, (as I have shewedin the discourseof Italy,

andshallagaineprovein thatof England). In generall,

the Frencharelessestudiousof Navigation or industrious
in that kind, becausethey aboundalmost with all things
for plentifull foode and rich attire, and if they want any
thing, strangersgladly bring it to them, and exchangeit
for their wines, salt, and course linnen cloaths; neither

haveI heardor read,that they ever did any braveexploit









by sea. They havein time of warresomefew men of

warrefor piracy,and somefew ships to export their commodities,but they saile onely to neighbourCountries,as
out of Normandyand Bretaigne,into England, Ireland,
andthe Low-Countries,and onely thoseof Marseile, to
Tripoli in Syria. As for the Colonieswhich in our Age
theyhaveled into the West Indies,their unhappysuccesse
therein,hath discouragedthem from like new attempts.
And whosoeverseestheir rich Cities within Land, witness-

ing that their wealth consistsin native commodities,more

thentrading by Sea,may easily guesse,that they are not
muchaddictedto Navigation. The French have many
commoditiesby which they draw forraigne Coynes to
them, but foure especially,Wine, Salt, Linnen course
cloth,andCorne,which in that respectsomecall the loadestonesof France. Neither is it a matter of small moment,

that they have many Rivers, giving commodity to the

mutuall trafficke of their Cities.

They have plenty of Flaxe and Hempe, whereof they

makecanvas,sayles,ropes, and cables: Neither want they

wooll, whereof they make cloth, little inferiour to the

Englishcloth, but not in quantity to be exported. Bourdeauxis a famous City for exportation of Wines, as
Rochelland the neighbour Ports are no lessefor Salt.
FranceyeeldethSaffron,and Oadefor dying, which they
call Du Pastell, and many small commodities to be
exported,asCards, Pinnes, Paper, and the like: yea they

exportinto Spaine,linnen cloathesmadethinne with wearing,andsell them therefor a good price. The Spaniards
bringinto Francesomequantity of wooll, raysons,Olives,
Oyle,Cytrons, and other fruites, whereof France needes
nogreatquantity, andCochenillofor dying. The Portingalsbring into Franceholy Thistle, (an hearbelike a white [111.111.134
thorne,having leaveslike cotten on them) and sugar,and
divers kinds of Indian wood, as Fernandbuckewood,

Fustocke,and Logwood, and a smal quantity

of Dates. And thesecarryout of Francegreatquantity

of Linnencloth,whichwe callwhiteRoanes,andgreater






quantity of vittree Canvas, and Paper, some woollen

cloth, much Corne, especiallyWheate, good quantity of
waxeandcardes,and the like commodities. The English
bring into Francegreatquantity of woollencloaths,called
Kersies and Cottons, Leade, Tynne, English Vitriall, or
blacke,sheepeskinnes,and by stealthother
Hides, forbidden to be exported, great quantity of
Hearrings, and new found land Fish dried, of wooll
(though forbidden to be exported), Oyle, Soapetunned,
Soapeashes,old worne cloakes,and (I know not to what
use) very old shooes,with other native and forraigne
commodities. And they bring from thence Linnen
cloathes,calledwhite Roanes,and Vitree Canvas,Paper,
white and red wines in great quantity, Threed, Saffron,
Waxe, and from Paris Gold and silver.

The Hollanders

bring into France two or three kindes of their Linnen

cloathes,Copper, Feathers,and Wier, and they carry
thencethe foresaidLinnen cloathes,Wines,Prunes,Paper,
and the above named commodities.

The French carry

into Italy Tinne, Lead, dry fish, called Poore John,

(brought to them by the English), and their owne above
namedcommodities. And they bring out of Italy silke
cloaths, and other Italian commodities. Among the
French, onely those of Marseile trafficke with the Turkes,

and their greatesttrade is onely at Tripoli in Syria,who

carry into Turkey Spanishsilver, and French Linnen
cloathes,and bring from thence raw silke, spices,gals,
cotton, and Indico for dying.
Their Diet.



relate that

the Gals used to lie on the

ground, to feed on milke and Swinesflesh, and to be

given to gluttony. At this day noneeatelesseBaconor
dried fleshfor ordinary diet, then the French,yet I cannot
commend their temperance,since all, as well Men as
Weomen,besidesdinner and supper,use breakefasts
bevers,which they call collationsand gouster, so eating
foure times in the day. All Franceaboundswith necessaries for food, as well all kinds of Cattle, as fruites not

inferiour in someplacesto thoseof Italy, andwild Boares,









and Red Deare, (for they have no fallow Deare); and

Birdsand Fowle, and all kinds of Fish, affoordedby the
Sea,and their many pleasantrivers, but their Beef is
neithervery good, nor muchused. Their Sheeparelesse
thenours in England, but the fleshof them is sweeteand

savoury. In the Innes they have greater plenty of

Partridges,and divers kinds of Birds, because the
Countreypeopleneither doe nor may eate them, and the
are generallysparingin their ordinary diet, so

asgreatplentyof thesedaintiesis broughtto the chiefe

Innes. HowsoeverEngland be happy in all aboundance,

andhath somedaintiesfor food proper to it selfe,asGodwits, and someother kinds of SeaFowle, and especially
fallow Deare and Brawne: Though it passethFrance
generallyin plenty of SeaFowles,and aswell the variety
asplentyof Seafishes,yet hath it not suchaboundance
as Aboundance
Francehath of Land Fowle, or such as haunt the woods LandFowle.
andfields, as Partridges, Peasants,Woodcocks,and the
like,or at leastby reasonof the commonsort not feeding
thereon,and the said spareordinary diet of the Gentlemen, France seemeth much more to abound with them,

being common in all the chiefe Innes. I speakeof

Englandin generall,for in someplacesthey so abound
with us, as they bearelittle or no price.
The French are commended and said to excell others in

boyledmeates,sawces,and made dishes,vulgarly called

Quelqueschoses,but in my opinion the larding of their
is not commendable,wherebythey take away all
varietyof taste,making all meatessavor of Porke; and
theFrenchalonedelight in mortified meates. They use
not much whitmeates,nor have I tasted there any good
Butter,which our Ambassadours
causeto be brought unto
themout of England,andthey haveonelyonegoodkinde

of Cheeses
calledAngelots,pleasingmorefor a kind of
in taste, then for the goodnesse. As well
the Gentlemenas Citizens live more sparingly then the
Englishin their ordinaryprivate diet, and have not their
Tablesso furnished with variety and number of dishes.






They dine most with soddenand liquid meates,and sup

with roastedmeates,eachhaving his several!sawce: but
their Feastsare more sumptuousthen ours, and consist
for the most part of made fantasticallmeatesand sallets,
and sumptuouscompositions,rather then of flesh or birds.
And the cookes are most esteemed,who have best inven-

tion in new madeand compoundedmeats. And asin al

thingsthe Frencharechearefulland nimble,sothe Italians
observethat they eateor swallowtheir meateswiftly, and
adde, that they are also slovenlyat meate,but I would
rather saythey arenegligentor carelesse,
and little curious
in their feeding. And to this purpose I rememberan
A Marrinersaccidentthat happenedto a Frenchman,eating with us
at the Masters table in a Venetian ship governed by
Greekes,and sailing from Venice to Hierusalem, who
turning his foule trencherto lay meat on the cleaneside,
did so offend the Master and all the Marriners, as well

the best as commonsort, as they hardly refrainedfrom

offering him violence. For Marriners in generall,but
especiallythe Greekesare so superstitious,as they tooke
this his negligencein turning his trencher, (being of
like opinionfor the turning of any thing in the shipupside

downe)asif it had beenan ominoussigne,that the ship

shouldbe castaway.
In a Village of Normandy halfe way betweeneRoane
and Diepe called Totes, and in like sort in all the Innes

of those parts, before the civill warre, assooneas

lighted from their horses,the Hoast gavethem
water to wash, and bread and wine; for the French have

not the patienceto expect their supper without some

refection. Then at supper the table was served with
Mutton, a Capon or Pullet, Patridges and like meates,
with a kind of banquet,as in Summer,Apples, Cherries,
and Grapes,and in Winter, Chessenuts,Rice, Raysons,
and stewedPrunes. Then they gave their guestscleane
sheetes,drying them at the fier in their presence,and in
the morninggave themfor breakfastsomebutteredtostes,

or morsellof meate,and for all this togetherwith horse140








meate,eachman paid some twenty two or twenty five

soulz; aslikewisethe bating at noonefor horseandman,
cost eachsome ten soulz. After the civill warre I passed

or fifteenesoulz, with worse intertainment, and for breake-

fasts paid severally, but no great rate. Towards the

confinesof Flanders, the Hoasts onely cover the table,
and a side table, upon which everie passengerhath his

for the Frencharecuriousnot to drinkein another

manscup, and the Hoasts are onely to bee paid for this
service. Otherwise at times of eating, they call the
Cookesdwelling neere the Innes, who bring the best
meatesthey have,and when the guestshavechosentheir
meate,and agreedfor the price, they carry it backe to
it, and so sendit warmewith sawces. In generall,
throughthe Cities of France,passengers
seldomedine at
their Innes, but with some companionsgoe to the
Tavernesor Cookesshops: but at night they must eate Passengers
with the Hoast that gives them beds, where they shall must
havecleanesheetes,and seethem dried beforetheir faces,
but they are of coursecloth, and very few chambersare
private,but most have three or foure beds,wherein they
lye not single, but for the most part with bedfellowes.
Alsothe guestsaswellMerchantsandGentlemen,asthose
of commonsort, eateat an ordinary table,and for supper
commonlylarge with divers roasted meates,each man
payessomefifteene soulz. He that hiers a chamberin
Cities,which he may havewell furnishedat Parisfor some
two Crownesa moneth, he must buy his meate at Cookes

shops,which are frequentand very cleanly, neither is it

anydisgrace,aswith us, to buy a morsellof meatethere,
andto agreefor the price beforeit beeeaten. And they
that hier chamberscan have no better conveniencyfor
diet, either at Paris, or in other Cities.

But hee that

stayeslong in a Citie, may agreein a Citizens house,or

an Inne for his diet and lodging by the yeere,which hee
may have at Paris in extraordinary sort for some one
hundredfifty Crownesyeerely,and ordinarily for lesse;






and at Rone for one hundred twenty, or one hundred

Crownes,and in many Cities for eighty Crownes,andin
many good Innes for sixty Crownesyeerely. Drunkennesseis reprochfull among the French, and the greater
part drinke water mingled with wine, and alwaiesFrench
wines, not Sacke or Spanish wines (which are sold as

[Ill.iii. 136.]Phisicke onely by Apothecaries),or other forraigne

Wines, whereof I remembernot to haveseeneany in the
Northerne parts of France. Yet Marriners, Souldiers
and many of the commonsort usedto drinke Perry and
Syderto very drunkennes,yea, I have seenemanydrink
winewith like intemperance,
andwhenthesekinds of men
sit at drinking, they usemuchmirth andsinging (in which
art they take greatdelight), as the French in generallare
by nature chearefulland lively. Women for the most
part, and virgins alwaies(exceptby stealth they offend
againstthe custome)use to drinke water, exceptit be in
the Provincesyeelding Perry and Syder, which all sorts
use to drinke without exception. And at Paris I remember

to have seenea poore woman to beg a cup of water,

which being given her, shedrunke it off, and went away
merily, asif shehad receiveda good almes.
Chap. III.

Of England, touching the particular subjectsof

the first Chapter.
England. ||<<p^^_vJ^TL^^||
He Longitude of England extendsnine
degreesanda halfe,from the meridianof
thirteene degreesand a halfe to that of
twenty three degrees,and the latitude

from the paralellof
fifty degreesand a halfe to that of fifty
sixe degreesand a halfe. LearnedCamden(whom I gladly follow in this descriptionof England)
makesthe circuite of all Britany to be onethousandeight
hundredthirty six miles. This is the most famousHand








of all the World, andis divided into two Kingdomes,that

of England,and that of Scotland. England is subdevidedinto divers Countiesor Shyresand Hands.

I In the description whereof I will first begin with Cornwall.
Cornwall,of old inhabited by the Danmonii. It is for
themostpart a MountanousCountry, but the soyleis not
unfirtile,besidesthat the peopleincrediblyfatten the same
with laying upon it the owes of the Sea,calledOrwood,
anda certainemud. The Seacoast(as Camdenwriteth,
whomI follow) is beautifiedwith very many Townes,
whichhave much shipping. The inward parts abound
with a rich vaine of Mettals, where wonderfull quantitie
of mostpure Tinne is digged up, and not onely Tinne,
but Gold and Silver with it, and Dyamondsformed into
Angles by nature it selfe, which we call Cornish
Dyamonds.Eringo grows plentifully all along the Sea
side,andwith greatlabour of the Husbandman,they have
of Corne,asgreat quantity of wheateis
exportedthenceinto Spaine. Also the inhabitants
makegreatgaine by the fishing of Pilchards,which they
saltanddrie in the smoke,and export an huge multitude
of them yeerely into Spaine and Italy. Here is the
famousMount Michael (of old calledDinsol, and by the
inhabitantsthe Rock Cana.) This Rocke is somewhat
high and craggy, upon the top whereof is a Chappell,
to Michaelthe Arch-Angell. The Towne Falemouthhath a faire Haven, capeableof very manyshippes,
andmost safefrom stormes, where the Rockes doe fortifie

twoCastles,built by Henry the eight, and this Haven is

byPtolomycalledOstium Cenionis.
2 Devonshirelikewise inhabitedby the Danmonii, hath Devonshire.

fairerHavens,beingno lesserich in the vainesof Tinne,

with frequentTownes. In no partof Englandthe groundrequirethmore expence,for in many
it is barren,till it beefatted with the Owseor sand

of theSea,whichmakesit wonderfullyfruitfull, but in the

partsfrom the Sea,this sandis dearelybought:

TheRiver Plimusgivesthe nameto the TownePlim-






mouth, of old called Sutton, which grew from a fishers

[Ill.iii. 137.]Villageto a faireTowne,by thecommoditie

of theHaven,
being most safeeven for great ships,as well in the said
River, as in another called Tamera. Not farre from

thence is the place, where they fable, that Coryneus

wrastledwith Gogmagog,and in this Towne wasborne

Sir FrancisDrake Knight, the cheefeglory of our Age

for Navigation, who for two yeeresspacedid with continual victories as it were besiegethe Gulfe of Mexico,
and in the yeere 1577, entring the straight of Magellan,
the World in two yeeresand tenne moneths,
with manychangesand hazardsof Fortune. The Towne
Dortmouth is muchfrequentedwith Merchantsandstrong
shippes,for the commodityof the Haven, fortified with
two Castles. The City ExcestercalledIsen by Ptolomy
and of olde called Monketon of the Monkes, is the cheefe

City of the County, and the seateof the Bishop.

Dorsetshire. 3 Dorsetshirewas of old inhabitedby the Durotriges.
The Towne Weymouth hath a Castlebuilt by Henry the
eighth, to fortifie the Haven. Dorchesteris the cheefe
towne of the County, but neither great nor faire.
Sommerset. 4 Sommersetshire
was of old inhabitedby the Netherlanders,and is a large and rich County, happy in the
fruitfull soyle,rich Pastures,multitude of Inhabitants,and
commodityof Havens. The chiefeTowne Bridgewater
hath the nameof the Bridge and the water. In the Hand
Avallon, (so calledin the Britans tongue of the Apples),
which the Latins cals Glasconia,flourished the Monastery

Glastenbury,of great antiquity, derived from Josephof

Arimathia. Dunstan casting out the ancient Monkes,
brought thither the Benedictinesof a later institution,and

himselfewasthe first Abbot over a greatmultitudeof

Monkes,indowedwith Kingly revenewes. In the Church

yardof this Monastery,they saythat the greatworthyof

the Britans Prince Arthur hath his Sepulcher. The

Episcopal! little City called Wells of the Wells, or
Fountaines, hath a stately Bishops Pallace. The City
Bathe is famous for the medicinall Baths, whereof three








Fountainesspring in the very City, which are wholsome

for bodies nummed with ill humours, but are shut up

certainehowersof the day, that no man shouldenterthem

till by their slucesthey be purged of all filth. The
Bishopof Welles buying this City of Henry the first,
removedhis Episcopallseatethither, yet still keepingthe
old name of Bishop of Welles, and there built a new
CathedrallChurch. The City Bristoweis compassed
a doublewall, and hath so faire buildings, aswell publike
asprivate houses,as next to London and Yorke, it is

to all otherCitiesof England.
5 Wilshire was alsoinhabitedby the Belgaeor Nether- Wihhire.
landers,and lies all within land, rich in all parts with
pasturesand corne. Malmesbury is a faire Towne
famousfor the woollen clothes. The Towne Wilton, of

old the cheefeof this County, is now a little Village,

beautifiedwith the stately Pallaceof the Earles of Penbroke. The City of Salisbury is made pleasantwith
watersrunning through the streetes,and is beautifiedwith
a stately Cathedrall Church, and the Colledge of the
Deaneand Prebends, having rich Inhabitants in so
a seate,yet no way more famousthen by having
JohnJewella late worthy Bishopborne there. Somesixe
milesfrom Salisbury,is a placein the fields where huge
stonesare erected,whereof someare eight and twenty
footehigh, and sevenbroade, standing in three rowes
afterthe formeof a crowne,upponwhich other stonesare
asit seemes
a worke hangingin the Ayre,
it is calledStonehengvulgarly, and is reputed
amongMiracles,as placedthere by Merlin, there being
scarceany stone for ordinary building in the Territory
6 Hamshireof old was inhabitedwithin Land by the Hamshire.
or Netherlanders,and uppon the Seacoastby the
Regni. William the Norman Conquerour,madehere a

Forrestfor Deare,destroyingTownsand holy buildings

for somethirty milescompasse,
whichgroundnow well
inhabited,yet servingfor the sameuse, we call NewM.







Forest. Southamptona faire little City, lies upon the

Sea. Wintchesterof old calledVenta of the Belgae,
a famousCity in the time of the Romans,and in these
daiesit is well inhabited,wateredwith a pleasantBrooke
and pleasantlyseated,and hath an olde Castle; wherein
there hangesagainstthe wall a Table of a round forme
[III.iii.i38.] vulgarly calledPrinceArthurs round Table : but Camden
thinkes it to havebeenmadelong after his time. It hath
a Cathedrall Church, and large Bishops Pallace,and a
famousColledgefoundedfor training up young Schollers
in learning,whencemanylearnedmen havebeenfirst sent
to the University, and so into the Church and Commonwealth. In the Towne or Fort of Portsmouth, lies a

Garrison of souldiers, to defend those parts from the

incursions of the French by Sea.


j Barkshire was of old inhabited by the Atrebatii.

Newberya famousTowne inriched by wollen clothes,had
his beginningof the ancientTowne Spina. Windsoreis
famousby the Kings Castle,neithercana Kings seatebee
in a more pleasantsituation, which draweth the Kings
often to retire thither, and Edward the third kept at one
time John King of France,and David King of Scotland,
captivesin this Castle. The sameEdward the third built
here a stately Church, and dedicatedit to the blessed
Virgin Mary and to S. George the Capadocian,andfirst
instituted the order of Knights, calledof the Garter,asan
happyomenof victory in warre(happily succeeding),
weare under the left knee a watchet Garter buckled,


having this mot in the French tongue graven in letters

of gold, Hony soit qui mal' y pense,and the ceremonies
of this order heeinstituted to be kept in this Church.
8 The County of Surry was of old inhabitedby the
Regni. Otelandsis beautifiedwith the Kings very faire

house,asRichmondis with theKingsstately


9 The Countyof Sussex,

of old inhabitedby theRegni,

hath the faire City Chichester,and the Haven Rhie,

knowneby beingthe mostfrequented

into France.








10 The County of Kent is rich in medowsPastures& Kent.

with Apples
andCherries. It hath most frequentTownes,and safe
Harboursfor ships, and somevaines of Iron. William
theNormanConquerour,after the mannerof the Romans,
instituteda Warden of the five Ports, Hastings, Dover,
Hith, Rumney,and Sandwiche,to which Winchelseyand
Rie, the chiefeHavens,and other Townes are joyned as
which have great priviledges,becausethey are
tied to serve in the warres, and the Warden of them is

alwaiesone of the great Lords, who within his jurisdiction, hath in most things the authority of Admirall, and
otherrights. Detford Towne is well knowne,where the
Kingsshipsare built and repaired,and there is a notable
Armory or storehousefor the Kings Navy. Not farre
fromthenceupon the shore,lie the brokenribs of the ship,
in which Sir Francis Drake sailed round about the World,

for a monumentof that greataction. Greenewich
is beautifiedwith the Kings Pallace. Eltham another
houseof the Kings is not farre distant. The Towne
Gravesendis a knowne Roade. The City Rochester is

theseateof a Bishop,andhatha statelyCathedrallChurch.

Canterberyis a very ancientCity, the seateof an Archbishop,who in the Hierarchy of the RomanBishop,was
stiledthe PopesLegate, but the Popesauthority being
out of England, it wasdecreedin a Synodheld
the yeere 1534, that the Archbishopslaying aside that
title, should be called the Primates and Metrapolitanes
of all England. Before the Rode of Margat lie the
shelfesor flats of sand,whereof the greatestis
calledGoodwin sand. Dover is a Port of old very commodious,but now lessesafe,onely it is more famousfor
the shortcut to Callis in France. The Towne Rumney
oneof the five Portes,in our Grand-fatherstime lay close
upon the Sea, but now is almost two miles distant from

the same.

11 Glocestershire
wasof old inhabitedby the Dobuni. Ghcestenhire.

William of Malmesburywrites, that this County is so







fertile in Corne and fruites, as in someplacesit yeeldsa

of grainefor one sowed: but Camden
affirmes this to bee false.

The same Writer affirmes that

the very high waiesare full of Appell trees,not planted,

but growing by the nature of the soyle, and that the
fruits so growing, are better then others planted,bothin
beauty,taste,and lasting, being to be kept a wholeyeere

fromrotting. He adds,that it yeeldedin his timeplenty

of Vines, aboundingwith Grapesof a pleasanttaste,so
as the wines madethereof were not sharpe,but almostas
[III.iii.i39-] pleasantas the French wines, which Camden thinkes
probable,there being many placesstill calledVineyards,
and attributes it rather to the Inhabitants slothfulnesse,

then to the fault of the Ayre or soyle,that it yeeldesnot

wine at this day. Tewkesburyis a largeand faireTowne,
having threeBridgesover threeRivers, and beingfamous
for making of woollen cloth, for excellentmustard,and
a faire Monastery,in which the Earlesof Glocesterhave
their Sepukhers. The City of Glocesteris the cheefeof
the County, through which the Severnerunnes,andhere
arethe famousHils of Cotswold,uponwhich greatflockes
of sheepedoe feede,yeelding most white wooll, much
esteemedof all Nations.

Circester is an ancient City, the

whereofin old time appeares
by the ruinesof
the wals. The River Onse springeth in this County,
which after yeeldesthe nameto the famousRiver Thames,
falling into it.
Oxfordshire. 12 Oxfordshirealso was inhabited by the Dobuni, a
fertile County, the plaines whereof are bewtified with

andgroves,the hils with woods,andnot onely
it abounds with corne, but with all manner of cattle, and

game for hunting and hawking, and with many Rivers

full of fish. Woodstocke Towne is famous for the Kings

House and large Parke, compassed

with a stonewall,
which is said to have been the first Parke in England,
but our Progenitorswere so delighted with hunting, as
the Parkes are now growne infinite in number, and are

thought to containemore fallow Deere,then all the








ChristianWorld besides. Histories affirme, that Henry

the second,for his Mistris Rosamond of the Cliffords

house,did build in his househerea labyrinth unpassable

by any without a threed to guide them, but no ruines
thereofnow remaine. The Towne it selfehath nothing
to boast,but that Jeffry Chaucerthe English Homer was
bornethere. Godstoweof old a Nunnery, is not farre
distant,where Rosamond was buried. Oxford is a famous

University,giving the name to the County, and was so

calledof the Foorde for Oxen, or of the Foorde, and the


13 Buckinghamshirewas of old inhabited by the BuckinghamCattienchiani

(which Camdenthinks to be the Cassei),and ihireit hatha large and pleasanttownecalledAilsbury, which
gives the name to the Valley adjoyning. The city
is the chiefeof the County, and the Towne
of Stonystratfordis well knowne for the faire Innes and
statelyBridge of stone.
14 Bedfordshirehad the sameold inhabitants, and hath Bedfordshire.
the name of Bedford

the chiefe Towne.

15 Hertfordshirehad the sameold inhabitants,and the Hertfordshire.

chiefeTowne is Hertford. In this County is the stately
houseThibaulds,for building, GardensandWalks. Saint
Albonsis a pleasantTowne, full of faire Innes.
16 MidlesexCounty wasof old inhabitedby the Trino- Midlesex.
bants,calledMercii in the time of the SaxonKings. In
this County is the Kings stately pallaceHamptencourt,
having many Courtyards compassedwith sumptuous
buildings. London, the seateof the BrittansEmpire, and
the Chamberof the Kings of England, is so famous,as

it needesnot bee praysed. It hath Colledgesfor the

studieof the municipleLawes,whereinlive manyyoung

Gentlemen Students of the same.

The little

citie West-

minsterof old more then a mile distant, is now by faire

buildingsjoynedto London,andis famousfor the Church

(whereinthe Kings and NobleshavestatelySepulchers)
andfor the Courts of Justiceat WestminsterHall, where

the Parliamentsare extraordinarilyheld, and ordinarily







the Chancerie& Kings Bench,with like Courts. Also it

hath the Kings stately PallacecalledWhitehall, to which
is joyned the Parkeand houseof SaintJames. The Citie
of London hath the sumptuousChurch of Saint Paul,
beautifiedwith rich Sepulchers,
and the Burseor Exchange
a statelyhousebuilt for the meetingof Merchants: a very
sumptuousandwonderfullBridge built over the Thames:
rich shopsof Gold-smithsin Cheapeside,
and innumerable
stateliePallaces,whereofgreatpart lye scatteredin unfrequentedlanes.
17 EssexCounty had of old the sameinhabitants,and
[III.iii.i4o.] it is a large Teritorie, yeelding much Corne and Saffron,
enriched by the Ocean, and with pleasant Rivers for
fishing,with Groves,andmanyother pleasures
: It hatha
large Forrest for hunting, called Waltham Forrest.
Chensfordis a largeandfaire Towne,neerewhichis NewHall the stately Pallace of the Ratcliffes Earles of Sussex.

Colchesteris a faire City, pleasantlyseated,well inhabited,

and beautified with fifteene Churches, which greatly

in the time of the Romans.


is a safe

Haven for ships. SaffronWalden is a faire Towne,the

fields whereof yeeld plenty of Saffron, whereof it hath
part of the name.
18 The County of Suffolke was of old inhabitedby
the Iceni, and it is large, the soile fertile, pleasantin
groves, and rich in pasturesto fat Cattle, where great
quantity of Cheeseis madeand thenceexported. Saint
Edmondsberryvulgarly calledBerry,is a faire Towne,and
so is Ipswich, having stately built Churchesand houses,
and a commodious



19 The County of Norfolke had of old the same

Inhabitants, and it is a large almost all Champion
Countrey, very rich, and abounding with sheepe,and
especiallywith Conies,fruitfull andmost populous. The
City Norwich chiefe of the County, deservesto be

numberedamongthe chiefeCities of England,for the

beautyof the Houses,and the faire
building of the Churches. Yarmouth is a most faire








Towne,fortified by nature and diligent Art, and hath a

very faire Haven. Upon the bay which Ptolomy names,
jEstuariumMetaris, vulgarly calledthe Washes,lieth the

largeTowneof Linne,famousfor thesafetyof theHaven,

most easieto be entred, for the concourseof Merchants

andthe faire buildings.

20 Cambridgeshirehad of old the sameInhabitants, Cambridgeandconsistsall of opencornefields,(exceptingsomeplacessftireyeeldingSaffron),and it gives excellentEarly, of which
till it spring againe,they makegreat quantity of
Mault to brew Beere, in such quantity as the Beereis

muchexportedeveninto forraigneparts,and therehighly

esteemed.Cambridge is a famous University, seated
uponthe River Grant, by others calledCame,of which
andthe Bridge over the same,it is called Cambridge.
The Northerne part of this County consistsof Hands
andpleasantin Summer,but all coveredwith water
in the Winter, whereof the cheefecalled Ely, gives the
nameto all the rest, called(asif they werebut one Hand,)
theHeof Ely, the cheefeTowne whereofcalledalsoEly,
is famousfor being the seateof a Bishop.
2i Huntingdonshirehad of old the sameInhabitants,HuntingdonthecheefeTowne whereof is Huntingdon.

22 Northamptonshire
was of old inhabitedby the Northampton-

Coritani,and is a Countreymost painefullytilled and full shire.

of Inhabitants. Northamptonis the cheefeCity largeand
walled. Peterborow is the seateof a Bishop. Neere
Stamfordis the statelyPallaceBurleigh, built by William
thefirst, Lord Burleigh.
23 Leycestershirehad of old the sameInhabitants,a LeycesterChampionCountry and fruitfull in bearing Corne. In sfltreLutterworth a little Towne of Trade, John Wickliffe was

Pastoror Minister. Leicesterthe cheefeCity, hath more

antiquitiethen beauty.
24 Rutlandshire had of old the sameInhabitants, and is Rutlandshire.

theleastCounty of England,and hadthe nameof the red

Earth. The Towne of Uppingham deservesno other
mention,then that it is the cheefeTowne of the County.






Linconshire. 25 Linconshirehad of old the sameinhabitants,andis

a very large County, rich in Corne and Pastures,and

aboundingwith Fowleand Fish,and all thingsnecessar

for foode. The great Washesof Holland when the Sea
fiowes are covered with water, but when it ebbes,the

ground is discoveredto be passed,but not without

danger,and with a good guide. Lincolne the chief City,
was of old one of the most populousCities of England,
and one that had greatesttrade, and hath a sumptuous


Nottingham- 26 Nottinghamshirehad of old the sameinhabitants,


the chiefeCity wherof is Nottinghampleasantly


In the Westernepart is the Wood calledShirewood,feeding infinit numbersof Fallow andRed Deare,whetherthe
Kings of old werewont to retire for hunting.
27 Darbyshirehad of old the sameinhabitants,the
[III.iii.Hi.] chiefetowne whereof is Darby, faire and well inhabited,
Darbyshire.the Ayle whereof is for goodnesseproverbially preferred
before that kind of drinke in any other Towne. The
Westernepart hath high Mountaines,calledPeake,yeelding Leade,which they make into Sowes,and stibiumin
his proper vaines is there found. Likewise there Milstones are cut out, and there is the old Castle, called the

Castlein the Peake,nearewhich is a great hole or cave

in the Mountaine gaping wide, and having manyinward
caves, and this hole (with reverencebe it spoken)is
vulgarly called,The Divels ars at Peuke, of which many
fables are told, and the place is accountedamongthe
miraclesof England. The like fablesare told of Elden
hole not farredistant, very steepeand deepe.
Warwick- 28 Warwickshirewasof old inhabitedby the Cornavii;


whereinis Coventrya large,faireandwalledCitie,so

called of the Covent of Monkes, and at this day it is

the fairest City within-land, wherof the chiefe tradeof
old was making round capsof wooll, but the samebeing
now very little used, the trade is decaied. Warwick is

the chiefeCity of the County, and nearethe sameupon

the hill Blacklow,Peter of Gavestonwasbeheadedby the








Lordsof the Kingdome. Not farrethenceis a transparant

andpleasant,but little Wood, and there be cleareFountaines,which placeyeeldssweetesolitudefor the Muses,
andthere they report, that the famousworthy Guy of
Warwickafter manyadventuresatchieved,did first live an
Heremiteslife, and was after death buried.

29 Worcestershirehad of old the sameinhabitants, Worcesterwhichafter in the time of Beda were called Wiccii, either th'ire-

of wic,signifying a corneror bay, or of wyches,signifying

saltpitsin the Saxonstongue. And there are excellent
saltpits or Brookes,and new fountainesof salt are daily
found. The Country is happy in the healthfull ayre,
fertilityof soile,andsweeteRivers, but especiallyyeeldeth
of Peares,of which they makePerry a counterfeit wine, but cold and flatuous, as all those kinds of

drinkeare. Worcesterthe chiefeCity of the County was

built by the Romans,and is compassed
with a wall, and
haththe seateof a Bishop,and a faire CathedrallChurch,
with the Monuments of John King of England, and
Arthur Princeof Wales. It is alsobeautifiedwith many
rich tradeof wollen cloth, faire buildings,and
the number of Churches.

30 Staffordshire had of old the same inhabitants, and Staffordshire.

towardsthe South it hath pit-coales,and somevainesof

Iron (but the greatestquantitie andbest kind of pit-coales
is in Nottinghamshire.) Stone is a Towne of Traffike.
Lichfieldis a large and faire City, so called,as the field
of dead bodies, and it is beautified with the seate of a

Bishop,his Pallace,and the houseof the Prebends. My

selfepassingthat way,did readetheseEpitaphesin the

CathedrallChurch. The first of a Deane;

Sic testis Christe,quod non jacet hie lapis iste

Corpusut ornetur, sed spirittus ut memoretur.
0 Christ me witnesse beare, that this stone lies not

To gracethe vile body,but the soulesmemorie.






And another excellent Epitaph but superstitiousandI


not whose.

Quisquis eris, qui transieris,sta perlege,plora,

Sum quod eris, fueramquequod es, pro me precorora.
Who ere thou be, that passestby, stand,reade,andhoule,
Suchshalt thou be, I waslike thee,pray for my soule.
Yet I remembernot well, whether thesewere two Epitaphes,or onely oneand for one man.
Shropshire. 31 Shropshirehadof old the sameinhabitants,andwas
a fortified and mannedfrontyer againstthe Welsh then
divided from the English and their enemies,and thereupon was namedthe Marches. Ludlow is a Towneof
morebeautythen antiquity, beautifiedwith the Pallaceof
the King (or rather of the Prince of Wales),and thereis
a Counsel! or Court of Justice erected for Wales & the
borders, not unlike to the French Parliaments, and insti-

tuted by Henry the eight. It consistsof the Presidentof

Wales there residing, of a Secretary,an Atturney, a
Solicitor, and foure Justices of the Counties of Wales,

and as many Counsellersas the King shall pleaseto

[III.iii.i42.]appoint. In HackstowForrest,at thehill Stiperstons,

great heapesof stones,which the vulgar sort dreameto
have been the divels bridge. Wrockceter of old the
chiefeCitie built by the Romans,is now a pretty village,

and from the decaytherof grew the well knowneCitie

Shrewesburie,now the chiefeCitie, fortified by art and

nature,rich by makingwollencloth,andtradingwiththe
neighbouringWelchmen,whereHenry Percy the younger
with his forces,wasoverthrowneby Henrie the fourth.

32 Cheshire
is a greatCountyof Gentlemen,
no other
a faire Citie, where the twentieth Legion called victrix
lay in Garison, in the time of Vespasianthe Roman

Emperor. Most white salt is madeat Nantwich,and

lesse white

made at Middlewich

and Norwich.

It is rich

in Pastures, and sends great quantitie of cheesesto











cheeses are


but there is not such quantitie to transport

I know that Suffolke and the Fennes of Essex

in greatnumberto beeexported,but
they are not so pleasing to the taste as these. I know
that in all the Counties, some quantity of very good
is made for private mens uses, but not in pro-

portionto beeexported. WhereasCheshireyeeldsgreat

quantityof very good cheeses,
to thoseof

Holland,serving the greatestpart of London therewith,

and exporting the same into other parts. When the
heyresmalesof this County failed,Henry the third added
thislargepatrimonyto the Crowne,so asthe Kings eldest
sonne should

be Earle






of a County madeit a Principality, and himselfe
wascalled Prince of Cheshire: but Henry the fourth
it againeto a Countie Palatine,and at this day it
hathPalatinejurisdiction, administredby a Chamberlaine,
a speciallJudge,two ExchequerBarons,threeSerjeantsat
Law,a Sheriffe,an Atturney, an Escheator,&c.
33 Herefordshirewas of old inhabitedby the Silures, Hereford-

andit so muchaboundethwith all things necessarie

for shlre-

thelife of man,asit is not contentin that respectto have

the secondplace among all the Counties of England.
Hereford is the chiefe Citie thereof. Lemster justly
of the Sheepeswooll feeding in thosegrounds,
with which no part of Europe can compare,excepting
Apuliaand Tarentum. It yeeldsexcellentFlax, and so
good Wheate, as the bread of Lemster, and drinke of

Weably (a neighbour Towne) are proverbially praised

before all others.

34 Radnoxshire had of old the same inhabitants, and is TheShires


thefirst County of Wales, whereof Radnox is the chiefe


35 Brechnocshire
the secondCounty of Wales, had of
old the sameinhabitants,and hath the nameof the chiefe

Towne,seatedin the middestthereof,whereHenry the

eightinstituteda CollegiateChurch.





36 Monmouthshire had of old the sameinhabitants,

and is so calledof the chiefeTowne, no way so glorious,
asin that Henry the fifth Conquererof Francewasborne
there. It hath alsoanotherfaire Towne calledChepstow.

37 Glamorganshire
the fourthCountyof Wales,hadof
old the same inhabitants, and the chiefe Citie Caerdiffe

a commodious


38 Caermardenshire
the fifth County of Wales,wasof
old inhabited by the Dimetae,and is fruitefull in Corne,
aboundsin Sheepe,and in someplacesyeeldsPit-coale.
It hath the name of the chiefe Citie, where Merlin was

borne,begottenby an IncubusDevill, whom the common

peopletooke for a most famousProphet.
39 Pembrookeshirethe sixth County of Wales,hadof
old the same inhabitants. Here a long neck of land
makesan Haven,calledMilford haven,then whichEurope
hath not a morenobleHaven, or moresafe,or morelarge,
with manycreekesand saferoades,mademorefamousby
the landing of H. the seventh. Pembrookis the chiefe
Towne of the County. The Flemming having their
Townes drowned by the Sea,had a Territorie of this

Countygiven them to inhabitby Henry the first, before

Waleswassubdued,and they ever remainedmostfaithfull
to the Kings of England.
40 Kardiganshirethe seventhCounty of Wales,and
had of old the sameinhabitants, and hath the nameof the


[Ill.iii. 143.] 41 Montgomeryshire

the eight Countyof Wales,was
of old inhabitedby the Ordovices,and hath the nameof
the chiefe Towne.

42 Merionethshire
the ninth Countyof Wales,hadof

old the same Inhabitants, where upon the mountaines

greatflockesof sheepefeede,without any dangerof the

wolfe: for thewolvesweredestroied
throughall England,
whenEdgar King of England imposedthe yeerelytribute
of three hundrethwolvesupon Luduall Prince of Wales.
The little and poore towne Bala, is the cheefeof this








43 Caernarvonshire
the tenth County of Wales,had of
old the same Inhabitants, and was called Snodenforest,
beforeWales was reduced into Counties, so called of the

mountaines,whose tops are alwaies white with snow,

deservingto be named the Alps of Britany; and it is
certainethat there be lakes and standingwatersupon the
topsof thoseMountaines. The walled City Caernarvon
cheefeof the County, hath a most faire Castle,built by
Edward the first, wherein his sonne Edward the second

wasborne, and named thereof. Bangor (that is, faire

is the seateof a Bishop. Aberconwaydeserves
thenameof a strong and faire little City, rather then of
a Towne, save that it is not full of Inhabitants.

44 Denbighshirethe eleventhCounty of Wales,hadof

old the sameInhabitants, and hath the name of the cheefe

Towne,well inhabited. The little Village Momglath had

thenameof the minesof lead, which that pleasantterritory yeelds. Not far thence is the Towne Wrexham,
bewtifiedwith a most faire Tower, calledthe Holy Tower,
for the musicallOrganesin the Church.
45 The little County Flintshire the twelfth of Wales,
had of old the same Inhabitants, the fields whereof the

first yeereafter they have line fallow, yeeld more then

for one,in someplacesof Barly, in other
of Wheate,andgenerallyof Rie, andafter for foure
or five yeeres,yeeld Gates. Holiwell (named of the
sacredFountaine) is a little Towne, where is the
Fountaineof Winefrede a Christian Virgin, who being
deflouredby force, there was killed by the Tyrant, and
thisFountaineis farre and greatly famousfor the Mosse
theregrowing of a most pleasantsmell. A faire Chappell
of Freestoneis built upon the very Fountaine,anda little
streamerunnes out of it among stones,upon which a
certainebloody humour growes. The CastleFlint gave
thenameto the County.
46 I will omit Anglesey the thirteenth County of
Wales,becauseit is to be describedamongthe Hands. otherShires
47 Yorkeshireis the farre largestCounty of all Eng- ofEngland.





Yorkshire. land, and was of old inhabitedby the Brigantes. In the

Forrest called Hatfield Chase,are great Heards of red
Deare and Harts.

The Townes of Sheffield and Dan-

caster are well knowne, but of all other Hallifax is most

famous,for thePriviledgesandtherareLaw,bywhichany
one found in open theft, is without delay beheaded,

boasteththat John de sacrabosco(of the Holy Wood)

who writ of the Sphere,wasborne there. Wakefieldis a

famous Towne for making Woollen cloth. Pontfreit
namedof the brokenbridge, is a towne fairely built, and
hath a Castleasstatelybuilt asany canbe named. Neere
the little Village Towton are the very Pharsalianfieldsof
England, which did never seein any other placesogreat
Forces,and so many Nobles in Armes, as here,in the
yeere1461,whenin the civill warres,the factionof Yorke
in one battell killed five and thirty thousandof the Lancastrian faction.

Neere the Castle Knarsborow, is the

FountainecalledDroppingwell, becausethe watersdistill

by dropsfrom the rockes,into which any wood beingcast,
it hath been observed, that in short spaceit is covered

with a stony rinde, and hardensto a stone. Rippenhad

a mostflourishing Monastery,wherewasthe mostfamous
needleof the ArchbishopWilfred. It wasa narrowhole,
by which the chastity of women was tried, the chaste
easilypassingthrough it, but others being detainedand
held fast, I know not by what miracleor art. Nearethe
little towne Burrobridge, is a place,where standfoure
Pyramides,the Tropheesof the Romans,but of rude
workmanship. Yorke the chiefeCitie of the Brigantes,
is the secondof all England, and the seateof an Archbishop. The Emperour Constantius Chlorus died there,

and there begat his sonneConstantinethe great of his

[III.iii.i44.] first wife Helena, whereof may be gathered,how much
this seateof the Emperoursflourishedin thosedaies. By
a Pall (or Archbishopscloake)sent from Pope Honorius,
it was madea Metropolitan Citie over twelve Bishopsin
England, and al the Bishopsof Scotland,but somefive
hundred yeerespast, all Scotlandfell from this Metro158








politanseate,and it selfe hath so devouredthe next

as now it onely hath primacyover foure
EnglishBishops,of Durham,of Chester,of Carlile,and

theBishopof the He of man. Henry the eight did here

institutea Councell (as he did also in Wales) not unlike
the Parliamentsof France, to give arbitrary justice to
the Northerne inhabitants, consisting of a President,
as many as the King shallpleaseto appoint,
a Secretary,
&c. Hull a well knowneCitie of trade, lyes
uponthe River Humber, where they make great gaine
of the Iseland fish, called Stockfish. Upon the very
tongue,called Spurneheadof the Promontory, which
Ptolomy,callesOcellum, vulgarly called Holdernesse,is

aplacefamousby the landingof Henry the fourth. Scarborroughis a famousCastle, where in the seais great
fishingof Herrings.
48 Richmondshire had of old the sameinhabitants, and Richmcnd-

the Mountainesplentifully yeeld leade,pit-coales,and shiresomebrasse,upon the tops whereof stonesare found,
whichhavethe figuresof shelfishes
andother fishesof the
neighboringsea. Neare the Brookes Helbechs (as
infernal),are great heardsof Goates,Fallow and RedDeare,and Harts (notablefor their greatnesse,and the
of their homes.) Richmondis the chiefeCitie
of the County.
49 The Bishoprick of Durham had of old the sameTheEhhopinhabitants,and the land is very gratefull to the plower, "* cf


" r i

T "

striving to passehis labour in rruitrulnesse. It is pleasant


in Meadowes,Pastures and groves, and yeelds great

plentyof digged Coales,calledSea-coales.The Bishops
wereof old CountsPalatine,and had their royall rightes,
so as Traytors goods fell to them, not to the Kings.
Edwardthefirst tookeawaythesepriviledges,andEdward

the sixth dissolvedthe Bishopricke,till QueeneMary

restoredall to the Church, which it injoies to this day,

buttheBishopin QueeneElizabethstime,challenging
goodsof the Earle of Westmerlandrebelling, the Parliamentinterposedthe authority therof, and for the time






judgedthosegoodsto be confiscated
towardsthe Queene

chargein subduingthoseRebels. Durham is the chiefe

City of that County.
Lancashire. 50 Lancashirehad of old the sameinhabitants,andhath

the title of a Palatinate. Manchester an old towne, faire

and wel inhabited, rich in the trade of making woollen

cloth, is beautifiedby the Market-place,the Church,and
Colledge,and the clothescalled ManchesterCottonsare
vulgarly knowne. Upon the Sea-coast
they powerwater
upon heapesof sand,till it get saltnesse,
andthen by seeth
ing it, make white Salt. There be some quicksands
wherein footemenare in dangerto be wrecked,especiall
at the mouth of Cocarus.
Lancaster the chiefe Towne
hath the name of the River Lone.
The Dukes of this

County, obtainedthe Crowneof England, andHenriethe

seventhDuke of Lancaster,united this Dutchy to the
Crowne,instituting a Court of Officersto administerthe
same,namely,a Chauncelorof the Dutchy, an Attorny,a

Receiver, a Clarke of the Court, sixe Assistants, a Pursuivant, two Auditors, twenty three Receivers,and three

Weitmerland.51 Westmerlandhad of old the sameinhabitants,and

Kendale the chiefe Towne well inhabited, is famousfor

makingof woollencloth.
Cumberland.52 Cumberlandhad of old the sameinhabitants,and
hath mines of Brasseand vaines of silver, in all parts
yeelding blackeleadeused to draw black lines. Carleile
a very ancient City is the seateof a Bishop. In this
County still appearethe ruines of a wall, which the
Romans built to keepe out the Pictes from making
incursions,being so poore as they cared not to subdue
them. And the Emperike Surgeons(that is, of experiencewithout learning),of Scotlandcomeyeerelyto those
fields of the borders, to gather hearbs,good to heale

wounds,and plantedthereby the borderingsouldiers

the Romans,the vertueof whichherbsthey wonderfull



53 Northumberlandwasof old inhabitedby the Otta160








dini, and the inhabitants of our time, now exercising

in warre againstthe Scots,now resistingtheir
incursions upon these borders, are very warlike and

excellentlight Horsemen. In very many places this

Countyyeeldsgreat quantity of Seacoales. Newcastleis
a faireand rich City, well fortified againstthe incursions
of the borderingScots,whenceaboundanceof Seacoales
is transportedinto many parts. Barwickeis the last and
bestfortified Towne of all Britany, in which a Garrison of

Souldierswas maintained against the incursions of the

Scots,till the happy Raigne of JamesKing of England
and Scotland.

To describebreefly the Hands of England.

In the TheHands

narrow Sea into which the Severne fals, are two little ofEngland.
Handsi Fatholme, and 2 Stepholme, and the 3 Hand

Barry,which gavethe nameto the Lord Barry in Ireland.

Thereis also the 4 Hand Caldey,and that of 5 Londay
muchmorelarge,having a little Towne of the samename,
andbelongingto Devonshire.
On the side upon Pembrookeshire, are the Hands 6

; 7 Stockholme, and 8 Scalmcy,yeelding
grasseand wild thime. Then Northward followes 9
Lymen,calledRamseyby the English, and Saint Davids
right over againstthe seateof the Bishopof Saint
Davy. Next is the 10 Hand calledEnhly by the Welsh
Britans,and Berdsey(as the lie of Birds) by the English,
they report that twenty thousandSaintslie buried.
Next lies 11 Mona, (that is the shadowedor dusky
Hand)which after many yeeresbeing conqueredby the
English,wasby themcalledAnglesey,(asthe Handof the Anglesey.
English). It is a most noble Hand,the old seateof the
Druides(Priestsso calledof old), and so fruitfull, asit is
vulgarlycalled the Mother of Wales, the cheefeTowne
whereofis Beaumarish. Neere that lies 12 Prestholme,

(thatis, the Priests Hand), whereof the Inhabitants and

Neighboursmakeincrediblereports for the multitude of

Next followes 13 Mona or Monoeda, (as the farther
M. iv







TheIk of Mona), which we call the He of Man, the Inhabitants

Man- whereofare like the Irish in languageand manners

but have something of the Norway men. It yeeldes

abundantlyFlaxe and Hempe, hath pleasantPasturesand

Groves,and is fruitfull of Barly,Wheate,and especiall

of Gates,the peoplefeedingon Oaten bread,in all parts
are multitudes of Cattle, but it wants wood, and for fier
useth a kind of Turffe.

Russia which of the Castle we

call Castle-Towne, is the cheefe Towne, and hath a

Garrisonof Souldiers; but Duglas is the most frequented

and best inhabited Towne, becauseit hath an excellent
Haven easie to be entered. In the Westerne part Bala-

curi is the seateof the Bishopunder the primacyof the

Archbishopof Yorke, and there is the Fort calledthe
Pyle, whereina garrisonof Souldiersis kept. Upon the
SouthernePromontory lies a little Hand,calledthe Calfe
of Man, which aboundeth with Sea Birds, called Puffins,

and a kind of Duckesengenderedof rotten wood,which

the English call Barnacles. In generall the Inhabitants
havetheir properTongueandLawes,andhadtheir proper
Coyne. They abhorrefrom stealing,and from begging,
and are wonderfully religious generally,and most readily
conforming themselvesat this day to the Churchof
England,and the peoplein the Northernepart speake
Scots,and in the Southernepart like Irish. Edwin King
of Northumberland,subduedthe Northerne people,and
subjectedthem to the Crowneof England,yet with many
changesof Fortune, this Handlong hadtheir owneKings,
evensincethe NormansconqueredEngland,andsincethe
time that John King of England passinginto Ireland,by
the way subduedthis Handabout the yeere 1210,till the

Kingdomecameto the Scotsin the yeere1266. After

that time, Mary the daughterof Reginaldthe last,laid

claime to the Hand before the King of England, as

supreme Lord of Scotland,and when shee could not
prevaile, William Montague her Kinseman tooke the
Hand of Man by force, which his Heire sold for a great
summeof moneyin the yeere 1393, to William Scroope,







whobeingbeheadedfor Treason,the Handfell by right to

Henrythe fourth King of England,who assignedthe same
to Henry PearcyEarle of Northumberland,with proviso
thathe and his Heires at the coronationof the Kings of

England,shouldcarry the Sword,(vulgarlycalledLan-

casterSword)beforethe King, but the samePerseybeing

alsokilled in civill warre,the King gave that Handto [111.111-146.

Stanlye,from whom discendthe Earles of Darby, who

keptthesame,till FerdinandEarleof Darbydying without heiremale,and the Earledomefalling to his Brother,

butthis Handto hisDaughters,asHeires generall,Queene
Elizabeththinking it unfit that Women should bee set
over her Souldiersthere in garrison, gave the keeping
thereofto Sir Thomas Gerrard. But King James the
of August in the fifth yeere of his Raigne,
grantedby Letters Pattents this Hand with all things
thereuntoappertaining,to Henry Earle of Northampton,
andRobertEarle of Salisbury,their Heires and Assignes
forever,they upon doing homagefor the same,presenting
his Majesty with two Falcons, and his Heires and









Falcons. And howsoeverno use or intent of this grant

be mentionedin these Letters Pattents, yet no doubt the

grantwasmadeto the use of thoseupon whosehumble

petitionto his Majesty the Letters Pattentsweregranted,
asthereinis expresselydeclared,namelyof William Lord
Stanly,Earle of Darby, heire male to John Lord Stanly,
andof Elizabeth Countesseof Huntington, Anne wife
to the Lord Chandois, and Francis wife to Sir John

EgertonKnight, being the Heires generall of the said

JohnLord Stanly.
The famous River

Thames fals into the German Ocean

over against Zeland, and before it fals into the same,

makesthe (14) Hand Canveyupon the Coastof Essex, Hand
solow as it is often overflowed,all but somehigher hils,
to whichthe sheeperetire, being somefoure thousandin
number,the flesh whereof is of delicatetaste,and they
aremilked by young men. Neere that is the (15) Hand






socalledof the sheepe,
whereinis Quinborrough

a most faire Castlekept by a Constable. Without the

mouth of Thames,lie the shelfesor sandsdangerous
Seamen, which of the greatest,are all called Goodwin
sands,wherethey sayan Handthe patrimonyof the same
Earle Goodwinn was devouredby the Seain the yeere

TheIk of

In the Britan Sealies the (16) Heof Wight, havingin

the Seamost plentifull fishing,and the Land beingso

fruitfull as they export Corne, besidesthat in all partsit

hath plenty of Conies,Hares, Partridges,and Feasanes
and hath

also two





Also the

sheepefeedingthereupon the pleasanthils, yeeldwoolin

goodnessenext to the Fleecesof Lemster and Cotswold
Flockes. It hath sixeand thirty Townesand Castles,
the EcclesiasticallJurisdiction thereof belongs to the
Bishop of Wintchester. Towards the West lie other
Handspretentedto be French, but subject to England,
andnamely,(17) Gerzey(whither condemnedmenwereof old
Garnsey.banished)& (18) Garnsey,neitherso greatnor sofruitful,
but having a more commodiousHaven, upon whichlies
the Towne

of Saint Peter : both Hands burne a weede of

the Sea,or Seacoalesbrought out of England, and both

speakethe FrenchLanguage. I omit the sevenlies called
Siadse,and othersadjoyning,and will onely addethat the
Handslie neereCornewall, which the Greekescalled Hes-

perides,the English call Silly, and the Netherlanders

Sorlings, being in number some 145 more or lesse,
whereof some yeeld Wheate, all abound with Conies,
Cranes,Swannes,Hirnshawes, and other SeaBirdes. The

greatestof them is calledSaint Mary, and hath a Castle

wherein Souldiers lie in Garrison, committed in our time

to the keeping of Sir FrancisGodolphin,and after to his

sonneSir William Godolphin,being of a nobleFamilyin
Cornewall. Also many of the said Hands have vaines
of Tynne, and from hencewas Leade first carriedinto
Greece,and the Roman Emperoursbanishedcondemned
men hither, to worke in the Mines of mettall.







The ayre of England is temperate,but thicke, cloudy Thesituation.

andmisty, and Caesarwitnesseth,that the cold is not so

in Englandasin France. For theSunnedraweth
up the vapoursof the Seawhichcompasseth
the Hand,
anddistills them upon the earth in frequent showersof
raine, so that frosts are somewhat rare; and howsoever

Snowmay often fall in the Winter time, yet in the

parts (especially)it seldomelies long on the

ground. Also the cooleblastsof Seawinds, mittigate

the heat of Summer.

By reason of this temper, Lawrell and RosemaryThe

flourishall Winter, especiallyin the Southerneparts,andin andtrafficke.
time EnglandyeeldsAbricots plentifully, Muske
melonsin good quantity, and Figges in some places,[III.111.147.]
all which ripen well, and happily imitate the taste and
of the samefruites in Italy. And by the same
all beastsbring forth their young in the openfields,
evenin the time of Winter; and England hath such
of Apples, Peares,Cherries,and Plummes,
suchvariety of them, and so good in all respects,as no
countrieyeelds more or better, for which the Italians
wouldgladly exchangetheir Citrons and Oranges. But
uponthe Seacoast,the winds many timesblast the fruites
in the very flower.

The English are so naturally inclined to pleasure,as

thereis no Countrie, wherein the Gentlemen and Lords

haveso many and large Parkes onely reservedfor the

of hunting, or where all sorts of men alot so
muchground about their housesfor pleasureof Gardens
andOrchards. The very Grapes,especiallytowardsthe
Southand West are of a pleasanttaste,and I have said,
thatin someCounties, as in Glostershire, they made Wine

of old,whichno doubt manypartswould yeeldat this day,

but that the inhabitants forbeare to plant Vines, aswell

they are servedplentifully, and at a good rate
with French wines, as for that the hilles most fit to beare

yeeldmorecommoditieby feedingof Sheepeand
Cattell. Caesarwrites in his Commentaries,that Britany






yeeldswhite Leadewithin land, and Iron upon the Seacoasts. No doubt England hath unexhaustiblevainesof
both, and also of Tinne, and yeeldsgreat quantitieof
Brasse,and of Allom and Iron, and aboundswith quarries
of Free-stone,and Fountainesof most pure Salt; andI
formerly said that it yeeldssomequantity of Silver,and
that the Tinne and Leadeis mingled with Silver, but so,
asit doth not largely quit the costof the labourin seperat
ing or trying it. Two Cities yeeld medicinall Baths,
namely, Buxstone and Bathe, and the waters of Bathe
especially,have great vertue in many diseases.England
aboundswith Sea-coales
upon the Sea-coast,
andwith Pitcoaleswithin land. But the Woods at this day arerather
frequentand pleasantthen vast, being exhaustedfor fier,
and with Iron-milles, so as the quantity of wood and
charcoalefor fier, is much deminished,in respectof the
old abundance,and in someplaces,asin the Fennesthey
burne Turffe, and the very dung of Cowes. Yet in the
meanetime England exportsgreat quantity of Seacoal
to forraine parts. In like sort England hath infinite
quantity, as of Mettalls, so of Wooll, and of Woollen
cloathesto be exported. The English Beereis famousin
Beere. Netherlandand lower Germany,which is madeof Barley
and Hops; for England yeeldsplenty of Hops, howsoever they also use Flemish Hops. The Cities of lower
Germany upon the sea, forbid the publike sellingof
English Beere,to satisfietheir ownebrewers,yet privately
swallow it like Nectar. But in Netherland, great and

incrediblequantity thereofis spent. Englandabound

with corne,which they may transport,when a quarter(in
someplacescontaining sixe, in others eight bushels)is
sold for twenty shillings, or under; and this cornenot
onely servesEngland, but alsoservedthe English Army
in the civil warres of Ireland, at which time they also

exportedgreatquantitythereofinto forraigneparts,and

by Godsmercy England scarceoncein ten yeeresneedes

supply of forraigne Corne, which want commonlypro-

ceedsof the covetousnesse

of privatemen,exportingor








hiding it. Yet I must confesse,that daily this plenty

of Cornedecreaseth,
by reasonthat private men finding

in feedingof Sheepe
in the Plough, requiring the handsof manyservants,can
by no Law be restrainedfrom turning corne fields into
inclosedPastures,especiallysincegreat men are the first
to breaketheseLawes. England aboundswith all kinds

of foule, aswell of the Sea,as of the land, and hath more Faults.

tameSwannesswimmingin the Rivers, then I did seein

anyother part. It hath multitudes of hurtfull birds, as
Crowes,Ravens,and Kytes, and they labor not to destroy

the Crowes,consuminggreat quantity of Corne,because

theyfeedeon wormesand other things hurting the Corne.
And in greatCities it is forbiddento kill Kytes or Ravens,
they devoure the filth of the streetes. England
hathvery great plenty of Seaand River fish, especiallie
aboveall other parts abundanceof Oysters,Makrell, and
Herrings,and the English are very industrousin fishing,
thoughnothing comparableto the Flemmings therein.
The English export into Italy great quantity of red [III.iii-HS.
Herrings, with gaine of two or three for one, (not to
speakein this place of other commoditieswhich they
exportwith greatgaine),and in this fishing they are very Fishes.
industrious, as well in the Seaupon the coasts,as in the

NortherneHands. To conclude,they export in great

quantityall kinds of saltedfishes,and thosedried in the
smokeand pickled, as Pilchards,Poore John, Caviale,
Botargo,and the like, which they sell in Italy, and those
partsat a dearerate. England aboundswith pulseof all

kinds,andyeeldsgreatquantitieof Saffronand of Flax,

wherof they have also great quantitie from Dantzke,
whencealsothey have like plentie of Pitch, and of Firre
treesfor Masts of ships, which two things if England
wantednot, I durst saythat this Hand(or part of an Hand)

aboundswith all things necessary

for honestclothing,
largeand dainty feeding,and for warre by land and sea.
As for warre,it hath not onely the aforesaidmettalls,but

alsogreat quantity of Saltpeter. Besidesthe famous






Broad cloth, it yeeldsfor clothing many Stuffes,whereof

greatquantitieis alsoexported. And I will not omit,that

howsoeverit hath silke from forraigne parts, yet the

Englishsilke stockingsare muchto beepreferredbefore

thoseof Italy, Spaine,or any part in the World.


in Cattellof all kinds,andparticularly

hath very great Oxen, the flesh whereof is so tender,as

no meate is more desired. The Cowesare alsogreat
with largeudders,yeeldingplenty of Whitmeates,no part
in the World yeeldinggreatervariety, nor better of that
kind. And the hides of Oxen are (contrary to the
commongood) exportedin great quantity by unjustifiable
licenses,though strictly forbiddenby many Statutes. The
flesh of Hogges and Swine is more savoury,then in any
other parts,exceptingthe baconof Westphalia,andof the
SoutherneHands,wherethey commonlyfeedeon Rootes
andChesnuts. The goodnesse
of the Sheepemaybe conjectured by the excellencyof the wooll, and wollen
clothes,which Sheepeare subject to rotting, when they
feedeon low wet grounds, exceptingthe Marshesoverflowed by the sea,which for the saltnesseare held very
wholsome for them, and these rots often destroy whole

flocks, for they seldomedrinke, but are moistnedby the

dewesfalling in the night. And the feedingof Sheepe,
upon like accidentof diseases,
often undoesthe ownerin
his estate,but more commonly preservedfrom that ill,
they inrich many, so asit is proverbially said, He whose
Sheepestand, and wives die (the husbandsgaining their
dowries)must needsbe rich.
TheKings The Kings Forrestshave innumerableheardsof Red
Forrests.Deare,and all partshavesuchplenty of Fallow Deare,as
every Gentlemanof five hundreth or a thousandpounds
rent by the yeere hath a Parke for them inclosedwith
palesof wood for two or threemiles compasse.Yet this
prodigall age hath so forcedGentlemento improve their
revenewes,as many of thesegrounds are by them disparked,and convertedto feedeCattell. Lastly (without

offencebe it spoken)I will boldly say,that England(yea








all Europe that I have seene. No Kingdome in the
World hath so many Dove-houses.

I formerly said, that the Wolves were altogether

destroiedin England and Wales, so as the Sheepefeede
freelyin the fields and Mountaines. England hath much
moreDoggesaswellfor the severallkinds, as the number Dogges
of eachkind, then any other Territorie of like compasse
in the World, not onely little Dogges for beauty, but
hunting and water-Dogges,whereof the bloud-Hounds
andsomeother haveadmirablequalities. It hath infinite
numberof Conies,whereof the skinnes(especiallyblack
andsilver haired)are much prised, and in great quantity
transported,especiallyinto Turkey. The Nagges and
Gueldingsare singular for the Gentle ambling pace,and
for strengthto performegreatjournies. Soare the hunting Horses of exceedingswiftnes, much esteemedin Horses.
forraigneparts,especiallyin Franceand Scotland,and of
bothkinds the numberis infinite. The great Horses for
service,and to draw Coachesand carts, are of like number

andgoodnes,and one kinde for service,calledthe Corser

(asbred of the Neapolitan Corsersand English Mares)
yeeldsnot for bravery of race to the NeapolitanCorsers,
or SpanishGennets. I said that they are all strong,and
the horsesfor jornies indefatigable, for the English,
especiallyNortherne men, ride from day breaketo the [III.iii.i49.]
eveningwithout drawing bit, neither sparingtheir horses
nor themselves,whenceis the Proverb, that England is
theHell of Horses, the Purgatory of Servants,and the
Paradiseof Women; becausethey ride Horses without
measure,and use their Servants imperiously, and their

The Gentlemendisdainetrafficke, thinking it to abase
Gentry: but in Italy with graver counsell, the very
Princesdisdainenot to be Merchantsby the great, and
hardlyleavethe retailing commodityto men of inferiour
sort. And by this coursethey preservethe dignity and
patrimonyof their progenitors,suffering not the sinew






of the Commonwealth,upon any pretenceto be wrested

out of their hands. On the contrary, the English and
French, perhapsthinking it unjust to leave the common

sort no meanes
to be inrichedby theirindustry,andjudgOfthe ing it equall, that Gentlemen should live of their

Citizensby trafficke,andthecommon
the Plough and manuallArtes, asdivers membersof one
body, doe in this coursedaily sell their patrimonies,and

the buyers(exceptingLawyers)are for the mostpart

Citizens and vulgar men. And the daily feeling of this
mischiefe,makes the error apparant,whether it be the
prodigalitie of the Gentry (greater then in any other
Nation or age), or their too charitable regard to the
inferiour sort, or rashnesseor slothfulnesse, which cause

them to neglect and despisetraffick, which in some

and namelyin Englandpassethall other
commodities,and is the very sinew of the Kingdome. I
haveat largerelatedin this booketreating of Poland,the
English trafficke in the Baltick Sea, and treating of
Germany, their trafficke with the Hans Cities, and so

treating of other severallStates,the English traffickwith

eachof them, so asit werelost labour to repeateit againe.
Onely for Spaine,whereofI hadno causeto speaketouching their trafficke with England, I will adde, that the
English carry into SpaineWollen clothes,Saffron,Wax
and Corne,and bring from thenceOyle, Fruits, Sacksand
sweet wines, Indian spiceswith Gold and Silver.

And in generall I wil observe,that England abounds

with rich commoditiesof their owne, and exportsthem
with their own ships,from very Iselandand Moscovyeto
both the Indies, and at this day buy not so muchof the

Turkesasthey werewont, but by long Navigationfetch

Spicesandlike commoditiesfrom the farthestEastIndies.
Ofthe So as the shipping of England must needsbe very great

m numberanc[strength.But of Englands

I must speakeat large in the discourseof that Commonwealth. In the meanetime I freely professe,that in my
opinion the English Marriners are more daring then any








otherNation, in stormesof winds,ragingof Seas,and

thundringof Ordinancein Navall fights. And if any
strangertake me of too much boasting in this point, I
desirehim to considerof Martin Furbushersattemptsin
the frozen Sea, of Sir Francis Drakes, and Sir Thomas

dangerousNavigationsround about the world;
andif thesethings shal not move him, the worst I wish
himis, that in personhe may experiencetheir courageand
art in a fight upon equalltermes.
Caesarin the fourth Chapter and fifth booke of his Theirdyct.
writes thus of the Britans dyet. It is
unlawfullfor them to taste Hares, Geese,or Hennes,yet
they keepethem all for their pleasure,and the inward
partssow no Corne,but live upon milke and flesh. At
thisday the English inhabitantseatealmostno flesh more
commonlythen Hennes, and for Geesethey eatethem in
two seasons,
when they are fatted upon the stubble,after
Harvest,and when they are greeneabout Whitsontide,
at which time they are held for dainties; and howsoever
Haresare thought to nourish melancoly,yet they are
eatenas Venison, both rosted and boyled.

They have

alsogreat plenty of Connies, the flesh whereof is fat,

tender,and much more delicate then any I have eaten in

otherparts, so as they are in England preferredbefore

Hares,at which the Germanswonder, who having no
Venison(the Princeskeepingit proper to themselves,and
the hunting of Hares being proper to the Gentlemenin
mostparts),they esteemeHares as Venison, and seldom
eateConnies,being there somewhatrare, and more like
rostedCatsthen the English Connies.
The English HusbandmeneateBarleyand Rye browne
bread,andpreferreit to white breadas abiding longer in
thestomack,and not so soonedigestedwith their labour, [III. ill, 150.]
but Citizensand Gentlemeneatemost pure white bread,
Englandyeelding (as I have said) all kinds of Corne in
plenty. I have formerly said, that the English have
aboundanceof Whitmeates, of all kindes of Flesh, Fowle

andFish, and of all things good for foode, and in the







discourseof the French dyet, I have shewed,that the

English have someproper dainties,not knowne in other
parts, which I will in a word repeate. The Oystersof
Englandwere of old carriedasfarre asRome,beingmore
plentifull and savorie, then in any other part. England
hath aboundance
of Godwits,and many Sea-fowles,
be rare, or altogether unknowne elsewhere. In the
seasonsof the yeerethe English eateFallow deareplentifully, as Bucks in Summer,and Does in Winter, which
they bake in Pasties,and this VenisonPasty is a dainty,
rarely found in any other Kingdome. Likewise Brawne
is a proper meate to the English, and not knowneto
others. They have strangevariety of Whitmeates,and
likewise of preserved banquetting stuffe, in which
PreservesFrance onely may comparewith them. It is
to repeatethe rest, and I should beetedious,
if I should searchparticularly like dainties, which the
English have only, or in greater abundancethen other
TheArt of Nations. In general!, the Art of Cookery is much
Cookery.esteemedin England, neither doe any soonerfinde a
Master, then men of that profession,and howsoeverthey
are most esteemed,which for all kinds are most exquisite
in that Art; yet the English Cookes,in comparisonwith
other Nations, are most commendedfor roasted meates.

As abundanceof all things makes them cheape,so

riches(preferringa gluttonousappetitebeforeGold), and
the prodigalitie of Gentlemen (who have this singular
folly, to offer more then things are worth, as if it werea
point of dignity to pay more then others),and lastlythe
great moneysof silver, and the not having small coynes
or brassemoniesto pay for small matters,thesethings(I
say) in this great plenty make us poore, and greatly
increasethe pricesof all things. Also the saidabundance

and the richesvulgarlyincreased,

and the old custome

the English, makeour tablesplentifully furnished,where-

us gluttonsanddevourers
flesh,yet the English tablesare not furnishedwith many

dishes,all for onemansdiet, but severallyfor manymens








andnot onelyprepared
for the family,but for
and reliefeof the poore. I confesse,
that in

suchplentyand variety of meates,everie man cannotuse

moderation,nor understandeth that these severall meates

arenot for one man, but for severallappetites,that each

maytakewhatheelikes. And I confesse,
that the English TheEnglish
custome,first to serve grossemeates,on which hunger

notto feede,andthento servedainties,whichinvite

to eatewithout hunger, as likewise the longe sitting and

discoursingat tables, which makes men unawareseate
more, then the Italians can doe at their solitary tables,

thesethings(I say)give us just causeto cry with Socrates,

God deliver mee from meates,that invite to eate beyond

hunger. But the Italian Sansovineis much deceived,

writing, that in generall the English eate and cover the
tableat leastfoure times in the day; for howsoeverthose
thatjourney, and somesickly men staying at home, may
take a small breakfast,yet in generallthe English
eatebut two meales(of dinner and supper)eachday, and I
could never

see him



to eate foure


in the

day. And I will professefor my selfeand other Englishmen,passingthrough Italy sofamousfor temperance,that
weeoften observed,that howsoeverwee might have a
Pullet and someflesh preparedfor us, eating it with a
moderateproportion of bread, the Italians at the same
time,with a Chargerfull of hearbsfor a sallet,and with
rootes,andlike meatesof smallprice,would eachof them
eatetwo or three penny-worthof bread. And since all
fulnesseis ill, and that of bread worst, I thinke wee were

moretemperatein our dyet, though eating more flesh,

thenthey eating so much more bread then wee did. It
is true that the English preparelargely for ordinariedyet

andtheir friendescommingby chance,
at feastes for



are so excessive



number of dishes, as the table is not thought well

exceptthey standoneuponanother. Neither
usethey to set drinke on the Table, for which no roome

is left, but the Cuppesand Glasses

areservedin upon a [Ill.iii.iji.]






sideTable, drinke being offered to none, till they callfor

it. That the old EnglishHospitalitywas(I will boldly

say)a meerevice, I haveformerly shewedin the discourse

of the Italian diet, which let him reade, who shall thinke

this as dissonantfrom truth, as it is from the vulgar


If any strangerdesire to abide long in a City or University, he may have his Table with someCitizen of the
better sort, at a convenientrate, accordingto his quality,
from ten pound to twenty pound yeerely.

TheGerman I haveheardsomeGermans
complaineof the English

complaint.Innes,by the high way, aswell for dearenesse,

asfor that
they had onely roastedmeates: But theseGermanslanding at Gravesend,perhapswere injured by thoseknaves,
that flocke thither onely to deceivestrangers,and use
Englishmen no better, and after went from thenceto
London, and were there entertainedby someordinary
Hosts of strangers,returning homelittle acquainted
English customes. But if thesestrangershad knowne
the English tongue, or had had an honestguide in their
journies,andhadknowneto live at Romeafter theRoman
fashion, which they seldome doe, (using rather Dutch
Innes and companions),surely they should have found,
that the World affoordsnot suchInnes as Englandhath,
either for goodandcheapeentertainementafter the Guests
owne pleasure,or for humble attendanceon passengers
yea, even in very poore Villages, where if Curculioof
Plautus, should seethe thatched houses,he would fall into

a fainting of his spirits, but if he shouldsmell the variety

of meates,his starvelinglooke would be much cheared:
For assooneas a passengercomesto an Inne, the servants
run to him, and one takes his Horse and walkes him till

he be cold, then rubs him, and gives him meate,yet I

must saythat they are not much to be trusted in this last
point, without the eye of the Master or his Servant,to
overseethem. Another servantgives the passenger
private chamber,and kindles his fier, the third puls of his
bootes, and makes them cleane. Then the Host or








Hostessevisits him, and if he will eate with the Host,

or at a commonTable with others, his meale will cost him

sixepence,or in someplacesbut foure pence,(yet this

courseis lessehonourable, and not used by Gentlemen):
but if he will eate in his chamber, he commands what

meatehe will accordingto his appetite,and as much as

he thinkesfit for him and his company,yea, the kitchin
is opento him, to commandthe meatto be dressedas he
best likes; and when he sits at Table, the Host or

Hostessewill accompanyhim, or if they have many

will at leastvisit him, taking it for curtesieto be
bid sit downe: while he eates, if he have company
especially,he shall be offred musicke, which he may
freelytake or refuse,and if he be solitary, the Musitians TheInnes.
will give him the good day with rrmsickein the morning.
It is the customeand no way disgracefullto set up part
of supperfor his breakefast: In the evening or in the
morningafter breakefast,(for the commonsort use not to
dine,but ride from breakefastto suppertime, yet commingearlyto the Inne for better resting of their Horses)
he shall have a reckoning in writing, and if it seeme
the Host will satisfiehim, either for the due

price,or by abatingpart, especiallyif the servantdeceive

him any way, which one of experiencewill soonefind.
Havingformerlyspokenof ordinaryexpences
by the high
way,aswellin the particular journall of the first Part, as
in a Chapterof this Part purposelytreating thereof, I
will nowonely addethat a Gentlemanand his Man shall
spendas much, as if he were accompanied
with another
Gentlemanand his Man, and if Gentlemen will in such

sortjoynetogether,to eateat oneTable, the expences

be muchdeminished. Lastly, a Man cannotmore freely
at homein his owne House, then heemay doe
in his Inne, and at parting if he give somefew penceto

& Ostler,theywishhim a happyjourney.
Englandhath threepublike Feastsof greatexpenceand

solemnity,namelythe coronationof the Kings,
theFeastof S. George,as well upon his day yeerely,as






at all times whenany Knight of the Order is installed,and

the third when Serjantsat the Law arecalled. The Lord
Mayor of the City of London, upon the day whenheis
sworne& enters his Office, keepsa solemneFeastwith
publike shewesof greatmagnificence,
besidesthat heeand
[III.Hi.152.]the Sheriffes of the Citie, daily keepe well furnished
Tables,to entertaineany Gentlemanor strangerthat will
come to them, to the great honour of the City, in this
particular passingall other Cities of the World knowne


For the point of drinking, the English at a Feastwill

Theirdrink- drinke two or three healthsin remembranceof special
friends,or respectedhonourablepersons,and in our time
some Gentlemen

and Commanders


the warres of

Netherlandbrought in the customeof the Germanslarge

garaussing,but this customeis in our time alsoin good
measureleft. Likewise in some private Gentlemen
houses,and with some Captaines and Souldiers, and with

the vulgar sort of Citizens and Artisans, large andintemperatedrinking is used; but in generall the greater
and better part of the English, hold all excesse
blameworthy, and drunkennessea reprochfull vice. Clownes
and vulgar men onely uselargedrinking of Beereor Ale,


soever it is esteemed




amongstrangers,but Gentlemengarrawseonelyin Wine,

with which many mixe sugar,which I never observedin
any other placeor Kingdome,to be usedfor that purpose.
And becausethe taste of the English is thus delighted
with sweetenesse,
the Wines in Tavernes,(for I speake
not of Merchantsor GentlemensCellars)are commonly
mixed at the filling thereof, to makethempleasant. And

the samedelight in sweetnesse

hath madethe useof
Corandsof Corinthsofrequentin all places,
personsin England, as the very Greekesthat sell them,

wonderwhat we doe with suchgreat quantitiesthereof,

and know not how we should spendthem, exceptweuse

themfor dying, or to feedeHogges.








Chap IIII.
Of Scotland touching the Subjects contained in
the first Chapter.
He Longitude of Scotland extends five Scotland.
degreesfrom the Meridian of sixeteene
degreesto that of oneandtwenty degrees,
and the Latitude extends foure degrees
from the Paralel of fifty sixe degreesand
a halfe, to that of sixty degreesand a
halfe. In the Geographicaldescription
wherof,I wil briefly follow the very words of Camden
(asneereas I can),being an Authour without exception.
i The Gadeni of Scotlandwere of old next neighbours

to the Ottadini of Northumberland in England, and

inhabitedthe Countrey now calledTeysidale,wherein is
nothingmemorablebut the Monasteryof Mailros. 2 In
Merch,(so called as a bordering Countrey) the Castle
Humeis the old possession
of the Lords of Hume, neere
whichis Kelsothe ancientdwelling of the Earlesof Bothwell,whichwerelong by inheritanceAdmirals of Scotland,
andthe Merch is mentionedin Histories for nothing
more,then the valour of the said Earles. 3 Laudania of
old called Pictland, shooteth out from Merch towards
the Scottish narrow Sea, called the Frith, and is full of
mountaines,but hath few woods. In this Country are

theselittle Cities or Townes,Dunbarre,Haddington, and

Musleborrow,placeswhereinhath beeneseenethe warlike
vertueof the English and Scots. Somewhatlower and
neere to the foresaid Frith, lies Edenborough, which

Ptolomycals Castrum Alatum, a rich City of old compassed

with wals,andthe seateof the Kings, whosePalace
is at the East end in a vally, over which hangsa mountaine,calledthe Chaireof Arthur (our Britan Prince),and
from this Pallace is an easieascentto the West end, where

thelength of the City endsin a steeperocke,upon which

M. iv







is built a most strong Castle,calledthe MaidensCastle

the samewhich Ptolomy cals Alatum. This City wa
long under the English Saxons,and about the yeere960

(Englandbeinginvadedby the Danes)it became


to the Scots. Leth is a mile distant, and is a most com

modiousHaven,uponthe narrowScottishGulfe,vulgarl

4 Towards the West lay the Selgovaeupon anothe
Gulfe, running betweeneEngland and Scotland,vulgarly
called SolwayFrith, of the said Selgovas,inhabitingthe
Countriescalled Eskedale,Annandale,and Nidisdale(in
which is the little Towne Dunfrise.)
5 Next lay the Novantesin the Valleys,whereGallwa
and Whitterne (which Citie Ptolomy callsLeucopibia)are

6 In the little Countrie Caricta having good pasture

is the little Towne Gergeny,which Ptolomy callesRerigonium.
7 More inward lay the Damnii, where now Sterling



are seated.


the River

Cluyde runnesby Hamelton (the seateof the Hamelton

Family of English race,of which the third Earle of Arran
liveth in our dayes)and after by Glascow(the seatof an
Archbishop,anda little Universitie.) Here is the Territory calledLennox, whereofthe Stewardshavelong time
beenEarles, of which Family the late Kings of Scotlan
are discended,and namely Jamesthe sixth, who raisedthis

Earledomto a Dukedome,giving that title to the Lord

d'Aubigny, andtheseDaubignii servingin the Frenchand

Neapolitanewarres,were honouredby the Kingsof

France, with addition of Buckles Or in a field Gueules,to

their ancientcoateof Armes, with this inscriptionDistantia Jungo (that is, Distant things I joyne.) Sterling
or Strivelm lyes not farre ofF, a little Citie of the Kings
having a most strong Castleupon the brow of a steep


8 Next these towards the North lay the Caledoni

somewhatmorebarbarousthen the rest (ascommonlythey






aremorerude towardsthe North), where not onely the

aireis cold, but the Country wastand mountanous. And
herewas the CaledonianWood, so knowne to the Roman

Writers,as it wasby them taken for all Britany, and the

Woodsthereof. At this day this Region is calledby the
Allibawne,andby the LatinesAlbania,andcontaines
the Bishoprickof Dunkeledon,and the Territory Argile

(socalledas neerethe Irish), of which the Cambellan

Familyhath the title of Earles of Argile, who are the

Justicesof Scotlandby right of inheritance,
GreatMastersof the Kings Houshold.
9 Towardsthe West lay the Epidii, inhabiting a wast
andFennyCountry, now calledCantire (that is, a corner
of land),and next lies Assinshire.
10 Next lay the Creones,which Region is now called

11 Next lay the Cornovacae,at the Promontory Hey.

12 On the East-side of the Caledonianslay the Verni-

in the fruitfull little Region called Fife, where is
theTowneof SaintAndrew, Metropolitan of all Scotland.

13 The little Region Athol is fertile, of which the

of the Family of Lome have the title of Earles.
Hereis Strathbolgythe seateof the Earlesof Huntly, of
theFamilyof the Seatons,who tooke the nameof Gordan
by the authority of a Parliament.
14 Next lies Goury, having fruitfull fields of Wheate,
whereofJohn Lord Rethven was of late made Earle : but

Arrell in this Region, hath long given the title of Earle

to theFamily of Hayes.
15 underFife lies Angush, where is Scone,famousfor
theKings consecration. Montrose hath his Earlesof the
Familyof the Grahames: but the DouglassesEarlesof
Angush,of an honorableFamily, were madeGovernours

byRobertthe third of thisRegion; andtheseEarlesare

the chiefeand principall Earles of all Scotland,
andit is said, that they have right to carry the Kings
at the solemneassemblies
of the Kingdome.
16.17 Next lye the two Regionsof Marnia and Marria







upon the sea,where is Dunetyre, the chiefeseateof the

Family of the Keythes, who by warlike vertue have
deservedto be the Marshallsof the Kingdome,andAberdene (that is the mouth of the Dene) is a famousUniversity. And QueeneMary createdJohn Ereskin Earle
of Marre, who lately was the Regent of Scotland,andis
by inheritanceSheriffeof the County of Sterling.
18 Next lay the Taizali, where now Buquhanis seated
[Ill.iii. 154.] 19 Then towards Murrey Frith, the Vocomagiof old

inhabitedRossemurrayandNesseland.20 Moreinnerly

is the Gulfe Vararis,right over againstthe Towne Invernesse.

21 The Cantae
the cornerof land shootin

towards the Sea,where is the most safe Haven Cromer.

22.23 Yet moreinwardlywhereBean,Rosse,andSouther

land are seated,the Lugi and Mertrc of old inhabited
Thus farre Edward the first King of England subdued
with his victorious Army, having beatenthe Scotson all

sides. In Southerland are Mountaines of white Marble,

(a very miracle in this cold clyme), but of no use,the

excesseand magnificencein building having not yet

reached into these remote parts. 24 Further neareCatnesse the Catni of old inhabited, the Earles of which

Country, are of the ancientand Noble Familiesof the

Sint-cleres. 25 Urdeheadis thought the remotestPromontory of all Britany, where the Cornabii of old inhabited.


26! will in one word mention the Hands.

In the Gulfe

Glotta, or Dunbritten Frith, lyes the HandGlotta, called

Arran by the Scots,giving the title to an Earle. Next
that lyes Rothesia, now called Buthe, whenceare the
StewardsKings of Scots,as they say. Then Hellanthe
Handof the Sayntes. Without the foresaidGulfe,many
Handslye thicke together, vulgarly called the Western

Hands,and numbredforty foure,beingof old calledby

someHebrides,by othersInchades,and Leucades,andby

many(asPtolomy) Ebudae. Ina one of theseHandshave

a Monastery,famousfor the buriall of the Kingsof









andfor the habitationof manyholy men,among
whichwasColumbus,the Apostle of the Picts, of whose
Cell the Hand was also named Columbkill.

The Scots

boughtall theseHandsof the Norwegians,as a great

strengthto the Kingdome, though yeelding very little

profit; theold inhabitants(whetherScots,or Irish) being

of desperate
daring, and impatient of being subject to
anylawes. Nearetheselye the Orcades(vulgarly Orkney)
aboutthirty in number, yeelding competentquantity of
Barley,but no Wheate or trees. The chiefewhereof is
well knowneby the Episcopallseate,and yeelding both Tynne and Leade. TheseOrcadesHandswere
subjectto the Danes, and the inhabitants speakethe
Gotheslanguage,but Christiern King of the Danessold
hisright to the King of Scotland. Five dayesand nights
saylefrom the Orcades,is the Hand Thule, so often
mentionedby Poets to expressethe furthest corner of
theWorld, whereuponVirgill saith; Tibi serviet ultima
Thule: that is, The furthest Thule shall thee serve.

Many have thought, that Iselandwas this Thule, condemned

to cold ayreand perpetuallWinter : but Camden
thinkes rather







Marrinersnow call Thilensall, being subjectto the King

of Scotland. In the German Sea, towards the coast of

Britany,are few Hands,save onely in Edenburg Frith,

wheretheseare found, May, Basse,Keth, and Inche colme

(thatis, the Hand of Columbus.)

Scotlandreachingso farre into the North, must needsThesituation.
besubjectto excessivecold, yet the sameis in somesort
mitigatedby the thicknesseof the cloudy aire and sea
vapours.And asin the Northernepartsof England,they
or abundance
of Fruites
andFlowers, so in Scotlandthey must have lesse,or none

atall. And I remember,that commingto Barwick in the

monethof May, wee had great stormes,and felt great

cold,whenfor two monethsbefore,the pleasantSpring

had smiled on us at London.

On the West side of Scotland are many Woodes, Thefertility.







and Lakes.

On the East side towards the

Sea,I passedFife, a pleasantlittle Territory of openfields

without inclosures,
fruitfull in Corne(asbeeall theparte
neare Barwick, save that they yeeld little wheate,and
much Barley and Gates),and all a plaine Country,but it

had no Woodesat all, onely the Gentlemens

were shaddowedwith somelittle Groves,pleasantto the
view. Scotlandaboundswith Fish, andhath plentyof all
Cattell, yet not so biggeasours, and their Horsesarefull
of spirit, and patient of labour, but very little, so asthe

Scotsthen would give any price for oneof our English

Gueldings,which notwithstandingin QueeneElizabeths

time might not upon great penaltybe sold unto them.
[III.iii.i55-] The Navy or shipping of Scotland, was of small
strength in the memory of our Age, neither weretheir
Marriners of great experience,but to make them more
diligent Merchants,their Kings hadformerly laid smallor
no impositions or customes on them : And while the

English hadwarrewith the Spaniards,the Scotsasneutrals

by carrying of English commoditiesinto Spaine,andby
having their ships for more security laden by English
Merchants,grew somewhatricher and more experience
in Navigation, andhadbetter andstrongershippesthenin
former time. And surely since the Scotsare very daring,

I cannot see why their Marriners should not beebold

and couragious,howsoeverthey have not hitherto made
any long voyages,ratherfor want of riches,then for slothfulnesseor want of courage. The Inhabitants of the
Westernepartsof Scotland,carry into IrelandandNeigh-

red andpickeledHerrings,Seacoales,
with like commodities,
andbringout of Ireland
Yarne and Cowes hides or Silver.

The Easterne Scots,

carryinto Francecoursecloathes,both linnen andwoollen,

whichbe narrowand shrinkein the wetting. Theyalso

carrythetherWooll, Skinnesof Goates,Weathers,

Conies, and divers kindes of Fishes, taken in the Scottish

Sea,and neereother NortherneHands,and after smoked

or otherwisedried and salted. And they bring from








thence Salt and Wines:

but the cheefe trafficke of the

is in foureplaces,namelyat Camphirein Zeland,

whetherthey carry Salt, the skinnesof Weathers,Otters,

Badgers,and Martens, and bring from thence Corne.
And at Burdeauxin France,whether they carry cloathes,
and the same skinnes, and bring from thence Wines,
Prunes,Walnuts, and Chessenuts. Thirdly, within the
Balticke Sea, whether they carry the said Clothes and

Skinnes,andbring thenceFlaxe, Hempe, Iron, Pitch and

Tarre. And lastlyin England,whetherthey carryLinnen
Yarne,andSalt,andbring thenceWheate,Oates,
andlike things.
The Scotshave no Staple in any forraigne City, but
tradein Franceupon the League of the Nations, and in
Denmarkehave priviledgesby the affinity of the Kings,
andflockein great numbersinto Poland,aboundingin all
thingsfor foode,and yeelding many commodities. And
in theseKingdomesthey lived at this time in greatmultitudes,rather for the poverty of their owne Kingdome,
thenfor any great trafficke they exercisedthere, dealing
ratherfor small fardels,then for great quantitiesof rich

Touching their diet: They eate much red Colewort Thediet.

and Cabbage,but little fresh meate,using to salt their
Mutton and Geese,which made me more wonder, that

theyusedto eateBeefewithout salting. The Gentlemen

reckontheir revenewes,not by rents of monie, but by
chauldronsof victuals, and keepe many peuplein their
Families,yet living moston CorneandRootes,not spending any greatquantity of flesh.
My self was at a Knights house, who had many
servantsto attend him, that brought in his meatewith
their headscoveredwith blew caps,the Table being more

thenhalfefurnishedwith greatplattersof porredge,each

havinga little peeceof soddenmeate;And whenthe

Table was served, the servants did sit downe with us,

but the upper messein steedeof porredge,had a Pullet

with someprunesin the broth. And I observedno Art





of Cookery, or furniture of Houshold stuffe, but rather

rudeneglectof both, thoughmy selfeandmy companion,

sent from the Governourof Barwickeabout bordering
affaires, were entertained after their best manner. The

Scotsliving thenin factions,

usedto keepemanyfollowers,
and so consumedtheir revenewof victuals,living in some
want of money. They vulgarly eate harth Cakesof
Gates, but in Cities have also wheaten bread, which for

the most part was bought by Courtiers, Gentlemen,and

the best sort of Citizens. When I lived at Barwicke,the

Scots weekely upon the market day, obtainedleavein

writing of the Governour, to buy Peaseand Beanes,
whereof,as also of Wheate, their Merchantsat this day
sendgreat quantity from London into Scotland.
They drinke pure Wines,not with sugarasthe English,

[III.iii.i56.] vet at Feaststhey put Comfitsin the Wine, afterthe

French manner,but they had not our Vintenersfraudto
mixe their Wines.

I did never see nor heare that they

haveany publike Innes with signeshangingout, but the

bettersort of CitizensbrewAle, their usualldrinke (which
will distempera strangersbodie); and the sameCitizens
will entertainepassengers
upon acquaintance
or entreaty.
Their bedsteads were then like Cubbards in the wall, with

dooresto be openedandshut at pleasure,soasweclimbed

up to our beds. They used but one sheete,open at the

sides and top, but close at the feete, and so doubled.

did seekea stable for their Horses in some
other place,and did there buy hors-meat,and if perhaps
the samehouseyeeldeda stableyet the paymentfor the
Horse did not make them have bedsfree as in England.
I omit to speakeof the Innesand expences
delated the same in the Itinerary of the first Part, and

a Chapterin this Part, expressely

treating thereof. When
goe to bed, their customewasto presentthem
with a sleepingcuppeof wine at parting. The Country

peopleandMerchantsusedto drinke largely,the Gentlemen some-whatmoresparingly,yet the very Courtiers,at

Feasts,by night meetings,and entertainingany stranger,







usedto drinke healthsnot without excesse,

and (to speake
truth without offence),the excesse
of drinking was then

farregreaterin general!amongthe Scotsthenthe English.

My selfebeingat the Court invited by someGentlemen
to supper,and being forewarnedto feare this excesse,
would not promiseto sup with them but upon condition
that my Inviter would be my protection from large
drinking, which I was many times forced to invoke,
being curteously entertained, and much provoked to

and so for that time avoided any great
intemperance. Remembring this, and having since
observedin my conversationat the English Court with
the Scotsof the better sort, that they spendgreat part of
the night in drinking, not onely wine, but even beere,as
my selfewill not accusethem of great intemperance,so I
cannot altogether free them from the imputation of
wherewiththe popular voice chargeththem.

Chap. V.
Of Ireland, touching the particular subjects of
the first Chapter.
He Longitude of Ireland extends foure Ireland.
degrees from the Meridian of eleven
degreesanda halfe,to that of fifteeneand
a halfe, and the Latitude

extends also

foure degreesfrom the Paralel of fifty

foure degreesto that of fifty eight

degrees. In the Geographicalldescription

I will follow Camdenas formerly.

This famousHand in the Virginian Sea,is by olde
Writers calledlerna Inverna, and Iris, by the old inhabit-

antsEryn, by the old BritansYuerdhen,by the English

at this day Ireland, and by the Irish Bardesat this day
Banno, in which senseof the Irish word, Avicen cals it

the holy Hand,besidesPlutarchof old calledit Ogigia,

and after him Isidore named it Scotia.









accordingto the Inhabitants,is devidedinto two parts,the

wild Irish, and the English Irish, living in the English
Pale: but of the old Kingdomesfive in number,it is
devided into five parts.


i The first is by the Irish calledMowne, by the English

Mounster,andis subdevidedinto sixeCounties,of Kerry,
of Limricke, of Corcke,of Tipperary,of the Holy Crosse,
and of Waterford, to which the seventhCounty of Desmond is now added. The Gangavi a Scitheanpeople
comminginto Spaine,and from thenceinto Ireland, inhabitedthe County of Kerry, full of woody mountaines,
in which the Earles of Desmond had the dignity of
Palatines,having their House in Trailes, a little Towne
now almostuninhabited: Not farrethencelies SaintMary
Wic, vulgarly calledSmerwicke,where the Lord Arthur
Gray, being Lord Deputy, happily overthrew the aiding
[III.iii.i57.] troopessent to the Earle of Desmondfrom the Pope,and
the King of Spaine. On the South sideof Kerry lies the
County of Desmond,of old inhabited by threekinds of
people,the Luceni (beingSpaniards),the Velabri (socalled
of their seate upon the Sea waters or Marshes), and the

Iberni, calledthe upper Irish, inhabitingabout Beerehaven

& Baltimore, two Havens well known by the plentiful
fishing of Herrings, andthe late invasionof the Spaniards
in the yeere 1601. Next to theseis the County of Mac
Carti More, of Irish race,whom as enemyto the FitzgeraldsQueeneElizabeth madeEarle of Glencarin the
yeere 1566. For of the Fitz-Geralds of the Family
of the Earles of Kildare, the Earles of Desmond

descended,who being by birth English, and created

Earles by King Edward the third, becamehatefull

Rebelsin our time. The third County hath the nameof

the City Corke, consistingalmostall of one long streete,
but well knowne and frequented,which is so compassed
with rebelliousneighbours,as they of old not daringto

marry their Daughtersto them, the customegrewand

continuesto this day,that by mutuallmarriages
another,all the Citizensareof kinne in somedegreeof








Affinity. Not farre thence is Yoghall, having a safe

Haven,neerewhich the Vicountsof Barry of English race
areseated. In the fourth County of Tipperary, nothing
is memorable, but that it is a Palatinate. The little

Towne Holy-Crosse,in the County of the samename,

hath many great priviledges. The sixth County hath
the name of the City Limerike, the seateof a Bishop,
whereinis a strongCastlebuilt by King John. Not farre
thenceis Awne the seateof a Bishop, and the lower
Ossery,giving the title of an Earle to the Butlers, and
the TowneThurles,giving them alsothe title of Vicount.
And thereis Cassiles,now a poore City, but the seateof
an Archbishoppe. The seventh County hath the name

of the City Waterford, which the Irish call Porthlargi, of

the commodious Haven, a rich and well inhabited City,
esteemedthe second to Dublyn. And becausethe In-

habitantslong faithfully helpedthe English in subduing

Ireland,our Kings gave them excessivepriviledges,but
they rashly failing in their obedience,at King James
his comming to the Crowne, could not in long time
obtaine the confirmation

of their old Charter.

2 Lemster the secondpart of Ireland is fertile, and Lemster.

yeeldsplenty of Corne, and hath a most temperatemild
Aire, being devided into ten Counties, of Catterlogh,
Kilkenny, Wexford, Dublyn, Kildare, the Kings County,
theQueenesCounty, the Countiesof Longford, of Femes
andof Wickle. The Cariondiof old inhabitedCaterlogh
(or Carloo)County, and they alsoinhabitedgreat part of
Kilkenny, of upper Osseryand of Ormond, which have
nothing memorable,but the Earles of Ormond, of the
great Family of the Butlers, inferiour to no Earle in
Ireland, (not to speakeof Fitz-patric Baron of upper
Ossery.) It is rediculous,which someIrish (who will be
beleevedas men of credit) report of Men in theseparts
yeerelyturned into Wolves, except the aboundanceof
melancholyhumour transportsthem to imaginethat they
areso transformed. Kilkenny giving nameto the second
County,is a pleasantTowne, the chiefeof the Townes,






within Land, memorablefor the civility of the Inhabitants,

for the Husbandmenslabour, and the pleasantOrchards.
I passeover the walled Towne Thomastowne,and the
ancientCity Rheban,now a poore Village with a Castle,
yet of old giving the title of Barronet. I passeover the
Village and strong Castleof Leighlin, with the Countrey
adjoyning, usurpedby the Sept of the Cavanaghs,now

surnamedOmores. Also I omit Rosse,of old a large

City, at this day of no moment. The third County of

Wexford, (calledby the Irish County Reogh)wasof old
inhabited by the Menappii, where at the Towne called
Banna,the English made their first discentinto Ireland,
and upon that Coastare very dangerousflats in the Sea,
which they vulgarly call Grounds. The City Weshford,
Weisford, or Wexford, is the cheefeof the County,not
great, but deservingpraisefor their faithfulnessetowards
the English, and frequentlyinhabitedby Men of English
race. The Cauci, (a SeaborderingNation of Germany),
andthe Menappiiaforesaid,of old inhabitedthe territories
now possessed
by the Omores and Obirns. Also they
inhabited the fourth County of Kildare a fruitfull soyle,
having the cheefeTowne of the same name, greatlie
honouredin the infancieof the Church by Saint Briges.

[III.iii.i58.] King Edward the second,createdthe GiraldsEarlesof

Kildare. The Eblani of old inhabited the territory of

Dublin the fifth County, having a fertile soyle and rich
pastures,but wanting wood, so as they burne Turffe, or

brought out of England. The City Dublyn
called Divelin by the English, and Balacleigh(as seated
upon hurdles)by the Irish, is the cheefeCity of the Kingdome and seateof Justice, fairely built, frequently inhabited, and adorned with a strong Castle, fifteene
Churches,an Episcopallseate,and a faire Colledge,(an
happy foundationof an University laid in our Age), and
indowedwith many priviledges,but the Haven is barred
and madelessecommodiousby thosehils of sands. The

adjoyningPromontoryHoth-head,gives the title of a

Barron to the Family of Saint Laurence: And towards







the North lies Fengall, a little Territory, as it were the

Garnerof the Kingdome, which is environedby the Sea
and great Rivers, and this situation hath defendedit
from the incursion

of Rebels in former



omit the Kings and QueenesCounties,(namely Ophaly

and Leax) inhabited by the Oconnors and Omores,as like-

wise the Counties of Longford, Femes, and Wicklo, as

lesseaffoording memorablethings.
3 The third part of Irelandis Midia or Media, calledby Methe.
the English Methe, in our Fathersmemorydevided into
Eastmeathand Westmeath. In Eastmeathis Drogheda,
vulgarlycalledTredagh,a faire andwell inhabitedTowne.
Trym is a little Towne uponthe confinesof Ulster, having
a statelyCastle,but now much ruinated, and it is more
notablefor being the ancient(as it were) Barrony of the
Lacies. Westmeath hath the Towne Delvin, giving the

title of Baronto the English Family of the Nugents,and

Westmeathis also inhabitedby many great Irish Septs,
as the Omaddens,the Magoghigans,Omalaghlens,and
which seemebarbarousnames. Shamonis
a great River, in a long coursemaking many and great
lakes(as the large Lake or Lough Regith), and yeeldes
plentifull fishing, as doe the frequentRivers and all the
of Ireland. Upon this River lies the Towne Athlon,
having a very faire Bridge of stone, (the worke of Sir
Henry SidneyLord Deputy) and a strong faire Castle.
4 Connaght is the fourth part of Ireland, a fruitfull Connaght.
Province,but having manyBoggsand thicke Woods,and
it is divided into sixe Countyes,of Clare, of Letrim, of
Galloway,of Rosecomen,of Maio, and of Sligo. The
Countyof Clare or Thowmondhath his Earlesof Thowmond, of the Family of the Obrenesthe old Kings of
Connaght,and Toam is the seateof an Archbishop,onely
part but the greatestof this County was calledClare of
PhomasClare Earle of Glocester. The adjoyning Terri-

tory Clan Richard (the land of Richardssonnes)hath his

Earles called Clanricard of the land, but being of the
EnglishFamily de Burgo, vulgarly Burck, and both these






Earleswerefirst createdby Henry the eight. In the same

Territory is the BaronyAtterith, belongingto the Barons
of the English Family Bermingham,of old very warlike:
but their posteritiehave degeneratedto the Irish barbar-

isme. The city Galwaygiving nameto theCounty,lying


upon the Sea,is frequently inhabited with civill people,

and fairely built. The Northern part of Connaghtis
inhabited by theseIrish Septs,O Conor, O Rorke, and
Mac Diarmod. Upon the Westernecoastlyes the Hand
Arran, famousfor the fabulouslong life of the inhabitants.
5 Ulster the fifth part of Ireland is a large Province,
woody, fenny, in someparts fertile, in other partsbarren,
but in al partsgreeneand pleasantto behold,andexceedingly stoaredwith Cattell. The next part to the Pale,
and to England, is divided into three Countyes,Lowth,
Down, and Antrimme, the rest containes seven Counties,

Monaghan, Tyrone, Armach, Colrane, Donergall, Fermanagh,and Cavon. Lowth is inhabited by EnglishIrish, (Down and Antrimme being containedunder the
samename),and the Barons thereof be of the Berminghamsfamily, and remaineloving to the English. Monaghan was inhabited by the English family Fitzursi, and
theseare becomedegenerateand barbarous,and in the
senseof that name are in the Irish tongue calledMac
Mahon, that is, the sonnesof the Beares. I forbeareto

speakeof Tyrone, and the Earle thereof, infamousfor his

Rebellion, which I have at large handledin the second
part of this work. Armachis the seateof an Archbishop,
and the Metropolitan City of the whole Hand,but in time
of the Rebellion was altogether ruinated. The other
[III.iii.i59.] Countyeshave not many memorablethings, thereforeit
shallsufficeto speakeof thembriefely. The neckof land
called Lecale, is a pleasantlittle territory, fertile, and
aboundingwith fish, and all things for food, and therein
is Downe, at this time a ruined Towne, but the seateof

a Bishop, and famous for the buriall of S. Patrick, S.

Bridget,and S. Columb. The Towneof Carickfergus

well knowneby the safeHaven. The River Bann run190







ningthroughthe Lake Evaghinto the Sea,is famousfor

thefishingof Salmons,the waterbeingmostcleare,wherein theSalmons
muchdelight. The greatFamilies(or Septs)
of Ulster, are thus named,O Neale, O Donnel, (wherof
the chiefewas lately createdEarle of Tirconnel) O Buil,
Mac Guyre, O Cane, O Dogharty, Mac Mahown, Mac

Gennis,Mac Sorleigh, &c. The Lake Ern, compassed

with thickeWoods, hath suchplenty of fish, asthe fishermen fearethe breaking of their nets, rather then want
of fish.


the North

in the middest of vast woods

(andas I thinke) in the County Donergallis a lake, and

therein an Hand, in which is a Cave, famous for the

apparitionof spirits, which the inhabitantscall Ellanui

frugadory,that is, The Hand of Purgatory, and they call
it SaintPatricks Purgatory, fabling that heeobtainedof
God by prayer, that the Irish seeing the painesof the
damned,might morecarefullyavoide sinne.
The land of Ireland is uneven,mountanous,soft, watry, Thesituation.
woody, and open to windes and flouds of raine, and so

fenny,as it hath Boggesupon the very tops of Mountaines,not bearingman or beast,but dangerousto passe,
and such Bogs are frequent over all Ireland. Our
Marrinersobservethe sayling into Ireland to be more
not onely becausemany tides meeting,makes
theseaapt to swelluponany storme,but especiallybecause
they ever find the coastof Ireland coveredwith mists,
whereasthe coastof England is commonlycleare,and to
be scenefarre off. The ayre of Ireland is unapt to ripen
yet (as Mela witnesseth)the earth is luxurious in
yeeldingfaire and sweetehearbs. Irelandis little troubled
with thunders,lightnings, or earthquakes,
yet (I know not
uponwhat presage)in the yeere 1601, and in the moneth
of Novemberalmost ended,at the siegeof Kinsale,and
few daies before the famous Battell, in which the Rebels

werehappily overthrowne,we did nightly heareand see

greatthundrings& lightnings, not without someastonishmentwhat they shouldpresage. The fieldsare not onely
mostapt to feedeCattell, but yeeld alsogreat increaseof






Corne. I wil freely say, that I observedthe winterscold

to be far more mild, then it is in England, so asthe Irish
pasturesare more greene,and so likewise the gardensal

winter time,but that in Summer,by reasonof thecloudy

ayre, and watry soyle, the heate of the Sunnehath not
such power to ripen corne and fruits, so as their harvest
is muchlater then in England. Also I observed,thatthe
best sorts of flowers and fruits are much rarer in Ireland,

then in England, which notwithstandingis more to bee

attributed to the inhabitants, then to the ayre.


Irelandbeing oft troubledwith Rebellions,and the Rebels

not only being idle themselves,but in naturall malice
destroyingthe laboursof other men, and cutting up the
very trees of fruits for the samecause,or elseto burne








pleasureto till their grounds, or plant trees,content to live

for the day in continuall feareof like mischiefes. Yet is

not Ireland altogether destitute of these flowers and
fruites, wherewith the County of Kilkenny seemes
abound more then any other part. And the said humility

of aire and land, making the fruits for food morerawand

moyst: hereupon the inhabitants and strangersare
troubledwith loosenesof body, the Country disease. Yet
for the rawnesthey have an excellentremedy by their
aquavity, vulgarly called Usquebagh,which binds the
belly, and drieth up moysture,more then our Aquavity,
yet inflameth not so much. Also inhabitantsaswellas
strangersare troubled therewith an ague,which they call
the Irish Ague, and they who are sick thereof, upona
received custome, doe not use the helpe of the Phisitian,

but give themselvesto the keepingof Irish women,who

starvethe ague,giving the sick man no meate,who takes
nothing but milke, and somevulgarly knowneremedies
at their



Ireland after much bloud spilt in the Civill warres,

becamelessepopulous,andaswellgreatLords of countries

as otherinferiour Gentlemen,
labouredmoreto get new
for inheritance,
thenby husbandry






ingof their old lands,to increasetheir revenues,

so asI

thenobservedmuchgrasse(wherewiththe Hand so much [HI.iii.i6o.]

to haveperishedwithout use,and either to have
rotted,or in the next spring-time to bee burnt, lest it
shouldhinder the comming of new grasse. This plenty

of grasse,makesthe Irish have infinite multitudesof

cattle,and in the heate of the last Rebellion, the very

Rebels,had greatmultitudesof Cowes,which
they stil (like the Nomades)drove with them, whether
weredriven, andfought for them asfor
their altersand families. By this abundanceof cattle, the

Irishhavea frequent,though somewhatpooretraffickefor

theirhides,the cattlebeingin generallvery little, andonely
themenand the Grey-houndsof great stature. Neither
canthe cattellpossiblybeegreat, sincethey eat onely by
day,andthen are brought at evening within the Bawnes
of Castles,where they stand or lye all night in a dirty
yard,without somuchasa lock of hay,whereofthey make
little for sluggishnesse,
and that little they altogetherkeep
for theirHorses. And they arethus brought in by nights
forfeareof theeves,the Irish using almostno other kind
of theft, or else for feare of Wolves, the destruction

whereofbeing neglectedby the inhabitants, oppressed

with greatermischiefes,
they are so much grownein
number,as sometimesin Winter nights they will come
to prey in Villages, and the subburbesof Cities. The
Earleof Ormond in Mounster, and the Earle of Kildare in
Lemster,had each of them a small Parke inclosed for
FallowDeare, and I have not sceneany other Parke in
Ireland,nor have heard that they had any other at that

time,yet in many Woods they have many red Deare,

which seememoreplentifull, becausethe
used not then to hunt them, but onely the
Governours and Commanders

had them sometimes


with thepiece. They havealsoabout Ophaliaand Wexford,andin someparts of Mounster, someFallow Deare
scattered in the Woods.

Yet in the time of the warre I

didneverseeanyVenisonservedat thetable,but onelyin

M. iv







the housesof the said Earles, and of the English Commanders. Ireland hath great plenty of Birds andFowles,

but by reasonof their naturallsloth,theyhadlittle delight

or skill in Birding or Fowling. But Ireland hath neither

singingNightingall,nor chatteringPye,nor undermining

Moule, nor blackeCrow, but onely Crowesof mingled
colour, such as wee call Royston Crowes. They have
suchplenty of Pheasants,
as I have knownesixtie served
at one feast, and abound much more with Rayles: but
Patridgesaresomewhatrare. Therebe very manyEagles,
and great plenty of Hares, Conies,Hawkes calledGosseHawkes, much esteemedwith us, and also of Bees,aswell
in Hives at home, as in hollow trees abroad,and in caves

of the earth. They abound in flocks of Sheepe,which

they shearetwise in the yeere, but their wooll is course,

& Merchantsmay not export it, forbiddenby a Law made

on behalfeof the poore, that they may be nourishedby
working it into cloth, namely,Rugs (wherof the bestare
made at Waterford) & mantlesgenerallyworne by men
and women, and exported in great quantity. Ireland
yeelds much flax, which the inhabitants work into yarne,

& export the samein greatquantity. And of old theyhad

suchplenty of linnen cloth, asthe wild Irish usedto weare
30 or 40 ellesin a shirt, al gatheredand wrinckled,and
washedin Saffron, becausethey never put them off til
they were worne out.

Their horses called hobbies,are

much commendedfor their ambling pace& beuty: but

Ireland yeeldsfew horsesgood for servicein war, andthe
saidhobbiesaremuchinferior to our geldingsin strength

to endurelong journies,& beingbred in the fennysoft

ground of Ireland,aresoonelamedwhen they arebrought
into England. The hawkes of Ireland called Gosshawkes,are (as I said) much esteemedin England,and
they are sought out by mony & all meanesto be transported thither.

Ireland yeelds excellent Marble neere

Dublin, Killkenny, andCorke; andI am of their opinion,

who dareventure all they are worth, that the Mountaines

would yeeldabundance
of Mettals,if this publikegood








werenot hindredby the inhabitantsbarbarousnes,

themapt to seditions,and so unwilling to inrich their
Prince& Country, and by their slothfulnesse,which is so

astheyhold it basenesse
to labour,andby their
poverty,not able to bearethe chargeof suchworkes,
besides,that the wiser sort think their poverty best for
publikegood, making them peaceable,
as nothing makes
themsoonerkick againstauthoritie then riches. Ireland
hathin all parts pleasantRivers, safe and long Havens,

andnolessefrequentLakesof greatcircuit,yeeldinggreat [HI.iii.i6i.]

plentyof fish. And the seaon all sidesyeeldslike plentie
of excellentfish,asSalmonds,Oysters(whicharepreferred
beforethe English,) and shel-fishes,
with all other kinds of
Sea-fish.Soasthe Irish might in all partshaveabundance
of excellentseaand fresh-water fish, if the fisher men were

not so possessed
with the naturall fault of slothfulnesse,
asno hopeof gaine,scarselythe feareof authoritie canin
manyplacesmakethemcomeout of their houses,and put
to sea. Henceit is, that in manyplacesthey useScotsfor
Fisher-men,and they together with the English, make
profitof the inhabitantssluggishnesse.And no doubt if
the Irish were industrious in fishing, they might export
saltedand dried fish with great gaine. In time of peace
theIrish transportgood quantity of Corne; yet they may
not transport it without license, lest upon any sudden

rebellion,the Kings forcesand his good subjectsshould

wantCorne. Ulster andthe Westernepartsof Mounster
yeeldvast woods,in which the Rebelscutting up trees,
andcastingthemon heapes,usedto stop the passages,
therein,as alsoupon fenny & Boggy places,to fight with
the English. But I confessemy selfe to have been
deceivedin the commonfame, that all Ireland is woody,
havingfound in my long journey from Armah to Kinsale,
fewor no woodsby the way, exceptingthe great Woods
of Ophalia,and somelow shrubbyplaces,which they call
Glinnes.Also I did observemanyboggy andfennyplaces,
whereofgreat part might be dried by good and painefull

husbandry. I may not omit the opinion commonly





received, that the earth of Ireland will not suffer a Snake
or venimous beast to live, and that the Irish wood trans-

portedfor building,is freeof Spiders


selfe have scenesome(but very few) Spiders,whichthe

inhabitantsdeny to have any poyson: but I haveheard
someEnglish of good credit affirme by experience
contrary. The Irish having in most parts greatWoods
or low shrubs and thickets, doe use the samefor fier, but

in otherpartsthey burneTurfe, and Seacoalesbrought

out of England. They exportgreatquantityof woodto
make barrels, called Pipe-staves,and make greatgaine
thereby. They are not permittedto build greatshipsfor
warre, but they have small ships in some sort armedto

resistPirats, for transportingof commoditiesinto Spaine

andFrance,yet no great numberof them. Therforesince
the Irish havesmallskill in Navigation,as I cannotpraise
them for this Art, soI am confident,that the Nation being
bold and warlike, would no doubt prove brave Sea-men
if they shall practiseNavigation, and could possiblybee
industrious therein. I freely professe,that Irelandin
generallwould yeeldabundanceof all things to civill and
industriousinhabitants. And when it lay wastedby the
late Rebellion,I did seeit after the commingof the Lord
Montjoy daily more and more to flourish, and in short
time after the Rebellionappeased,
like the new Springto
put on the wonted beauty.

Thedyet. Touching the Irish dyet, SomeLords andKnights,and

Gentlemenof the English-Irish, andall the Englishthere

usethe Englishdyet,

but somemore, somelessecleanly,few or nonecuriously,

andno doubt they haveasgreatand for their part greater
plenty then the English, of flesh,fowle,fish,andall things

for food,if theywill uselike Art of Cookery. Alwaies

except the Fruits, Venison, and some dainties properto

England,and rare in Ireland. And we must conceive

that Venison and Fowle seemeto be more plentifulin
Ireland, becausethey neither so generallyaffect dainty

foode,nor sodiligentlysearch
it astheEnglishdo. Many








of the English-Irish,haveby little and little beeninfected

with the Irish filthinesse, and that in the very cities,
exceptingDublyn, and someof the better sort in Waterford, where the English continually lodging in their
they moreretainethe English diet. The EnglishIrish after our mannerserve to the table joynts of flesh

cutafterour fashion,with Geese,


restedmeats,but their ordinaryfood for the commonsort

is of Whitmeates,and they eatecakesof oatesfor bread,
anddrinke not English Beeremadeof Mault and Hops,
but Ale. At Corck I have seenewith theseeyes,young
maidesstarke naked grinding of Corne with certaine
stonesto makecakesthereof,and striking of into the tub
of meale,such reliques thereof as stuck on their belly,
thighesand more unseemelyparts.
And for the cheeseor butter commonly made by the
EnglishIrish, an English manwould not touch it with his [III.iii.i62.]
lippes,though heewere halfe starved; yet manyEnglish
inhabitantsmake very good of both kindes. In Cities
theyhavesuchbreadasours, but of a sharpesavour,and
somemingled with Annisseeds,
and bakedlike cakes,and
thatonely in the housesof the better sort.
At Dublyn and in some other Cities, they have taverns,

whereinSpanishand French Wines are sold, but more

commonlythe Merchantssell them by pintesand quartes
in their owneCellers. The Irish Aquavitae,vulgarly called
Usquebagh,is held the best in the World of that kind;
whichis madealso in England, but nothing so good as
that which is brought out of Ireland. And the Usquebagh is preferred before our Aquavitae, becausethe
mingling of Raysons,Fennell seede,and other things,
mitigatingthe heate,andmaking the tastepleasant,makes
it lesseinflame, and yet refresh the weakestomakewith
moderateheate,and a good relish. These Drinkes the
English-Irish drink largely, and in many families
(especiallyat feasts)both men and women use excesse
therein. And sinceI have in part seene,and often heard

that someGentlewomen






free in this excesse,

asthey would kneeling uponthe knee,
and otherwisegaraussehealth after healthwith men; not
to speakeof the wives of Irish Lords, or to referreit to
the due place,who often drinke till they be drunken,or
at least till they voide urine in full assemblies
of men,I
cannot(though unwilling) but note the Irish womenmore
speciallywith this fault, which I have observedin no
other part to be a woman'svice, but onely in Bohemia:
Yet so asaccusingthem, I meanenot to excusethe men,
and will also confessethat I have seeneVirgins, aswell
Gentlewomen as Citizens, commanded by their mothers

to retyre, after they had in curtesiepledgedone or two

healths. In Cities passengers
may have featherbeds,
and good, but most commonlylowsie, especiallyin the
high waies; whether that cameby their being forcedto
lodge commonsouldiers,or from the nastiefilthinesse
the nation in generall. For even in the best Citie, asat
Corck, I have observedthat my owne & other English
menschambershyred of the Citizens, were scarceswept
once in the week, & the dust then laid in a corner, was

perhapscast out once in a month or two. I did never

seeany publike Inneswith signeshangedout, amongthe
English or English-Irish; but the Officersof Citiesand
Villages appoint lodgings to the passengers,
and perhaps
in eachCitie, they shallfind oneor two houses,wherethey
will dressemeate, and these be commonly housesof
Englishmen, seldomeof the Irish: so as thesehouses
having no signeshung out, a passengercannotchallenge

right to be intertainedin them, but must haveit of

courtesie, and by intreaty.

The wild and (as I may say) meereIrish, inhabiting

manyand largeProvinces,are barbarous

and mostfilthy
in their diet. They skum the seethingpot with an handfull of straw, and straine their milke taken from the

Cow through a like handfull of straw, none of the

cleanest, and so dense, or rather more defile the

pot and milke. They devouregreat morselsof beefe

unsalted,and they eat commonly Swinesflesh, seldom








mutton, and all these pieces of flesh, as also the

intrallesof beastsunwashed,they seethin a hollow tree,
lappedin a raw Coweshide, and so set over the fier, and
therewith swallow whole lumps of filthy butter. Yea
(which is more contrary to nature) they will feede on

Horsesdyingof themselves,
not only uponsmallwantof

flesh,but evenfor pleasure. For I rememberan accident

in theArmy, when the Lord Mountjoy, the Lord Deputy,
riding to take the ayre out of the Campe, found the
buttocksof deadHorsescut off, and suspectingthat some
soldiershad eaten that flesh out of necessity,being
defraudedof the victuals allowed them, commanded the

mento beesearched
out, amongwhoma commonsouldier,
and that of the English-Irish, not of the meereIrish,
beingbrought to the Lord Deputy, and askedwhy hee
hadeatenthe flesh of deadHorses,thus freely answered,
Your Lordshipmay pleaseto eatePheasantand Patridge,
and much good doe it you that best likes your taste; and

I hopeit is lawfull for me without offence,to eate this

flesh that likes me better then Beefe. Whereupon the

Lord Deputy perceiving himself to be deceived, &

further understandingthat he had receivedhis ordinary
victuals(the detainingwhereofhe suspected,
to punishfor example),gave the souldiera pieceof gold
to drinke in Usquebaghfor better disgestion, and so
dismissed him.

The foresaidwilde Irish doe not thresh their Gates, but [111.111.163.]
burne them from the straw, and so make cakes thereof,
yet they seldome eate this bread, much lesse any better

kind, especiallyin the time of warre,whereofa Bohemian

Baron complained,who having scene the Courts of
Englandand Scotland,would needesout of his curiosity
returne through Ireland in the heate of the Rebellion;
and having letters from the King of Scotsto the Irish
Lords then in Rebellion,first landedamongthem, in the

furthestNorth, wherefor eight dayesspace

no bread, not so much as a cake of Gates, till he came to

eatewith the Earle of Tyrone, and after obtaining the







Lord DeputiesPasseto comeinto our Army, relatedthis

their want of breadto us for a miracle,who nothing

wondredthereat. Yea,the wilde Irish in time of greatest

peaceimpute covetousnesse
and basebirth to him, that
hath any Corne after Christmas,as if it were a point of
Nobility to consumeall within those Festivall dayes.
They willingly eate the hearb Schamrock,being of a
sharpetaste,which as they runne and are chasedto an
fro, they snatchlike beastsout of the ditches.
Neither havethey any Beeremadeof Malt andHoppes,
nor yet any Ale, no, not the chiefeLords, exceptit bevery
rarely: but they drinke Milke like Nectar,warmedwith
a stonefirst castinto the fier, or elseBeefe-broathmingled
with milke: but when they cometo any Market Towne,
to sell a Cow or a Horse, they never returne home,till
they have drunke the price in SpanishWine (whichthey
call the King of SpainesDaughter), or in Irish Usqueboagh, and till they have out-slept two or three daies
drunkennesse. And not onely the common sort, but even
the Lords and their wives, the more they want this drinke

at home,the morethey swallowit when they cometo it,

till they be asdrunke asbeggers.
Many of thesewilde Irish eateno flesh,but that which
dyesof diseaseor otherwiseof it selfe,neithercanit scape
them for stinking. They desireno broath, nor haveany
useof a spoone. They canneither seethArtichokes,nor
eate them when they are sodden. It is strangeand
ridiculous,but mosttrue, that someof our carriageHorses
falling into their hands,whenthey found Sopeand Starch,
carriedfor the useof our Laundresses,
they thinking them

to bee somedainty meates,did eatethemgreedily,and

whenthey stuck in their teeth,cursedbitterly the gluttony
of us English churles,for so they terme us. They feede
moston Whitmeates,andesteemefor a greatdaintiesower
curds, vulgarly calledby them Bonaclabbe. And for this

causethey watchfullykeepetheir Cowes,and fight for

them as for religion and life; and when they are almost
starved,yet they will not kill a Cow, except it beeold,









andyeeldno Milke. Yet will they upon hunger in time

of warreopena vaine of the Cow, and drinke the bloud,
but in no case kill

or much weaken


A man would

thinkethesemen to beeScythians,who let their Horses

bloud under the eares, and for nourishment drinke their

bloud,and indeed(as I have formerly said),someof the

Irish are of the race of Scythians,comming into Spaine,
andfrom thenceinto Ireland. The wild Irish (as I said)
seldomekill a Cow to eate,and if perhapsthey kill one
for that purpose, they distribute it all to be devoured at

one time; for they approve not the orderly eating at

meales,but so they may eate enough when they are
hungry,they care not to fast long. And I have knowne
someof theseIrish footemenserving in England, (where
they are nothing lessethen sparingin the foode of their
Families),to lay meateasidefor manymeales,to devoure
it all at one time.

These wilde Irish assooneas their Cowes have calved,

take the Calves from them, and thereof feede some with

Milke to rearefor breede,someof the rest they fley, and

seeththem in a filthy poke, and so eate them, being
nothingbut froth, and send them for a present one to
another: but the greatestpart of theseCalvesthey cast
out to bee eaten by Crowes and Woolves, that themselves
may have more abundance of Milke. And the Calves

being taken away, the Cowesare so mad among them,

asthey will give no Milke till the skinneof the Calfebee
stuffedandset beforethem, that they may smell the odor
of their ownebellies. Yea whentheseCowesthus madly
denie their milke, the women wash their hands in Cowes

dung, and so gently stroke their dugges,yea, put their

handsinto the cowes taile, and with their mouthes blow [111.111.164.]

into their tailes, that with this maner (as it were) of

inchantment,they may draw milk from them. Yea,these
Cowesseemeas rebelliousto their owners,as the people
areto their Kings, for manytimes they will not be milked
but of someoneold womanonly, andof no other. These
wild Irish never set any candlesupon tables; What do I






speakof Tables? sinceindeedethey haveno tables,but

set their meateupon a bundleof grasse,and usethe same
Grassefor napkinsto wipe their hands. But I meanethat

they doenot setcandles

uponany high placeto givelight

to the house,but placea great candlemadeof reedesand

butter upon the floure in the middest of a great roome.
And in like sort the chiefe men in their houses make fiers

in the middestof the roome,the smoakewhereofgoeth

out at a holein the topthereof. An ItalianFriercomming
of old into Ireland,and seeingat Armachthis their diet
and nakednesse
of the women(whereof I shall speake
the next booke of this Part, and the secondChapter
thereof) is said to havecried out,
Civitas Armachana, Civitas vana,
Carnescrudce,mulieres nudae.

Vaine ArmachCity, I did thee pity,

Thy meatesrawnes, and womens nakednesse.

I trust no man expectsamong thesegallantsany beds,

much lessefetherbeds and sheetes,who like the Nomades

removingtheir dwellings,accordingto the commodity


pasturesfor their Cowes, sleepeunder the Canopyof

heaven,or in a poore houseof clay, or in a cabbinmade

of the boughesof trees,andcoveredwith turffe,for such

are the dwellings of the very Lords amongthem. And
in such places,they make a fier in the middest of the
roome,and round about it they sleepeupon the ground,
without straw or other thing under them, lying all in a
circle about the fier, with their feete towards it.


their bodiesbeing naked,they covertheir headsandupper

parts with their mantels,which they first makevery wet,
steepingthem in water of purpose,for they finde that
when their bodies have once warmed the wet mantels,the

of themkeepes
their bodiesin temperate
the night following. And this manner of lodging, not
onely the meereIrish Lords, and their followersuse,but
evensomeof the English Irish Lords and their followers,
when after the old but tyranicall and prohibited manner









vulgarlycalledCoshering,they goe (as it were)on progresse,

to live upontheir tenants,til they haveconsumed
al the victualsthat the pooremenhaveor canget. To
conclude,not onely in lodging passengers,
not at all or
mostrudely,but evenin their inhospitalitytowardsthem,
thesewild Irish are not much unlike to wild beasts, in

whosecavesa beastpassingthat way, might perhapsfinde

meate,but not without danger to be ill intertained,
devouredof his insatiableHost.

[The fourth Booke






Chap. I.
Of the Germans, Bohemians,

Sweitzers, Nether-

landers,Danes,Poloniansand Italians apparrell.

Ne thing in generallmust beeremembred
touching the divers apparrell of divers
Nations: That it is daily subjectto
change,as eachCommonwealthby little
and little

declines from the best constitu-

tion to the worst, and old mannersare

daily more and morecorruptedwith new

vices, or as each Common-wealthis by due remedies
purged and reformed.
Germany.The most rich amongthe Germans(asold Writers doe
witnesse)usedof old straight apparrell,expressingto life
the lineamentsof the whole body (which kind of apparel
the Schwabenor Suevi use at this day), and the women
wereapparrelledasmen (of which wickedcustomewefind
at this day no remainder, except the souldiers wives
following the Campemay perhapssomewhatoffend that
way.) They addethat the Suevi (under which namethe
all the Germanes)usedof old to
be clad in skinnes. No doubt the Germanes,as they ever

were, so are at this day, in their apparrell,constant,and

modest(andI hadalmostsaidslovenly.) Surelyif a man

observethe time they spendin brushingtheir apparrell,

and taking out the least spots,aswellat home,as abroad








whenthey cometo their Innes, they will seemecleanly,

but if webeholdtheir apparrell,so worneto proofe,asthe
napof the cloth, and that somewhatcourse,being worne
off, the ground plainely appeares,
and spottedwith grease
andwearing,especiallythe sleeves,which they wearelarge,
andat tablenot without cause,lift up with onehand,while
they take meatewith the other, lest they should fall into
the dish, no doubt (without offencebe it spoken),they
aresomewhatslovenly. And for this imputation of old
laid on the Germans,I appealeto Tacitus, writing to this
purposein the Latin tongue. The slovenly and naked
Germanslive in the samehouseamongthe samebeasts.
And he that at this day lookes upon their Schwartz
Reytern(that is, BlackeHorsemen)must confesse,
that to
maketheir horsesand boatesshine,they makethemselves
as black as Collyers.

These Horsemen weare blacke

clothes,andpoorethough they be, yet spendno smalltime

in brushingthem. The most of them haveblack Horses,
whichwhile they painefully dresse,and (as I said)delight
to havetheir bootsand shoosshine with blacking stuffe,
their handsand facesbecomeblack,and thereof they have
their foresaidname. Yea, I haveheardGermanssay,that
they do thus make themselvesal black, to seeme more








Preachersdeclameagainst the common inconstanciein

apparrel: but they do herein according to the art of
jesting,which is ever most pleasing,when it taskesmen
with viceswhereof they are not guilty, but never with
thosethat may be truly imputed. For Drunkennesse,
the famous,yet almost sole vice of the Germans,is
in the meane time silently passedover by them in
their Pulpits, or elseout of a guilty conscienceslightly

areof allotherfamous

Nationsleastexpencefullin apparrell,whethera manconsiderthe smallpricesof the garments,or their long lasting.

By an Imperial!Law, Husbandmenareforbiddento weare
anystuffes,that costmorethen halfea Guldenthe ell, and






men that live by their Art and Hand, are forbiddento

weareany thing that costsmore then the third part of a
Gulden the ell, and servantsto weareany ornamentof
Gold, Silver, or Silke, and gentlemento weareany Gold,
or more then two ounces of silver, and Doctors of the

Civill Law, (who have many priviledges from the

Heraulds,and are muchrespectedin Germany),andlike-

wiseKnights,not to wearemorethentwo ounces

of gold

upon their Apparrell, and lastly Citizens are permittedto

facetheir garmentswith silke or velvet, but areforbidden
to weare any gold or silver.

By the same Imperiall

Statutesenactedin the yeere 1548,Noble women,(thatis

Gentlewomen),are permitted to wearea chaineof gold
worth two hundred Guldens, and ornaments of the head

worth forty Guldens,and the Doctoursof the Civill Law

are permitted to weare like chaines,and their wives have

the samepriviledge with Noblewomen. In the Statutes

of the yeere 1530 CitizensWives are permitted to weare
gold chainesof fifty Guldens,and silver girdles of thirty
Guldens,and their Daughtersto weareOrnamentsof ten
Guldens uppon their heads. And these Lawes are wisely

made to restraine that Nation, though by nature and

customemost modest in Apparrell, becausethe richest
things they are to weare,be not madein the Empire,but
to be bought with money. They have not so muchas
woollen or linnen cloth of their owne, but suchasis course,
which makes them that weare silke or velvet, as well as
others, weare shirts of course cloth. I did see Rodolpus

the Emperourwhenhe mournedfor his sister,apparrelled

in Englishblackecloth,whootherwiseusedto wearefor
the most part the samecloth of a watchetor somelight
colour, seldomewearing any richer Apparrell, and the
scabbardof his sword was of leather, not of velvet, aswe

use. The men in Germanyweareshirt bandsof course

linnen short and thicke, onely in Prussia I observedthem

to wearelong ruffes, with rebatoesof wire to bearethem

up, such as our women use, which seemedto me lesse
comely,becausethey wereseldomemadeof fine cloth,as









cambrickeor lawne, but of their owne course linnen, such

asI haveoften scenethe Spaniardsto weare.

Their handkerchersare very large, and wrought with

silkeof diverslight colours,with greatletterssignifying

words,asfor exampleD. H. I. M. T. signifying Der her
1stmein Trost, that is; The Lord is my comfort, so as
they seememorelike wrought saddleclothes,then handkerchers. Many of the Saxons weare thrummed hats,
which are called Brunswicke hats, as most used in those

parts,being so stiffe as a sword will hardly pierce them,

with the brassehatbandsthey weareabout them,
andbeingso heavieasthey lie upon the eares,and make
them hang downe with small comelinesse. Few weare
feathersin their hats, yet the Doctors of the Civill Law

havethepriviledgeto wearethem,and my selfehavescene

manyStudentsin the Universities,andmostCoachmenof
Germany,wearefeatherscosting eachsometwelve or sixteenebatzen. The mention of the said shirt bands, used
in Prussia, makes me remember that the Citizens of

Dantzke,seatedin that Province, doe generallyweare

more rich Apparell, then any other Germans. And I
remember that their said shirt bands or ruffes were little

lessethen a quarter of an ell long, and hung upon their

notwithstandingthey had staiesto bearethem
up, which maddefashion, but not so long, the English
usedof old, and have long sincelaid aside. The men in
theseparts commonlyweare silkes and velvets, without
anydecentdistinction of degrees,and the womenseemed
muchprouderin apparrell then the men. I have scene
marriedwomennot of the richest sort, daily wearehats
of velvet, though somewearealsofelt hats,and othersto
wearefrontlets of velvet, and others wearing hats, had
their hatbandsall set with pearle, and many of their
Daughtersdid weare chaines of pearle, worth three
hundredguldens,yea someof theseVirgins have shewed
metheir chainesof five hundredguldensvalue,being the
Daughtersof Citizensand Merchants. As well married
asunmarried women in the chiefe Cities of that Province,





[III. iv.167.]did weareshortcloakes,and for the greaterpart of silke

or satten,(the use whereof is vulgar among them),and
that of changeableor light colours,with Petticoatesand
Aprons of like colours,but not so frequentlyof silke; and
I have seeneVirgines of ordinary ranckein thoseCities,
daily wearesilke stockings.
But I return to the generalldiscourseof the Germans
Apparrell. Citizens and men of inferiour rancke,weare
coursecloth of Germany,and onely the richer sort use
English cloth ; and this cloth is commonlyof a blackeor
darke colour,andthey thinke themselvesvery fine,if their
cloakes have a narrow facing of silke or velvet. The

Gentlemendelight in light colours,and whenI perswaded

a familiar


that blacke and darke colours were more

comely,he answeredme, that the variety of coloursshewed

the variety of Gods workes: And the Gentlemenweare
Italian silkes and velvets of these colours, but most

commonlyEnglish cloth, for the most part of yellowor

greene colour. The Saxonsin stead of Swords,carry
Hatchets in their hands,being very skilfull in the useof
them, so as they will hit any small marke therewith,and
they wearehanging daggerswith massysheathsof silver
or iron.

The Gentlemen, and others that have the

priviledgeto weareSwords,asthe Doctorsof Civill Law,

have plaine pommelsto them, never guilded; and the

(not exceptingthe Emperour)are alwaies
leather. Many of the Germansin steedeof hats,weare

capslined with furre, and they use largestomachers

furre or lambeskinnes,keeping their stomackesvery
warme, either for the coldnesseof the clime, or rather

becausetheir stomackesneedmore cherrishing,in regard

they are often oppressed
with excesse
in drinking. Most

of themwearegreatlargebreeches,
exceptingthe Suevi
(vulgarly Schawben)who wearesuch straight breeches

ourold menuse,with stockings

of thesamecloth,fastened
to them: And generallytheir doubletsaremadestraight
to the body, upon which in Winter time they weare
Jerkins lined with furre.







Few men or women weare gold rings, pearles, or

Jewels: but Bohemiayeeldsfalsestoneslike the orientall

yetof smallor no value,andI havescene
guildedover,the wearingwhereofis held disgracefullwith
us. At MagdeburgI did seea young Gentlemanhaving
all his fingersloadedwith rings, which I thought to be of

gold,till my selfesawehim buy a ring of threehoopes

for somefifteenepencein English money,and so found

hisfoolishpride. The Statutes(asI formerly said)permit
(that is Gentlewomen)to wearechainesof
gold, which notwithstandingthey weare very seldome:
And in like sort their Earles,(vulgarly calledGraves)and
their Knights, sometimesweare gold chaines,made of
great linkes, and not going more then once
about the necke, nor hanging downe further then the
middlebutton of the doublet. The Germansin great
part measurea strangersdignity by the richnesseof his
Apparrell,and by his grave or (to speakeplainely) proud
looke. Citizens Wives in someplacesweareupon their
headslittle caps in the forme of an Oyster-shell,and
they weareshort cloakes,reachingno further then their
elbowes. Citizens daughtersand Virgines of inferiour
sort,wearenothing upon their heads,but their hairewoven
with laces,and so gatheredon the fore-part of the head,
with the foreheadstrokedup plaine, and upon the forepart of the head the Gentlewomenweare a border of
pearle,and all other from the highest to the lowest,
commonlyweare garlands of roses, (which they call

FortheykeepeRosesall Winter in little potsof earth,

whereofthey open one eachSaturdayat night, and dis-

tributethe Rosesamongthe womenof the house,to the

verykitchin maide; otherskeepethem all in onepot, and
weekelytake as manyRosesasthey neede,andcover the
rest,keepingthem fresh till the next Summer. And the

sort mingleguildednutmegswith theseRoses,
and make garlandsthereof: Only women weare these
M. iv






Garlands in Winter, but in Summer time men of the

better sort weare them within doores, and men of the com-

mon sort wearethem going abroade. They keepeRoses

all Winter in this sort, they choosethe closestandthickest
buds of all kinds of Roses, but the Damaske Rosesbest

keepethe smell,andotherkindesthe colour. Thenthey

take a pot of earth, and sprinckle somebay salt in the
[III.iv. 168.]bottome, and lay thesebuds severally,not very closeone
to the other, in two rowes one above the other, which

done they sprincklethe same,and wet all the budswith

two little glassesof RhenishWine, and againesprinckle
them with bay salt in greaterquantity, yet suchasit may
not eate the leaves. In like sort they put up eachtwo

rowesof buds, till the pot be full, which they coverwith

wood or leade,so as no aire can enter, and then lay it up
in a cold cellar, where no sunne comes. When they take

out the buds, they dip them in luke warmewater,or put

them into the Oven when the bread is taken out, which

makes the leaves open with the turning of the buds

betweenetwo fingers,then they dip a featherin rhenish
wine, and wipe the leavestherewith, to refreshthecolour,
and some doe the like with rose water, to renew the smell.

Give me leaveby the way to relate, (though out of due

course),that I observedwomen at Leipzig, in like sort
to keepe Cherriesall Winter, after this manner. They
inclosesomeCherriesin a glasse,so as no aire canenter,

and thenfastenthe glasseto somelow shrubor boughof

a tree, so as the glassemay hang in a brooke, running
Now I returne to my former discourse. Many of the
saidVirgines havetheir neckbandsset with spangles,
as some children


us weare.




wearetheir gownescloseabout the breastand neck,with

a very short ruffe about their neckes,(suchas menalso
weare)setwith poking stickesassmallasreedes,andthey
weare little hats upon their heads. The Virgines in
generall,wearelinnen sleevesabout their armes,asclose
asthey canbe made,for they esteemeit the greatestgrace







to have the smallestarmes, and their petticoatesare

withsometenor morefringesor lacesof silkeor

velvet,eachfringe beingof a differentcolourone from

theother, making the skirts thereof as variable in colour
as the Raine-bow. Citizens wives put off their ruffes Thewomen*

whentheygoeout of the house,coveringtheir neckes

and ApparrtU.
mouths with a linnen cloth for feare of cold.

And they

wearegreatheavypursesby their sides,with greatbunches

of keyeshangingby chainesof brasseor silver: and all
generally,aswellmarriedwomenasVirgins, goewith bare
legges: and I have scenea Virgine in Saxony,refusea
paireof silke stockingsofferedherof guift: andthe maide
servants and married


of the inferiour

sort weare

exceptthey goeout of the house,and greatpart

barefooted. The marriedwomenhide
theirnakedfeetewith long gownes,but the maideservants
wearing short gownes, and girding them up into a
roulesomehandfull under the wast about their hippes,
in the lower parts of Germany), many times
offendchasteyeswith shewingtheir nakednesse,
whenthey stoopefor any thing to the ground. And in
thosepartsof Germanythe Citizens wives, like our little
children,wearered and yellow shooes,and guilded at the
toes. In generall,it is disgraceful!to marriedwomenor
Virgins (excepting at Augsburg, and some few other
Cities),to goe out of doores without a cloake, which
commonlyis of somelight stuffe, asGrogram,or the like,

with somefurres,and at Hidelbergthey nevergoe
without a little basket in their hands,as if they
wentto buy something,exceptthey will be reputed dishonest.




alwaies have their


covered,in some Cities with a peeceof velvet, other

wherewith little capsof velvet, silke, or felt, or with some

to the useof the Countrey. And
very manywearesuch crosse-clothes
or foreheadclothes
asour Womenuse whenthey are sicke. In manyplaces

theordinaryCitizensWiveshavetheir gownesmadewith
longtraines,whicharepinnedup in the house,andborne






up by maide servants when they goe abroade,which

fashionof old onely great Noblemenusedwith us: And
in many Cities, aswelthe married as unmarriedWomen
weare long fardingales,hanging about their feetelike
hoopes,which our Women used of olde, but havenow
changedto short fardingalsabout their hippes.
Bohmerhnd. The Bohemiansareapparrelledmuchlike the Germans
and delight in greene,yellow, andlight colours,but more
frequentlywearesilkesandvelvets then the Germans,

alsofalseJewelsof their owne. And manytimesthey

weareblackecloth with many lacesor fringesof light

[Ill.iv. 169.]colours,eachfringe differing in colouronefrom theother.

And in respectof forraigneAmbassadours

all partsto Prage,and of Italian Merchantsfrequentin

there,the Bohemians
are more infectedwith forraign

fashions, then the Germans. The married Gentlewomen

attire their headslike our Virgins, and in like sortbeare

up their haireon the foreheadwith a wier. Theyusewith
the Germansto maketheir gowneswith traines,or to beare
them out with long fardingals,and to weareshortcloakes
Citizens wives weare upon their headslarge gray caps
rugged like gray Connie skinnes,and formed like the
hives of Bees,or little capsof velvet closeto the head,
a dunnecolour, with the hinder skirt (or hinderpart)cut
off and open: And upon their leggesthey wearewhite
buskins,wrought with velvet at the toes; but upontheir
armes they weare large sleeves,and contrary to the
Germans,thinke them to be most comely.

Switzerland. The Sweitzers,being Citizens(for their nobility is long

sincerooted out by popular seditions)wearelargeround
caps,(suchas are used by our Prenticesand Studentsin
the Innes of Court), and togetherwith them they weare

with ustheyareonelyusedwithgownes

yea, and Swordsalso(which seemedstrangeto be worne

with caps). They weare great large puffed breeche

gatheredcloseabovethe knees,and eachpuffe made

a diverslight colour ; but their doubletsaremadecloseto
the body. The marriedWomen cover their headswitha






linnencoyfe,and upon it wearesuchcapsas the men use,

(whicharebroaderthenwe usedin England),andcommonlywearea linnen crosseclothupon the forehead. To

be briefe, the Virgins goe bare headedwith their haire
wovenup, and use short cloakes,and aswell married as
unmarriedWomen, as also the Men, are apparrelledlike
theGermans,and affect nothing lessethen pride in their

In the united Provinces,the Inhabitantsbeing for the NetherlanJ.

mostpart Merchantsand Citizens, the Men use modest
attireof grave colours, and little beautifiedwith lace or
otherornament. They weare short cloakesof English
cloth,with one small lace to cover the seames,and a narrow

facingof silke or velvet. Their doubletsare madeclose

to the body, their breecheslarge and fastenedunder the
kneescommonlyof woollen cloth, or elseof somelight
stuffe,or of silke or velvet. They usevery little lace,no
imbrodery,yet the Hollanders of old accounted the most

rude of the other Provinces,at this day increasedin

wealth,andreputationof the State,doe by little and little
admitluxury, and their sonnesapply themselvesboth to
the apparrelland mannersof the English and French.
Women aswell married as unmarried, cover their heads

with a coyfeof fine hollandlinnen cloth, and they weare

gownscommonlyof someslight stuffe,& for the mostpart
of blackcolour,with little or no laceor guards,and their
neckeruffes are little (or short) but of very fine linnen.



as women






all uses of the Family, use very fine linnen; and

I thinke

that no clownes in the World

weare such fine

shirts as they in Holland doe. Some of the chiefe

Women not able to abide the extreme cold, and loth to

put fier under them for heate (as the commonuse is)
it causethwrincklesandspotson their bodies,doe
use to weare breeches of linnen or silke.

All Women


generall,when they goeout of the house,put on a hoyke

or vailewhich coverstheir heads,and hangsdowneupon

theirbacksto theirlegges; andthis vailein Hollandis of







a light stuffeor Kersie,and hatha kindeof homerising

over the forehead,not much unlike the old pummelsof

our Womenssaddles,and they gatherthe Vaile with their
handsto coverall their faces,but onely the eyes: but the

Womenof FlandersandBrabantweareVailesaltogethe

of somelight fine stuffe, andfastenthemabout the hinder

part and sidesof their cap, so as they hang loosely,not
closeto the body, andleave their facesopen to view,and
theseCapsare round, large, arid flat to the head,andof
Velvet, or at leastguardedtherewith,andarein formelike
our potlids usedto coverpots in the Kitchin: And these
Women, aswelfor theseVailes,as their modestgarments
with gowns close at the brest and necke, and for their
pure and fine linnen, seemedto me more faire thenany
other Netherlanders,as indeed they are generallymore

Denmarke. I did seethe King of Denmarkeentreda daiesjourney

in his progressetowardsHolsatia (vulgarly Hoist), andhe
wore a loosegippoe of blacke velvet, sparinglyadorned
[III.iv. 170.]with gold lace,and in the Towne he wore a largebroade
brimmed felt hat, with the brimmesin part buttonedup,
but in his Coach he wore a rough Brunswickehat,
used in the lower parts of Germany, and had a large
chaine of gold hanging under one arme so low, as
it was folded about his girdle: And when he walked
abroade,he carriedhis Swordupon his shoulderwith the
point in his hand,andthe hilts hangingdownebehindhim.

His chiefeCourtiersand his youngerbrotherwereall

attiredin anEnglishcloth,whichtheycalledKentishcloth,

wecall Motley, but muchfiner then that whereofwemake

cloakebags,and of purposemadefor them, costingsome
two dollers the ell. They wore gold chaines,so shortas
they reachednot further then the sixth or seventhbutton

of theirdoublets,but thelinkesweregreat,andtheyhada
Tablet of gold annexedto them. They carriedtheir
swordsasthe King did, with the hilts hangingoverthe
shoulder,and they wore daggerswith heavysheaths
silver, like thoseusedin Saxony. The Kings Guardwore








puffed, and of divers colours,like the
Sweitzershose. In generall,the Danes are apparrelled
like theGermans,andespeciallylike the Saxons,constantly
andmodestly,and they so abhorrefrom strangefashions,
asthe Kings Father lately deceased,
wasreported to have

giventhe strangeapparrellof certaineGentlemennewly

returnedfrom forraigneparts, to the infamousHangman,

thatthey might be despisedof the Gentry. Gentlewomen
Virginsgoe with their headsbare,and their haire woven
and adornedwith rowes of pearle. And the married
Gentlewomengoe with their headscoveredwith a fine
linnen coyfe,and weare upon their foreheadsa French
shadowof velvet to defend them from the Sunne, which
our Gentlewomen of old borrowed of the French, and

now altogetherout of usewith

us; and they adorne their headswith bordersof Gold.

Women as well married as unmarried, Noble and of
inferiour condition, wearethinne bandsabout their neckes,

yet not falling, but erected,with the upper bodiesof their

outwardgarment of velvet, but with short skirts, and
going out of the house,they have the Germancustome
to weare cloakes. They also weare a chaine of
Gold like a breast-plate,and girdles of silver, and
At Dermind, the Haven of Dantzke in Prussen, I did ThePohmans.

seethe King of Poland ready to sayle into Suevia or

Suecia,his FathersKingdome of Inheritance,for whom
lately dead,he then wore mourning Apparrell, namelya
long blackecloakeof woollencloth, and a capor low hat
of blackesilke with narrowbrimmes,with a falling band
about his necke, a blacke doublet close to his body, and

large breechesfastenedunder the knee. The Queene

beingof the House of Austria,wasattired like the Noblewomenof Germany,and being then ready to take ship,
herheadwascoverdwith a coyfeof fine linnen, and upon
her forehead shee wore a crossecloth almost downe to the

nose. The Kings Courtiers wore two long coates,the

uppercoate(or cloakewith sleeveswas longer then the






other, the skirts whereof on the right side, were so

fastened on the shoulder with silver buttons, and socast

upon the left shoulder,as they had their right armesaltogether free; and this upper coatewas of English cloth,
raced before with silke.

The lower or inner coate wasof

silke or somelight stuffe, hanging downeon one sideto

the knees, on the other side doubled and fastenedto the

girdle, and both coateswere of light colours,but without

any laceof Gold or Silver, or other ornamentwhatsoever.
They wore breechesand stockingsof the samecloth,like
those of our old men, or the trussesof Ireland, and their

were of much finer linnen

then the Germans use.

And they wore a fine and very large linnen handkercher,

fastenedto their Girdles behind: but they had no ruffes
nor any bands of linnen about their neckes,which are
onely used by somefew Gentlemen,who have lived in
forraigneparts,but the coloursof their coatesweareraised
with a peake behind to keepe the necke warme. They

wore extraordinarylittle caps,hardly coveringthe crowne

of the head, and in them wore some sixe feathers,not of

mixed or light colours,nor broade,aswe wearethem,but

white and narrow, such (or the same)as are pulledfrom
Caponstailes. The Poloniansshaveall their headsclose,
exceptingthe haire of the forehead,which they nourish
very long and cast backeto the hinder part of the head.
They carry for Armes a Turkish Cemeter, and weare
[III. iv.171.]shooesof leatherand alsoof wood,both paintedandboth
shoddeunder the heele and toes with pieces of Iron,
making great noiseas they goe. The Gentlemenweare

chainesof gold foldedabouttheir girdles,and carryin

their handsa little hammerof silver, andperhapsguilded,
andtheseof inferiour sort oneof Iron. The Hungarians
in their attire differ little

from the Polonians, but no

Hungarian may wearea feather,excepthe havedonesome

noble act, and according to the number of his brave

actions,so manyfeathershe mayweare,to witnesse

valour. At Crakaw I did see the Castellani(that is,

Keepersof Castles)and manyGentlemenriding to the









Court, and other placesin the City, and the Gentlemen

attendingthem, went on foot before their Horses, with
Feathersin their little caps,and the vulgar attendants
followed their Horses.

The buttocks of their horses were

coveredwith cloth of gold, or the skinne of somewilde

beast,or somelike ornament,and about many of their
Horseseares,hung chainesof gold or silver, their bridles
wereguilded,and set with buttensof gold, and the horsemennot onely weareswordsby their sides,but alsoevery
Horseman(especiallyriding in the highway, or being in
forraigneparts upon any Ambassage,or in like pompes,
hathanother,and somea third sword(or Cimeter)fastned
to their saddlesandgirthes,besidesthat both on footeand
on horsebackethey carry a hammer in their hands.
The Gentlewomen, after the Netherlanders fashion, The

coverthe head with a coyfe of fine linnen, and wearea Gentlewomen

uponthe forehead,andasthe men,sothey weare
no ruffe or linnen band about the necke,but many have
about their neckeschaines of Pearle worth two hundred,
yea,five hundred Dollers, and some line the collar of the

upperbody of their Gowneswith furre, and so cover the

nakednesse of the necke behind.

The unmarried


weareapronsof fine linnen, and goe with bare heads,

having their haire woven, asour women use,with a narrow

pieceof Velvet crossingthe middestof their heads,and

goingout of the house,they casta white Vayle upon their
headsandbackes,but shewtheir facesopen. The meaner
sort of married women either wrap their heads and
moutheswith a narrowlong pieceof linnen, or only cover
their moutheswith linnen, and wearing a low hat casta
Vaylefrom it, to coverthe hinder part of the head,andall
the backe,and they wearelooseKirtles over their other
apparrell,which are tied behind with strings. The
commonsort of Country womencoverthemselves
all over
with linnen cloth or skinnes of beaste.

The Prussiansaretributary to the King of Poland,and

upon free conditionsacknowledgethemselvessubject to
the Crowneof Poland, and their attire as also language






little differs from the Germans,save that their apparrell

is more sumptuous,but of them I have formerlyspoken
in the discourse of the Germans attire.


Of the Italiansit is proverbiallysaid, that the Venetians

are gowned,yet by night going to visit their Mistresses
weareshort Spanishcloakes. That thoseof Ferraraand
Mantua are proud in their attire, with their capsset with

gold buttons. That the Florentinesare ridiculous,(yet

I observednone more modestlyattired.) That thoseof
Genoaareneateandcomelyin attire, but weareno gownes,
nor lace,nor gardes. That thoseof Milan aredecent,and
the Neapolitansareglittering andsumptuous. Surelythe
Italians in generall, respectthe conveniencymore then
ornamentof their apparrell. When they take journeyes,
they weare large bootes,that they may fling off being
untied, but suchas keepethem dry in all weathers;and
to the sameendethey wearethicke felt hats,andshortfelt
clokes,which no raine can pierce,respectingthe health,

the ornaments

of their





apparrellis soft and delicate,yet they onely wearecloth

andstuffesmadeat home,not any brought from forraigne
parts. Their garments are commonly of silke, but
seldomeembrodred,and never laid with gold or silver
lace,and commonlyof black colour. And howsoever
those mixed colourswhich we so highly esteeme,come
from thence,yet are they not invented by the Italians,

but by the Factorsof our Merchants,who lie thereof

purpose,to feedethe fantasticallpride of our Youth, in
new Stuffes, or at least new colours and names.

The Citizensof Genoa,wearegold Chaines,andmight

[III. iv.172.]seemeproudly attired in garmentsof Velvet, savethatwe
must remember,that they are not onely Merchantsbut
Gentlemen, and some of them Princes.

The Venetians,by reasonof their strict Lawesfromall

antiquity restrainingexcesse
in apparrell,howsoevermany
timesthey wearesumptuousgarments,yet arethey hidden
undertheir gownes,not to be seenebut by their Mistrisses
at night. They make woollen cloth of such lasting,as







their gownesby their lasttestaments.All

the Gentlemen,not one excepted,weare blacke cloth

buttonedcloseat the necke,with the sleeves
on over their doublets,aswellyoung asold men,but some
underthis civill gowne wearerich furres, and imbrodred

garments. And the Senators,Doctors, and Knights,

weareScarletgownes,with large sleeves,lined in winter
with rich furres.



Senate is no lesse or more

gloriousin publike pompes,then the Roman Senatewas

of old.

And the Gentlemen constantly weare these

gownes,eitherin singularpride to be knownefrom others,

(for no Citizen, nor any Gentlemenof other Cities weare
gownes),or for obedienceto the Law, or out of an old
custome,which the most wise Magistratespermit not to
be broken. And for the same cause, all the Gentlemen,

noneexcepted,wearelittle capsof Freeseor Cloth, hardly

coveringthe crowne,or the forepartof the head.
All other Italians in generall weare stuffe cloakes, and

commonlyof Silke in summer,and cloth in winter, and

light felt hats with narrowbrimmes; and large breeches,
wide, and open at the knee,after the Spanish
fashion,but more commonlytied under the knee, and a
loosecoateor gippo, but not wide, anda doubletcloseto
the body, both of silke, and lined with silke, and silke
stockings.Also manyweareJewels,but asit werehidden,
to beeseeneonely by chance. Lastly, in great wisdome
theycarenot to haverich apparrell,but hold it honourable
to live of their owne. They makeno fine linnen, & therfore use course linnen, both for shirts, and other uses of

the Family, and commonlywearelittle falling bands,and

manytimesruffes of Flanderslinnen, sometimeswrought
with Italian Cut-worke, much used with us, but their

ruffes are not so great as ours, and they have little skill
in washing,starching,or smoothinglinnen. They weare
very short haire, as all Nations doe that live in hot climes,

the contrary vice of wearing long haire being proper to

the French,English, and Scots,but especiallyto the Irish.
The Italians clothevery little children with doubletsand







but their breechesareopenbehind,with theshirt

hangingout, that theymayeasethemselves

Among other Princes of Italy, I did seeFerdinandthe

third, Dukeof Florence,

whodid wearea clokeof English
cloth, with one little lace, and breechesof Velvet without

any ornament, and stockings of leather, and a leather

scabbard to his sword, and his Coach was lined with old

greeneVelvet, and the Horses seemedtaken out of the

The women in generallare delighted with mixedand
of light colours. The womenof Venicewearechoppines

Venice. shoos
threeor fourehand-bredths

them seemehigher then the tallestmen,andfor this cause

they cannotgoe in the streeteswithout leaninguponthe
shoulderof an old woman. They haveanotherold woman
to beareup the traine of their gowne, & they arenot
attended with any man, but onely with old women. In

other parts of Italy, they wearelower shooes,yet somewhat raised, and are attended by old women, but goe
without any helpe of leading. The women of Venice
wearegownes,leaving all the neckeand brest bare,and
they are closedbeforewith a lace,so open,as a manmay
seethe linnen which they lap about their bodies,to make
themseemefat, the Italiansmostloving fat women. They
shew their naked necks and breasts, and likewise their

dugges,bound up and swellingwith linnen, andall made

white by art. They wearelarge falling bands,and their
haire is commonly yellow, made so by the Sunneand art,

and they raise up their haire on the foreheadin two

knotted homes, and deck their heads & uncovered haire

with flowers of silke, and with pearle, in great part

counterfeit. And they casta black vaile from the headto

the shoulders,through which the nakednesse

of their
shoulders,and neckes,and breasts,may easilybe seene.

For this attire the womenof Veniceareproverbiallysaid

to be, Grandede legni, Grossedi straci,rossedi bettito,
[III.iv.173.]bianchedi calcina: that is tall with wood,fat with ragges,
red with painting, and white with chalke. The women









of Genoaareattired muchafter the Frenchfashion,andby

reasonof neighbourhood,borrow divers mannersfrom
France,(which is also to be understoodof other Cities
lying underthe FrenchAlpes),and they goeabroadeither
alone,or attendedby men,not by womenasin otherparts;
yea, by night, and early in the morning to the Church,
(which suspectedfashionsother Italians cannot endure.)
They weare nets and blacke vailes, covering therewith
their faces,contraryto the French manner,without which
the poorestwomangoesnot abroad.
In generallthe Women of Italy, (for divers Cities have
somefashionsdiffering from other) most commonly(but
the wives of shopkeepers)
wearegownsof silke
andlight stuffes,yea,woven with gold, and thosecloseat
thebrestandnecke,with a standingcollar,andlittle ruffes
closeup to the very chinne,and shewingno part naked.
And Gentlewomenin generall,wearegownesloosebehind,
with a closecollar,hiding all nakednesse,
and with traines
borne up by waitingmaides,and sometimeswith open
hangingsleeves. The married womenwearetheir heads
bare, or covered with a fine linnen coyfe, and a hat, and a

vailehangingdownefrom the hinder part of the headto

the backe. The unmarried have their heads bare, with

their haire knotted like snakes,and tied with gold and

silver laces,or else they are coveredwith a gold netted
cawle,and they weare also gold chaines. The married
womenwearechainesof pearleabout the headand necke,
whichin someplacesareforbidden to Virgins; and these
pearlesare many times (especiallyat Venice) counterfet,
and made of glasse, but very beautifull to the eye.
Widdowes and Women that mourne, cover all their head

andshoulderswith a blackevaile, and upon the forehead

they wearea shadowor bongrace,and about their neckes

a whitevaile,hangingdownebeforeto their feete.) The

Countreywenchesweareupon their headsgold and silver
cawles,or at least seeming such, and straw hats, and
guilded girdles, and for the rest as other women are
delightedwith light colours.






The City Virgins, and especiallyGentlewomen,cover

their heads,face,and backeswith a Vaile, that theymay

not be scenepassingthe streetes,andin manyplacesweare

silke or linnen breechesunder their gownes. Also I have
seenehonourableWomen, aswellmarriedasVirgines,ride
by the high way in Princestraines,apparrelledlike Men,
in a doublet closeto the body, and largebreechesopenat
the knees,after the Spanishfashion,both of carnationsilke
or satten,and likewiseriding astridelike menuponHorses
or Mules, but their headswere attired like Women, with

bare haires knotted, or else covered with gold netted

cawles,anda hat with a feather. And many timesin the
Cities (as at Padua) I have seeneCurtizans (in plaine
English, whores)in the time of shroving,apparrelledlike
men, in carnationor light coloureddoubletsandbreeches,
and so playing with the racket at Tennis with yong men,
at which time of shroving,the Women no lessethenMen,
(and that honourablewomenin honourablecompany,)
maskedand apparrelledlike men all the afternooneabout
the streetes,even from Christmasseholydaiesto the first
day in Lent. The Women wearingMens breeches,
themopenall before,andmost part behind,onelybuttoned

withgoldor silverbuttons: AndtheCurtizans


the forepartof their gownesin like manneropen,to avoide

Lastly, the Italiansuseto tie themselves
upon a vowfor
recoveryof health,or like cause,to wearecertaineapparrell
for a time or for life; and if the vow be in repentance
sinne,the colour is ashcolour,vulgarly Beretino,whichI
have seenesome weare for long time constantly,with
purposeto wearethem during life.









Chap. II.
Of the Turkes, French, English, Scottish, and
Irish Apparrell.
He Turks shave their heads, but only in [III.iv. 174.]

wheretheyleavea tufft Tur*eyof haire; andthey doenot now asof old,
onely nourish the haire of the upper lip,
but al the beard growing round. They
cover their head thus shaved with

a close

cap of Scarlet,and aboveit wearesome

twelveor twenty ellesof fine white cotton cloth, woven
into a round globe, which in their tongue is called a
Tulbent, and by some Tsalma: neither do they ever
uncovertheir headsin honour to any man, but salute by

bendingthe body,andlaying their left handon their right

side. This cap(or this head,asthey call it) is hollow, and
so admits aire, being borne up by little hoopes,and so
coolesthe head,yet being thicke, keepesout the Sunne
from piercing it, and being of most fine linnen, is much
lighter then our hats. All the Ordersor degreesamong
theTurkes, are knowneby the ornamentof the head(or
by their heades,
asthey speake.) The Azimoglanesweare
Pyramidallcapslike sugar-loves,of a mingled colour and
light stuffe. The Janizareswearethe said Tulbent, but
havealso a cap peculiar to their Order, vulgarly called
Zarcola,which they weare going abroad into the City,
beinga standingcap,plaineat the top, with an hood hanging downbehind(like that part of our Frenchhoods),with

a guildedhome of brasseupright abovethe forehead.

The Janizaresthat areCourtiers,wearea Featherhanging
downefrom the hinder part of the headto the very heeles.
The Chausses,and all degrees upward to the very
Emperour,wearethe said Tulbent or Cap, with a little
pieceof red velvet appearingat the very crowne,upon
whichthey set Jewelsand Feathers,wherebythesehigher
ordersand degreesin the warre are distinguished. Like






white Tulbents, but altogetherplaine, are worneby

inferiour Turkes, that are not Souldiers,and they cannot

beemore provoked, then by castingany spot upon their
white heads,which they weareas an holy badgeof their
Religion, placingthe purity of the soulefor a greatpartin
the outward purity of the body, Tulbent, and garments.
All theseTulbents be of pure white ; but the Greekes
other Christians, aswell subjects as strangers,weare

thatis, stripedlinnen(commonly
woundaboutthe skirtsof a little cap. Sucha Shasse
selfedid weare,costingfifteeneMeidines.
The Persianswearesuch Tulbents for the forme, but the

cloth is of greenecolour. And the Turkes(asI thinke)

called Seriffi, and by others called Hemir, namely,the

Kindred or raceof Mahomet, (who makegreat shewof
hereditaryholinesse,and are of singular reputation),doe
not onely wearegreeneTulbents, but all garmentsof the
samecolour, yet someof them wearegarmentsof other
colours, with a greenemarke to be knownefrom others.
They say, that Mahomet usedto wearegreenegarments,
whereuponin superstitionthey onelypermit this colourto
his race; and if any chance to weare a shoo-string or

gartersof that colour,by ignorance

of this rite, theywill
flie upon him, and beatehim with cudgels,andif heestill
weare them, will punish him more severely. My self

ignorantof this rite, passed

most part of Turkey,with
my dublet lined with greenetaffety, but sleepingby nights
in my dublet, andhiding the silke,lest they shouldthinke
me rich; by great chance this error of mine was
never detected,till I cameto Constantinople,whereour
Ambassadourobserving it, and telling mee the great
cruelty they use towardssuchas weareany greenething,
did muchastonishme,yet did I still wearethe same,being

safein the priviledgeof the Ambassadours

house,till I

went into a Venetian ship, to sayle into Italy. Besides

[Ill.iv. 175.]thesehypocritesof Mahometsrace,(for that causesomuch
asthe witnesseof oneof them availesmorethen

of ten commonTurkes), they have other ordersof









men,whereofthe chiefe,and(asit were)MetropolitanBishopis called Mophty, whom the Emperour
and takescounsellof him whenhe goes

to warre. Also the Cady is a chiefeJudge of Ecclesiasticall causes: And all theseweare silke gownesof skie
colouredblew, which colour is esteemednext greene,and
properto somesuch orders. And thesereligious men
wearetheir gowneslong to the ground, with closesleeves,
andtheir tulbentsarelarger,but flatter, then otherTurkes

Neithermennor womenof the Turkes, weareany necke

bandsor collars, but their gownesare cut close to the
lowestpart of the necke,and there made fast, so as all
theneckeis naked. And the gownesof men and women
little differ, savethat the menhavethemlarge, the women
close at the brest.

They hate the blacke colour, as

infernall,and much used by Christians. In general,the

menwearea long coateto the knee, and upon it a long
gownewith gatheredsleeveshanging to the calfe of the

and buttoned at the brest, and a third longer
gowne hanging behind to the ground, with sleeves
closeto the arme. They weare a girdle of silke or
linnen twice or thrice about the waste, or of fine

leatherwith plates of gold and silver. Their breeches

and stockingsare of one peeceof Kersey, like Irish
Trouses,but larger, the stockingshanging loosewithout
any garters. They weare their shirts hanging over
their breeches,under which they have linnen breeches,

whichthey wearealsoby night, in steadof sheetes: And

they pull out their shirts by day, lest they should be
spottedby their privy parts, makingit a point of religion,
to keepetheir garmentscleane. Lastly ; they wearered
andyellowshooes,of most thinne leather,pointedsharpe
at the toes; and two fingershigh at the heele,with peeces
of iron under the soles, or else leather buskins, and both

thesethey put off within dores; sitting upon the ground,

spreadwith Carpets,crossingtheir naked feete like our
Taylors. Their uppergowneand breechesarecommonly
M. iv







of English or Venetiancloth, and manytimes of sattenor

damaske,or somelight stuffe : And their coatesareloose,

linedwith blackeConieskinnes,

out of England,and muchesteemed

by them; asbeing
soft, and coole, and keeping out the Sunne in a loose

garment,andalsowarmein a closegarment. Thusthey

weare the finest cloth, silkes, and stuffes, but not oneis

found so prodigall or ridiculous, asto weareany lace,and

muchlesseto cut any stuffe, all wearing them plaine,and

laughingat our contraryfashions. Theyhavenoglooves

and I rememberthat my selfe in Syria being poorely
attired,yet wastakenfor a greatman,onelyfor wearing
gloves. They weare very large hand-kerchers,and
wrought all over with silke of light colours,whichthey
hang by their sidesabout the girdle. They uselinnen
cloth or cotton cloth very thinne and fine, but of browne
colour, for thinnessenot unlike our boulting cloths,but
most pure and cleane, in which they are curious for al

things worne about the body. The chief pride of the

Turks, is in having the pummelsof their Cemeters
short and broad Swords)set with Jewels,which aremany
times counterfet,and commonlyof small value,andlikewise in having good Horses,with bridles and saddles
and set with like Jewels. I never observedany Turkes
to wearegold Rings or Jewelson their fingers,excepting
onely someSouldiersin Syria, whom I have seeneweare
great rings of white bone upon their thumbs. But the
greatmen highly esteeme
ChristianJewellers,not to weare
the Jewels,but ratherto have their treasureportable,and
easie to be hidden.

The Turkes

weare no Swords in the

Cities, but onely in the Campe, or in Journies. For

Janizariesand other Souldiershavesuchauthoritywithout

armes,asno mandaresresistthem,soascarryingonelya

long andheavycudgellin theirhands,oneof themwill

therewith beat multitudes of Turkes, like so many dogs:

yet theJanizaries
in Syriaweare
at theirgirdlesshortand
heavyKnives,like daggers.


The Turkish womenwearesmocks(of whichfashion










alsothe mensshirtsare)of fine linnen, wrought with silke

at the wrests, upon the sleeves,and at the skirts; and a

longcoteof silke,wroughtwith needle-worke,

with sleevescloseto the arme, and at the breast,with their

naked.The womens
aremuchlike those[IH.iv.176.]
of the men, for cloth and fashion, and in like sort without

lace,and plainewithout cutting, and open before, so as

the smocke is seene; and they weare linnen breechesas

men,by day and night, or elsesuchbreechesof cloth, as

menweare,and both these open at the knee; and as the

men, so likewise the women, have no collar of any

garment,but their neckesbeenaked,and the womenhave
Pearleshangingin their eares. But they seldomeweare
or stockingslike men, but commonlyBuskins of
light colours,adornedwith gold andsilver, or with Jewells
if they be of the richer sort, or wives of great men; and
thesethey weareonely abroad,for at home their feet be
naked,& as men, so they sit crosselegdupon carpets.
Theyweaveup their hairein curiousknots, & so let them
hangat length, & deck the hairewith Pearleand buttons
of gold, and with Jewels& flowersof silk wrought with
the needle. The womenin Syria cover their headswith
little peeces
of coinedmoneysjoyned togetherwith thread,
in steadof a linnen coife. No Turkish woman, that ever

I observedin that vast Empire, at any time goeth forth

to buy any thing, or for any businesseof the family, but
whenupon other occasions
they go forth, then they cover
their headsand foreheadswith a white vaile, their eyes
with a blackeCipers,andmuffle their mouthesandneckes
with white linnen, and hide their very handsunder their
vailes,though their handsbe all painted over with a red
colour,madeof an hearb,which in the Easterneparts is
helda greatornament,so as the very men in someplaces
painttheir hands. Also the women,over their garments

(betheycostlyor poore)weareagowneof a darkecoloured

cloth,whichbothrich andmeaner
womenall generallyuse

of thesamekind of cloth and the samecolour,whensoever

theygoeout of the dores,soasthus muffledandcovered,






they cannot be distinguishedin condition or beauty.

Neither goe they abroadin any pompe to be scene,nor
without the leave of their husbands,to whom, and to no

other at any time, they shew their face open, and their
handsunpainted,exceptthey will by immodestyprocure
their ownedanger. Under the neckeof this gownecovering all their apparrell,they thrust the end of their white
vaile hanging downe from the hinder part of the head;
yet the Greekish women weare this vaile loose over that

gowne. And this singular modestyis attributedto these

women, that they blush to come into Market places,or
publike meetings,or great companies,and are not displeasedto be strictly kept at home. Lastly, in respect

their frequentbathing,and their facescoveredwhenthey

goe abroad,and sonever opento the Sunne,wind, or any
ill weather, the Turkish and Greekish women have most

delicatebodyes,and long preservetheir beauties.

France. The French,if we respectthe time of theselate Civill
wars,wearelight stuffesandwoollencloth, with a doublet
closeto the body, and large easiebreeches,andall things
rather commodious for use, then brave for ornament; and

scoffedat thosewho camerichly attired to the Campe,

wore long haire. But if wee consider their apparrell
beforethe misery of the said civill warres,we shallfind
them authors to us English, of wearing long haire,
doubletswith long bellies to the navell, ruffes hanging
downe to the shoulders, and breechespuffed as big asa
tunne, with all like wanton levities. In time of peace,

Gentlemen weare mixed and light colours, and silk

laid with silkelace,andsattens,
and stockingsof silke, or of somelight stuffe, but never
woollen or worsted (which only Merchantsweare,)and

imbroderedgarments,with great inconstancyin the

fashion,and negligentlyor carelessely,
which the Germans
call slovenly, becausethey many times goe without hat-

bandsand garters,with their points untrust,and their

doubletsunbutned. The sumptuarylawesforbidGentlemento wearecloth or laceof gold and silver,but when








the King proclaimesan honourablewarre against any

forrainePrince,he permitsany braveryto his soldiers,yet
so,as the warre ended,after a fit time to weareout that
apparrel,they must returne to their former attire, except
theking be soweake,ashe cannotgive life to theselawes.
Lacqueisor servantsruffle in plaine ragges.
In generall,men and women (exceptingCourtiers and
someof the Gentry) wearelight stuffes,andrather delicate
then sumptuous garments. And howsoeverthe Law
forbids to weare silke lace upon silke stuffes, yet the [III. iv.177.]
executionof the Law being neglected,they ever offend
moreor lesse,accordingto the libertie of the time, against
this old Law, never yet abolished,but rather in time worne

out of respect. Merchants weare blacke garments of

cloth,or light stuffes of silke, commonlyafter a modest
fashion. The Senators
wearecloakesandhats(not gownes
and caps as ours use), and onely the Presidents and
of Parliamentswearescarletgownes,and that
onelyat solemnetimes,asthe first day that the Court sits,
andall the Procuratorsdaily wearegownes. The Country
peoplecommonlyusedto weareblew cloth, in loosecoates
and close breeches,with stockings hanging over their
shooes. But they have left this fashion,and now for the
mostpart, weareclosedoublets,andlarge breeches,
with a

largecoatehangingdowneto the knees,all of light stuffes

madeat home,and stockingsof coursewooll. And their
wives in like sort attyred, have their heads all over-

wrappedin linnen.
In generall the women, married, cover their headswith TheFrench

a coyfeor nettedcawle. The Gentlewomenbeareup their Women.

haireon the fore-headeswith a wier, and upon the back
part of the headwearea capof otherhairethen their owne,
overtheir cawle,andabovethat they wearea coyfeof silke,
linedwith Velvet, andhaving a peakedownethe forehead.
Or else the Gentlewomen and wives of rich Merchants,

with smalldifferenceof degree,weareupon their headsa

blackvaileof Cipers,peakedat the forehead,

with a velvet






hood hanging downe behind; onely the Gentlewomen

wearethis hoodgathered,andthe Merchantswivesplaine.
Women of inferiour sort weare like hoods of cloth,
and sometimesof silke, or a light stufFe. And some
Merchantswives and womenof ordinary condition,weare
a white coife of linnen (fine or courseaccordingto their
condition) with certainehigh and not very comelyhomes,
wreathed up on the forehead. Both men and women
lately used falling bands,which the better sort starched,
and raisedup with wier, shewingtheir necksandbreasts
naked. But now both more commonlyand especially
winter, weare thicke ruffes.

Gentlewomen and Citizens

wives whenthey goe out of dores,weareupon their faces

little Maskesof silk, lined with fine leather,whichthey
alwaiesunpin, and shew their face, to any that salutes
them. And they use a strangebadgeof pride, to weare
little looking glassesat their girdles. Commonlytheygo
in the streetsleaning upon a mans arme. They weare
very light gownes,commonlyblacke,andhanginglooseat
the backe,and under it an upper-bodycloseat thebreast,
with a kirtle of a mixed or light colour, andof somelight
stufFe,laid with many gardes,in which sort the women
generallyareattired. They wearesleevesto their gownes

borneout with whalebones,

andof a differingcolourfrom
the gowne,whichbesides
cast backward,and aswelthe upperbodiesas the kirtles,
differ from the gownein colourandstuffe. And theysay,
that the sleevesborne up with whale-bones,werefirst
invented,to avoid mensfamiliar touchingof their armes.
For it wasrelatedunto me (I know not how credibly),that
by Phisitiansadvicethe Frenchmakeissuesin their armes
for better health,as the Italians use to makethemunder

the knees,coveredwith a closegarter of brasse.In

Franceaswell menaswomen,userichly to beeadorned
with Jewels. The men wearerings of Diamonds,and
abroadJewelsin their hats,placeduponthe rooteof their
feathers. The Ladieswearetheir Jewelscommonlyat the

brest,or upon the left arme,and manyotherwaies;for









who can containe the mutable

French in one and the same

fashion? andthey commonlywearechainesof Pearle,yea,

the very wivesof Merchantswearerings of Diamonds,

but mostcommonlychainesof bugell and like toyesof
black colour.

The Gentlemen have no plate of silver, but some

anda salt,muchlessehavethey any plate of gold.
But the great Lords or Princes eate in silver dishes, and

usebasonsandewersof silver, andno other kind of plate,

usingalwaiesto drinke in glasses,and eachseverallman
to havea glasseby himselfe.
reports that the old Britans were apparrelledin England.
skinnes,and wore long haire, with the beardall shaven,
but the upperlippe. Now the English in their apparrell
arebecomemore light then the lightest French,and more
then the proudestPersians. More light I say
then the French, becausewith singular inconstancythey
havein this one ageworne out all the fashionsof France[ 178.]
and all the Nations of Europe, and tired their owne
inventions,which are no lessebuisie in finding out new
andridiculous fashions,then in scrapingup money for
suchidle expences: yea, the Taylors and Shopkeepers
daily invent fantasticallfashionsfor hats, and like new
fashionsand namesfor stuffes. Somemay thinke that I
playthe Poet, in relatingwonderfullbut incrediblethings,
but men of experienceknow that I write with historicall
truth. That the English by Gods goodnesse
at homewith great variety of things to be worne,are not
onely not content therewith, and not onely seekenew
garmentsfrom the furthest East, but are besidesso light
andvaine, as they suffer themselvesto be abusedby the
EnglishMerchants,who nourishingthis generallfolly of
their Countrymen,to their own gaine, daily in forraigne
partscausesuch new colours and stuffe to be made, as
their Masterssendpaintedout of England to them,teaching strangersto serveour lightnessewith suchinventions
as themselves





this cause the

Englishof greatermodestyin apparrell,areforcedto cast







off garmentsbeforethey be worne, sinceit is the lawof

nature, that every man may eateafter his owneappetite,
but must weare his apparrell after the vulgar fashion,
excepthe will looke like an old picture in cloth of Arras.
A pleasant
I have hearda pleasantfable,that Jupiter sent a shower,

wherein whosoever was wet, becamea foole; and that all

the people were wet in this shower, exceptingone

Philosopher,who kept his study: but in the evening

commingforth into the marketplace,andfinding thatall
the peoplemocked him as a foole, who was onelywise,

wasforcedto prayfor anotherlike shower,that hemight

becomea foole,and so live quietly amongfooles,rather
then bearethe envy of his wisedome. This happens
many wise men in our age,who wearing apparrellof old
and good fashion, are by others so mocked for proud
andobstinatefooles,till at last they areforcedto be foolish
with the fooles of their time. The English I sayare
moresumptuousthen the Persians,becausedespisingthe
golden meane,they affect all extreamities. For either
they will be attired in plaine cloth and light stuffes,
(alwayesprovided that everyday without differencetheir
hats be of Bever, their shirts and bandsof the finest linnen,

their daggersand swordsguilded, their gartersandshooe

rosesof silke,with gold or silverlace,their stockings

silke wrought in the seames
with silke or gold, andtheir

cloakes in Summer of silke, in Winter at least all lined

with velvet),or elsetheydailywearesumptuous

and breechesof silke or velvet, or cloth of gold or silver,
so laid over with lace of gold or silke, as the stuffes
(though of themselvesrich) can hardly be scene. The

English and Frenchhaveone peculiarfashion,whichI

never observed in any other part, namely to weare

and sheathsof velvet upon their rapiersand

daggers: For in Francevery Notaries use them in the

Cities, and ride upon their footecloaths,or in Coaches
(both hired), andin Englandmenof meanesort usethem.

In the time of QueeneElizabeththe Courtiersdelighted

muchin darkecolours,bothsimpleandmixt, anddidoften








weareplaineblackestuffes; yet that beinga bravetime

of warre, they, together with our Commanders,many
timesworelight colours,richly lacedandembrodered,but
the better sort of Gentlementhen esteemedsimple light
coloursto be lessecomely,asred and yellow, onely white
excepted,which was then much worne in Court. Now

in thistimeof King JameshisReigne,thosesimplelight

colours have beene much used.

If I shouldbegin to set downe the variety of fashions

andforraignstuffesbrought into England in thesetimes,
I might seemeto numberthe starresof Heavenandsands
of the Sea. I will onely adde,that the English in great
affect the wearingof Jewelsand Diamond Rings,
scorningto weareplainegold rings, or chainesof gold, the
menseldomeor neverwearingany chaines,and the better
sortof womencommonlywearing rich chainesof pearle,
or elsethe light chainesof France,and all theseJewels
must be oriental and precious,it being disgracefullto
weareany that are counterfet. In like manner among the
better sort of Gentlemen and Merchants, few are found,

who have not cupbordsof silver and gold plate, to the

valueof two hundredpoundsat the least. And if a feast
lastlongerthen one day, they seldomeusethe sameplate [III. iv.179.]
of silver or guilded: yea, not only the great Lords, but
the bettersort of Knights and Gentlemen,use to eatein
silver dishes.


whereas the French and Italians


to drinke in glasses,andhavefew vessels,no pots or boles

of silver,and the Germansdrink in peuteror stonepots,
having little or no plate; most of the housholdersin
Englandof any reasonablecondition, drinke in silver :
yet howsoever the Gentlemen are served with pots and

bolesof silver, they rather delight to drinke in glassesof

Venice,onely the common sort using other kinds of
In thegenerallpride of Englandthereis no fit difference
madeof degrees,for very Bankrouts,Players,and Cutpurses,goe apparrelledlike Gentlemen. Many good

Laweshavebeenmadeagainstthis Babylonian






but either the Merchantsbuying out the penaltie,or the

Magistrates not inflicting punishments,have madethe
multitude of Laweshitherto unprofitable. Likewiseis the
of all agesand sexes,but (God be thanked)notof
all particularorders; for onely the MerchantsandStudents
of the Universities, with great comlinesse,and no lesse
areapparrelledin light stuffes,or silke,or cloth
of grave colours,and much keepetheir old fashions,or at
least are not curiously addictedto new. The wivesof
Merchants,though little yeelding to others in prideor

expence,yet havelong used,and still retainea decent

attire, with little or no inconstancyin the fashion. They
wearea gowne of somelight stuffe or silke, gatheredin
the backe,andgirded to the bodywith a girdle, anddecked
with many gardesat the skirt, with which they wearean
apron beforethem, of somesilke or stuffe, or fine linnen.
They weareupon their headsa coyfeof fine linnen,with
their haireraiseda little at the forehead,anda capof silke,
or a little hat of beaver,yet without fit differenceof estate
or condition, and someweare light French chainesand
necklacesof pearle. The graver sort of Citizensweare
gownesand caps,otherswearehats and cloakes,andtheir
prentisescloakesandcaps. No Citizensweareanyswords

in the Citie. At publike meetingsthe Aldermenof

London weareScarletgownes,and their wivesa close
gowne of skarlet laid with gards of blackevelvet.

wearegarmentsof coursecloth,made

home, and their wives wearegownesof the samecloth,

kirtles of somelight stuffe, with linnen aprons,andcover

their headswith a linnencoyfe,and a high felt hat,and

in generalltheir linnen is course,and madeat home.

Engliih Gentlewomen
virgins wearegownescloseto thebody,
Women. andapronsof fine linnen,andgoebareheaded,
with their
haire curiouslyknotted,and raisedat the forehead,
manyagainstthe cold (as they say)wearecapsof haire
that is not their owne, decking their headswith buttons

of gold, pearles,and flowersof silke, or knots of ribben.

They wearefine linnen,andcommonlyfalling bands,









oftenruffes, both starched,and chainesof pearle about

the necke,with their brests naked. The graver sort of
married women used to cover their head with

a French-

hoodof Velvet,set with a borderof gold buttonsand

pearles: but this fashion is now left, and they most
commonlyweare a coyfe of linnen, and a little hat of
beaver or felt, with their haire somewhat raised at the

forehead. Young married Gentlewomensometimesgoe

bareheaded,as virgins, decking their haire with Jewels,
andsilke ribbens,but more commonlythey use the fore-

saidlinnencoyfeandhats. All in generall,wearegownes

hanginglooseat the backe,with a Kirtle andcloseupperbody, of silke or light stuffe, but have lately left the
Frenchsleevesborne out with hoopesof whalebone,and
the young married Gentlewomen no lesse then the
Virgins, shewtheir breastsnaked.
The servants of Gentlemen were wont to weare blew TheEnglish

coates,with their Masters badge of silver on the left servant!,

: but nowthey mostcommonlyweareclokesgarded
with lace,all the servantsof one family wearing the same
liverie for colour and ornament; and for the rest, are

with no lessepride and inconstancieof fashion

The Husbandmen in Scotland, the servants,and almost Scotland.

al in the Country did wearecoursecloth madeat home,of

gray or skie colour, and flat blew capsvery broad. The
Merchantsin Cities were attired in English or French
cloth, of pale colour or mingled black and blew. The [IH.iv.180.]
Gentlemendid weare English cloth, or silke, or light
stuffes,little or nothing adornedwith silke lace, much
lessewith laceof silver or gold, and all followedat this
time the French fashion, especiallyin Court. Gentlewomenmarried did weare closeupper bodies, after the
Germanmanner,with large whalebonesleevesafter the
French manner, short cloakes like the Germans, French

hoods,and large falling bandsabout their neckes. The

unmarriedof all sortsdid goebareheaded,
cloakes,with most closelinnen sleeveson their armes,like






the Virginsof Germany. The inferioursort of Citizens

wives,and the womenof the Countrey,did wearecloakes
madeof a coursestuffe, of two or three colours in Checker

worke, vulgarly calledPlodan. To conclude,in generall

they would not at this time be attiredafter the English

fashion, in any sort, but the men, especiallyat Court,

follow the French fashion, and the women, both in Court

and City, as well in cloakes, as naked heads, and close

sleeveson the armes,and all other garments,follow the

fashionof the womenin Germany.
Ireland. In Ireland the English and the English Irish areattired
after the English manner,for the most part, yet not with
suchpride and inconstancy,perhapsfor want of meanes:
yet the English Irish forgetting their owneCountrey,are
somewhatinfected with the Irish rudenesse,and with them

are delightedin simple light colours, as red and yellow.

And in like sort the degeneratedCitizens are somewhat
infected with the Irish filthinesse, as well in lowsie beds,

foule sheetes,
and all linnen, asin manyotherparticulars;
but as well in diet as apparrell,the Citizens of Dublyn
most of all other, and the Citizens of Waterford and

Galloway in some good measure,retaine the English

cleanlinesse.Touching the meereor wild Irish, it may
truely be said of them, which of old was spokenof the
Germans,namely, that they wanderslovenly and naked,
andlodge in the samehouse(if it may be calleda house,)
with their beasts. Among them the Gentlemenor Lords

of Countries,weareclosebreeches
and stockingsof the
samepeeceof cloth, of red or such light colour, anda
loose coate, and a cloake or three cornered mantle, com-

monly of courselight stuffe made at home, and their

linnen is courseand slovenly. I say slovenly, because
they seldomeput off a shirt till it be worne: And these
shirts in our memorybeforethe last Rebellion,weremade
of sometwenty or thirty elles, folded in wrinckles,and
coloured with saffron to avoid lowsinesse,incident to the

wearing of foule linnen. And let no man wonder, that

they arelowsie,for neverany barbarouspeoplewerefound









in all kinds more slovenly then they are, and nothing is

morecommonamongthem, then for the men to lie upon
the womenslaps on greenehils, till they kill their lice,
with a strangenimblenesse,
proper to that Nation. Their
are so close,as they exposeto full view, not
onelythe noble, but also the shamefullparts, yea they
stuffetheir shirts about their privy parts, to exposethem
more to the view.

Their wives living amongthe English, are attired in a TheIrish

sluttishgowne,to be fastnedat the breastwith a lace, V'omfrt-

and in a more sluttish mantell, and more sluttish linnen,

andtheir headsbe covered after the Turkish manner, with

manyellesof linnen,onely the Turkish headsor Tulbents

areround in the top: but the attire of the Irish womens
heads,is more flat in the top and broader on the sides, not

muchunlike a cheesemot, if it had a hole to put in the

head. For therest,in theremotepartswheretheEnglish

Lawesand mannersare unknowne, the very cheefeof the

Irish, as well men as women,goe naked in very Winter

time,onelyhaving their privy parts coveredwith a ragge
of linnen, and their bodies with a loose mantell, so as it
would turne a mans stomacke to see an old woman in the

morningbefore breakefast. This I speakeof my owne

experience,yet remember that the foresaid Bohemian
Barron,commingout of Scotlandto us by the North parts
of the wild Irish, told me in great earnestnes,(when I
attendedhim at the Lord Deputies command,)that he
commingto the houseof Ocanea greatLord amongthem,
was met at the doore with sixteene women, all naked,

exceptingtheir loosemantles; whereofeight or ten were

very faire, and two seemedvery Nimphs: with which
strangesight his eyesbeing dazelled,they led him into
thehouse,andtheresitting downeby the fier, with crossed
leggeslike Taylors, and so low as could not but offend [ 181.]
chasteyes,desiredhim to set downewith them. Soone
after Ocane the Lord of the Countrie came in all naked

exceptinga loose mantle, and shooes,which he put off

as he camein, and entertainingthe Barron after






his best mannerin the Latin tongue, desiredhim to put

off his apparrel,which he thought to be a burthen to him,
and to sit nakedby the fier with his nakedcompany. But
the Barron when he came to himselfe after some astonish-

ment at this strangesight,professedthat hewassoinflamed

therewith,asfor shamehe durst not put off his apparrell.
TheseRoguesin Summerthus nakedbearetheir armes,
girding their swordsto themby a with in steadof a girdle.
To conclude,men and women,at night going to sleepe,
lie thus naked in a round circle about the fier, with their

feetetowardsit, and as I formerly said, treating of their

diet, they fold their headsandupperpartesin their woollen
mantles,first steepedin water, to keepethemwarme. For
they say that woollen cloth wetted, preservesheate,(as
linnen wetted preservescold) when the smokeof their
bodies had warmed the woollen


Chap. III.
Of the Germans, and Bohemians Commonwealth,






introduction ; the Princes pedegrees, and

Courts, the presentstate of things, the tributes
and revenews, the military state for Horse,
Foote, and Navy, the Courts of Justice, rare

Lawes, more speciallythe Lawes of inheritance, and of womens Dowries, the capitall
Judgements, and the diversitie of degreesin
Family and Common-wealth.

the yeere 306, removed his seatefrom
Rome to Constantinople, and at his death

devided the Empire amonghis children.

And howsoeverthe Empire was after
sometimesunited in the personof one
Prince for his reigne,
' /yet it could never

in one body,but wasmostcom238







monlydevidedinto the Easterneand WesterneEmpires.

In the time of Augustulus Emperour of the West, the
remoteCountriesof the Empire recoveredtheir liberty by

Nationsin greatarmies,invaded
theEmpire, till they possessed
Italy, so as this Emperour
wasforcedto deposehis Imperiall dignity about the yeere
476. And thus the WesterneEmpire ceased,till Charles
thegreat, King of France,about the yeere 774 subdued
theLombards,andwasat RomesalutedEmperour of the
Westby Pope Leo the third, and the Princes of Italy.
Fromwhich time the Empires of the East and West, of
old devidedby inheritanceamongbrothersand Kinsmen
hadno moreany mutuall right of succession,
but began
to beeseverallygoverned. Histories write that Charles
thegreat,King of France,wasdescended
of the Germans,
andthat all Gallia Transalpina(that is beyondthe Alpes)
and upper Germany, as farre as Hungary, were by a
commonname called France, onely devided into Easterne
and Westerne







Germany,formerly governedby their Kings and Dukes,

wereat this time first united under this Charlesthe great
aboutthe yeere 911. Conradethe first, son to the Duke
of Franconia(a largeProvince of Germany),wasfirst out
of the raceof Charlesthe great salutedEmperour of the
West, by the Princes of Germany,though Charlesthe
Simple,and others of the raceof Charlesthe great, still
reignedin Franceto the yeere988, yet with lessereputation
thentheir progenitorshad, and troubled with many confusions. Thus Germanydeviding it selfe from France,
drewto it selfethe Empire of the West, whereof in our

ageit retainethrather the shadowthen the old glory, [m.iv.182.]

Foure Dukes of Saxony succeededConrade in this
Empire, and in the time of Otho the third Duke of
Saxonyand Emperour, contrary to the former custome,
wherebythe Emperourssucceeded
by right of bloud, or
the last testamentof the deceasedEmperour, or by the
consentof the Princes of Germany,the electionof the

Emperourwasin the yeere984 established







sevenPrincesof Germany,calledElectors,by a law made

by the Emperour and the Pope. From that time the
Empire hath remainedin Germany,with free election,yet
so as they most commonlytherein respectedthe right of

bloud,in whichrespectthe houseof Austria hathlong

continued in the possessionof the Empire. And the

Emperoursof Germanyfor many ages,by this right

governedItaly, and receivedtheir Crowneat Rome,till

weariedand worne out by the treacheriesof the Popes,
and forcedto bearethe publike burthenupon their private
revenues,they were madeunableto support their former
dignity. For thesecausesRodulphusof Habsburgof the
houseof Austria chosenEmperourin the yeere1273,first
laid asideall careof forraigne matters. Then the riches
of the Emperours daily decreasing,and the richesof
inferiour Princes no lesseincreasing,the Emperoursin
of time, for great summesof money,soldlibertie
andabsolutepowerto the PrincesandDukes of Italy and
Germany,yea,their very right of investing,to the Princes
of Italy.
Netherland Most of the Cities in Netherland, and all the Cantons


of the Sweitzers,were of old subjectto the German

till bythedissentions

Popes,they found meanesto gainetheir liberties. Of old

nintie sixe greater Cities thus made free, still acknowledgedthe Emperour in somesort: but after manyof
them,leaguedwith the SweitzersandNetherlanders,quite
forsookethe Emperour,manyof the rest, and manylesse
Cities, either pawnedto Princesfor moneyborrowed,or
given to Princes for their good serviceto the Emperors
in their warres,becamesubject to divers Princesby the
Emperoursconsent; soasat this day therebeeonelysixty
Cities, all seatedin Germany,which are calledFree and
Imperiall Cities,havingabsolutepowerwithin themselves;
and howsoeverthesein a sort acknowledgethe Emperour
their chiefeLord, yet they little or not at al feareor respect
his weake power.

Hitherto the RomanBishops,not enduring a superiour






Lord, first castthe Emperoursof the East out of Italy, TheRoman

and after by al meanes weakened their power, till Bishops.
Mahumetthe secondEmperourof the Turkes, about the

that Empirewithin hisfoulejawes.
Hitherto the said Bishops,that they might reigne alone,
bewitched the barbarousKings, which had

the Empireof the West,and then reignedin
Italy, for Religionssaketo promotethe Churchof Rome,
andat other times oppressedthem with open treacheries,

till they had conferredthe Kingdome of Lombardy and

theEmpireof the West upon Charlesthe Great, King of
France. Hitherto the sameBishops,for the samecauses,
hadtroubledthe Empire of the West with Civill dissentions,till at last Italy (as I said) having bought liberty of
theEmperours,and the saidGermanEmperourscontaining themselves
at home, (for no Emperour after the said
of Habsburg,but onelyLodwick the Bavarian,
did ever leadeany Army into Italy), they now thought
goodto rage no more againstthis dejectedEmpire, but
ratherto cherrishit, convertingthemselves
wholly to bring
all Christian Kings under their yoke. And now the
Turkish Emperours beganto threaten ruine to the German

Empire,and in very Germany, the Popesstage, where

they had plaied their bloudy parts, by continuall raising
of civill warres,the reformationof Religion beganfreshly
to spring,and to pull the borrowedplumesof the Popes.
Thereforethe Emperoursfrom that time to this our age,
havebeen wholly busied in resisting the Turkes, and
the domesticalldifferencesof Religion.
And from the same time forward, the Court of Rome

wascontinuallydistractedwith the factionsof Franceand

Spaine,till the Popes,skilfull to use the ambitiousdiscussions
of Princesto their owne profit and greatnesse,
madethem all subject to the Romaneyoke. And the
Kingson the contrarylabourednothing more,then to have
thePopeon their party, at whosebeck all Christendome
wasgoverned,to which end they gave largebribes to the [III.iv. 183.]
Cardinals, who had now assumed to themselves the
M. iv







electionof the Popes. To conclude,the Popesto make

their owne power transcendent,kept the power of the

Princesin equalballance,by sowingdissentions

them, and favouring now onenow the otherparty, till for
feare of the reformed Religion now also springing in
France,they could no longerkeepethis equality,but were
forced to forsake the Kings of France distractedwith
civill warres,and to advancethe Kings of Spaine,asprotectorsof the Church,whoseClientsat last got the power
to governeall things in Romeat their pleasure: And the
Spaniard at this time distracted abroad with the French

and English warres,and besiegedat homewith the power

of the Jesuitesand religious men, seemedlesseto bee
fearedby the Romansin that respect,aslikewisethe Kings
of Spainedoubtednot to maintainethe awfull authority
of the Popes,which they knew must alwayesbe favourable
to their designes,as well for the protection which they
gaveto the RomanChurch,againstthe reformedReligion,
as for that the massygold of Spaine,bore so greatsway
in the Colledgeof the Cardinals,that by strangesuccesse
the Popeslesseinclinedto the Spanishfaction,weresoone
taken away by untimely death. To omit manyother,I
will onely mention Pope Sixtus Quintus, who lived
happily in that Chaire,so long ashe favouredSpaine,but
assooneas he was thought to decline from that faction,
and when he saw a white Mule presentedhim for the
tribute of the NeapolitaneKingdome,wassaid to weepe,
that solittle a Mule shouldbe given for so greata Kingdome: he lived not long after, but suddenlyvanished
away. At Rome are two Images called Pasquin and

Marphorius,uponwhichlibelsuseto be fixed: And of

late when the Pope by the mediation of the King of

France,had madepeacewith the Venetians,contraryto
the liking of the King of Spaine,a white sheeteof paper
wasfixed on Pasquin,and anotherdemandingwhat that
paperment was fixed on Marphorius, and a third paper
wasfixed on Pasquin,answering,that the cleanepaperwas

for the Popeto makehis lastWill andTestament,






he could not live long, having offendedthe Spanish

faction. Yet in our age the Kings of France,after the
civill warresappeased,beganneto recover their former

powerin the RomanCourt: but I leavethesethingsas

straying from my purpose,and returne to the
affairesof Germany.

In the said Family of Austria, the Westerne Empire TheHouse


hathgrowneold andweake,by little andlittle from that Austrtatime to this our age: For howsoeverthe Emperor
Charlesthe fifth of the said Family, heire to eight and
twentyKingdomes,in respecthee was borne at Gant in
Netherland,and so reputed a German, was chosen
Emperourin the yeere 1519, by the Electors, rejecting
theKing of FranceFrancisthe first, asa stranger,and at
thattime the power of this Emperour seemedfearefull to
theItalians,at the first blush: yet the Pope of Rome in
theTriumvirall warre of England, France,& Spaine,did
with suchart support the weakerpart, and by contrary
motionsin one and the same cause,so favoured now one,

nowthe other side, and so dispencedwith the breaking

of oatheson the part they tooke, as while the power of
theseKings was weaknedby mutuall warres,Italy in the
meanetime receivedsmall or no damage. True it is,
that Charlesthe fifth by subtile art and open force, had
almostsubdued Germany distracted by dissentionsof
religion,& had almost brought the free Empire into the
formeof a subdued Province, till Mauritius Elector of

obtainedhelpeof the King of FranceHenry the
who camewith a great Army to the confinesof
the Empire, professinghimselfe the Champion of the

liberty. At which time Mauritius besieging
Magdeburgwith the Emperoursarmy, receivedthat City
into the protection of the Empire and of himselfe,and

lest he might seemeto deale perfidiouslywith the

Emperour,if he should assailehim with forcesunder his
ownepay, dismissedthe whole Army, yet so, as himselfe

entertainedin his ownepay the greatestpart
thereof,willing to servehim: And with theseforceshe






so speedilycameto Insprucke,where the Emperourthen

lay, as his suddenrepairemadethe Emperourhastilyflie
out of the Empire into Italy. Thus Mauritius causedthe
captive Princes of the reformed religion to be set at
liberty, gave peaceto the reformedreligion, and restored
liberty to the oppressedEmpire: And howsoeverhe
[III.iv. 184.]cunningly hadadvancedhimselfeand his posterity,by the
dejectionof his ownekinsemensufferingfor the reformed
religion and for the liberty of the Empire, yet he repaired
the publike lossesof his Religion, and of his Countrey.
But they who morejudicially observedthe affairesof this
age, confessethat nothing hath more kept the houseof

Austriafrom subduingthe West,then thoseof the same

House. For the foresaid confident proceeding of

Mauritius, was causedby the distrusts and jealousies
betweene Charles the fifth and his brother Ferdinand,

springing from the following cause,namelythat Charles

the elder brother, to the end that he might keepethe
Empire in his own Family, had caused his brother
Ferdinand,at Colenin the yeere1531, to be chosenKing
of the Romans,(so they call him that is chosenin the
Emperours life to succeedhim) hoping that when his
sonnePhilip should come to age, his brother for some
increaseof his patrimony,would be inducedto surrender
his right in the Empire: But Ferdinand at this time
having had large offers made him to resignethe same,
could not be inducedto doe that wrong to his children:
And because
he suspected
that Charlesthe Emperormight
force him thereunto,he is said to have gladly bornethe
adversefortune of his saidbrother,and all troublesrising
againsthim, yea, (if men of experiencemay be beleeved)
to have himselfe encouragedMauritius to the foresaid

attempt. ThereforeCharlesfailing of his hope,andfor

of the World, retiring himselfeto a

private life in a Monasteryof Spaine,in the yeere1558,

his brother Ferdinand tooke possessionof the Empire,
which remainethto this day in his posterity,the Electors
alwayesusing to respectthe right of blood, in choosing








the new Emperour. And under their poore estateand

unwarlikemindes,the Empire at this day languishethlike
a sparkelappedin ashes: And the Popesheld for Gods
uponearth,have no more fearedthe Emperorsauthority,
but rathersupportedit againstthe reformedreligion, and
theinvasionsof the Turks, the Emperorsalwayesacknowledgingthis unprofitableservantof their Progenitors for
their Benefactorand spirituall Father. The Emperour
Rodolphusat this time living, is of the House of Austria,
whosepedigreeI will set downe. The first Family of the The
Houseof Austria gave many Emperours to Germany,Emperours
but that was extinguished in Conradine the sonne of
Fredericke,few yeeresbefore Rodolphus of Habspurg,
cameto the Empire, who is the roote of this second

Familyof Austria.






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Maximilian the first, Emperour, after the death of Mathias K

which he had usurped,then retaining to himselfethe right of su

the daughterof CharlesDukeof Burgundymadethat Dukedom

tary to the House of Austria. He died in the yeare 1519.

of Ferdinand
Kingof Spaine

Heire to those Kingdomes,and died young beforehis Father, i

yeare 1506.

Charlesthe fifth, Emperor,

diedin the yeere1558.

Foure Daughters,Elin
married to Francis the fi

King of France, died a

By his Wife Isabella, daughter to

the King of Portugall.


1558. Isabel, wife to t

King of Denmarke,dieda
1525. Mary, wife to t
King of Hungary, & a


ann. 1558. Catherine, w

to the King of Portingall.

Charles,by his Wife.







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b> Marie wife to the Duke of


y, dieda

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^ ^^

Js s^i *"

(/i c^ a^

sisters, Elizabeth

inquisitionc/3 and,died an. 1545; Anne

anno,1568. .c wifeto theDukeof Bavaria;

.a' /'Ferdinand "


put u

death by
the '5CX- married to the King of PolT
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died anno 1576.

by hisFathers

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Maximilian the second,

Emperor,mariedto Mary,

Cleve. Magdalenunmarried;
and Catherine


to the

Duke of Mantua, and after

^ to theKing of Poland.

v James

c of nine

Ferdinand of Ispruck, so
called of that Citie, wherein

*^ he holds his Court.



" marriedthe daughterof the


1 Dukeof Mantua,
he had some daughters,but"
no heiremale.But bya

Two sisters,-^

Citizens daughter of Augsburg his wife, hee had two

3 sonnes.

of Isabella of "


John dieda childe.

the Duke ofjc

; andv^
Isabella Clara






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jfrt UK
A- i<

wifeto^ Barbara,
arch-Duke Al- 5 Feraria. Margareta,Ursula,
^ Helena,



w 2


C/5 his Court.

died an


Charlesof Gratz, so called

of that City where he held


Hee is the fourth

sonneof the EmperourFer-

PhilipKingof_ dinand

Anne of Aus-

of the Duke of Bavaria. Hee

begat twelve children, and


triain theyeare

dyingin theyeere1519,left

King of


two sonnes, besides divers



Carolus Post-

zu Gratz.


Charles Marques

of Burgh.

This is the fourth Family

of the Arch-Dukes of Aus-

This is the third F

Arch-Dukes, called of

tria, calledZu Gratz, of

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that City whereintheyhold







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This is the second Family of the Arch-Dukes of

in the Empire of Germ






Thus I have shewed, that besides the branch of the

Austria. Houseof Austrianowraigningin Spaine,thereremaine

three branches thereof in Germany, the first of the
EmperourRodolphusandhis brethrenErnestus(dying in
his life time) Mathias and Maximilianus and Albertus,
Whereof foure lived unmarried, the fifth named Albertus

hath long beenmarried,but hath no child. The second

branch is that of Ferdinand of Ispruch, who married
Philippina the daughterof a Citizen in Augsburg,whereupon his kinsmendisdainingthat his ignobleIssueshould
enherit with them, forced him to agree,that the County
of Tyroll should not descendupon his sonne,whereupon
his eldestsonneby her namedCharles,possesseth
the City andterritory of Burgh, (which wasin his Fathers
power to give) with title of the Marquesseof Burgh,
and the saidCounty at the Fathersdeath fell backeto the
Emperour. His secondsonneAndrew Cardinalof Brixia,
besidesthe spirituall possessions
of that County,hath also
[III. iv.187.]the Bishoprickeof Costnetzin Suevia: But Ferdinand,
of his secondwife daughterto the Duke of Mantua, had
somedaughters,but no heiremale. The third branchis
of Charles of Gratz, who besides his heires males, left

eight daughters,whereofoneis now marriedto Sigismund

King of Poland by election,and of Sueciaby inheritance,
the second to the Prince of Transilvania, the third to

Philip King of Spaine.


The Emperourby right of hisowneinheritance,


Emferoursthe Empire) is Lord of manyandlargeProvinces,namely,

Kingof Hungary,
Kingof Bohemia,
with theannexed
most fertile Provinces, of Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia.

Also towardsthe Alpes he hath by Inheritancemanylarge

Provinces,gotten by his Progenitors,(as appeares
by his
Pedegree),namely, the Arch-Dukedomeof Austria, the
Provincesof Styria, Carinthia,Carniola,Tyroll, andother

largeterritoriesin SueviaandAlsatia,besides
greatjurisdictions amongthe Sweitzerscalledthe Grysons.

Bohemia. Ferdinandthe Emperour,brother to the Emperour

Charlesthe fifth, married the sister and heire of Lodovicus








King of Hungary and Bohemia,and after the unhappy

deathof Lodovicus,killed in the field by the Turkes, in
theyeere1526,waschosenKing of Bohemia,whichKingdome with the Empire, descendedto his heires. And
this Kingdome is exempted from the Parliamentsand
Contributions of Germany,by a priviledge granted by
Charlesthe fourth Emperour, and King of Bohemia,of
whom the Germans complaine, as more respecting
Bohemiathen the Empire. In which point he is lesseto
be taxed,becausehowsoeverthat Kingdome freely elects
their Kings, yet the heire is therein alwaies respected
beforeany other, and being an Infant, yet is commonly
chosenKing, with a Tutor for his Nonage. The three
Statesof Barrens,Knights, and Citizens,chusethe King;
but Ferdinandthe Emperour in his life time, causedhis
sonneMaximilian to be chosenKing. In like manner
this EmperourRodolphuswas chosenKing of Bohemia,
andalsoKing of Hungaria, while his Father lived: And
howsoeverhe being unmarried, hath lessecare of his
yet customeand the publike good have such
force, as Bohemia seemeshereditary to the House of
Austria, either for feareof so great a Family bordering
upon the Kingdome, or becausethey justly triumph to
have the Emperours seateat Prage, the cheefeCity of
Bohemia,especiallysinceno Prince out of that Family is
ableto bearethe burthen of the Empire, if they observe
the Law, binding the Electors to chuse an Emperour
amongthe Princes borne in Germany. As the said three

Stateschusethe King, so they chusea Viceroy for life, to

governethe Kingdome at the Kings death,and to be one

of theElectorsasKing of Bohemia,at the choyceof the

Emperour, dead in the same person. Yet commonly
before this time, wherein the unmarried Emperour
neglectsthe succession,
the Germanswerewont while the
Emperourlived, to chusehis successor,
intitled King of
the Romans: At this time the Baronof Rosenburgwas
Viceroy of Bohemiafor life, who held his Court neere
Lintz upon the confinesof Austria, and was said to have






the keepingof the Kings Crowne,in a Castlecalled



TouchingHungary, it had the nameof the people

calledthe Hunns, who under their King Geysa,received
the Christian Religion: his sonne Stephenwas chosen

King in the yeere1002,from whomin ordermanyKings

have beene chosen,so as due respect was alwayes had of
the eldest sonnesto the deceased,who sometimesrefused,

did stirre up civill warres. King Andrew about the yeere

1230, first gave great priviledges to the Nobility, which
their Kings to this day have used to confirme,as soone
asthey wereelected. King Vladislausin the yeere1490,
first joyned the Kingdomesof Bohemia and Hungary
together,whosesonneLodovicusperishedin the unhappy
battell againstthe Turkes in the yeere 1526: At which
time Ferdinand of the House of Austria, brother to the

Emperor Charlesthe fifth, and successorto him in the

Empire, was chosenKing of Hungary, as well by the
covenantwhich the Emperour Maximilian the first made
with Mathias Huniades,asby the right of his wife, being
sister and heire to the said Lodovicus, and he caused his

sonneMaximilian the second,to beechosenKing in his

life time, as his sonneRodolphusat this time Emperour,
waschosenKing while his Father lived : andunderthem,
[Ill.iv. 188.]throughcivill dissentions,andthe fearefullneighbourhood
of the great Turke, great part of this Kingdome hath
beene subduedby that Tyrant, and for the rest, the
Emperor Rodolphus,to the greatreprochof the Empire,
was forced to send yeerelytribute to Constantinople,till
the free Cities of Germany slackingto pay this tribute,
the Great



that wished


to make warre

againstthe Christians,and finding none weakerto resist

him then the Emperour,hath in our agehorribly wasted
Hungary, and subduedthe greatestpart of that Kingdome.

The said tribute

was said to be seven tunnes of

gold each three yeeres,as I have heard by grave and

learned men, but I know not how conversant in matters
of State.








Rodolphus the Emperour was of a middle stature, The

corpulent,with a ruddy but sowercountenance,Emperour

a shortthickebeard,andbrownecolouredhaire: At that AlsCourt'

time mourning for his dead sister, he wore blacke garmentsof small price: Hee was saidto love solitarinesse,
andto exercisethe Arts of Alchumy and Painting. Hee
wasmost easieof accesse,
and very affable,so as every
man spake to him with small reverence,and in the
Chamberof Presencethe Courtiersand strangersgaveno
reverenceto the Chaire of Estate, the Sword, and the
Scepter,but stood by with their headscovered, yea, laid

their hands or leaned upon the cushion, without any

ceremonyof reverence. He was esteemedsparing of
and liberall in his nature, so as he rewardedhis
Courtiershonourably,though slowly, for want of money,
which made him not able to shew any magnificence.
Nothingwasmorecommonin every mansmouth, aswell
German as Bohemian, then that hee was much addicted

to the warfare of Venus, bearing in his body strange

and privy maimesthereof, but abhorredfrom the
warre of Mars.

At Vienna I did see Ernestus and Mathias, brothers to

the Emperour, eating at one Table together, for they

admitall subjectsand strangersto comeinto the roome
where they eate, at the times of dinner and supper.
Beforethe Arch-Dukes came in, all stood with their heads

covered: Then the Carver making himselfe ready to

serveat the Table, laid his hat upon the Chaireof Estate,
contraryto our English manner,who give reverenceto
that Chaire, though our Princes be absent. When the
Arch-Dukes sate downe at Table, all the standersby
bendedtheir knees: They both saton oneside,with their
backesto the wall, andeachhada Foole to standby him,
one at the Tables end, another on the opposite side, to

whomwith their owne hands they gave largely to eate,

whichthey greedilydevoured. The two Arch-Dukesdid
both togetherfeedeon spoonemeates:For other dishes
liking either of them, eachcalledfor them by a beckeor






dumbesigne,and sorefusedother: but if any onedish

liked them both, it was first set before Ernestus, and after
before Mathias.

Both had one taster, but each had his

Cupbearer. They spakenot a word one to the other, or

to any attending; and Ernestusdid swallowhis drinke,
Mathias did sip it. Ernestus was somewhatlike the
Emperour his brother, save that his haire was blacker,
and his countenancemore warlike. Mathias was very
slender with a more effeminate face, and a thinne or no

beard, and whitish haire: Their apparrell was nothing

lessethen sumptuous. Thesebrothersof the Emperour,
had no possessions
of inheritanceallotted unto them, but
were content to have their expences borne by the
Many Pensioners lived in the Emperours Court, but

few had diet and lodging therein. The Emperour had

onehundredHascheres,to whomheegavefor diet to each
twelve RhenishGuldensby the moneth,and for apparrel
to eachfoure & twenty Guldensby the yeere. Hee had
one hundredfor his Guard (calledTrabantoes),of which
eachone had eight Guldensby the moneth for his diet,
and if any one of them had servedten yeeres,to him the
Emperor usedto give a pensionabovehis wages,granted
for life, and to disposethem in Monasterieswhen they
grew olde and unfit for service. Ten Hascheresand
twelve Trabantoesattended eachday, and watchedthe
night in the Court, who for that time had at the
Emperours charge plenty of bread and wine. Many
Gentlemenhad pensionsto keepeHorses,to the number
of some 1500, and for each Horse they were allowed ten

guldens by the moneth: but thesestipendsbeing paid

[III. iv.189.]but oncein two yeeres,and then not fully, they kept not
theseHorses at all times in full number,but only when
they heard that the paymentwas like to be made,&
becausethey wereso paid, the officersnevermustredthem
but at that time. Somefew had diet and lodging in the
Court, as 6 Gentlemen of the Chamber,whereof eachhad

a pensionof forty Guldensby the moneth,andsixeunder









them,who had twenty Guldensby the moneth. Likewise sixty Truxes, who had each a Pension of thirty
Guldens,and sixty Horsemencalled Hofdiener (that is,
Servantsat Court), who were allowed for eachhorse (as
I formerlysaid)ten RhenishGuldensby the moneth,and
no man had allowance for more then three horses.


wisea Master of the Wardrobehad twenty Guldens,and

a Controler had the like pension. SixteeneBoies, the
sonnesof Gentlemenwere Pages to the Emperour, to
whom he gave apparrell and diet in the Court. The
very chiefe Counsellershad yeerely pensionsfrom the
Emperour. He had threeFavorites,a BohemianBarren
of the Popells,the Lord of Firstemburg a German,and
Rumpf a Gentlemenof Austria, who wasin chiefegrace
with him, andwas saidto havea pensionof five hundred
Dollors by the moneth, and to have receivedby gift in
the spaceof one yeere eighty thousandgold Guldens.
The wagesand pensionswerevery uncertainlypaid, soas
the Courtiers used diligently to observe, when the
revenewof any Province was brought in, that by such
opportunitiethey might get part of the money due to
them. But when the Emperourscoferswere full, these
paimentswere easilyobtained,so as I haveknowneforty
thousandDollers distributed for wages,and Pensionsat
one time. The Emperour had five stables, and in one

sixtie heavy horsesof Germany, in the secondtwenty

Genets,andin the other three60 forraignehorses
of the best races.

From Charlesthe Great the WesterneEmperorswere The

eitherappointedby the dying EmperoursTestament,or Emperors

by the generallconsent
of the Princes,in bothE!ecttDnwhichcoursesthe next heyreswere commonlypreferred,
till the reigne of Otho 3. In his time his Kinsman
Brennoa Saxonwas chosenPope, taking the name of
Gregorie,and he first instituted the sevenElectorsof the

Emperour,which institution some attribute to Pope

Silvester. But whetherGregoriemadethis Law or confirmedit, no doubt aboutthe yeere1002the Electorswere






established,about which time many tumults were at Rome

betweenethe Emperours and the Roman Prince Crescentius, for the choise of the Pope, and the common
opinion is, that PopeGregoriein the yeere997 madethis
Law of sevenElectors to chusethe Emperour, and that
Pope Silvesterrestrainedit to certaine Families. And
this Institution seemedto give great strength to the
Empire, since the former seditionswere thereby taken
away,and it waslikely thesePrinceswould chusea man
of the greatest vertues and power. But Charlesthe
fourth chosenEmperor,with conditionnot to meddlewith
Italy, first obtainedof the Electorsto chusehis sonto be
Caesarin his life time, and so made this Institution of no

effect, all Emp. after him chiefely laboring as much as

they could, to make the Empire hereditary by like


the successor thus

chosen in the life of

the Emp. was calledKing of the Romans,and after his

deathreceivingthe Crowne,wasstiled Emp.
Theinstitution Of the Electors, 3 are Churchmenand Arch-bishops,
3 areLay-Princesof Germany,andleastby factionof sixe

dmrs Churchmen

"* ^nS ^ Bohemia
wasaddedfor the seventh
'theThe Archbishop
of Trier, Chauncellor
for France,sits
and before the Emperour. The Archbishop of Mentz

for Germany,sitsat the Emperorsright hand,

^ut m tneDiocesse
of Colon,where
himselfe.placeto the Archbishop
therof. The Archbishop

Colon Chancelorfor Italy, sits on the Emperorsright hand

in his own dioces,but on his left hand in al other places.
The K. of Bohemia Arch-butler of the Empire, sits
next the Archbishopof Mentz, on the right handof the
Emperor. The D. of Saxony, the Marshal of the
Empire, carrying the sword beforethe Emperor, sits on
his left hand next the Archbishopof Colen. The Count

of the Rheine

carries the first dish at the feast

of the Emp. coronation,and sits on his right handnext

the K. of Bohemia. And the Marquisseof Brandeburg
Great Chamberlaine,sits on the left hand of the Emp.







next to the D. of Saxony. It is to be remembredthat

for long time, the Emperorhaving beenalsoKing of

Bohemia,to the end that upon the death of the old

thereshouldnotbewantingoneto supplythe [HI.iv.190.]
placeof the King of Bohemiaat the Electionof the new

Emperour,the Bohemianshave alwaiesa Viceroy chosen

for life, who not onely supplies that place, but also

till the newEmperourbe chosen,

afterreceivedfor King at Prage.

The Emperour Charlesthe fourth, made many Lawes
the Emperour,and the Electors,which Lawes
areall collectedtogether, and by the Germanscalledthe
GoldenBulla, and it will not be impertinent to remember
someof them. It is decreed, that no Elector shall lie in

for another Elector, comming to chusethe
Emperour,neither shall denie him safeconduct through
hisCountry,under the paineof perjurie, and losseof his
Voycefor that Election. Under the samepenalty, that
no man whosoever,lye in waite to intercept the person
or goodsof any Elector : That the Arch-Bishopof Ments
shallappointthe day of the Election by letters Pattents,
soas the Electors, or their Deputies having full power,
may meete for that purpose at Franckfort upon the
Meyne,within threemoneths,and if the Archbishopfaile
to appointthe day, yet that the Electors uncalled,shall









Deputeshallenter the City attendedwith more then two

hundredhorsemen,nor above fiftie of them armed. That

theElectoror Deputy called,and not comming,or departing beforethe Emperourbe chosen,shallloosehis Voyce

for that time. That the Citizensof Franckfort,if they

protectnot thosethat cometo the Election, shallbe proscribed,and deprived of their priviledges and goods.
That no man be admitted into the Citie, besides the

Electorsand their Deputies,and the horsemen

them. That the next morning early after their entry,
Massebeesung in the Churchof SaintBartholmew,and

thatdone,the Archbishop
of Mentz at the Altar give an
M. iv







Theoathto Oathto the Electors in thesewords: I N.N. sweareby


tjlat j oweto QOJanj ^ sacrejEmpire,that

I will chusea temporall Head of Christian Princes,and

give my Voycewithout any covenant,stipend,reward,or
any such thing howsoeverit may be called,as God helpe
me, &c. That if they shall not agree of the Election
within thirty daies,they shall eatebread and water, and
shallnot goe out of the City, till the Election be finished.
That the greater part bee held for a generall consent.
That the Elector slackinghis comming,shalnotwithstanding be admitted, if he come before the Election be
finished. That the personelectedshal presentlysweare
in the royall nameof King of the Romans,to the Electors,
PrincesSecularand Spirituall, and to all the Membersof
the Empire, that hee will confirme all priviledges,
customes, &c.; and that after his Coronation hee shall

swearethe samein the name of Emperour. That an

Elector shall have his Voyce in the choiceof himselfeto
be Emperor. That the Arch-bishopof Mentz shallaske
the Voyces,first, of the Arch-bishopof Trier, then of the
Arch-bishopof Colon, then of the King of Bohemia,then
of the Palatine,then of the Duke of Saxony,then of the
Marquis of Brandeburg,andlastly that thesePrincesshall
askethe Voyceof the Arch-bishopof Mentz. That the
Empire being vacant,the Count Palatineshall beeProvisor of the Empire in Sueviaand Franconia,aswell in
Judgements,asin conferringChurch-livings,gatheringof
Rents, investing of Vassals(which investing notwithstandingis to beerenewedby the Emperour whenhe is
chosen),and Alienations,&c. That the Duke of Saxony
shall have the sameright in his Provinces. That when
the Emperour must answere any cause he shall answer

before the Palatine, so that be in the Imperiall Court.


no man in the Court

shal sit above the Electors.

That to a SecularPrince Elector his eldestLay son shall

succeed,or for want of sons,the first of the fathers Line;

and if he be under age, that the eldestbrother to the

deceasedfather shall be his tutor, till hee be eighteene








old, and that this Tutor for that time shallhave
all his right, which he shall then restore to him, and for
want of heires males, that the Emperour shall give the
Electorshipto whom hee will, excepting the King of
Bohemia,who is to beechosenby the Bohemians. That
minesof mettalsfound in the Territories of any Elector,
shallbee proper to himselfe. That the subjectsof the
Electors shall not bee bound

to answere the Law out of

their owne Province, nor may appealeto any Court but

their Lords, except Justice bee denied, in which casethey

shallonelyappealeto the Chamberof the Empire. That [III.iv. 191.]

the Electors shall meete in some Citie once in the yeare,

wherethey shall have no feasting, to the end that the

causesmay be heard with more expedition. That the
priviledgesof Cities and Universities in any thing
derogatingfrom the right of the Electors, shall be
revoked,and made voide, notwithstanding the Letters
Pattentsmay exceptall eminencyof persons. That the
resignationof fees,exceptthey be personallymade,shall
makethe vassalsinfamousin denouncingenmity to their
Lords. That conventiclesof Cities,madeto the prejudice
of their Lords, shall be punishedwith losse of fame,
goods,and priviledges. That no Citizens subjectsto
Princes,and incorporatingthemselvesin free Cities, shall
enjoy the priviledges thereof, except they dwell there,
undera greatpenalty to beeimposedon the City receiving themwith any other condition. That the Feesof the
Electorsor Officersof the Empire, shall not be devided
by their heires. That they who conspirethe deathof any
Elector, shall be guilty of treason, and their sonnes
deprivedof their Inheritanceevenfrom the mothersside,
shalllive infamous,and they shall be noted who make
intercessionto restore them to grace; but that the
Daughterslessedaring for the weakenesse
of the sexe,
shallhavepart of the inheritance,andthat no enfranchisementof sonnes,or alienationof goods,shallfrustratethis
Law. That all accessaries
shall be so punished,onely he

that bewrayesthe conspiracymay bee held worthy of







pardon. Also this penaltyshallbe of forceagainstthose

that are dead, if the crime be not knowne till after their

AtCoronationIn solemneCourt, that the Emperour shall sit in his

throne,and the Duke of Saxonylaying an heapeof Gates
ashigh as his Horses saddle,beforethe Court gate,shall
with a silver measureof twelve markesprice, deliver
Gatesto the cheefeQuirry of the stable,andthen sticking
his stafFein the Gates,shalldepart,and the Vice-Marshall

the rest of the Gates.


the three Arch-

bishopsshallsaygraceat the EmperoursTable, andhe of

them who is Chancelorof the place,shall lay reverently
the Scalesbefore the Emperor, which the Emperor shal
restoreto him, & that the stafFeof the Chancelorship
be worth 12 marks of silver. That the Marquis of
Brandeburg,sitting upon his Horse with a silver basenof
12 marksweight, & a towel, shalllight from his Horse,&
give water to the Emperor. That the Count Palatine
sitting upon his Horse, with foure dishesof Silver with
meate,eachdish worth 3 markes,shall light, and set the
disheson the table. That the King of Bohemiasitting
upon his Horse, with a silver Cup worth twelve markes,
filled with water and wine, shall light, and give it the
Emperour to drinke. The Gentlemanof Falkenstein,
under-Chamberlaine,the Gentleman of Nortemberg,
Master of the Kitchen, and the Gentleman of Limburch

Vice-Buttler, or in their absence,the ordinary Officersof

the Court, shall have the said Horses, Bason,dishes,Cup,

Staffe,and measure,and shallafter wait at the Emperours

table. That the Emperours table bee sixe foote higher
then any other table, where he shall sit alone, and the
table of the Empresseshall be by his side, three foote

The Electors tables shall be three foote lower then

that of the Empresse,and all of equallheighth, andthree

of them shallbeeon the Emperoursright hand,threeon
his left hand, and one before his face, and each shal sit

at his table.


one Elector


done his

Office, he shall goe and standat his owne table,and so









in order the rest, till all haveperformedtheir Offices,and

thenall sevenshallsit downeat one time. The Emperour
shallbe chosenat Franckfort, crownedat Aquisgranum
(vulgarly called Ach), and shall hold his first Court at
Nurnberg, except there be some lawfull impediment.
The Deputy of an Elector absent,howsoeverhe hath his
voycein chusingthe Emperour,yet at the saidfeastshall
not sit at the Electorstable. Princesreceivingtheir fees,
shallpaysixtiemarkesto the Officersof the Court, excepting the Electors, who are not bound to give any thing,
but of free will, since the Officers are their Substitutes,

andthe Horse upon which the Prince sits when hee is

investedin his fees,shall bee given to the Marshall, or
to the Vice-Marshall.

The Electors are presumed to bee

andtheir sonnesat the ageof sevenyearesshall
beetaught the Grammer,and the Italian and Sclavonian

tongues,so as at 14 yearesof age they may be skilfull

therein,and be worthy Assessors
to the Emperor. These [III.iv.192.]
thingsfor this purpose, taken out of the Golden Bulla,
shall suffice.

Touching the presentgenerall estateof the Empire. Thegenerall

The Emperor & his brethren were not much esteemedestate

andhadlittle or noauthorityEmP'rein the rest of the Empire. The Germansconfesse,that
the House of Austria

is most fit to beare the burthen


theEmpire,especiallysinceno strangermay be Emperour,

the Law binding to choosea Prince borne in Germany;
the Empire hath no principality belongingto
it, nor any certainerevenues,but onely someaccustomed
which upon someoccasions
wereof old granted
by Parliament,& theseoccasionsbeing taken away, the
subsidies for them have also in latter times beene discon-

tinued, so that the common affaires are to be administred

with the charge of the Emperours private inheritance.

And lastly, becausethey justly feare,if any other Prince
of Germanyshouldbe chosenEmperour,that the House

of Austria,havingin a longline succeeded

in the Empire,
and possessinglarge Dominions by inheritance,would






either altogether separateit selfe from the Empire,

or at least their inheritance in Hungary, Germany,
and Bohemia, through mutuall dissentions betweene
them and the Emperour, would be a prey to the
Turkish Tyrant, onely kept backe by the House of
Austria, accordingto the weake meanesit hath, from
invading Germanyat this day: But when the Germans
doeparticularlyobservethe personsof the Princesof the

Houseof Austria,theyjudge againenonemoreunfit to

beareup the Empire, and to defendit from the Turkes
invasions; and this common diffidence is infinitely
by the mutuall jealousiesof Germany. There
want not jealousiesin the House of Austria betweene
themselves,were they not forced to compoundthemby
feareof the Turkes. In generall,the Gentlemenfearethe
conspiracyof the commonpeople,lest after the example
of the Sweitzers,they shouldroote out the Gentry,or at
least yeeld either none or voluntary obedience,at their
owne pleasure. The Princesfearethe free Cities, so as
they dare not exact absolute obedienceof the Cities
subject to them, least they should therebybe provoked,
to makeleagueswith the free Cities, and so makethemselves free:

And this cause alone makes the Princes lesse

able to give strong helpesto the Emperour, if they were

willing to doe it. Againe, the free Cities feare the
ambition of the neighbouringPrinces: For as most of
the Cities of old subjectto the Emperour,or to particular
Princes,got their freedomein civill warres,by assisting
one of the parties, or else by priviledges,granted by

favour,or boughtfor money,or elseby openforceof

armes,so they thinke it likely, that the Princes,upon the
changeof the state of things, will omit no fit occasion
to bring them againe into subjection: And the said
Princesdoenot onely fearethesaidfreeCities,for combyning with their Subjects,but have also mutuall jealousies
among themselves,as well for inheritance,as for the
difference of Religion. Lastly all, and each of these
states,fearethe power of the Emperour,leastheeshould







breakethe absolutepower they have in their owne territories,or least hee should by force of armesmakethem
moreobedientto himselfe,or least hee should oppresse
themin the causeof Religion, either of his ownemotion,
or by the instigation of the Pope. Hence it is, that hee
whodaresnot make warre upon the Emperour,yet dares
denieto helpehim, and he that daresnot deny helpe,yet
dareseither fayle in performance,or by delayesmake it
unprofitable. Besidesthat by nature, the decreesand
of manyheads,arecarriedwith lessesecrecy,and
areseldomeexecutedwith convenientspeed,and that for
whichmanycare,eachoneneglects,asPlato saith,disputing againstcommunity. Also the Emperours power is
many other wayes weakened: First that the Germans in

the very warre against the Turkes, slowly grant, or

plainelyrefuseany contributionsor subsidies,and would
little rejoyce that the Emperour should have a great
victory against the Turkes, partly least hee should
turne his Forces upon the absolute Princes or Cities
of Germany, partly least the Emperour then being
(asthey openly professed)should spendthe money contributed in his private lusts, not in the publike affayres,
and lastly, becausethe chargeof the Warre should be
common,but the profit of the Conquestshouldonely be
to the advancementof the House of Austria : For which [Ill.iv. 193.]
causes the Princes

and Cities

used to denie


of moneytowardsthe Turkish warres,and rather chose

to send and maintaine bandsof Souldiersin Hungary,
under their owne pay for a set time : And thesebands
wereso commonlysent without order or mutuall consent,
and so slowly, as when someof the bands cameto the
Army, other bandshaving servedout the appointedtime,
desiredleave to returne home. Thus they seldome met

togetherto attempt any brave enterprise,& while part of

the forceswasexpected,the occasions
of good adventures
were lost:

Secondly, the Emperour is more weake;

the meetingsof Parliaments(which they call
Dyettaes)require the expectance
of somemoneths,besides






the delayesof Counselsafter the meeting, and the con-

trarietyof opinions,whichmustneedes
begreatin mindes
so ill united. Thirdly; because
the Germansunwisely
thinke, that the tyrannyof the Turkes hangingover them,
yet is a lesseand more removedevill, then the jealousie
of their private estates,and feareto be oppressedin the
causeof Religion. Lastly, becausethe Germansthinke
it not equall, to be at publike charge, to recover the
private Cities of the House of Austria from the Turkes.
Thesethingsmakethe greatpowerof Germanysoweake,
that asthe wholebody pinedaway,while the handsdenied
meate to the belly; so not onely the Empire, to the
generallshameof Christians,drawesthe last breathunder
the Turkish tyranny, while the disagreeingand sluggish
Christian Princesdenie helpe in this caseto the House
of Austria, and opposethe weakerbranchof that House
to the most powerfull force of the Turkes; but alsoit
may justly be fearedlest other Kingdomesand the very
name of Christians,should be utterly consumedin this
fier daily creepingand increasingupon us, which God in
his mercy forbid.
of Next to the said vassalsto the Emperour, a King, a
certaine Palatine, a Duke, a Marquesse,and three Archbishops,

Princes. fae sevenElectors,of old wereinstitutedfoureDukesof

the Empire, namely, the Dukes of Bavaria,of Brunswicke, of Sueviaand of Lorayne, and foure Langraves,
and of eachdegreefoure, whereof someare at this day
extinguished,and manyotherhave sincebeenecreatedby
divers Emperours. In like sort of old were instituted
O/Citits. foure Metropolitan Cities of the Empire, namely,Augsburg, (calledof the Vandalsfor difference),Aquisgranum
(vulgarly Ach), Mentz, and Lubecke. Bishopsspirituall
Princes were of old twenty sevenin number, whereof
some have secular Dominions, onely by habite distin-

guishedfromsecularPrinces: but the Churchmen

knowing no meane,not contentwith tithes, but scarceleaving
that portion to the Laymen, have causedPrinces first to

makeLawesagainstinordinateguifts to the Church,and









then by other vanities provoked them to reforme this

of their riches, the impurity of their lives,
and the falshoodsof their Doctrines; so as at this day
many Bishoprickesare in the hands of secularPrinces,
within their owne Dominions, under the title of Adminis-

trators. In this sort (to passeover the rest) the eldest

sonneof the Marquesseof Brandeburg,was in his

Fathers life time called the Administrator

of Halla.


onelythe Emperour,but alsomanyPrincesof Germany,Ofsecular

aswell secularas spiritual!, have Kingly power in their Princes.
owneDominions,and theseabsolutePrincesare so many
in number,as a passengerin eachdayesjourney, shall
observeone or two changesof Prince, Money, and
Religion. Furthermorein free Cities, here the Patritian OffrecCities
Order, there the common people, and otherwhere both

with mixed power, governe the City, in such absolute

freedome,as most of the Cities have regall rights, of
makingpeaceor warre, of coyning Monies, and of like
priviledges: But the Plebeansamongthem, prove they
neverso rich, cannot have any higher degree,and their
arewith suchequity, equality, andmoderation, as no degree is subject one to the other, but all
equally to the Law. Of these Princes secular and
spirituall,and of the Deputiesfor free Cities, meeting in Ofthe
(which they cal Diettaes)is the true Imageof Dictaes.
the Empire, where they deliberateof great affaires,and
imposecontributions, from which onely the King of
Bohemiais free, by priviledge granted from Charlesthe
fourthEmperourandKing of Bohemia,asI haveformerly

The forme of the Commonwealthin the Empire is [Ill.iv.i

[III. iv.194.]
Aristocraticall,over which the Emperour should bee as Ofthe

head,appointingthe meetingswith the consentof the Empires

to beput in execution.
But at this daythenameof theEmperouris become
a general!.
meeretitle, and his authoritie hath no sinews, so as he can

neithercall them if they thinke not good to come, nor

decreeany thing if they be unwilling, nor compellthose






that arerefractory. And the very Princesarenot constant

to their owne judgement, if you respectthe iminent
dangersfrom the Turks, nor activein their ownemotions
concerningthe publike cause,but are diversly distracted
betweenefeare to increasethe suspectedpower of the
Emperour by helping him, or to stirre up Civill warres,
to the ruine of the dis-united State, by making open
opposition to his authority. In the meanetime nothing
is more frequentwith them, then boldly to refuseeither
in the EmperoursCourt, or obedienceto any
otherof his commandements,
that areunpleasingto them.
And give me leave to say, that my selfethere observed,
that a great Prince of Germany(for good respectnamelesse),to whom the EmperourhadingagedcertaineCities
for moneyborrowedof him, when the Emperoursending
the money by Ambassadors, desired restitution of the

townes,not onely refusedto restorethe same,but could

not beeinducedto appeareat Prageby his Substitute,to
compoundthis difference; and it seemedmore strange
to mee, that divers other Ambassadours
commingto the
City the sametime, hadall audiencebeforethosefrom the
Emperour,who staid long beforethey were admittedto
speakwith the saidPrince.
The declining generositieof the Princes of Austria,
and the fearefull danger hanging over them from the
Turkes, nourish this confidence in the Princes of

Germany; andindeedethe Turkish warredoth soimploy,

or rather bind the hands of the Princes of Austria, aswere

they never so valiant, yet they shouldbe forced,ratherto

suffer any thing from theseChristian Princes,then by
opposingthem, to be devouredby Infidels. Neither can
the private calamityof Germany,and the publike misery
of all Christiansin this point, be sufficientlybewailed. I
saythe privatecalamitieof Germany,because
the members
being most strong, if they were united, yet are without

andhaveno commonforce,though
in eachpart they be strong. I say the publike calamity

of Christians,because
the privatePrincesof








Germanybe of great power, yet the whole body of the

Empire being weake,the daily victories of the Turkes,
threatendestruction not onely to Germany,but to the
nameof Christians. The Dukes of Florence,of Savoy,
andof Mantua, and all the Princes of Italy, whom the
Popehath not drawne to be his vassals,the Dukes of
Lorayne,of Burgundy, with divers Dukes and Earlesof
Netherland,after a sort acknowledgethe safe and farre
removedpatronageof the Emperour; but they neither
cometo the Parlamentsabout the affairesof the Empire
(asnot pertaining to them) nor contribute any money to
upholdthe dignitie thereof, exceptperhapssometimesin
the commoncauseof the Turkish warre, they lend the
Emperoursomemony, which no doubt all other Christian
Princeswould no lessedoe, who haveno bond of subjection. The King of Denmark, by a double bond of his
Kingdomeand of the Dukedomeof Hoist, the King of
Swetia, the Cantons of the Sweitzers and the Grisons

inhabitingthe SnowyAlpes, were of old membersof the

Empire: but in time these Featherspluckt from the
Eagle,have growneinto new bodies,and at this day do
not at all acknowledgethe Emperour.
In Germanythe Tolles and Taxes are frequent,as the TheTaxes,

numberof absolutePrincesis great,whoimposethemin Impositions

their severallTerritoriesupon all passengers,
and kinds an eve"cu's
of Merchandizeor very small packs, Schollersof Universitiesonely excepted,who passefree for their persons
andgoods. But aboveall other Princes,the Elector of
Saxony(asshallbeeshewedin his due place)seemesbest
to havelearnedthe art of shearinghis subjects,so as he
notonelyimitates,but is equallin this point to the Princes
of Italy. Boterusrelates,that the Emperourof his owne
hereditary dominions, hath the yeerely rent of two
thousand five hundred thousand Crownes, and besides

exactsfive hundred thousandCrownesordinarily, and as

muchmoreby extraordinarymeans. Men of goodcredit [III.iv. 195.]
have affirmed to me, that the Province of Silesia alone

subjectto the EmperorasKing of Bohemia,yeeldshim







eachquarterof the yeare60000gold Guldensor Crownes;

by which may bee conjecturedwhat hee receivesof his
otherlarge Dominions. Yet Silesiayeeldsmorethenany
one of the rest, in respectthat of the twelve Dukedoms
therein contained,eight are fallen to the Emperour,for
want of heiresmales. The Bishopof Silesiais calledthe
GoldenBishop,and the sameProvincehath thirty Abbies,
being most rich in that and all other respects. At Prage,
subjectto the Emperour,asKing of Bohemia,I observed,
that everyhousepaid him yeerelythreeDollers; but this
burthen equally imposedon thatchedhousesand stately

Pallaces,seemingunequallyshared,the Citizensagreed

amongthemselvesof a more equalldivision thereof; so

as I remember,that my Hosts house,purchasedfor three
hundred Dollers, paid yeerely to the Emperor nine
Dollers, besides other charges of maintaining poore
Scholers,of Watches,and the like, imposedupon each
Master of a Family, in eachseveral!parish,for whichhe
also paid two Dollers yeerely. In the Dominions of the
Emperour, the Brewersof Beerefor eachbrewing, paid
six dollers to the Emperour, which tribute in one City
of Prage,wassaidto passefive hundredDollers weekely.

Also the Emperourexactedof his subjects,

for eachTun
of Wine drawne, a Doller, and tenne Grosh; for each

bushellof Corne,bought in the Market (not the private

Corne of their owne, spent in their houses)one silver
Grosh. Theseand like tributeswere at first grantedfor
certaine yeares,by consent of the three Estates: but
Princesknow well to imposeexactions,andknow not how
to deposethem. The Emperour gives a City to the
Jewesfor their dwelling at Prage, (who are admittedin
no City of Germany,exceptingonelyat Franckfort,where
they have assignedto them a Streetefor their dwelling),
of which Jewesupon all occasions
hee borrowesmoney,
thosebloud-suckersof Christians.
The Germansimposegreat taxesupon all forraignecommoditiesbrought into their Havens,and not onely upon
menspersons,and upon commoditiesladedon beaststo








beedistractedfrom City to City, but even upon small

burthens to be carried on a mans shoulder, as they passe

through their Forts or Cities, which they use to build

upontheir confinesto that purpose,and onely Scholers
or Universitiesare free from thesefrequentexactions,for
their bodiesand goods.
Touching the revenewsof the Empire it selfe,Boterus
relates,that it receives yeerely seven thousand thousand

Crownes,or gold Guldens; and this revenewis of small

momentfor such great affaires, if hee containeall the
Princesof Germanyunder this taxation, sinceotherwise
a communicationof treasurecannotbee expectedfrom so
disunitedmindesas they have. He addcs,that the free
Citiesof the Empire yeeld a small yeerelytribute to the
Emperour of fifteene thousand Guldens. It is wel








twentythousandfoote, and foure thousandHorsesfor the

EmperoursArmy, whenhe went to be crownedat Rome:
but this customeby long discontinuance
is vanished,since
theEmperoursfor many ageshave forborne this expedition. The matter of greatestmomentis the contribution,
whichfor the doubtfull affairesof the Empire hath been
to be grantedby the three Estatesin Parliament. And these,suchasthey are,yet are moreeasilyor
hardlyobtainedof that free Nation, asthe Emperourhath
moreor lessereputation with them. But that it may
that the Empire wantsnot treasure,the sinewof
war, let us gather by one particular example,what may
generallybe judged of this subsidie. In the time of the
Emperour Maximilian the first, the following subsidie
wasgrantedin a Dyet or Parlamentat Worms by consent
of the Estates, for the use of the Common-wealth, and

for the warre againstthe Turkes, which at that
time much lessepressedGermany,then it doth in these
our daies. First, it was decreed,that for foure yeeres
next following, eachpersonof any sex or quality howsoever possessing(through long and broad Germany),or
being worth by all meanes500 gold Guldens, should






yerely pay half a gold Gulden to this purpose,and each

oneof lessevalueshouldpay a quarterof a gold Gulden,

and all Jewes,as well men as women and children, should

pay yearelyby the Pole one gold gulden. That Princes

[III. iv.196.]& Baronsfor decency,

yet of their free will shouldcontribute








be made not onely in the private Dominions of the

Emperour,but in the privat Teritories of al Princes,and
the mony first deliveredto the Superintendents
or chiefe
Ministers of Gods word, and by them be conveiedto
sevenTreasurersresidingat Franckfort(the first appointed
by the Emperour, the secondby the Electors, the third
by other Princes,the fourth by the Prelates,the fifth by
the Earles and Barons, the sixth by the Knights, the
seventhby the free Cities), all which were to take their
oathes for the faithfull


of this office.

After it

wasagainedecreedin the Diet held at Nurnberg,that for

the Turkish warre, each 40 inhabitants (reckoningthe
husband,wife and children for one person)shouldmaintaine one Footeman.


men and maid-servants


give the sixth part of their yeerelywages,and eachone

having no wages, should pay a shilling of Germany.
That spirituall persons,men and women(that is, Nunnes
aswell asothers)shouldfor eachforty Guldensvalue,pay

onegold Gulden,andin like sortthe spirituallOrdersof

Knights, and namelythoseof SaintJohn,and all Monasteries and Almes-houses,and whatsoeverspirituall communities,shouldgive the like contribution,exceptingthe
foure Orders of Mendicant Friers, of which each five


to maintaine

one Footeman.


men and maid-servantsof Spirituall persons,shouldpay

as much as those of the Layety. That no Elector or
Prince should maintaine lesse then five hundred Horses,
and each Earle



one Horseman.


Knights should contribute according to their estates.

That the Jewesshouldpay by the Pole one gold Gulden
yearely,the rich paying for the poore. That all Preachers
should in the Pulpit exhort men willingly to give these








contributions,giving hope that they shall beedeminished

accordingto the booties gotten by victories. And that
Bishopsshouldmakecollectionof this money,anddeliver
it over to the Counsellersof the States. Twenty Noble
men were at that time chosen to have care of the Common-

wealthfor matters of peaceand warre, who in difficult

accidentswere to call unto them the sixe Electors (the
King of Bohemiain the Emperourspersonnot reckoned),
and certaine other



this must

alwaies be

understood,that thesecollectionsare made in Germany

with great severity or strictnesse,where he that dissembles
his full wealth, shall be forced to repaire all the
domagethe Commonwealthhath sustainedthereby,and
shallbee also deepely fined, when the fraude is made
knowne,which at least will appeareat the death of each
privateman,by his last will and testament. So as these
subsidiesmust needs be of great moment. But the
Germansin our daies,though ready to be devouredby
the Lawes of the Turkish Tyrant, yet for the abovenamedcauses,
very unwillingly grant thesecontributions,
yea,for the very Turkish warre.
The Germansfor the saidmutuall jealosies,at this day Theirwarlike
in the greatestPeaceat home,yet live as in the time of a provision
Civill warre,at least in commonfeareof surprising,so as t'me f Peacealmostin all Cities, they have victuals laid up in Storehousesto bearea yeeressiege; and besidesthis publike
provision, all housholders are commanded to make their

privateprovisionsbeforehand,of dried fishes,corne,and

like thingsto eate,of fewellto burne,andof all necessaries
to exercise their manuall trades.

The Cities have Watch-

mencontinually dwelling with their families on the top

of high Steeples
and Towers,who by soundof Trumpet,
andby hangingout flagsof diverscolours,onefor horsemen,anotherfor footemen,continuallygive warning what
peopleapprochto the Towne, and in what number,and
besidesthese Watchmen are injoyned to sound their
Trumpetsat certainehowersof the day and night. The
very recreationsof the Citizens are no other, then shoot271






ing in Pieces and Crosebowesat markes in publike

houses,and thus they exercisethemselveson Holidaies
and at all idle times, shooting for wagers,both private
and publike, and for like rewardsand prises. Soas they
must needesbeetherebymuchbetter trainedup for warre.
Yet their footemen in warre doe not so much use the Piece

as the Pike, and their Horsemen contrarie to the custome

of other Nations, are generally armed with two short

Pistols,not at all with Lances. To conclude,if anyman
in this time of peace,shooteoff a piecewithin the wals
of a Citie, he shall no lessethen in a Towne of Garrison,

[III.iv. 197.]beedrawneby the Serjeantsbeforethe Magistrate,& be

sureto paya mulct for his error.
Caesarreports,that the Scawaben
(or peopleof Suevia,

of agreatProvince
in Germany,
mostpartof upperGermany
having beenso called of old) were most warlike, yet at
the first hearing,so fearedthe Romans,as somethought
to leavetheir dwellings,somemadetheir last wils, andall
mournedand were sad. He reports also, that the halfe
part of this peoplewasimployedand nourishedin Armes,
and the other halfe gave themselvesto Husbandry,and
that so by yeerelycoursethey were one yeere Husbandmen, anotheryeere Souldiers. That none of them had
any private fields, nor dwelt in one place more then a
yeere. Lastly, that freedomein youth, and huntingafter
they came to ripe yeeres,made them of huge stature.
Many witnesse,that the Germansof old, in feastingtooke
counsellof Peaceand Warre, thinking the vigor of the
mind then to be most inlarged,when they were warmed
with Wine. They werewont to promisetheir neighbours
that they would overcomein fighting, or elsedie valiantly,
and sowereled forth to the war with the peoplesacclamations, exhorting them to valour, and at their returnewere
not praised,exceptthey shewedscarresgotten in fighting.
It was infamousfor any of them to losehis shield,soas
many for that causehangedthemselves; for it was not
lawfull for them to be present at their Sacrificesor
Counsels. Being ready to fight, they called upon







Hercules,and their HorsemenusedTarget and Lance,

their FootemenDarts. Their Army lay compassed

Chariots and Carts, in stead of trenches. Lastly in
Counsels,they signified consent by shaking of their
and dissentby murmuring.
At this day the Horsemen of Germany are vulgarly Their
called schwartz Reytern, that is, blacke Horsemen ; not horsemen

but alsofor th"da^'
that most of them have blacke Horses, and make their

handsand facesblackeby dressingthem, and by blacking

their bootes, wherein they are curious; or else because
custome hath made blacknesse an ornament

to them;

or else becausethey thinke this colour to make them

mostterrible to their enemies. For the Germansusing
moreto brawlethen fight, and rather to chide,then fight
themselvesfriends, desire rather with fierce lookes to

strike feareinto their enemies,then by concealingtheir

strength,to draw them to fight. The best Horses and
Horsemen are of the Territories of Brunswick, Cleave,
and Franconia: but howsoever their Horses are strong,

yet they have lessecourage,becausethey are taken from

thePlough,andareof an heavyrace. Neither the Horses
nor the Horsemenare armed, so as both may easilybee
hurt by Footemen. Thus being Light-horsemen,yet are
they lessefit for that service,by reasonof their heavy
Horses,unapt to follow the enemyflying, or to savethemselvesby speedyretrait. And this hath often beene
observedin their warre againstthe Turkes, having swift
Horses,whom they could neither overtakein flight, nor
escapefrom them, when they pursued. Such and so
heavy Horses are throughout all Germany, excepting
Westphaliaand those parts, where their Waggons are
drawnewith very little Horses,though perhapsthey have
greaterfor servicein warre. TheseHorsemencarryeach
of them two short pistols at their saddles,with a sword,
and like short weapons,but without any Launces,and
their saddlesare little, such as are commonly used by
not suchas our Horsemenusein warre, so as







they may easilybeecastfrom their Horses,and havethe

being assayledwith Horsemenbearing


Their Footemenarevulgarly calledLantzknechten,that
at is, Servantswith Lances,and the best of them are those

Jay. of Tyroll,Suevia,
corpulent, and of a dull or lesse fiery spirit, yet are of


great strength in fighting a battell, by reasonof their

strong members,and the constantorder they usein fighting. And they are armedwith Lancesmost fit for their
strength,rather then with Calivers,requiring nimblenesse
in chargingand discharging.
In generall, the Germanswillingly heare themselves


to Bulles: for as Bullesbearingtheir homes


thisday. ontheground,
of the
Dogges; so the Germans,neither rush fiercely on their
enemies, nor can easily be broken by any charge. The

Provincesof Germanybeing populous,and the souldiers

[III. iv.198.]being Mercenary, forraigne Princes commonly supply
their Armies with


And for the faithfulnesse of the

Nation, and the strength of their bodies,the Princesof

Franceand Italy willingly entertainethem for the guard
of their persons. The Princesof Germanyleviesouldiers
by absolutecommand,in their owne warres,but onely
voluntary men are sent to forraigne warres,which they
willingly undertake,out of all mensgenerallaffectionto
the dissolute liberty of the warres, and becausethe
Germans have ever been mercenary, besides that the

pleasantwines of Franceand Italy draw them to those

warres. In our age, the Frenchhaving had civill warres
betweene the Papists and Protestants, both parts have

often hired the Germans. And they being for the most
part Lutherans, and so hating both parts, as well the
Papists,as the Calvinists,(so I call them for distinction,
being so termed by their commonenemies,though they
follow neitherCalvin nor Luther further, then they agree
with theWord of God); I saythat they hating the Papists,
and mostof all the Calvinists,nearestto them in Religion







(asthe Potter hatesthe Potter, and the begger hatesthe

begger,and eachone his next neighbour, more then any
other),and being blamed for serving them, they would
freelyprofesse,that it was all one to them, to servethe
onedevill asthe other, (sothey calledthem both.) Thus
serving more for booty then for love, they demeaned
themselvesso frowardly in those warres,as they much
impairedthe old reputation of their Nation in warfare.
The French, I say, having justly no confidencein their
ownefootemen,for the most part used the Germans(as
alsothe Sweitzers)in that service,and found by experience,that the firme and constant bodie of their foote, was

mostfit to receivethe loosewings of the French,chearefully assaulting,but soonedriven backe; and that after
thefirst fury of the French,the body of the Dutch Foote,
like the Triarii amongthe Romans,stoodfirme. And the
great Victory of the French at Ravenna, against the
Spaniardsand Italians, was in great part attributed to
the German Footemen, who received the French Foote,

andnamelythe Guascons(the best Foote of France)into

their body, when they were put to flight. But they are
mostunfit to besiegestrong Forts, and have beenfound
no lesseunfit to defendthem being besieged; whether
it be,for that they arelesseserviceablein things requiring
witty resolution,and fury in suddenassaults,then in a
firmeandconstantstrength; or for that, contraryto their
old reputation, they are not found able in this our age
to bearehunger, thirst, cold and watching,the necessary
evils of a siege. And it is certaine,that the Netherlanders,using them in this kind, as the courseof their
war consists,especiallyin defendingand assailingForts,
havetaxedthem with bitter jeastson this behalfe,which
I willingly passein silence,desiring more to expresse
vertuesthen to impute vices. Yet the Germanshave
manyvery strong andwell fortified Cities, of which some
arejudgedimpregnable,in which they placegreatesthope
of safetiefrom the incursions of the Polonians, or of the

Turks. For the Polonians trusting to their famous







strengthof Horse,bragthat theydespise

the forceof the

Germansin open field, and the Turkish Horse, praised

for swiftnesse,seemesnot to feare the heavy horsesof

Surely, though I doe not thinke the Germansto

degeneratefrom the valour of their old Progenitors,yet
I have read the Histories, and have heard the Gentlemen

of France in our time, much inveighing againstthem:

First, that being in neutrall or friends Countries,farre
distant from the enemy,they consumedwine and victuals,
as if they had beenborne to no other end, and spoyled
all mensgoods: but when the enemy drew neare,that
not content with their former spoyles,they would then
mutine for pay, and refuseotherwiseto fight, when the
Princes had no present meanesto satisfie them; yea,and

for want of it, would threatento leave their party, and

goe to the enemy,bearing no more affection to the one
then the other.

Secondly, that in all Armies, wherein

their strength was predominant,and especiallyupon the

approchof the enemy,they wereproneto threatningsand
seditious demeanour. Thirdly, that the horse having
given one assaultwithout successe,
could by no intreaty,
no reward, no hope of victory, be induced to give a
secondcharge. Fourthly, that onceput out of orderand
[III.iv. 199.]routed, they could never be gathered againe together.
Fiftly, that in the battell of Mountcontour, by confused
feare,they had almost exposedthemselvesand the whole
Armie to the sword; and that in the next battell, having
the victory, they sparedneither man, woman, nor child,
but like Bearesragedagainsttheir yeeldingsuppliants,stil
crying Mountcontour, Mountcontour, for the word of
revenge. Lastly, that the leviesof themare an excessive
charge, that they consumeabundanceof victuals, and
especiallywine, and cannotbearewith any want of the
least of them, and are a great burthen to an Army with
their baggage. Touching victuals, I have heard the
Citizens of Vienna,being themselvesGermans,yet freely

that whenthe Turkesmadea shewto besiege







them, and incamped on one side of the towne, they

sufferedfarre greater losseby the souldiersreceivedinto
theTowne to helpethem, then by the enemiesspoiling all

abroad.Touchingtheir baggage,every footemanhath

hiswench,that carrieson her backea great packe,and a
pan, while the souldierhimselfegoesempty, carrying nothing but his Armes. And at StrasburgI did see
certainetroopesof horseenter the Towne, sent from the
Marquisof Brandeburg,to aide the Citizens againstthe
Duke of Loraine, which horsemenhad an unspeakeable
numberof carts, to carry their Armes and other necessaries,and upon each cart sat a Cocke, which creature, as
most watchfull, the Germans have of most old custome
usedto carry with them to the warres.

I cannotpassein silencethe judgement of an Italian

well knowne,though by mee unnamed,who becausethe
Germansin our age have had some ill successes
in the
warre,doth attribute the sameto the impurity of the
reformedReligion professedby them, whereinhe sophistically obtrudes the false cause for the true;

not much

unlike the old man recordedin our Histories, who being

asked(for his age and experience)what he thought to
be the causeof Goodwyn sands,nearethe mouth of the
Thames,answered,that hee thought the building of
TentertonSteeplewas the causethereof, becauseno such
sandswereseene,till the time whenit wasbuilt. Nothing
is more manifest, then that the Germans of the reformed

Religion, nothing yeeld, or rather much excell, the

Germanscontinuing Papists,in all manuallArts, Liberall
and all indowments of Nature; which may
clearelybe proved by one instanceof the Norenbergers
and Sweitzers,professingthe reformedReligion, who in
all Arts, and the military profession, passeall other
Germans whatsoever.


am I of the same Italians

opinion, who to make the Germans active in warre,

thinkesthey must havean Italian,or someforraigne

Prince for their Generall, which none in the World can

lesseindure,sincethey not onely most willingly heare,






reade,and obey the Preachers,Authors, and Superioursof

their owneCountry, but aboveall other Nations singular

in selfe-love,doe alsodespiseall strangerscomparedwith
themselves,(though otherwisethey be not unhospitall
They have one commendable
custome,proper to them
with the Sweitzersoneiy, namely, that after a yeeresor
longer warfare,they returne home uncorruptedwith the
dissolute liberty of the warres,and settle themselves
their manuall trades, and tillage of the ground. The
Emperour Charlesthe fifth did leadeagainstthe Turkes
an Army of ninety thousandfoot, and thirty thousand
horse. And the Emperour Maximilian the second,did

leade against the Turkes an Army of one hundred

thousandfoote, and thirty five thousandhorse. And in
the Civill warrebetweenethe Emperour Charlesthe fifth,
and the Protestants, besides the Emperours Army, con-

sistingpartly of Germans,partly of ItaliansandSpaniards,

the ProtestantPrinceshad of their owneCountry menan
Army of eighty thousandfoot, and ten thousandhorse.
And in all theseArmies there was no complaintof any
the least want of victuals. So as by theseexamples
appeares,that the Empire can leavieand nourisha most
powerfull Army.
And for better understandingof their warfare,I wil ad
the decreeof the Emperor & the Electorsin the Expedition againstthe Turks in the yeere1500. Albert Palatine
of the RheinewasconfirmedGenerallof the Empire,and
sixe Counsellors



to assist him.


it was

further decreed,that the Generall should not make warre

upon any without direction from the Councell of the

[III.iv. 200.]Empire, then chosenandconsistingof sixe spirituall,and
sixe temporallPrinces,three Abbots, sixe chosenby the

people,and eight chosenby the free Cities. That the

souldiers should sweareobedienceto the General, and he

give like oath to the Emperorandthe Empire. That the



have the command

of three


Horse, with eight Guldensby the monethallowedfor







each Horse.


the Generall



have one

thousandthreehundreth Guldensby the moneth,or more

by consentof the Councell. That eachHorsemanshould
haveeight Guldens by the moneth, and each Footman
foure Guldens.

That the Generall should have twenty

fourefor his guard, with five Guldensby the moneth for

eachof them. That the Generall should have pay for
thirty two carts, each cart drawne with foure horses, and

allowedtwo Horsemenspay. That the Generallhappening to beetakenby the fortune of the warre, the Empire
shouldreadily pay his ransomeand redeemehim. That
no peaceshould be made without the consent of the
Generall. Lastly, that the Generall should deposethis
dignitie when hee should be directed so to doe by the
Councell, within

three moneths if he were within


Empire,or within sixe moneths,if he shouldthen be out

of theconfinesof the Empire. To conclude,he that shall
particularlyvisit andbeholdthe Armoriesand storehouses
for military provisions,aswel of the Princesasfree Cities,
shallbee forced to wonderat the quantity, varietie and
thereof, which if they wereall under the commandof one Prince, no two of the mightiest Kings of
might therein comparewith him.
It remainesbriefely to adde somethingof the Navall TheirVavail
powerof the Germans. Almost all Germanybeing with- Power
in land,onely the Cities upon the Northerne Ocean,and "y>
upon the Baltike sea,have any exerciseof Navigation.
And I did never reade or heare that any of them did
ever undertakeany long and dangerousvoyage by sea,
nor cantheir Marriners be praisedfor their experienceor
comparedwith the English and Netherlanders.

TheCity of Dantzk (whichfor agreement

of tongueand
manners,I reckonamongthe Cities of Germany,though
it be in somesort annexedto Poland), howsoeverit is
famousfor concourseof Merchants, and rich commodities,

yet not using to export them in their owne ships, but

ratherto sell them to strangers,or to lade their ships,&
thoseof the Hollanders,I could not understand,





that forty shipsbelongedto that Citie. Among the other

Cities,Lubeckand Hamburgarefarremorepowerfullin
this kind, then all the rest joyned together. The Haven

of Hamburghathcommonlygreatnumberof shipping,
and they said, that more then six hundred ships did then

belong to the City. But they beingvast, and built onely

for burthen,are held unfit for warre. The City of Hamburg and the other Cities upon the Northerne Ocean,
having long injoyed peace,as neutrals, while all their
neighbourshavemadewarreonewith the other,andnone
of the Cities, excepting Hamburg, sending out ships
further then upon the coast,it cannot be that the ships
should be strongly armed. At Hamburg I did seea ship
then building for a man of warre, of one thousandtwo
hundredtunnes,and amongthe other shipsbelongingto
that Citie, the greatest was called the golden Lion,
strongly built, and bearing eighteenebrassepieceson
each side, which they named their Admirall.

But our

best Sea-menthought them both more fit to defendthe

Haven, as Forts, then to makeany fights at Sea. In our
age thirty sevenships of Hamburg were laded by the
Flemmingswith Dantzk Rie for Spaine(wherethey had
free traffickein the heateof the warre betweeneEngland
France,Netherland and Spaine),and of theseshipssixe
perishedin the very going out of the Elve, by tempest,
while English and other shipssafelyput to sea; andthe
rest despairingof the Voyageinto Spainewere unladed.
Not long beforemy beingthere,they had sentsomeeight
or ten ships into Spaine,whereof onely one returnedin
safetieto Hamburg. The City Lubeck hath a greater
number of ships then Hamburg: but they commonly
trading within the Baltick sea, (seldometroubled with

warreor Pyrates),and their shipsbeing onelybuilt for

burthen, are slow of saile, and unfit to fight at sea.
Besidesthat for the foresaidreason,they carry few or no
pieces,or other armes. To conclude,while I was at
Lubeck, a great ship of that Citie of one thousandfoure
hundredtuns, calledthe Eagle,& ladedwith salt,perished








in thereturnefrom Spaine. WhereuponI then heardour [lll.iv.zoi.]

best Sea-menimpute great ignorance to the German
Marriners of those Cities.

This shall suffice for their skill

in Navigation, whereof I have formerly spokenin the

third Booke of this Volume or Part, treating of the
traffickeof Merchantsin Germany.
Touching their Lawesandjudiciall coursesin generall: TheirLawts
Of old the Magistratesof Germanywereas Captainesof and
Cities, who determined of Civill causesat home, and had courses-

publike meetings yeerely for that purpose, most commonlyin the monethof May, or at the times of the full
andnew Moones. They camearmed to thesemeetings
not all together,but every man at his pleasure,and as it
the multitude, so they satein judgement. Silence
wascommandedby the Priests,who hadpower to punish
them. Then the Prince or King, or any eminentperson
in eloquenceor in favour, was heard to speake,yet as
perswading,not commanding; and if the speechpleased,
the peopleshewedconsentby murmuring, or otherwise
dissentby striking their spearestogether. Here they
determined all controversies,and chosenew Captaines or

Governours. They had a custome,that if any man complained of another, hee should make a supper for a
hundred men, who duely examined the cause; and if the

plaintife had the right, the defendantpaid the charge,

otherwisehe scapedfree. They gave of free will to their
Princeof their CattellandCorne,asmuchasthey thought
fit for his honour and necessity. Tacitus writes that the
old Magistrates of Germany did nothing unarmed,
publikely or privately: And the Germans themselves
that their old Progenitorsseldometried injuries
by Law, but commonly revenged them with fire and
sword,andthat they shamednot to take preyesby stealth
or force. Quintilianus Varus appointed Governour of
Germanyby the EmperourAugustus,did first appointthe
judgement of Scabines(which in the Hebrew tongue

signifiesa Judge: for he hadformerlybeeneGovernour

of Jury). These Scabinesdeterminedall controversies,







and to this day the Germansin most placesso call their

Judges. The lower and upper Saxonyhath a provinciall
Law, yet determinesalsomany causesby the civill Law.
The Statutes of the Diots or Parliaments bind all, but the

Statutesof privatePrincesonelybind their ownesubjects.

The greatestpart of Germanyis governedby the Civill



the Doctors

of the Civill

Law are

much esteemedamong them, and are Counsellorsof

Estateaswellto the Emperour as to other Princes,which
placethey thinke unfit to be conferredon any Doctorsof
Divinity. Yea,the Princesof Germanyhavethis peculiar
fashion, that no sonne useth his Fathers old counsellors,

but rathernew chosenby himselfe. The saidDoctorsof

the Civill Law have priviledge by their degree,to weare
chainesof gold about their neckes,and feathersin their

There be in Germanyfoure kinds of Law giving, or

rather foure cheefeCourts of Justice. The first is that of

the Diots or Parliaments,vulgarly called Reichstagen,

that is; Daies of the Kingdome,which meetingsby the
Law should be made once in the yeere, and last no lesse

then a moneth at least,no man having liberty to depart

from them without leave of the Councell: Neither may

the Emperour or his sonne, or the elect King of the

Romans,make any warre or league,without consentof
the same. The secondCourt is calledLandgericht,that
is, the Justice of the Land, wherein the cheefemen of each

Provinceare to be calledtogetherthricein the yeere,and

are to sit three weekes,to determine the cheefeaffairesof
the Province, as the Parliaments handle the cheefeaffaires

of the Empire. The third Court is vulgarly calledCamergericht,that is, the Justice of the Imperiall Chamber,
which is held at Spire foure times eachyeere,eachtime

lasting forty dayes,to determinethe generallcauses

the Empire. The fourth Court is the Burgravesright,
by which debts by specialtyare recovered.
The Kingdome of Bohemiahath a provinciall Law,
derivedfrom the Law of Saxony,and for that causethere







be few Students of the Civill


but because the

Emperourhath instituted three Chaunceries,one for the

Law of Saxony,(which Provincelies upon the North side
of the Kingdome:) the secondfor the Law of Bohemia:
the third for the Civill Law, (in respectof the Emperours

of Austria,lying on the Southsideof Bohemia,)[III. iv.202.]
for this causethere be many Doctors of Civill Law, and
they alsomuch esteemedin the EmperoursCourt. If a
Bohemianhavea causein any Court of the Germans,he
is tried by the Civill Law, or by the Law of Saxony; and
if a German answer in the Court of the Bohemians, he is

tried by the provinciallLaw of Bohemia,andthe Defendant drawes the cause to his owne Court.


Province incorporated to Bohemia, useth the Language

andLaw of that Kingdome. In the old City of Prage,

howsoeveralmostall speakeDutch, yet the Law is given
in the Bohemiantongue,by a statutelately made. Silesia,
a Province incorporated to Bohemia, hath the manners

andlanguageof Germany,and Justiceis there administred by the Law of Bohemia,derived from the Law of
Saxony; but for the greater part by the Civill Law.
Generallyin Germany,if a causebe receivedinto any
Court, and the defendantescapeto another City, the
Magistrateof the placemust sendhim backe,to answer
the Plaintife

his accuser.

The causesof the Empire (as I formerly said) are TheImperial

handledin the Imperiall Chamberat Spire. And there- Chamber.
fore it will

not be amisse to relate some Statutes made in

the Imperial meetings,which are collectedinto a Booke,

vulgarly calledReichsabscheidt,that is, the Epitome or
abstractof the Kingdome; but I will onely set downe
breeflysomeof the cheefestatutes. It wasdecreedin the
yeere 1556, that no subjectsof the Electors, nor any
Inhabitants,or Earles of their Provinces,should appeale
from them to this Court of the Imperiall Chamber. The
EmperourFrederickethe third, in the yeere 1442, made
thesestatutes: That no Prince should by armesright






to him in this Imperial! Court. That the Judge of the

Chamber should be a Prince or Barron, and of these six-

halfe shouldbe Civill Lawyers,andhalfe
of the Knightly Order. That the greater part should
carry the cause,and the voicesbeing equall, the Judges
voyce should cast it. That the Judge should not be
absentwithout leaveof the Assessors,
nor they without
his leave,and that without somegreat cause,morethen
foure of them should not be absent at one time:

That in

they shouldhaveno voyce: That the cheefJudge
being sicke, shall substitute a Prince in his place,who
shall first


his oath.



and Advocates

shall take no more of their Clients, then the Judgesshal

appoint, and shall sweare to avoide slander and malice.

The Notaries shall executethe judgementsin the name

of the Emperour. Appealesshall be of no force,except
they be madein order to the next superiourCourt, andso
ascending. All that belong to this Chamber,shall be
free from all payments,but not one of them shalleither
keepean Inne, or tradeasa Merchant. The Judgeshall
deliver over to the Senateof the City, thosethat areguilty
of death. By the samedecree,all fees for writing and
are set downe,soas theClyentswearingpoverty,
shall goe free, so as hee sweareto pay the feeswhenhe
shall be able. Further it was decreed,that the seateof

this Chamberor Court, should not be changedbut by

the consentof the Imperial diot or Parliament. That the
Defendantshiding themselves,the Princesor Citizensto
whom they are subject,shall sweareupon a set day, that
they are not privy to any of their actions,or elseshall
satisfie all damages. That the Procters shall speake
nothing but to the purpose,and for jeastsor impertinent
things in word or writing, shal be punishedby a mulct
in money,andby being put to silencein that cause. By
the EmperourCharlesthe fifth, in the Diot at Augsburg,
the yeere1518,two newAssessors
wereadded,andit was
decreed,that Charlesas Emperour, should appoint the
cheefeJudge,two Assessors
of the Law, and two Gentle284








men Assessors,and as heire to his patrimony, should

appointtwo learnedAssessors. That three Gentlemen
should be namedby the three secularelectors,
three learnedby the three spiritual Electors, and three
Gentlemenwith threelearned,by the commonconsentof
thesix Communities. (For the Empire wasdevidedinto
sixeCommunities,vulgarly calledKreysen,for the collection of tributes and like duties, as other Kingdomesare
devided into Counties; and since that time in the yeere

1522,for the samepurposes,the Empire wasdevidedinto

ten Communities). Further it was decreed, that twenty

two personsshouldwith like equalitybe namedyeerelyto

visit this Chamberor Court. That no appealeshouldbe [III.iv.203.]
admitted into this Court under the value of fiftie Guldens ;

andthat the executionsof judgementsshould be doneby

the next Magistrates,and they not willing or not daring
to doe it, should be referred to the Emperour. At a
Parliamentin the yeere 1522, it was decreed,That no
strangershould be appointed cheefeJudge: That for
the pensionsshould be abated,after the rate of
the time, and be distributed among the present: That
the Judges should sweareto take no guifts; not to
prolong causes,and to doe right without respect of
persons; and that the Proctersshould take no fees,but
suchasare set downeby statutes. At the Parliamentin
the yeere 1555, it was decreed,that no Assessorsshould
be of anyother Religion, then of the Roman,or the Confessionof the Protestants,madeat Augsburg. That one
Assessorshould not interrupt the speechof another,nor
should rise to conferre one with the other, and that all

of anger should be punished,and all be sworne
to keepsecretthe Acts of the Councell: That Advocates
should not be more then foure and twenty in number:

That any man shouldbe admittedto speakefor himselfe,

first swearingto avoide slander: That this Chamberor
Court should be yeerelyvisited, upon the first of May,
by the Archbishop of Mentz, as substitute to the
Emperour; by three other, each chosenby one of the






Electors, by two Princes, one temporall, the other

spiritual!, and by one Counsellor,chosenby eachorder,

(namelyone by the Earles,and one by eachfree City)

to whomthe complaintsshouldbe presentedupon thefirst

of March. That no man should forbid his subjectsto
appeale to this Court, except they should willingly
renouncethe appeale; but that all froward appeales
unjust causesshouldbe punished,by paying charges,and
being fined; and that no appealeshould bee admitted
under the value of fifty Guldens, exceptingthosewho
have priviledge to appealefor lessesummes,and that no
appealebe made for corporal punishments: That the
Chamber should be held at Spire, till it be otherwise

decreedby Parliament, but that in time of famine or

plague,they may for the time chooseanotherplace: That
two brothers should not be the one an Assessor, the other

a Procter: That the Judgesshallmeetethreedayesin the

weeke,and eight of them at the least shall be present:
That executionof judgement shall first be requiredby
letters of the Court, to which if the Defendant shal not

yeeldobedience,he shalbe cited to appeare,and shallbe

condemnedin costs, and the Plaintife shall be put in
of his goods; andthe Defendantby the Popes
priviledgegrantedto this Court, shallbe excommunicated,
and then executionshallbe desiredfrom the Magistrate
of the Community,or in casethe defendantbe powerful,
it shall be desired from the Emperour himselfe. Lastly,

that no appealenor petition againstthe judgementof the


shall be admitted.

And thus much breefly written of the Imperiall

Chamberor Court, shallsuffice. Onely I will adde,that
were of old grantedto the Electorssubjects,and
at this day in somecasesand abovea certainevalue,are
grantedto the subjectsof Princesand Cities; andthatin
difficult causes, the Germans often referre them, to be

judged by the Colledgesof civill Lawyers in the University : but since Princes and Cities weekely hold

Courts of judgement,so as executionis done before








appealecan be made,and sincemany Cities and Princes

grantedto them from
are manytimesandby divers
meanesmade voide. In this Chamber the Emperour
himselfemay be accused,and many times a Gentleman,

or any manof inferiorcondition,havingdifferencewith

a Prince, gaines the causeagainst him, and the great
differencesof Princes, wont to breake into warre, use

quietly to be composedin this Court. The cheefeJudge,

if he be Earle or Barron, hath two thousand Guldens

yeerely,by the statutemadein the yeere 1548, and hath

more if he be a Prince. An Assessor,if he be an Earle

or Barron,hath yeerelyby the samestatutesevenhundred

Guldens; if he be a Doctour of the Civill Law, or a
Gentleman, he hath five hundred Guldens, and each

Advocatein Exchequercauses,hath yeerelythreehundred

Guldens; andby a statutein the yeere1557,they receive
for each Gulden 77 Creitzers, for bettering of their
pensions,whereasformerly each Gulden was valued at
sixteeneBatzen,or sixty foure Creitzers.
Touching capitall judgements. By the Civill Law, in [III.iv.204.]
most heinousoffences,the affection is punished,though Cop'taH

it takeno effect: yet in commoncustome,andafterthe JUfme"flforme of the Statutesof Italy, he that hath a mind to
kill, is not punished,excepthe doe kill. The old Law
of Saxonyrespectsthe fact, not the will: but of late the
Electorsof Saxonyhave made a Statute (which is yet in
vigour), that he that provokesa manto fight, or threatens
deathto him, shall dye, though hee never assailehim.
The Germanshold it reprochfullto apprehendany male-

factor,whichis onelydoneby the Serjeants

of the Hangmansdisgracefull Family. My selfe observed,that a
youngman, Kinsmanto the Consul or Maior of a Citie,
havingkilled a Gentleman,remainedtwo howersin the
Citie, and then fled, without any stop by the Serjeants,
who notwithstanding did afterwards for fashion sake
pursuehim, somefew howers. Yet I must needsconfesse,

that the Germansare generallymost severein Justice,







sparing not the Inhabitants more then strangers,yea, in

some casesfavouring strangersmore then the Inhabitants, (asin debts,which a strangercannotstayto recover
by long processe.) My selfehaving a sute for moneyat
Lindaw, my advocatewould by no meanestake any fee
of me, and the Judge gave meeright with greatexpedition. In criminall offencesthey never haveany pardons

from Court,(whicharecommonin forraigneKingdomes),

but the punishmentis knowne by the fact, so the male-

factorbeapprehended.For all hopeof safetyis in flight,

yet I deny not that favour is often done in the pursute.
For sinceonely the Serjeantscan apprehend,thereis no
place,where more malefactorsescapeby flight. In the
Citie of Lubeck, most honoured for Justice, the common

report was,that the very Judgesand Senators,hadlately

wincked at a Gentlemansbreaking of prison and flight
with his keeper,whom being imprisonedfor a murther,
they could neitherexecute,without greatly offendingthe
King of Denmark,nor otherwisesetfree,without scandall
of Justice. A man suspected
of any crime,or accused
one witnesse,is drawne to torture, yet is never condemned

upon any probability, till himselfeconfessethe fact,which

confessionis easilyextorted,becausemost menhadrather
dye, then indure torment. So as many times innocent
men have been after knowne to have perishedby their
owne confessions,as with us sometimesinnocent men have

beenknowneto dye, being found guilty by a Jurie of


sworne men.


because it cannot be that the

judgementsof men shouldnot often erre; henceit is that

the Civill Lawyers have a strange,yet good saying,that
a mischiefeis better then an inconveniency,namely,that
it is better one innocent man should dye by triall, then

for wantof triall. In
Germanynot onely men but womenalso being accused,
areput to torture. And for diversgreat crimes,the Law

judgeth them to deathwith exquisitetorments. And

becausethey can hardly bee indured with Christian

lestthe condemned
shouldfall into despaire,








very Preachers,when they have heard their confessions,

andsettledtheir mindesin true faith, by rare exampleof
too great charitie, permit and advise, that they be made
drunken, to stupifie their sences,so as thus armed, they

comeforth with morebold then holy mindesand lookes,

and seeme not to feele unsufferable


of death.

NeareLindaw I did seea malefactorhanging in Iron

chaineson the gallowes,with a Mastive Dogge hanging
on eachsideby the heeles,soasbeing starved,they might
eate the flesh of the malefactor before himselfe died by

famine. And at Franckford I did see the like spectacle

of a Jew hangedalive in chaines,after the samemanner.
The condemnedin Germanylose not their goods,but
onely in caseof Treason against their absoluteLords.
But in Bohemiathe goods of the condemned,fall to the
Emperour,as he is King of Bohemia,in the Territories
belongingto the King; and to the Princesand Gentlemen,in the Territories whereof they are absoluteLords
(asthey areall, in their ownelands.)
In Germany Courtiers and Studentsof Universities,
havetheir proper Judgesand Prisons, so as by singular
priviledge they may not be tried in any other Court.
And of old the Studentsof many Universities had such
priviledges(at this day not fully allowed),ag for murther [III.iv.205.]
they could not be punishedfurther, then with expulsion.
In Germanythey have a custometo give a condemned
man to a Virgin that desireshim for her husband,but
accordingto the circumstances
of the crime, they grant or
denie the same.

The officeof the hangmanis hereditary,soasthe sonne

cannot refuse

to succeede his father:


of late the

hangmanssonne of Hamburg being a Student, and

if not a graduate,in the Universityof Basil,after
hisFathersdeath,wascalledhomeby the Senateof Hamburg,and forcedto doe his FathersOffice, which is most

but of greatprofit: For the Germanshold
it reprochfullto take off the skinneof any beast,dying of

it selfe,so as the hangmandoing that Office,hath the

M. iv







skinnesfor his labour. The Germansaresosupersticious,

astheythinkeit a greatreprochto touchtheheador body

of anyput to death,andthinkeit mostridiculousfor any

man to salutethe hangman,or speakecurteouslyto him,

and esteemeit a foule fault to eate or drinke with them,
or any of his Family. Therefore the Hang-man and
thoseof their Family, who helpethem in their Office(and
them having no children)doeall wearea greene
cap, or some apparent marke, by which they may be
knowne,or at leastaretied to professetheir quality,when
they comeinto any company,lest any man shouldoffend
in the former kindes. And in publike Tavernestheyhave
Tablesproper to them, at which the basestbody will not
sit for any reward. If they performenot their Officewith
dexterity, they feareto be stonedby the people,whose
rage many times in that casethey have hardly escaped;
but being expert in doing their Office, and having most
sharpeSwords,they commonly shew great dexterity in
beheadingmany at one time, and (as it were) in a
moment: They are commonlythirsty of blood, soasthe
commonreport was,that the hangmanof Torge beheaded
some of his companionswith the Sword of Justice,
becausethey would not pledge him, when they wereso
fully drunken, as they could no more; whereuponthe
Swordwastaken from him, andis to this day kept in the
and onely delivered to him at times of
execution :


that this rascall could not live a weeke

without drinking the blood of some Beast. Besidesat

Breme not long before this time, forty freebooting
souldiersbeing beheadedat one time, and the hangman
having failed in giving a foule wound to the first man
executed,and having with much difficulty appeased

angerfor the same,heepresentlydrunkesomeof
the mans blood that was dead, and after hee had fetched

a strike or two, beheaded

all the restwith strangedexterity
(asit were)in a moment.

ManOf oldamongtheGermans
\^y a mujct of cattle, but no man escapeddeathfor








adultery. At this day (as after will appeare)they punish

man-killersmore severely,and adultery in most placesis
death,andin no part of Germanyfree from severepunishment. Not onely the free Cities of the Empire have the

priviledgeof the Sword,or capitallJusticegrantedto

them by Emperours; but also many Cities subject to
inferiourPrinceshave that priviledge grantedby someof
their Lords: and thoseCities that have it not, yet upon
accidentsof capitall offences,obtaine it for the time by
petitionary letters at Court, so as the Prince permits
Justice,the City gives sentence,and seesexecutiondone
in theplacewherethe crimewascommitted,andpresently
afterthe fact, neverusing (aswe doe)to sendJudgesfrom
Countyto County at set times of the yeere: For casuall
or by chancemedly (as we terme it), the
Civill Law gives arbitrary punishment; but the Law of
Saxonypunisheth it with a certaineand expressemulct,
namelyof oneWehrgeld,andby the Civill Law not onely
the principall, but every one that is accessary,
whole mulct, whereas by the Saxon Law, if it be not

knownewhich of them killed him, all jointly pay but one

mulct. Killing in sudden anger (which we call manslaughter) is punished with beheading through all
Germanyand Bohemia,and that without delay: for if
the offenderbe apprehended,
he shall within few howers,
or next day be beheaded,and put in the sameCoffin with
him that he killed, and soboth are buried with one funerall

pompe,and in the samegrave: and if upon escape,the

live within the confinesof the Empire, whensoeverhis fact is knowne, he shall be sent backeto the [III. iv.206.]
placewherehe committedit, contrary to the customeof
Italy, where the Princes cherrish, or at least give safe

to thebanished
menof the nextCountries: Onely
I mustexceptthe Lords and Gentlemenof Bohemia,who
upon capitall offencesare not presentlyjudged, but are
referred to the next Parliament.

In free Cities

I have

observedthis forme of judgement and execution. The

Judgesits beforethe tribunall, coveredwith blackecloth,






and the Senatorsand Consulssit upon a bench above


hjm ; andthisplaceof Judgement

is commonlyin a Porch
or Terrasunder the Senate-house,
havingonesideall open
towards the market place. Then the Crier, who carries
the Swordbeforethe Judge,calsout the accuser;andthe
hangmancomming forth, accuseththe Malefactor,which
done, the Cryer leadesthe Malefactor before the Tribunall,

wherehe is againeaccused,
the fact, according to his confessions
formerly madeeither in torture or
beforethe Senatorsappointedto examinehim: Thenthe
Judge gives sentence,and breakeshis white rod. This
done, the Hangman repeatesthe sentencein the market
place,and presentlythe Malefactoris brought forth to be
beheaded. This man-slaughterin suddenfury, is very
frequentamongthe Germans,by reasonof their excessive
drinking. In the City of Hamburg I observedthirty
sevento be thus killed in the spaceof six weekes,and
onely three of the manslayers to be beheaded,the rest

escapingby flight. And at Pragein Bohemia,I observed

fifteene servantsof the Polonian Ambassadour(whereof
many were Gentlemen), and thirteene Bohemians and
Germans,to be wounded to death in their cups,within the

spaceof threeweekes,all the manslayersescaping,excepting onepooreclowne,who wasexecuted. It is true that

Post-Horsesare kept for the Sergeantsto pursueMalefactors,yet they slowly follow Gentlemen,or thosethat
havegood friends,howsoeverthey would soonapprehend
a stranger,or a pooreoffender,neither usethey earnestly
to pursueany, exceptthey be hired by the friendsof him
that is killed, or be otherwiseterrified by the Magistrate.
For combatesin Germany,readethe preceptof patience

in the Chapterof Precepts,beingthe secondchapterof

this 3 Part.

Here I wil onely say, that in combat very

few, or no Germansarekilled, few hurt, and that lightly;

which I rather attribute to their peaceablenature, not apt

to takethingsin reproch,thento their severeLawes. I

havesaidthat manslayers
die without hopeof pardon,if
they be apprehended,
but otherwisethe Germanshaveno







severeLawes to punish injuries, (in which Justice the

Sweitzersof all Nations excell),without which Lawes,no
capitall punishment can keepe men from revenge,
especiallyin a warlike Nation, and unpatient of reproch:
Onely at Augsburg I remembersevereLawes, made to
keepethe Garrison Souldiersfrom combates,where they
havea plat of ground, to which they call one anotherto
fight upon injuries; but it servesmore to make shew,
then proofe of their valour: For a Souldier wounding
another, payes toure Guldens:

Hee that drawes his

Sword,thoughhe drawno blood,payestwo Guldens: He

that upon challengeand the greatest provocation, kils
another,is banished: And the Magistrategives suchreall
satisfactionto the wrongedby deedor word, as they may
with reputation forbearerevenge: yea, he that doth a
wrong, is bound under great penalty, that he himselfe
shallpresentlymakeit knowneto the Magistrate,craving
pardon,and submitting himselfe to punishment,howsoever the wrongednever complaines.
At Prage in Bohemia,manslaughterscommitted by
Gentlemenagainst strangers,and those of meanercondition, are much more frequent, becauseGentlemencan
only be judged in Parliaments,which arenot often called,
andare then tried by Gentlemen,who are partiall in the
commoncause,and commonlyacquite them, or delude
Justiceby delaies: Otherwisethe Bohemianspunish manslaughter,murther, robbery, and like crimes, as the
Germanspunish them.

By the Civill Law the punishmentof a boy for manslaughter,is arbitrary, but he is not subject to the
CornelianLaw, or capitall punishment, except he be
of malice. By the Law of Saxony,a boy for manslaughteris punishedby the foresaid mulct, if he be
capableof malice,otherwisehe is subject to no punishment,and in like sort if he depriveoneof the useof any
member: but in customeif he be seventeene
yeeresold, [III.iv.207.]
he may be, and is commonlyput to death. By the Civill

law, the punishmentof reall and verball injuries is







of arbitrary, and as manywoundsasare given, so manyare


j-nepunishments.But by thelawof Saxony,

another,so ashe leeseththe useof a member,is punished
by a mulct of moneyuncertaine,which is given alwaies
to him that is maimed, and if he die not, a thousand

wounds or maimesare punishedonely with one mulct,

exceptthey beedone at divers timesand places,in which
case severall mulcts are inflicted.

Alwaies understand,

that theseJudgementsare given, where the offenderis

civilly accused,for if thesewoundsbe given of setmalice,
and if he be capitallyaccused,he shall dye, accordingto
the circumstances,which the Germans much regard.
Thus at Lubeck a man was beheaded,for striking a
Citizen in his owne house. And in the way from Stoade
to Breme, I did seea sad monument, of a wicked sonne,
whose hand first, and then his head was cut off, for strik-

ing his father. He that killes a man of set malice,and

like hainousmurtherers,haveall their bonesbrokenupon
a wheele, and in somecasestheir flesh is pinched off, with

hot burning pinsers,and they that kill by the high-way,

are in like sort punished. And many times for great
crimes,the malefactorssomefew dayesbeforethe execution of judgement, are nailed by the earesto a post in
a publike place,that the peoplemay seethem. After the
execution, the bones and members of the malefactorare

gatheredtogether,and laid upon the wheele,which is set

up in the placeof execution(commonlywherethe crimes
werecommitted),for eternallmemoryof his wickednesse,
with so many boneshangingon the sidesof the wheele,
as he committedmurthersor like crimes; and my selfe
thus hanging for memoryof so many murthers,or like
crimes committed by one man. These markes long
remaining,and crossesset up in placeswhere murthers
were committed,though the murthererescapedby flight,
make passengersthinke these crimes to be frequentin
Germany; yet the high-wayis most safe,and the nature

of the peopleabhorringfrom suchacts,whicharenever









committedby Gentlemen, but only by rascalsagainst

footmenin the highway, and thosethat dwel in solitary
houses. Yet the severity of punishments,& the more

fiercenatureof the Germans(retainingsomekind of

fromtheir old progenitors)
givenover to wickednes,to be morebarbarous& unmerciful, and when they have oncedoneill, to affectextremity
therin. To conclude,I have said,that the law of Saxony
condemnsa man to death, who threatens to kil another,

thoughhe never do the act. By the Civill law, difference

is madebetweena day & a night thiefe, becausewe may
not kil him that stealesby day, but may kil him that robs
by night, if we cannotsparehim without danger to our
selves. By the law of Saxony,he that by night stealesso
muchasa little wood, shall be hanged: but stealingthat
or like goodsby day, shalonly be beatenwith rods. In
the civil law, it is doubtful whether theft is to be

punished with death or no, & most commonly it

concludes,that only theft deservesnot death, if it
be not accompaniedwith other crimes. But the law
of Saxonyexpresselycondemnesa thiefe to be hanged,
if he stealeabove the value of five Hungarian Ducates
of gold, or under that value to bee beatenwith rods,
and to be marked with a burning iron, in the eares
or cheekesand forehead, and so to be banished. And

howsoevergenerallya thiefe may not be hangedby the

Civill Law, yet in somecasesit condemneshim to be
hanged. By the law of Saxonythe thing stolenmust be
restoredto the owner, and may not be detainedby the
Magistrate,and they who wittingly receivestolengoods,
or give any helpeto theeves,are subjectno lessethen the
theevesto the punishment of hanging. In Germany
therebe very few robberiesdone by the high-way, and
thoseonely upon footemen; for they that passeby coach
or horse, carry long Pistols or Carbiners,and are well
accompanied.But if any robbersassaile,in respectof the
severepunishment,they commonly kill. In Germany
they who arehangedfor simpletheft, hangin iron chaines






upon the gallowestill they rot and consumeto nothing,

but in Bohemiaafter threedayesthey are cut downeand
buried. I did seeonethat had stolenlessethen five gold
guldens, whipped about the towne, one that consented
being led by his side for ignominy, but not whipped. I
[III. iv.208.]did seeanother small offender led to the galloweswith
a condemnedman,that he might bewareby that example.
And I haveseeneothersfor stealingunder the saidvalue,
put in a basket, and thrise ducked in the river, for a warn-

ing upon the first fault. And I haveoften heardthemtax

our English Justice, for hanging thosethat stealeabove
the value of thirten pencehalfe-peny,which will hardly
buy a rope. By the Civill Law he that findesany thing,
and for gainekeepsit, is guilty of theft; for he ought to
makeit publikely knowne,and to restoreit beingowned,
or other wise if he be poor to keep it, if he be rich, to
distribute it among the poore.
By the Law of Saxony,it is a theevish thing not to
makepublikely knowneany thing that is found; but hee
that sodoth, shallnot sufferdeathor anycorporallpunishment, becausehe did not of purposetake it away: but
if he that lost it, doecry it in the Churchor market-place,
then if it be morethen the value of five shillings,heeis
thought worthy to be beatenwith rods, or to indure such
arbitrary punishment,accordingto the value of the thing

By the Civill Law, hee that cuts downe treessecretly,

shallpay the doublevalue: but by the Law of Saxony,
the mulct is accordingto the value. By the Civil Law,
they that stealethe necessaries
belonging to husbandry,
shallrestorefoure fold, andalsoincurreinfamy. But one
Law of Saxony condemnes them to have their bones

brokenwith wheeles; andanotherLaw makesthe punish-

ment arbitrary. The Civill Law confiscates

which custome is not payd, but the Law of Saxony

imposeth a Fyne aswell upon those which pay not

customesand duties, as upon those that passenot the
beatenway, wherethey arepaied,but go somebyway,to







defraud the Prince: By the Civill Law, sacrilegious

personsare beheaded
: but by the Law of Saxonytheir
bonesarebroken upon the wheele,and markesareset up
accordingto the number of their offencesin that kynd.
By the Civill Law, no offendermay be burnt in the forehead,becausethe facemay not be disfigured,ascreatedto
the similitude of God : but in Saxony,thosewhich are
beatenwith rods, or banished, are also many times
marked,by being burnt in the hand, or by cutting off
their eares,or by pulling out their eyes,or by beingburnt
in the cheekes,so as the haire may not cover the marke

but it may be manifest to strangersin forraine parts.Yet the interpretersof that Law, thinke at this day, that
offenderscan not be so punished by that Law, and that a

theefeought not so to be marked. By the civil Law,

witchesdoing any act wherupon a man dies, are to be
but by the Law of Saxony,they areto be burnt.
Yet by a late Statuteof the Elector, they are sometimes
(for you must understandthat in all places,the
Provinciall Law is daily increasedby new Statutesof
Princes). And by the Law of Saxony,a witch having
doneno hurt by that art, is punishedarbitrarily. And the
Germans credibly report, that there be many witches in

the Countrieslying upon the Baltick sea, and especialy

uponthe Northern side therof, as in Lapland,being part
of the kingdomeof Suetia; and that in thoseplacesthey
havegenerallmeetings,and Colledgesof witches,who wil
tell any man what his frends do at any time, in the
remotestparts, one of them falling downe as in extasie,
and when he comesto himselfe,relating the particulars
thereof, and that they ordinarily sell windes to the
Marrinersto carry them out of the haven to the maine

In Germanythosethat set houseson fier, either hired

thereunto, or of their owne malice, and also witches use

to beeburnt, or if their crime be hainous,use to be put

to death with a burning iron or spit, thrust into their
hinder partes. Coinersof counterfeit mony, are by the






Law to dye in boiling lead. By the Civil Law the goods

of a banishedman may be seasedto repaireany losse,but
it is not lawfull for any man to kill him, neither is he
infamous. But by the Law of Saxony,he that is banished
by the Empire, may be killed; becausehe broke the
peace,and after a yeers banishment,he is infamous;
alwaiesunderstanding,that he is lawfully banished. By
the Civill Law, a traitor to his country, is to be burned
to death; but by the Law of Saxony,his bonesare broken
upon the wheele,and by customemany tormentsarein
some crimes added to this punishment. By the Civill
Law, he that stealesa virgin, widow, or Nunne, andall
that helpehim in that rape,arebeheaded
: but by the Law
[III.iv.210.] of Saxony,besidesthe beheadingof the offenders,the
placesare to be laid wastewherethe forcewasoffred,and
the beaststo be killed that helpedto doe the force,asthe
horseswhich carriedthemaway; yet this is not observed,
but in practiseonly he is put to death that offered the


Of old the womenof Germany,werewont to purge

themselvesfrom suspitionof adultery,by the combatof
champions,or by treadingon sharesof hot burning iron
with their nakedfeet, without taking any harme,andthis
purgation shouldstill be observed; neitheris it abrogated
in Saxony,but only is vanishedby disusing. And the
Germanshave not only of old beenseverepunishersof
breachesin wedlocke, so as it was lawfull for the husband

to expellhis adulterouswife out of his housebeforeall

his neighbours,with her body nakedand her haireshorne,
and so to beather with rods through the streets,but also
even to this day, the chastity of wives, through the
severityof the Law againstthe incontinent,is no whereso
preserved,as in Germany. If a married personlie with
one that is unmarried, aswell on the man as the womans

side, the mariedparty is put to death,and the unmarried

is punishedby the purse,and with ignominy, and if both
partiesbe married,both die. And our agehath scenetwo
notable examplesof this Justice in Germany,one of a








Duchesse,who by authority of her husbandand of her

ownebrother, was for this crime forced to drinke poison

for preservingof all their honours. The other
of anotherDuchessewho wasbrickedup in a most narrow
roome,having an hole in the wall by which shereceived
hermeat,to prolong her miserablelife, while her husband
had another wife and lived with her in the sameCastle, in

which she thus languished. In most placesof Germany

this sinne is punishedno lessethen with death; yet in
someplaces,and upon somecircumstances,
(as of a man
havingan old and barren wife) the delinquentsometimes
with a mulct of mony: andotherwherethe judgmentis drawneout with delaiesof the suit, to sparethe
parties without manifest breachesof the Law. In
Bohemia adultery is also punished with death. In
GermanyI did seea pooreknavehangingand rotting on
the gallowes,being condemnedto that death for having
two wives at one time in two severall Cities, and I did see

anotherbeheadedfor lying with his wives sister.

In Civill causes,I observed these laudable customesin
Germany, namely that in many Courts, they that goe to

Law lay downea cautionor pledge,which he loseth,who Civil

in the end of the triall, is found rashly and unjustly to Judgements
have sued the other.

That the Fees of Lawyers are

limited, and that jeasts or impertinent speechesare

punished,and they are tied to speakenothing that is not
to the purpose.
Of old, no beauty,age, nor riches,helpeda defloured
virgin, to get any husbandat any time. And no doubt
virgins to this day are no where so carefullof their good
nameas in Germany; no where virgins more modestly
behavethemselves,no where virgins live to so ripe yeers
beforethey be married,as in Germany. At Wittenberg
I did seeharlotspunishedby standingat the Altar with a
torch lighted in their hands,and by being whippedwith
rods,while many drums were beaten,& basonstinckled
aboutthem. At Heidelberg I did seean harlot put in a
basket,and so ducked into the river Neccar; and because





she whoopedand hollowed as in triumph, when sherose

out of the water, shewas for that impudencyduckedthe
secondtime. At Pragein Bohemia,howsoeverharlotsbe
thereascommonasin Italy, and dwell in streetstogether,
(where they stand at the doores,and by wanton signes
allure passengers
to them) yet I did seesomemen and
womenof the commonsort, who for simple fornication,
were yokedin carts,& therewithdrew out of the City the
filth of the streets.

But while the Bohemians thus chasten

the poorersort, I fearethe greaterFlies escapetheir webs.

In Germanyat the time of publike Faires, after the
sound of a bell, it is free for debtors, harlots, and banished

peopleto enter the Citie; but they must havecareto be

out of the territories before the samebell sound againe
at the end of the Faire, they beingotherwisesubjectthen
to the Law. At Leipzig I did seean harlot takenafter
this secondsound of the bell, who had been formerly
[III.iv.2io.] banished,with two of her forefingerscut off; andshee,
not for incontinencie,but by the law of banishment,was
next day beheaded. Whiles I lived in the sameCitie, it
happenedthat a virgin of the better sort beingwith child,
and cunningly concealingit, was surprisedwith the time
of birth in the Church upon a Sunday,and silently
brought forth the child in herpew or seat,coveringit with
rushes being dead, which was unknowne to all in the
body of the Church, only someyong men sitting in a
roode or loft with the Musitians, perceivedthe fact, and
accusedher for murtheringthe child : In the meanetime,
sheewent homefrom the Church,in the companyof the

othervirgins,withoutanyshewof suchweaknes,
& after,
upon the saidaccusationbeingimprisoned,the reportwas
that sheeshould beejudged to death,after the old Law
mentionedby the Poet Propertius,namely,being sewed
in a sackewith a living cat (in steedof an Ape), anda

living Cocke,Snake,and Dog, and so drownedin the

river with them. But delaybeingusedin the judgement,

and her honourablefriends making intercessionfor her,
and the murther of her child being not prooved,whenI







left the Citie after six monethssheeremainedin prison,

and it was not knowne

what would

become of her.

Aswell in Germanyas Bohemia,bastardsare excluded

from publike professionof liberall or mechanicalarts,only
they may exercisethem in the housesof private Gentlemen,(in which courseof life as servantsthey commonly
live) but never in open shops. All graduatesin Universitiestake an oath, that they were begotten in lawfull
matrimony. And if any man ignorantly should marry a
womangreatwith child, howsoeverthe child beeborne in
mariage,yet it shall inherit nothing from the husband.
Bastardscannotbee suretiesfor any imprisonedor delinquentman,nor injoy the extraordinarybenefitsof the law,
andare commonelynamedof the Citie or Towne where
they were borne, for a marke of ignominy, not after any
manssirname. But the publike Notaries by priviledges
grantedto them from Emperors and Popes,have power
to maketheir posterity legitimate.
In the lower part of Germany,which was all namedDebtors.
Saxonyof old, a debtor shallnot be receivedinto prison,
exceptthe Creditor allow the Jaylor two penceby the day

to give him breadand water, and after a yeeresimprisonment, if the debtor take his oath that he is not able to

pay,he shalbe set free,yet the creditor hath stil his right
reservedupon his yeerly wagesfor his labour, and upon
hisgainesby anyart or trade,andupon anygoodswhatsoeverhe shall after possesse.And beforeany debtor bee
imprisoned,the Magistrategiveshim eighteenweekstime
to pay his debt, and commits him not till that time be

past. And in someplacesthe debtor lives at his owne

and shall be tied to pay his creditorscharges,if
he be able to doe it.

In someplaces,especiallyat Lubecke,I have observed

that strangersbeingCreditors,havemore favour then the
Creditors of the same City against a Citizen debtor,
becausestrangersby reasonof their trafficke, and hast
homeward,cannotwell expectthe delayof sutes,in which
respecttheir debtorsshall presentlybe imprisoned,where301






asmutually amongthe Citizens,they give the foresaidor

like time of payment,before they will imprison them:
Debts without specialtyare tried by Oath. In Bohemia
the debtorsare imprisonedpresently,andmaintainethemselves,not being releasedtill the creditorsbe satisfied.
In Germany,if any man draw other mensmoniesinto
his hands,and being able, yet payesnot his debts,he is
guilty of capital punishment; but that ingeniousand
honestNation hath few or no such bankerouts. By the
Law of Saxony,he that deceivesby false weights and
measures,is to be whippedwith rods.
The Emperoursof old grantedthe priviledgeof coyntwititg
jng Money, to many Princes and free Cities; and the
Emperour in the Dyet or Parliamentof the yeere1500,
commandedall Princes, Persons,and Bodies so priviledged,to sendtheir Counsellorsto him at Nurnberg,and
that in the meanetime all Coyning should cease,under
the penalty to leesethe priviledge of Coyning. In the
sameplace,the yeere 1559, many Lawes were madefor
coyning Monies, whereof I will relate somefew. First
the weight and purity of the mettall was prescribed,
togetherwith the Inscriptionsto be set upon the Coynes.
Then it was decreed,that after sixe monethsno strange
[III.iv.211.]Monies shouldbeecurrant,whereofmanyareparticularly
named. That all forraigne Gold should after the same
time be forbidden, excepting the Spanishsingle and
double Duckets, the Portugall Crowneswith the short
crosse,the Crownesof Burgundy, Netherland,France,
Spaine,and Italy, to eachof which peecesa certainevalue
was set. Moreover it was decreed,that counterfet coyn-

ing or melting, should be punished accordingto the

quality of the offence. That uncoynedgold and silver

should be deliveredby eachman into the Mints of his
owne Prince.


it should

be lawfull

to Goldsmiths

for exercise
of their trade,(andno more)to meltgoldand
silver, and to devideit into parts,so as they exportnone
of it. That no man should sell or pawnethe priviledge

of Coyning,heretoforegrantedhim from theEmperours,








andthat like priviledgeshereafterto be granted,should

be of no force, without certaine conditions there prescribed. Other Lawes of Coyning I have formerly set
downein the Chapterof Coynes.

Germanyhath few or no beggars,the Nation being

generallyindustrious,exceptingleprousmen, who live in
and standing farre off, beg of passengers
with the soundof a bell, or of a wooddenclapper,but no
man deniesalmesto him that begs, they having small
brassemoniesof little value. The Law forbids any to
beg,but thosethat arelame,and chargethMagistratesto
bring up their children in manuall Arts. The Lawes
wiselyprovide againstall frauds in manuall Arts and in
Trades, and since no Trade can doe more hurt then the

for the preservationof health,or the lessehurt
of the sicke,the Law provides that their shopsbe yeerly
visited, and purged of all corrupted drugges, which the

visitersseeburned. The Germansfreely permit usury to

the Jewes,who at Franckfort, at Prage, in the Province
of Moravia, and in many placesunder Princes of the
Papacy,haveCities, or at least streetsto dwell in, where
theylived separatedfrom Christians,and grinde the faces
of the poorewith unsatiableavarice. For they take fifty in
the hundredby the yeere,with a pawneof gold or silver,
and one hundreth in the hundreth by the yeere,with a
pawneof apparellor housholdstuffe, never lending any
thing without a good pawne. But the Germansamong
cannotby the Law take more then five or six
in the hundrethfor a yeeresuse. Yet amongChristians,
therewant not some,who useboth the nameandhelpeof
the Jewes,to put out their mony with greatergaine.
Of old among the Germans,without respectto last TheLawes
Wils and Testaments,the sonneslawfully begotten sue- Inheritance.
ceededalone in the inheritance, and for want of them, first
brothers; then uncles. Caesar in his Commentaries

writes,that the fieldswere yeerelydivided by the Magistrate, no man having fees or inheritanceproper to him,
lesthusbandryshouldtake awaytheir warlike disposition,






or they should becomecovetous; and addes,that they

loved vast solitudesupon their confines,

as if no people
durst dwell neerethem; or at leastto the end they might
live more safe from sudden incursions of enemies. At

this day all barbarousnesse

being abolished,they succeed
according to the lawesin the Feesand inheritancesof their

parents and kinsmen, and affect peaceas much as any

other Nation. But they trust not so muchto solitudesor
the naked breast for defence from their enemies,as in

strong forts and well fortified Cities.

By the Civill Law, as the sonne,so the nephew,or
sonnessonne,(representinghis father) succeedsin land
granted by fee. By the Law of Saxony,only the sonne
succeeds,excluding the nephew: and if there be no
sonne, the Fee retournes to the Lord.

But howsoever

the old Interpreters have so determined,yet the later

Interpreters,judgeing it most unequallso to excludethe
nephew, so interpret the Statute of the SaxonicallLaw, as
they make the Fee granted to the Father and his children,

to extendto the nephews(or the sonnesof any his sonne,)

so asthe sonnescannotexcludethem. By the Feudatory
Civill Law, brothers and collateral cosens,succeedin the

Fee of the Father,sometimesto the seventhdegree,sometimes infinitely: for the Interpretersextend the succession of the right line without end, but the succession
the collaterallline onely to the seventhdegree. But in
[III.iv.212.] the Law of Saxony,collateralkinsmen have no right of
in the Fee,exceptthey haveit by right of joynt
investiture. TheseLawesdiffer in numbring the degrees.
For the Saxonsmake the first degreein cosen-germans
by the fathersside, namelythe sonnesof two brethren;
and the second degree in the sonnes of two cosengermans: whereasin the Civill Law, cosen-germans
the fourth degreeof consanguinity. By the Civill Law,

brothers dividing a fee, prejudicenot themselves

; soastwo brothersdividing,andafter
oneof themdying withouta sonne,the part of him that
is dead,shallreturne to him that lives. But by the Law







of Saxony, the successiondependsuppon using it in

from whichif they depart,they arejudged to
haverenouncedthe mutuall right of succession
; soasone
brotherdying after the division, the other hath no right
to his part: thereforeby customeone brother useth to TheLowes

retainethe fee,and to satisfiehis brethrenin monyand Succession.

goods,commonly with condition that this money and
goodsshall be bestowedin getting anotherfee. By the

Civill Law, if the vassall have built houses, or bestowed

monyin bettering the old houses,the Lord of the Fee

shalleither satisfiethe heire accordingto the estimation
of the expence,or shall suffer him to carry away the
houses.But by the Law of Saxony,the feelies opento the
Lord,with all the housesbuilt, onecaseexcepted. By the
Civill Law, if the vassall die without heire male before

the monethof March, the fruits of that yeerepertaineto

the Lord : but if hee die after the Calends of March,

beforethe Monethof August, the fruits pertaineto the

heires. But by the Law or Saxony,if the vassalllive past

the day when the rent is due, the heires shall injoy the
fruits of his labour. By the Civill Law, if the Fee upon
thedeathof the Lord, fall to all his sonnes,either equally
or otherwise, the investiture must be desired of all: but
by the Law of Saxony, it sufficeth to aske it of one sonne

of the dead Lord. By the Civill Law, a servantor a

clownemay be investedin a Fee; which done,the clowne
a Gentleman,if the natureof the fee require it:
But by the Law of Saxony,onely heethat is borneof the
knightly order by father and mother is capeableof a fee,
thoughcustomeprevaile to the contrary. By the Civill
Law, if the vassall leave an heire, he cannot refuse the
inheritance, and retaine the fee, but must hold or refuse

both: but by the Law of Saxony,he may retainethe fee,

leavingthe inheritance,and in that caseis not bound to
satisfiecreditors. By the Civill Law, a man may give or
sell his land to a Prince or Prelate,and take it againeof
him in fee. But by the Law of Saxony,exceptthe Prince
or any buyer whatsoever,retaine the land a yeereand a
M. iv







day, beforehe grantsit backein fee,heethat gaveor sold

it, or his heire, hath right to recoverthe land. By the
Civill Law, if the vassall have lost his horse or armesin

warre, hee hath no remedyagainstthe Lord, because


is tied by duty to helpehim: but by theLaw of Saxony,

the vassallis not tied to servethe Lord anylonger,except
he repairehis losse,and the Lord is tied to pay a certaine
ransomefor his captiveVassall. By the Civill Law, the
Lord, or the Father of the Vassallbeing dead,the Vassall
is boundto askeinvestiturewithin a yeereanda moneth:
but by the Law of Saxony,either of them being dead,he
must aske it without delay. By the Civill Law, the

Vassallmustservethe Lord at his ownecharge: but by

the Law of Saxony,he is onely tied to servehim sixe
weekes,and by customethe Lord must feedehim andhis
horse,or give him a competentallowance.
By the Civil law, the pupil is excusedfrom the Lords
Lawandthe service: but by the law of Saxony,the Tutor must serve

in . his place. By
the Civill ,.'.,.,,
law, a Fee falling& to, a Monk,
belongs to the Monastery during his lire : but by the law

of Saxony,it returnesto the Lord. And touchingthe

successionof Monks in any inheritance whatsoever,
though by the Civil law they are accounteddead,yet the
same law admits them to succeed with the children of the

intestatefather: but by the law of Saxony,they arenot

capableof any inheritance; yet this Law seemingunjust
to the Popes,it wascorrected,so as their succession
given to the Monastery. But m our age,the Judgeshave
pronounceda Monke himself to be capeableof inheritance,notwithstandingthe PapallLaw gives his inheritance
to the Monastery,and that becausethe Monkish Vowes
being againstthe word of God, the personsof Monkesare
free to take inheritance. By the Civill Law, the Vassallis
bound to accompany
his Lord whenhe goeswith the King
[III.iv.2i3.] of the Romans,to take the Crowne of the Empire at

Rome: but by the Law of Saxony,he mayredeeme

servicewith payingthe tenth part of his yeerelyrent;
and since,the goldenBulk hath restrainedthis service,to







twenty thousandfoote, andfoure thousandhorse,and the

paimentof themhathsincebeenequallydividedthrough
Germany,allowing a horsemantwelve Guldens, and a
footemanfoure Guldens. By the Civill Law, he forfeites
his Fee,who cuts downe fruitfull trees,or puls up vines,
but by the Law of Saxony,it is free to the possessor,
make the lands or housesof the Fee better or worse, at his

pleasure. By the Civill Law, if the Lord denyinvestiture,

it must be askedoften and humbly : but by the Law of
Saxony,if the Vassallaske it thrice, and hath witnesses
that the Lord denied his service, afterwards, so he have

goodwitnessesthereof, heeand his heiresshall possesse

the Fee,without any bond of service,and his heire is not
bound to aske investiture. By the Civill Law, if two
Lords of one Vassallshall both at one time require his
service,he is bound to serve the most ancient Lord:


by the Law of Saxony,the personof the Vassallmust

serve the Lord that first calles him, and he is to pay a

summeof money(asthe tenth pound)to the other.

By the aforesaidLawes and daily practise,it appeares,Territories
thatthe Territories of Princes(accordingto the old Feud- Princes.
atoryLawes)either fall to the eldestson (who gives his
brothersyeerelyPensions,or accordingto his inheritance,
them with money,or other lands), or else
areequallydivided amongthe brothers. Yet someFees
are also feminine, and fall to the daughtersand their
husbands,and some may be given by testament: but
others,(asthoseof the Electors)for want of heiresmales
arein the Emperourspower,who with the consentof the
Princesof the Empire, commonly gives them to the
husbandsof the daughters, or to the next heires by
affinity,if therebe noneof consanguinity. I haveheard
of credible men, that the Dukedome of Austria first fals
to the sons, then to the cousens, and for want of them

to the daughters. The Duke of Winebergand the Duke

of Coburg(sonnesto FrederickeDuke of Saxonyand

Elector,but deprivedof his Electorshipby the Emperor
Charlesthe fifth, for his Religion), did equallydivide their






inheritancewherof could not be divided): but I did
observe,that the brother to that Duke of Coburgsson
being unmarried,had no inheritancesub-dividedto him,
which was said should be done, when he tooke a wife. The

Count Palatine of the Rheine,not long beforethis time

deceased, did divide all the inheritance with his brother

Duke Casimere,exceptingthe Palatinate,which with the

stile and dignitie of Elector, belongsto the eldestsonne.
But they say that manytimes the Knights andchiefemen
of the Province, wil not for the publike good, lest the
Princespower should be weakened,permit this division
among their Princes, but force the younger brother to
take moneyor yeerelypensionfor the part of his inheritance; and that this division is alsomany times forbidden
by the dying fatherslast Testament. And they seemeto
do this not without just cause,since the great number
of children often oppressethdivers principalities. Thus
17 brothers,al Princesof Anhalt (for the title is common
to al the yonger brotherswith the eldest,evenwherethe
patrimony is not divided) dividing their fathersestate
betweene them, were said to have each of them ten

thousandgold Guldens by the yeere; and if all these

brethren should have children, it was probablethat the
Principalitie couldnot bearesomanyheires. I remember
that I did see one of them at Dresden, in the Court of

Christian Elector and Duke of Saxony,who receivedof

him a pensionto maintainecertainehorses,

his Courtiers. The like happenedin our time to the
Counts of Mansfeild,whereof twenty sevenlived at one
time, and some of them followed the warres of Nether-

land, the revenuesof so narrowa County sufficingnot to

beareup the dignitieof theirbirth, howsoever

it yeeldeth

Mines of Silver, which were at that time pawnedfor

moneyto the Fuggari of Augsburg.
Younger I observed that the younger sonnes of Protestant

of prmces
could not,.,...
be divided,
. ,
. . ,, .
,' /


Princes, eldest sonneduring his fathers lire, injoyed the revenewes








of Bishopricks
money,and pensions,and somelandsof inheritance,and

otherwisefor better maintenancefollowed the warres. In [III.iv. 214.]

this sortwhen the Elector ChristianUuke of Saxonydied,

histhreesonnesbeingyet underage,injoyed threeBishopricks, namely,those of Misen, Nauberg, and Mersberg,
thoughthe Emperor and the Gentlemenof thosepartsin
a Provinciall meeting,were instant to have three Bishops

chosen,and the Emperour desired that dignity for

one of his brothers. The samethree Princesyet being
underage,I did seecoynesof Gold andSilver bearingthe
imagesof all three: but when they came to age, the
Electorshipand the Inheritancebelongingto it, fell to the
eldestsonne,the younger retaining the said Bishopricks
for life, and their part of other lands that might bee
divided, for inheritance to them and their children.

The Feesof Princesare given by the Emperour, and

theFeesof manyGentlemenand of someEarlesaregiven
by Princes: but I returneto the Lawesof Succession.
By the Civil law, they that descendof the right line,
havethe first placein succession,
al which without respect
of sexor fatherlypower,do succeede
equally,the sonsby
the Pole, the nephewesto their part, namely,to the part
which their father should have had, if he had been then

living; so asit seemes,that fower or morenephewes,the

sonsof a third brother dead,dividing with two brothers
living, all the nephewesshall only have a third part,

belongingto their fatherbeingdead,andeachof the two

living brothersshall have another third part. The Law

of Saxonychangethnothing touching the persons,but
differs in the successionof goods: For the daughtersThesuccessio
shallby priviledgehavetheir mothersapparrell,and other ofgoods.
ornaments,with all utensiles(or householdstuffe), so as

theyshallbe valuedto themin their dueparts. And the

niece,borne of one of the sisters being dead, hath the
sameright with the other sistersfor her motherspart:

but none can have these utensiles, save the women on the

mothers side, (vulgarly called Spielmagen),for the







brothersdaughter hath no right to them. And I have

heard of learned men, that these utensiles cannot bee

alienatedby the last testament,namely,vesselsof brasse

(but not of pewter),linnen, beds(exceptingthe heiresof
Inne-keepers,whose chiefewealth commonlyconsistsin
suchfurniture) alsosheep,geese,jewelsof gold, and like
ornamentsof the mother,exceptingthe sealering of gold,
and pearles,and other jewels,which men use to weareas
well as women. By a Law made in the Dukedomeof
Meckelburg, becausethe women in the yeere 1388
redeemedtheir captive Prince with their Jewels,many

priviledgesof succession
aregrantedto women. By the

Law of Saxony,as the utensilesbelongto the daughters,

so besidesthe decreeof the Civill Law, in the Knightly
Order all goods of expedition (as Armes, and the like)
belongto the sonnes,andthe swordis alwaiesgiven to the
eldestsonne. But thesethings are not observedamong
thoseof commonor plebeanranck, exceptcustomehave
madethem asLaw, so asthe Daughtersby customehave
the utensiles, and the eldest sonne have the chiefe horse

for the plough. I haveformerlysaid,thatby theLawof

Saxony,the nephewis excludedfrom succeeding
in a Fee
with his uncle on the fathers side (that is, his fathers
brother), but that in our daies the nephewis admitted
accordingto the Civill law. I have said, that in the

of moveablegoods,the sonnessucceede
father by the Pole: but the nephewes
(or sonnesof
their Grand-father
in thepartbelongingto theirfather. I havesaid,thatthe
Law of Saxonychangethnothing touching the persons,

but only differs in the succession

to somegoods,asthe
utensiles. Now I adde further, that the nephewessucces-

sion and equall division with his fathersbrothers,is

decreedby an Imperiall Law, abrogating all contrary


By the Civill Law, brotherson both sides,andtogether

hath with them, the children of their dead brothers and sisters,
no heires.
are then grst ca}ledto inheritance, when the deceasedhath








no heiresin the right line descendingor ascending: but

without any respectto the Imperiall saidLaw, (as speaking of custome,not written Law), or to the last Civill
Law, the Law of Saxonydecrees,and of old customeit is
observedamong the Saxons,that in the successionof
the living brother excludesthe childrenof his
deadbrother,(I sayin freehold,not in fee)andthe brother
on both sides excludes the brother on the one side onely

in the third degree,and the brother on both sidesexcludes[III.iv.zi5.]

thechildrenof his deadbrother in the third degree. But
I haveobservedthat this law is thus practisedamongthe
Saxons,as imagining there be three brothers, Thomas,
John,and Andrew, and it happening,that Thomas first
diesleaving a sonne,and then John dies unmarried, or
witnout issue,the goods of John at his death shall not
fall to the sonne of Thomas his eldest brother, but to his

brotherAndrew yet living; and Andrew dying last, as

wellhis owneas his brother Johnsgoodsfall to his owne
sonne: but if he have no sonne,then they fall to the
sonneof Thomas. And againe putting the case,that
Thomas and John are both dead, and each of them hath
left a sonneor sonnes,if Andrew die without a sonne,the
sonneof Thomas succeedeshim, without any respect to

the sonneof John. By the Civill law, the uncle of the

by the fathersside, is not onely excludedby the
brother of the deceased,but also by the brothers children :

but by the Law of Saxony,sincethe right of representation simply hath no place,and thesepersonsare in the
samedegree,namely,in the third degree,they are called
togetherto the inheritance,yet the Scabines
(or Judges)of
Leipzig, havepronouncedthe contraryto this judgement

of the Judgesin the highest Court of the Duke of

Saxony,rather following the Civill Law, which preferres
the brothers sonne, before the uncle on the fathers

side. By the Civill

Law in the successionsof

Collaterals, the brothers of both sides are for a double

bondpreferredto the brothersby one parent only, so as

the priviledgebe not extendedto thingsin Fee,but to







things in free-hold; becausein Fees the bond on the

mothersside is not regarded. By the Law of Saxonya
brother on both sidesexcludesa brother by one parent,
asnearerby one degree.
Bastards. By the Civill law Bastardsare admitted to the inherit-

anceof the mother, and the brother lawfully begottenis

calledto the inheritanceof a deadbastardbrother by the
saidmother,but by the Law of Saxony,asa bastardcannot
beeadmitted to inherit with one lawfully begotten,sohe
that is lawfully begotten,cannotsucceede
a bastard,that
is not legitimated, and by the law of Saxonya mother
having a bastarddaughter,and dying without any other
child, cannotleave her utensile goods to that daughter.
Yet in all casesconcerningbastards,the Judgesleavethe
law of Saxonyasunequall,andjudge after the Civill iaw,
so as in Saxonybastardsboth succeed,and are succeeded
unto, and alwaiespart of the goods is given, if not by
law, yet by equitie, to maintaine the bastards,and the
Interpreterswill have the law of Saxonyunderstoodof
those, that are borne in incest, who have not the benefit

of legitimation. By the Civill law he that is borne

in the seventhmoneth after marriage,is reputedlawfully
begotten: but by the law of Saxony,hee is reputeda
bastardthat is borne before the due time; yet because
Phisitiansagree,that the seventhmoneth may be called
due time, in customeand practise the law of Saxony
agreeswith the Civill law.
By the Civill Law the Testamentis brokenby the birth

of a Posthumus,
(that is, a sonneborneafterhis fathers
death), if it give no part to this child; so the birth be
proved by two witnesses: but by the Law of Saxony
foure men by hearesay,and two womenby sight, must
testifie the birth.

In the Civill

Law it is controverted


sonnesof brothersshall succeedthe unkle by the fathers

side; and the greaterpart saith, that they succeedto the

partsof the brothers: so asonechild of a brothershall

have as much as two or more children of another brother :

but by the Law of Saxonywhenthe inheritancefalsto any








that are not brothersand sisters,they succeedby pole, so

asone brother having many children, eachof them shall
haveequallpart with the onely child of anotherbrother;

andif theybe furtheroff in degrees,

thosethat areequall
in degree,have equall portions. But both theseLawes
aremadeto agreeby a Statute of the Emperour Charles
the fifth in the yeere1539, wherebyit is determinedthat
the sonnesof brothersshall not succeedto parts, but by
pole,to the Unkle by the Fathersside; notwithstanding
any Statute or custome to the contrary.

By the Civill Law the division of Inheritancemust be Division


madeby Lots,andif the partsbe not somadeequall,the Lots.

Judgemust determineit; but by the Law of Saxony,if
there be onely two persons, the elder devideth, and the

yongerchuseth,andif therebe morepersons,then accord-[III.iv.216.]

ing to the Civill Law, the inheritanceis devidedequally,
andthey castlots for their parts.
In this devisionI haveobservedsuchequity amongthe
as if one sonneof a Citizen, havebeenebrought
up in the University, or instructedin any Art or Science
at the Fatherscharge,something shallbe taken from his
part,andgiven to the other brotherswanting like education, or being tenderin yeeres: And the Germansbeing
lesseapt to disagreement,seldomegoe to Law about
inheritance,and if any differencehappen,an Arbiter is
appointed,and the Magistratedeterminesit with expedition. By the Civill Law the Sonneof a banishedman is
deprivedof his Fathersinheritance,but by the Law of
Saxonyhe shallenjoy it.
By the Civill Law the degreesof Consanguinityend Degrees
in the tenth degree,exceptingBarronsand noblepersons,Cantan-

whodying without heires,the kinsmensucceede,


it be in the hundreth degree; and if all the Family of a

King shoulddie, andleaveno man neererthen oneof the
old blood removed a thousanddegrees,yet hee should
in the Kingdome. The degreeof Consanguinity
by the Law of Saxony,endsin the seventhdegree,for that
is the tenth by the Civill Law, the sonnesof two brothers






beingby the Law of Saxonyin the first degree,whoby the

Civill Law, are in the fourth degree. By the Civill Law
Cities howsoeverpriviledged, cannotpossesse
the vacant
goods of men dying without heires,but they fall to the
Emperour; but by the Law of SaxonyCities that have
absolutepower, confiscatethesegoods by custome,soas

the goodsof a stranger,or any dying withoutheires,are

brought to the Judgesof the place,who keepethemfor
onewhole yeere: yea, they challengeunmoveablegoods,
but with prescriptionof yeeres: And thesegoodsuse
to be convertedto godly uses,and I haveobservedsome
to be deepelyfined, for fraudulent detainingthesegoods.
By the Civill Law he that is of age,sohe be in hiswits,
himthatis of and no prodigall person,may freely sell, give, or by any
coursealienate his goods: but by the Law of Saxony
this power is restrained, for no man without the consent

of the next heirescanalienateunmoveablegoodsgotten

by his Progenitors,(vulgarly calledStamgutter),but onely
for godly uses, or dowries given upon marriage,(for
contractsof dowry areof forcefor useand propertywithout consentof the heires,thoughmadeafter the marriage,
if the guift be confirmedby the giversdeath): but if any
manwill sell his Progenitorsgoods,first by the Civill Law
he must offer them to be bought to the next heires,and
they refusingto buy them, he may then freely sellthemto
any man, and if they were never offered to the heires,
notwithstanding the possessionis transferred,but the
heires have an action for their interest.

Weakcneu. By the Civill Law, weakenesse

(asof old age)doth not

makethe guift of lesseforce: but by the Lawof Saxony,

a man or woman sicke to death, cannot without the

consentof the heires,give anygoodsabovethe valueof

five shillings,so asa certainesolemnityis requiredamong

the sicke,andalsothosethat arehealthfull,in thegift of

any moveableor unmoveablegoods: For among the
sickeor healthfull, he that will give any goods,if he be

of KnightlyOrder,heemustbeof that strength,asarmed

with his SwordandTarget,he canupona stoneor block








an ell high mount his horse,and his servantis admitted

alsoto hold his stirrop. If he be a Citizen, he must be
ableto walkein the way, to draw his Sword,and to stand

uprightbeforethe Judge,while thegift is made: And a

Clownemust be able to follow the Plow one morning.
Lastly,a womanmust be of that strength,assheecangoe
to the Church of a certaine distance, and there stand so

long till the guift be made: but thesethingsareunderstoodof guiftsamongtheliving, not of guiftsupondeath.
By the Civill Law guifts areof force,though madeout of
theplacewherethe goodsare seated: but by the Law of

for unmoveable
goodsthe guift mustbeemadein
the place,and beforethe Judge of the place,where the
goodsareseated,onely somecasesexcepted.
By the Civill Law, the heire that makesno Inventory,
is tied to the Creditors,above the goods of Inheritance;
but by the Law of Saxonyhe is neither tied to makean
Inventory, nor to pay further then the goods of the
deceasedextend. By the Civill Law, within ten dayes, [III.iv.217.]

andby the Law of Saxony,within thirty dayesafter the

deathof him that dies, the heire may not be troubled by
the creditors. An Imperiall Statutedecrees,that he who
makesa Testament,must be in his right mind, so as he
speakesto the purpose, and must have witnesses,who
haveno profit by his Testament,and such as themselves
havepowerto makea Testament. Hee that disinherites
the next heire, is bound to give him a lawfull legacy
accordingto his goods. By the Civill Law leprous
personsandborneunperfect,arenot excludedfrom inheriting : but by the Law of Saxony,the lame,dumbe,blind,
leprous,andthe like, arenot capableof inheritance,or fee,
yet if any man after his succession
shall becomeleprous,
he shall enjoy the inheritance.
By the Law of Saxony,Tutorage belongsonely to the
Kinsmen,by the Fathers side, and not (as by the Civill
Law) to all in the samedegree,but ever to the next, and

if manybe in the samenext degree,then to the eldest

of themonly, yet so asthe dangerof Tutoragebelongs






to all together. Thus Christian Duke of Saxonydying,

the Duke of Winbergonly, (not the Duke of Coburgin

the same degree with him) was Tutor to his children,

though the Electorshipwastakenfrom their Grandfather,

and given to this Family with great and just envy by the
Emperour Charles the fifth. In common judgement,
especialyrespecting such cases, the kinsmen on the
mothers side seememore fit to be Tutors, who have no

profit, but rather losseby the deathof the Pupill, whereas

the kinsmen

on the Fathers

side are heires to him.


the commonpractiseto the contrary,(asin this particular

example) produceth no tragicall events among the
Germans,being of a good andpeaceable
nature. By the
Civill Law, a Pupill is said to be in minority till he be
five and twenty yeeresold, and the tutorageceaseth,
the Pupil is capableof investitureat ripe age, namelythe
Male at foureteene,the femaleat twelve yeeresage: but
by the law of Saxonythe Pupill is saidto be in minority
till he be 21 yeers old, and the Male is capable to be

investedin his fee when he is 13 yeers& six weeksold:

for the Saxonsmakedifferencebetweenthesetwo things,
Binnen Jahrenunnd binnenTagen, that is, under yeeres,
and under daies: for the Pupill is held under yeersfor
inheritancetil he be foureteenyeersold, and for Feestill
he be thirteeneyeeresand six weekesold: but he is held
under daiesor in minority, till he be twenty one yeeres
old. The Imperiallaw of the goldenBulk notwithstanding, makesthe Electorssonnesto be of ripe age,andfree
from Tutors at eighteeneyeeresage. I have observed
that Tutors in Saxony allow the Pupils five in the
hundreth for all their money which they have in their
hands. Femalesare under Tutors till they marrie, and
they cannotmarriewithout their consent,but refusingto

give consent,they are boundto yeelda reasonthereof

beforethe Judges,lest they shouldfraudulentlydenie
consent. By the Civill Law the Tutor is not boundto
give account,till the Tutoragebe ended,but the Administrator may yeerely be called to account,and the eldest








brothermust give accountto the younger, of the inheritancewhich heeadministrethundevided: but by the Law

of Saxony,if the Tutor be not heire to the Pupill, (as

the Kinsman by the Fathers side, while the Mother lives,

him from succession),
he is tied yeerelyto
giveaccount,but if he be heire to the Pupill, he is not
boundto give account,which notwithstandingis restrained
to Parents and Brothers, who for reverence of the blood,

andnaturallaffection,are freedfrom suspitionof fraud or

fault, especiallywhere the administration is of goods,
whicheither they possesse
with the Pupils undevided,or
in whichthey haveright of succession.Also by the Law
of Saxony,the elder brother (when his brother hath no
motherliving) as heire to his brother, is not tied to give
accountto his brother, or to his joynt heire for the

of a common

and undevided


In like sortby the Civill Law, the Tutor is bound to give

suretiesor sufficient caution, for preservingthe Pupils
goods; but by the Law of Saxony,(as formerly), if the
Tutor beeheire to the Pupill, or joint heire with him in
undevided Inheritance, hee is not tied thereunto.

By the

Civil Law whatsoeverfalsto the sonnein the powerof the

Father,of his mothersgoods,either by Testamentof the
Mother,or from her dying intestate,the Father shallhave
the use and full administration thereof for his life, and for
the confidenceand reverence of a Father, hee is not tied

to give suretiesor caution for using or restoring those [III.iv.2i8.]

goodsto his sonne,as othershaving like use thereof are
boundto doe, yet so as in regard of this usefor life, the
Fatheris bound accordingto his power to give a gift in
marriageto his sonneleaving him : but the mother hath
no right to the useof her sonnesgoods. By the Law of
Saxony,the use is so long grantedto the Father, till his
childrendepartfrom him: but the Lawyersso interpret
this, if the Father be causeof the separation; for if the
Sonnewill departof his ownemotion, excepthe be out of
minority, and will take upon him the care of a Family,
the Father shall retaine the use, and is bound after to






restore these goods, exceptthey perish by misfortune

without his fault.

And the sameLaw, is for the Mother

also, touching the goodsof her Sonne,when the Father

is dead: but the Law concerningthe Father, must be
understoodof the unmoveablegoodsfalling unto the Son
from the Mother.

By the Civill Law the Father and Mother, or othersin

the ascending
line, succeed
the Sonneor Daughterdying,
in equallportionswith the BrothersandSisters: but by
the Law of Saxony,the Parentsof the Sonnedead,or if

they be dead,the Grandfather

and Grandmother,
or any
ascendantswhatsoever,exclude brothers and sistersby
both Parents,and collateralswhatsoever; and indeedby
the Law the Father alone succeedsthe dying Sonneor
Daughter, excluding the Mother, exceptingthe utensile
goods,in which the Mother is preferred: but by the late
Statute of the Electors, this Law is changed,so as the
Father and Mother succeedtogether: yet thesethings
must be understoodof the goodsin freehold; for in Fees
they of the ascendant
line succeednot the descendants,
as every stranger may succeed,by contract expressedin the
investiture. By the Civill Law the Father cannot make

a gift to the Sonnebeing under his power: but by the

Law of Saxonyhe may, yet the sonnereceivingthe gift,
is bound to acknowledgeit when his Father dies,andto
abate so much of his portion in the division with his
brothers,if it be of any value, and not given to supply
his wants at that time: And by both Lawes the gift is

goodfrom theFatherto the Sonnegoingto warfare.

TheWife's By the Civill Law the Wife in time of marriage,may
hayg gOOCJS)
in which the Husband hath no right, either

to alienateor to administerthem,as thosegoodswhich

sheebrings to her Husbandaboveher dowry, and never
gives them to him: but by the Law of Saxonythe Man

and Wife haveall goodsin common,soasall aresaidto

be the Husbands,andthe Wife cancall nothing herowne,
and the Husband hath the use of all without exception,

evenwhilethey live together,for the burthenshebeares,









yethe hath not the propertyof thesegoods,onely they

both possesse
them undevided so long as they live together. The Husband at marriagetakeshis wife and all
hergoodsinto his tuition, but this tuition is onely understood for the use, which ends when the wife dies, but the

wife hath not like use in her husbandsgoods: And the

husbandin administringthe goodsof his wife, must deale
honestly,and neither sell nor ingagethem, becausehe is
onelyherTutor. By the Civill Law the wife hath power,
without the presenceor consentof her husband,to give
or alienateher moveableor unmoveablegoods,onelyduring the marriagesheecannotgive awayher dowry to the
prejudiceof her husband,without his consent; but by the
Law of Saxony,the wife cannot give her unmoveable
goods, nor sell or alienate any goods without her
husbandsconsent, because shee is under his power as

her Tutor. Yea, the wife cannot give her goods to

her husband,becausehee being her Tutor, cannot bee
actor to his owne profit: but if before the Magistrate shee chuse another Tutor, by whose authority
the gift is made, then it is of force. For in all
casesin which a gift betweeneman and wife is of force
by the Civill Law, in the samecasesat this day by custome

it is of forceamongthe Saxons,so as the former manner

be observed: But all thesethings of the Wives gift to
her Husband, and of alienating her goods by contract,
(which shee cannot make without the consent of the

Husbandher Tutor), are not understoodof the alienation

by her last Will and Testament. For by the Law of

Saxonyit is controverted,whether the wife may give a

gift to her husbandat her death,without the authority of
the foresaidTutor chosenby her, and if it be given without the same,whetherafter the deathof the wife, (accord-[Ill.iv.zig.]
ing to the Civill Law) this gift be confirmed. And some
interpreterssay, that the same authority of a chosen
Tutor, and the samesolemnityis required, as in a gift

the living,othersdetermine
that thegift at death
withouta Tutor is of force,soit be madebeforethe Judge,






becauseit is not a simple giving, but participatessome

thing of the last Will and Testament,and for that cause
five witnessesare required to it, or that it be registred;
which done, the gift is of force, becausefavour is to be
given to the last Testament,which must not be captious,
but free. Also becausehe that is of ripe age, but in
minority, though heecannotgive or contractwithout the
authority of his Tutor, yet heemay give for death. And
so it is concluded,that in doubtfull casesthe gift mustbe
favoured,that it may subsist,rather then be madevoyd.
Lastly, the Law of Saxonyin this, consentswith the Civill
Law; that a wife may make a Will, and for death give
her unmovablegoodsto any otherbut her husband,without the consentof the husbandher Tutor. But by the
Statuteof the Elector, the gift of utensilegoodsmadeto
the husbandin prejudiceof her next kinswoman,is of so
little force, aswith deathit is not confirmed,exceptit be
remuneratory. Yet amongthe living, this gift of stuffe
(as somerestraineit, so it be not to the husband)is of
force, if it be madebeforea Notary, and with witnesses.
By the Civill Law, the husbandmay not have the careof
his wives goods,lest sheupon affectionshuld remit hisill
administration,and so shuld be in danger to loosethe
goodsof her dowry: but by the Law of Saxony,presently
upon manage,the husbandis lawful Tutor to his wife.
By the civil law the dowry of the wife given by herfather,
upon the death of the wife, returnesto the father,except
it be covenantedto the contrary in the contractof the
dowry: but by the law of Saxony,the husbanduponhis

wivesdeath,gainesall moveable
goods,and so muchof

the dowry aswas in ready mony, exceptit be expressely

covenanted to the contrary in the contract of the dowry,

and all the goodsof the wife abovethat sheebroughtin

dowry, fall to the husband,nothing excepted,but onely
the utensile goods,yet this Law is not extendedto the
perpetualland yeerelyrentsof the wife, which arereputed
unmoveablegoods. By the Civill Law, if either the man

or the wife marrythe secondtime, the party mayin no








casegive more to the secondhusbandor wife, then to the

childrenof the first marriage,but amongthe Saxonsthis

Law is abolishedby contrarycustome,so asnot onely the
Stepmothersuse to have much more of the husbands
goods,then the children of the first marriage,but on the
other side also, the secondhusbandsupon the death of

the secondwife, being to haveall her moveablegoods,

exceptingthe utensiles,commonly gaine more then her
childrenof her first marriage.
By the Civill Law, a Widdow retaines the dwelling
house,honour,and dignity of her Husbanddeceased,
sheemarry to another, and by the Law of Saxonythe
deadHusbandleaveshis widdow the right of his Family
and blood, and customeso interprets this Law, as all
priviledgesand dignities are thereby granted, as by the
Civil law. Widows & Virgins by the Law of Saxony,if
they be of suchageas they haveno Tutors, may give or
alienatetheir goods,which a wife cannotdo, being under
the Tutorage of her husband: yet the interpreters
restrainethis to movablegoods, being otherwisein unmovablegoods, but by last wil & testamentthey may
disposeof both.
By the Civill Law, if therebeeno Letters of Dowry or
Jointure,the Husband dying, the Wife must have the

fourthpart of his goods: but in somepartsof Saxony

the customeis, that the Wife being a Widdow, shalhave
the third part of her Husbands goods, as it is in all
Misen: but in other parts,asin Thuring, the Civill Law
is observed,andsheehath the fourth part, if the Husband
leavebut 3 or foure children, but if he have more, then

the widdowhath onely an equall part with each of

them: But in Misen the wife hath not the utensilegoods,
whichusenot to beegiven to womenhaving a third part.
And moreoverthe widdow is tied not onely to leaveher
ownegoods,but her part of goodsgotten in marriageby
her husband,and whatsoeverher friends gave to her in
the life of her husband,or sheeany way gained,to their
children at her death, whether sheegave them to her
M. iv







husbandin time of his life, or no, for it is alwayespresumed that shee got these things out of her husbands
goods: And if in any place there be no custometo
[III.iv.z2o.] determine this, then the widow besides her fourth, or

equallpart, hath alsothe utensilegoods. And in casethe

husbandleave no children, then the widow hath her choise,

whethersheewill receivethe third part, or renouncingthe

same,will retaineutensilegoods,and all other her owne
goods movableor unmovable,togetherwith her dowry.
But if the husband leavechildren, the widow hath not this
choise, but must renounce all the rest, and sticke to her

third part. And by customeof the Country, her dowry

and gift for mariageis doubled; soassheethat brought

one thousand guldens for her dowry, shall have two
thousandguldensin the division of her husbandsinheritance. And the right which married parties by statute
have in one anothersgoods,cannotbe taken from them
by last Will and Testament. Discoursingwith menof
experience, I heard that the widowes of Princes, whiles

they remainewidowes,possesse
all their husbandsestate
(exceptingthe Electorships,which the next kinsmanby
the Fathers side administersby his right, during the

minorityof thesonne)andinjoyalsothetutorageof their

children: but if they marry againe,the country freesit
selfe from them, with giving them a tun of gold for
Dowry. And that the Daughtersof PrinceshaveDowries
from the subjectsby subsidiescollected,& use to sweare
beforethe Chancellor,that their husbandsbeing dead,or
upon any accidentwhatsoever,they will not retourneto
burthen the Country. That the Daughtersof Gentlemen
never marry to any of inferior degree then Gentlemen,
(which is constantlykept by both sexes)andarecommonly
bestowedwith a small Dowry: and since by the Law
they cannotsucceedin fees,haveat the parentsdeathonly
a part of their movablegoodswith the utensilsproperto
them: and one sisterdying, her portion goesnot to the




as also the married


dying, and leaving no Daughter,her portion goesnot to









her own sons,(exceptliving & in health she bequeathed

it to them in her Testament)but to the Neece on the
Mothersside. Lastly, that in casethe goods of a dead
womanare neithergiven by her last Testament,nor any
Kinswomanto her on the Mothers side can bee found, her

goodsgoe not to her owne Sonnesor male-Kinsmen,but

are confiscatedto the Prince, or in free Cities to the


It is saidthat the Roman Emperor Caracallawaswont Thedegrees

to say,that only that Nation knew how to rule their wives, family.
which added the feminine article to the Sunne, and the

masculineto the Moone; as the Germansdoe, saying;

Die Sonn unnd der Mone.


no doubt

the Germans

arevery churlishto their wives, and keep them servily at Firstthe

home: so as my selfe in Saxonyhave seenemany wives Wwet.
of honestconditionand good estate,to dressemeatin the
kitchen, and scarceonce in the weeke to eate with their

but apartwith the maides; andafter the meale,
to comeand take away their husbandstable; and if they
cameto sit with him at table,yet to sit downeat the lower
end,at least under all the men. My selfe have seene
husbandsof like quality to chide their wives bitterly, till
theywept abundantly,and the samewives (of goodranke)
very sooneafter to bring a chaire to the husband,and
serve him


a trencher

and other



menbeinginvited to friendshouses,or any solemnefeasts,

never goe in companywith their wives, who goe alone
with their facescovered. It is no novelty for a husband
to give a box on the eareto his wife. And they scoffeat
the Law in Nurnberg, which fines the husbandthree or

foureDollersfor striking his wife,asa mostunjustLaw.

It is ridiculous

to see the wives of German foote-soldiers

going to the warre, laded with burthens like she-Asses,

while the men carry not so much as their own clokes,
but castthem also upon the womensshoulders. And I
should hardly beleevethat the Germanscan love their
wives, since love is gained by lovelinesse,as the Poet






ut ameris amabilis


He that for love doth thirst,

Let him be loving first.

But they while they commaundall things imperiously,in
the meanetime neither for dulnes court them with any
pleasantspeech,nor in curtesiegracethem in publike, so
much as with a kisse. It is a commonsaying,
Dotem accepi,Imperium vendidi.
I tookea Dowry with my Wife,
And lost the freedomeof my life.
But howsoeverthe Germanshave great Dowries in
marriage,and their Wives have power to makea Testament, for disposing their goods, with many like priviledges; and howsoeverthey be also provokedwith these
injuries, yet the men keep them within termesof duty.
May not we then justly marvell, that Englishmenhaving
great powerover their Wives, so as they canneithergive
any thing in life, nor have powerto makea will at death,
nor can call any thing their owne, no not so muchas
their garters,yea, the Law (I must confessetoo severely)
permitting the Husband in somecasesto beatehis Wife,
and yet the Husbands notwithstanding all their priviledges,using their Wives with all respect,and giving
themthe cheefeseateswith all honoursandpreheminences
so as for the most part, they would carry burthens,goe
on foote, fast, andsuffer any thing, so their Wives might
haveease,ride, feast,and suffer nothing, notwithstanding,
no peoplein the World, (that ever I did see)bearemore
scornes,indignities, and injuries, from the pamperedsort
of Women, then they doe. Surely either theseour
Women want the modestyof the Wives, or elseour Men
have not, I will not say the severity, (which I lesse

approve),but rather the gravity and constancy

of the
Husbandsin Germany.

Ofservants. But while the Germansthus use their Wives like








their Servants,who bring in meateto the Table with their

headscovered,and continually talke with their Masters
without any reverenceof the capor like duty.

The Germans
areneithertoo indulgent,nor too sterne
to their sonnesand daughters,yet they give them no OfSons

but astheybring theirchildrennakedDaughters.
into the hot stoaves,so they exposethem naked to frost
andsnow. Neither doethey exactany humility or respect
from their children, who in all placesare familiar with
their Parents,& never stir their hats when they speak
to them, & when they goe to bed they aske not blessing
on their knees, as our children doe, but shake hands with

them, which is a signe of familiarity among friends in

Germany,as in most other places.
A Gentlemannever so poore,will not marry the richest Thedegrees
MerchantsDaughter,nor a Gentlewomanuponany condi- om"'n'
tion any other then a Gentleman: Neither is there any

juster causeof disinheriting, then basemarriage,which

pollution of blood the Kinsmen will not suffer, as in our

agehath beenesceneby notableexamples: One in the

House of Austria, whereof the Arch-Duke of Inspruch Gentlemen.
marriedthe Daughter of a Citizen in Augsburg, which
his Kinsmen would not suffer, till he conditioned, that
her children should not succeedhim in his Fees, as they

didnot,thoughat this time theywereliving. The other

of an Earle, who marryingthe Daughterof a Citizen
in Nurnberg, was cast in prison by his Kinsmen till he

left her. Hee is not accounted a Gentleman, who is not

so by foure descentsat the least,both by the Fathersand

the Mothers side; and I remember that the Monkes of

Luneburgby Statutemay not admit any man into their

number,who hath not eight degreeson both sides: yea,
the Germansareso superstitiousin this kind, asa Gentlemanmay have an actionagainsthim, who saith heeis no
Gentleman. For the better conjectureof Gentlemens

in Germany,I rememberone of the cheefe
calledVon (of) Shulenburg,whom I did see,andheewas
saidto havefoureteenethousandgold Guldensyeerelyrent,






and never to ride without forty or fifty Horse to attend

him : But I cannotsufficientlymarvell,that the Gentlemen,
howsoeversometimeslearned,yet proudly despiseGraduates of the University, no lesseor more then Merchants,

whichI found,not onelyby commonpractice,but alsoby

my private experience
: For conversingwith a Gentleman,
heeperceivingthat I spakeLatin better then heethought
becamea Gentleman,askedmee how long I did studyin
the University; and when I said that I was Masterof
Arts, (which degreeour best Gentlemendisdainenot), I
found that hee did after esteememee as a Pedant, where-

upon finding by discoursewith others, that Gentlemen

[III.iv.222.] dispise these degrees,I forbore after to make this my
degreeknowne to any: And it seemedmore strangeto
me, that Gentlemenfirst rising by learning,warfare,and
trafficke, they onely judge warfare worthy to raise and
continueGentlemen: but indeedthe traffickeof Germany
is poore, being cheefly of things wrought by manuall
Artists, which they have some pretence to disdaine,
whereas in Italy trafficke is the sinew of the Commonwealth, which the most noble disdaine not: And it were

to be wished,that in England (wheretraffickeis no lesse

noble) the practice thereof were no staine to Gentry.
When I told an English Gentleman the pride of the
Gentlemenin Germany,despisingdegreesof Learning,
and he heard that the Gentlemenwere vulgarly called
Edelmen,he pleasantlysaid,that they weresocalledof the
English words, Idle Men. The Gentlemenof Germany
beare the Armes of their Mother, though sheebe no
Heire, aswell asof their Father,andcommonlythey joine

to them, in steedeof a mot or sentence,

letters, that signifie words, as D.H.I.M.T. signifying
Der herr 1st Mein Trost, that is; The Lord is my comfort,
and likewise F.S.V. signifying Fide sed vide, that is,
Trust, but beware. Also Citizens and Artists, beare
Armes of their owne invention, and tricked out fully as

the Armes of Gentlemen,onely the helmetis close,which









Among the generallOrdersof Knights, into which The

of all nationsare admitted,the Templariesin Orders

beingKniAtsso calledof the Templeat Jerusalem,in part whereof
they dwelt. Histories report that Pope Gregory the
ninth incited them to doegreat domageby their treachery
to the Emperour Fredericke,making the holy warre in
Asia. At last the inducing of heathenishReligion, all
kinds of lust andintemperance,and the suspitionof their
conspiringwith the Turkes, or the feareof their too great
power,madePope Clement the fifth, a Frenchman,and
residing at Avignon, first to extinguish the Order in
France,then in all Christendome,in the yeere 1312; The
secondOrder of the Johanites(or SaintJohn), was instituted by Balduine the secondKing of Jerusalem. Then
in the yeere1308,they tooke the lie of Rhodes,andwere
calledthe Knights of Rhodes, till they were expelled
thenceby the Turkes, in the yeere 1522, and then
the Hand of Malta, they are to this day called
theKnights of Malta: And greatpart of the Templaries
rents, was given to this Order, into which of old none
but Gentlemen were admitted.

The third Order of the The Orderof

Teutonikes, that is, Germans, was instituted in the yeere

the German

1190,in the timeof the Emperour

Henrythe sixth.KntShis-

They were called Hospitals of the Hospitall which they

kept neere the Sepulcher of Christ, to entertaine
Pilgrimes: At last all Christians being driven out of
Palestine,they removed their seateto Venice, whence
being called by the Duke of Moscovy against the
Prussians,they seatedthemselvesin Prussia, Livonia, and

Curlandia. They were all borne of noble Parents,and

did weare a white cloake, with a black crosse. The

Poloniansin the yeere 1410, killed the Master of the

Order, and many thousandsof the Knights. When
manyCities under the protectionof the King of Poland,
soughttheir liberty in the yeere 1450,and this Order had

wonnea battell againstthe King, at last becausethe

Citizensrefusedto pay the Souldiers,the Knights them32?





selves betraied their Cities to the Polonians, and after

much blood shedon both parts, at last in the yeere1466,

peacewasmade,with covenants,that the King of Poland
should have Pomerella with other Castles and Townes,

and that the Order should retaineKingspurg.

And finally in the yeere 1547, this Order was totally
of extinguished, the Master thereof being (as they said)

to these



of Brandeburg,(being of the Electors Family) then

Masterof the Order, shouldbecomevassallto the King of

Poland, and should possesse
Konigspurg with title of a

Duke, to him and his brethren of the same venter, and

their Heires Males for ever: (In which Dukedomewere

fifty foure Castlesand eighty sixeTownes). Moreover

that the said Duke should take new Armes, and a Dukall

habit, and when heecameto doe his homageat Crakaw

in Poland, should have his seateby the Kings side, but
that upon Male Heires failing, the Dukedomeshouldfall
[III.iv. 223.]to the Kingdomeof Poland,which wasto providefor the
Daughter and Heire according to her degree, and to
appoint no other Governour of the Province, then a
German having inheritancein Prussia. In the time of
my being at Dantzke, it was said, that Duke Albert was
growne into a Frensie,by a poysonedcup given him, at
his marriagewith the Daughter of the Duke of Cleve:
and the commonspeechwas,that the eldestsonneto the
Elector of Brandeburgwas daily expectedin the Dukes
Court, to marry the Daughter and Heire to the sickely
Duke, to whomhimselfewasnext of kinne by the Fathers
side, and Heire. And it wasa commonspeech,that the
said sickelyDuke had lately lent forty thousandGuldens
to the King of Poland, and that the Elector of Brande-

burg had offeredsevenTunnesof gold to the King of

Poland, that his Grandchildmight succeedin the Dukedome of Prussia, but that it was flatly refused by the
Senateof Poland: so asit wasdiversly thought, according to mensdiversjudgements,what would becomeof the
Dukedomeafter the saidsickly Dukes death,somejudg328








ing that the King of Poland would keepethe Dukedome

fallingto him, othersthat the powerfull Family of Brande-

burg, would extort the possession

thereof, by force of
money,or of armes.
I omit the military Orders of Knights in England,
France, and Netherland, to be mentioned in their due

Among the GermansI could not observeany ordinary Theordinary
degreeof Knights, conferred in honour upon such as degree

deservewell in civill and warlike affaires,suchas the Knighthood

Kings of England give to their Subjects,with the title
of Sir to distinguish them from inferiour Gentlemen:
But in our agewe haveseeneMasterArundell an English
createdEarle of the Empire for his acceptable
servicesto the Emperour. Christian Elector of Saxony
did institute a military Order of Knights, like
to the Teutonike Order, save that it is no Religious
Order; and he called it, Die gulden geselschaft,that is,
the Golden Fellowship, by which bond hee tied his neerest

friendsto him : And the badgeof the Order,wasa Jewell,

hangingin a chaineof gold, having on eachside of the
Jewellengravena Heart piercedwith a Swordanda Shaft,
and upon one side neere the Heart, was the Image of
Faith holding a Crucifix, with thesewords gravenabout
the Heart;

Virtutis amore, that is, for love of Vertue,

upon the other side neerethe Heart was the Image of

Constancieholding an Anker, with thesewords graven
about the Heart, Qui per sever at adfinem,salvuserit,
that is: He that perseveresto the end shall be saved.
Lastly, about the circle of the Jewell, thesegreat letters
wereengraven: F.S.V.: that is, Fide, sedvide, namely
in English, Trust, but beware.
The Provinces of the reformed Religion, have no Bishops.
Bishops,but the revenuesof the Bishoprickesare either
convertedto godly uses, or possessed
by the Princes,
under the title

of Administrators:


in like


the revenues of Monasteries for the most part are

emploiedto maintainePreachers,
and to othergodly uses;






but in someplacesthey still permit Monkes and Nunnes,

(I meanepersonsliving single,but not tied with Papisticall vowes),for the educationof their children, and the
nourishingof the poore. In eachCity, and eachChurch
of the City, manyMinisters or Preachersserve,who have
no tythes,but onely live upon Pensions,commonlysmall,
and not much unequall: For Ministers commonlyhave
one or two hundreth Guldens,and the Superintendants
one or two thousandGuldensby the yeere,besideswood
for fier, and Corne, and some like necessariesfor food.

are insteadof Bishops,to oversee
the Cleargy, but are not distinguishedin habite or title
of dignity from the other Ministers: yet to them as
cheefein vertue and learning,as well the Ministers asall
otherdegreesyeelddue reverence,and in all Ecclesiastical
causesthey havegreatauthority : But otherwiseGermany
hath many rich and potent Bishops,of whom generall
mention is made in the Chapter of Proverbs,and particularly in this Chapter, much hath beenesaid of the
three spirituall Electors.
The Husbandmenin Germanyare not so baseasthe
French and Italians, or the slavesof other Kingdomes,
but much more miserableand poore then the English
[III.iv.224.] Husbandmen: yet those of Prussia, a fat and fertile
Country, comeneerestto the English in richesandgood
fare. The other being hired by Gentlemen to plough
their grounds,give their servicesat low rates,andpayso
great rent, to their Lords, as they have scarcelymeanes
to cover nakedneswith pooreclothes,and to feed themselveswith ill smelling colewortsand like meate. In

to Bohemia,and lying betweene
and Polonia, the husbandmenare meere slaves. And at

my being there I heard that the Barron of Promnetz

havingbeenlatelyin Italy, did makefreea slaveof his,

whowastherea Potecary,andgavehim a present. Also
I understood
by discourse,
that the Marquesse
of Anspach

in Germany,hath many meereslavesfor his husbandmen

But all other in Germany are free, howsoeverwithout





doubt they be greatly oppressednot only by the Gentry,

but also by the Churchmen, so as wee find in late histories,

that the Bawren(or clownes)in the yeare 1502 made a

rebellion,perhapswith the mind after the exampleof the
Sweitzersto get liberty by the sword,but yet pretending
only revengeupon Bishopsand Churchmen,proverbially
sayingthat they would not suffer them to draw breath.
And it is probablethat the neibourhoodof the Sweitzers,
who rooted out their Noblemen, & got liberty by the
sword, makes the Gentlemen of Germany lesse cruell
towards the poore clownes. For either upon that cause,

or for the fertility of the Country, no doubt the clownes

in Sueviaand placesneareSweitzerland,live much better
thenin any other parts; as likewise in placesneereDenmarkeand Poland, admitting slavesgenerally,the poore
peopleare more oppressedthen any where else through

In Bohemiathe highestdegreeis that of Barons,and Thedegrees

the Gentlemenhavethe samepriviledgeswith them; all Bohemia.
other in townes and fields are meere slaves, excepting

Cities immediatly subject to the Emperor as King of

Bohemia,wheremanyareeither emancipatedfor mony, or
find moreclemencyunder the yoke of a GermanPrince.
For in landsbelonging to the Baronsand Gentlemen,the
King hath no tribute, but all is subjectto the Lord, with
absolutepower of life and death; as likewise the King
hathhis lands,and somethirty Cities in like sort subject
to him.



the Gentlemen

doe not


monly exercisethis power against the people, lest the

Germansshould repute them tyrants, yet with wonderI
did heareat Prage; that a Baron had lately hangedone

of hisslaves,
for stealingof a fish. It is freefor a Gentleman to hang any of his slavesfor going into strange

Countrieswithout beingmadefree,if he canapprehend

him. Many times they give them leave to goe into

parts,to learnemanuaryarts,but theycall them
homeat pleasure,and when they comeback, makethem
workefor the Lords behoofe. They take their Daughters






for mayd servants,and Sonnesfor housholdservantsat

pleasure. And thesepooreslavescanleavetheir children
nothing by last Will and Testament,but all their goods,
in life and at death,belong to the Lords; and they will
find them, be they never so secretly hidden. In the
Province of Moravia, incorporatedto Bohemia,I have
formerlysaidthat the Gentlemenhavelike priviledges,and
absolutepower over their subjects,being all born slaves.
And in Germanythat the Marquis of Anspachhath like
born slaves. And I shal in due placeshew,that in Denmark and Poland, the peopleare meereslaves,so asthe
Gentlemenand Lords recken not their estatesby yearly
rents, but by the number of their Bawren (or clownes)
who are all slaves. In Bohemiathe goodsof condemned

personsfall to the Lord of the fee. Amongthe Barons,

the Baron of Rosenburgwas cheefe,who for life was
chosenViceroy, and dwelt upon the confinesof Austria,
being said to have the yearly rents of eighty thousand
Dollers; but in respecthe had no Sonneto succeede
he waslesseesteemed,
especiallyhimselfebeing decrepite,
and his brother also old and without probablehopeof
issue. The secondfamily of the Barons,was that of the
Popels,having manybranches,
and plenty of heires. One
of them wasat that time in greatgracewith the Emperor
Rodulphus; And the wholefamily for the issuewasmuch
estemedof the peopleand Statesof the Kingdome. In
Bohemia(as in Poland)Gentlemencannotbe judged,but
at fower meetingsin the yeare,and then are tried by
Gentlemen; soasthe accusers
being weariedwith delaies,
the offendersare commonly freed, but men of inferior
[III.iv.225.]condition, are daily judged and suddenly tried. The

give greatertitles to Gentlemenby writing
andin saluting, then the Germans,wherenotwithstanding
(asappearesin the due place)thereis great and undecent
flattery by words among all degrees. I did not observe

or readethat the Bohemians,

haveany military or civill
order or degreeof Knightes, as the English have. The

Hussiteshavingchangednothingin religion,saveonely







the communicatingof the Lords Supperin both kinds,

with someother small matters, yet I did not hearethat
theyhaveany Bishops,and I am surethat the Bishopricke
of Pragehad then beenlong void. They and all of the
reformedReligion in Bohemia,send their Ministers to
Wittenberg an University in Saxony for receiving of
Orders with imposition of hands, from the Lutheran
and the Ministers of that place.

Chap. IIII.
Of the particular Common-wealths,as well of the

Princesof Germany,asof the FreeCities,such

of both, as have absolute power of life and

T remainethto adde somethingof privat ThePrinces

PrincesCourts, and the Governementof theEmPtre
the free Cities. And sinceI haveformerly
said, that thesePrincesand Cities,having
absolute power of life and death, are
many in number, and that accordingto
the numberof the Princes,the placesalso
where taxes and impositions are exacted,are no lesse
frequent,aswell for subjectsasstrangerspassingby, both
for personsandfor wares. And that they who deceivethe
Princein any suchkind, never escapeunpunished. Now
to avoid tediousnesse,I will onely mention the chiefe
Princesand Cities, by which, conjecturemay be made
of the rest; and this I will doe briefely, without any
repetition of things formerly set downe. Touching the
Electors,I have formerly related the principall lawesof
the goldenBulk. The Duke of Saxonyis one of these TheDukeof
Electors, many waies powerfull, and he derives his Saxony

fromWitikind, a famousDukeof the Germans,Electorin thetime of the EmperourCharlesthe Great,who forced
him to lay asidethe name of King, permitting him the
title of a Duke, and to becomeChristianin the yeere805.

Witikynd the second


Witikynd the third, o


Marquisof MisenbytheEm- W

perourHenrietheFirst,he diedin the yeere


Theodorike died in the yeer

Henrie Marquis of Misen and Lusatia, died in the yeere 11

Conrade the Great died in the

Othothe RichbuiltFriburg,whereheehadfoundMineso

Theodorikewas poisonedby the Citizensof Leipzig, in the

Henrie by right of inheritancebecameLangraveof Thuring

In right line from Henrie,discendsFredericke,who chose

Competitorthe EmperourCharlesthe fourth, taking mony for


In right line is Fredericke

the Warlike,who overcame
the Bo

of Prag

at Leipzig, restrainedthe title of Dukes of Saxonyto Familie

after the Emperoursof Saxoniehad beenconfusedlyusurped,a
appropriatedthe title of Elector to his Family.

He died in th

Fredericke the Gentle died in the

Ernestusthe Elector died in the yeere1486.


yeere 15

The Elector






of Leipzig,

The firstElector

the Popish,was Duke of

of thisbranch.

Saxonie, and died in the

yeare 1539.


Mauritius made
Elector by the

Emperor Charles
the 5, was borne

ofSaxonie,_ 1521,



of Fries-

Augustus Elec-

land by his father, was

there in danger to be put


to death, had not his father

come to deliver him; he

of Denmarke, and

V.died in the yeere 1541.



daughterto the K.died 1586.

The last Elector

of this branch.

-a " cu
- _"




Wise, who




Empire from himself, &

chose Charles the fifth.
did found


the Universitie


Wittenberg, and died 1525.

John Elector exhibited

the reformed




o .SP *"" |
e =








( Eight Boyes,and

[> U V

three Girles died.

Christian the second Elec-^


tor, but then a Pupill borne



Electormarried the

to theElector of Brande-



1583,the five and twentieth

of September,at three of the

in themorning.

John George,

the fifth of March, at ten of

the clock in the night.

> fe-S

u "fe


C w?-C
3 cjj
w *^

TT:-^ o"


C<*,i> c

> o -^ o
KG 2 en


ministrator to the
Electorship of the
Dorothy, married

Augustusborne the seventh

Vof September,1589.

fathers second wife Elizabeth,

daughter of Frederike Elector

Anne to John
Casimire Duke of

Palatine. He was borne1564,

and marriedAnna, daughterto
AugustusElector of Saxonie.

' John Frederike

proscribed by the
Empire, and prosecuted by Augustus
Elector of Saxonie
in the Emperours"

John Ernest, then unmarried, borne in the yeere


u. E o


8 cQ


Will. Frederik borne of

another daughterto Frederike
Elector Palatine 1562, he

name, was taken

buried the daughter to the

prisonerby him at

Duke of Wirtenberg, and


married the daughterof Philip

of Gotha.


John William


John Casimire borne of his

to the Duke of



1591. He was Tutor to the

sonnesof Christian Elector,

to theDukeof Co- "j*3
Francein those" burg,because
hisfatherwas hi
Civill warres, and

proscribed,and never restored.

John borne 1570 then un-







The Princes borne of these three Families, are Dukes

of upperSaxony(for therebeealsopooreDukesof lower

Saxonie,as one residingat Angria). While I livedat

Leipzig, Christian the Elector of Saxonie died 1591,

whoseUncle by the Fathersside Mauritius, was the first
Elector of that Family. For the Emperour Charlesthe
fifth making warre againstJohn Frederikethen Duke and
Elector of Saxonie,and againstthe Langraveof Hessen,
as Rebelsto the Empire; but indeedewith purposeto
thesechiefedefendersof theReformedReligion,
and to bring the free Empire of Germany under the
Spanishyoke, he cunningly warned Mauritius, as next
heire, to seasethe lands of John Frederike, or otherwise

they should fall to him that tooke possessionof them.

WhereuponMauritius, thoughhe professedthe Reformed
Religion, which now had great need of his helpe,yet
invadedhis kinsmanslands,under a faire pretext,thathe
tooke them, least the Emperour should alienate them to

strangers,professingthat he would restore them to his

[III.iv.228.] kinseman,when he shouldbe reconciledto the Emperour.
But such is the power of ambition, as in the end he did
nothing lesse,but further receivedthe title of Elector,
takenfrom John Frederikeandhis children,andconferred
upon him and his heiresmales,by the Emperour. The
report was, that Luther seeingMauritius brought up in
the Court of the Elector John Frederike, foretold the
Elector that he shouldonedayconfesse,
a Serpent in his bosome. True it is, that Mauritius
shortly after restoredthe causeof Religion, in like sort

deceivingthe Emperourshope,by makinga leaguewith

the King of France. But ever since,the posteritieof

Mauritius hath been jealous of the heires to John

Frederike,andhath gladly takenall occasions
to suppresse
them. Whereupon Augustus succeedinghis brother
Mauritius, was easilyinduced,by vertue of his Office,as
Arch Marshall of the Empire, to prosecutewith fire and
sword John Frederike, the eldest sonne of the said John

Frederike,whom the Empire had proscribed. At which










time he besiegedhim in Gotha, a strong Fort, which he

tookeandrazedto the ground, coining Dollers in memory
of that Victory, with this inscription; Gotha taken, and
the proscribedenemiesof the Empire therein besieged,
eithertakenor put to flight, in the yeere 1567,Augustus
Elector of Saxony coined these.
And it is not unlikely, that Christian, sonne to

Augustus,especiallyfor feare of this Family, fortified

Dresdenwith so great cost and art, howsoever the
commonpeoplethought it rather done,becausehe afFected
to be chosenEmperour at the next vacation. Of this

Familythus prosecutedanddeposedfrom the Electorship,

arethe two Dukes of Saxony,the one of Coburg, the
otherof Wineberg, so called of the Cities wherin they
dwell. And the Duke of Coburg having beenproscribed
by the Empire, and never restored,the Duke of Wineberg, though more removed Kinsman, yet was made
Administratorof the Electorship,with title of Elector, as
Tutor to the sonne of Christian & his two brethren, who

werebrought up by him in the Court at Dresden,under

their motherthe Widow to Christian,being of the house
of Brandeburg. So as, were not the Germans nature
had not the powerof the Elector of
stoodfor the Pupils, it wasthen thought, that
thewrongedFamily hadgreat meanesof revenge. This
examplemakesme thinke, that it is farre more safe to
make the next Kinsman on the mothers side Tutor, who

canhave no profit, but rather losseby the death of the

Pupill, then the next Kinsmanby the Fathersside, being
his heire.

The Dukes of Coburg andof Wineberg,are Dukes of

Saxonyby right of blood, andof possessions
therein: but
the Family of the Elector hath nothing either in upper or
lower Saxony,but onely Wittenberg, belonging to the
Electorship,which was conferred upon them by the
EmperourCharlesthe fifth. The Elector holdshis Court

at Dresden,in the Province of Misen. Touching

Christianthe Elector, heewasreputed to be much given





to hunting,to be proneto anger,not to be solicitedby

petition, but at somefit times; to affect solitarinesse,

little to be sceneof the people,hardly to admit strangers
to his presenceat any time, much lessewhen he satat
the table to eate,(contraryto the useof the Princesof the
house of Austria), to have skill in the Art of GoldSmithes,and to spareno chargein keepingbraveHorses.
And no doubt hee was so carried away with this last

delight, as he would take in gift from his very enemies,

any beautifull thing belongingto the Stable. And while
I wasat Wittenberg, a Scholerhaving spokensomewords,
that he loved Horses better then Scholers, was sent to

Dresden,and there whippedabout the streetes. Beyond

measurehe wasgiven to largedrinking, (in plainetermes
to drunkennesse),
and that of the most strong Wines,so
asthis intemperance
wasthought the causeof hisuntimely
death. And for thesedrinking games,he had certaine
faire chambersover his Stable,somethingdistantfromhis
lodgingsof his Court, whichwereappropriatedto festivall
solaces. As sooneas he was madeElector, he presently
ordained the new Judges for the SaxonLaw, vulgarly
and the Consistories. In the yeere
1586 hee had a meeting at Lubeck, with the King of
Denmarke,and the Elector of Brandeburg. In the yeere
1589, at Naumberg he renewedthe hereditarieleague,
betweenehis Familie, and the neighbourPrinces,namely,
the Elector of Brandeburg, his eldest sonne Joachim
[III.iv.229.] Frederike, then called the Administrator of Hall, the three

brothersa William, Lodwike,and George,Langraves

Hessen,FrederikeWilliam Duke of Saxony,(for oneman
hath often times two namesin Baptisme),John Duke of
Saxony,(for the title is commonto youngerbrothersand
housesof one Family with the elder), John Casimire
(Tutor to his Nephewthe Elector Palatine),John Ernest
Duke of Saxony,Christian Prince of Anhalt, Wolfang
and Phillip Dukes of Grubenhagen. And to knit his
friendslove more firmely to him, I have said that he did
institute an Order of Knighthood, called the Golden









Fellowship. He had for his Counsell, his Officers of

Court, and someDoctors of the Civill Law, and among
them, Crellius Doctor of the Civill Law, and the Master of

hisGameor hunting(whosenameI haveforgotten),were

in speciallgracewith him; for the Princes of Germany
admit no Phisitions nor Divines to their Counsell, as

havingcare of the body and soule, not of the worldly

estate. Neither doth any young Princes keep their
Fathers Counsellors, but such as served them in their

Fatherslife time. Mysen,Voitland, andpart of Thuring,

Provincessubject to the Elector, have firtill fieldes,
frequent Cities, many Castles proper to the Elector,
innumerableVillages, and neare Friburg rich Mines of
Silver,(asI haveshewedin the first volumeor part, where
I treateof my journey through theseparts). But howsoevertheseProvincesexcell in thesethings; yet becauseThe
theyare of no great circuit, the Elector is not so powerfull in the number of vassals,as in yeerely revenewes.
Soasat a publike meeting,he hadno morethen sometwo
thousandvassalls,when the Elector of Brandeburghad
eight thousand,who notwithstandingis farre inferiour to
him in treasureandwarlike power. He then fortified the
City of Dresden,as a Fort, and so strongly, as it was
thought impregnableby force, and all the Citizens were
bound to have Corne and all necessaries for the food of

their families,for sixe monethsalwaieslaid up in store.

And in time of that securepeace,yet the walles were

with Artillery, asif an Army hadline beforethe
Citie. And in times of Divine service, the streeteswere

chained,and guardsof souldierswere set in the Market

place,andother partsof the City, so asnothing could bee
addedin time of the greatestwarre. The Elector had in
the Citie three hundreth Garrison souldiers, whereof those
that were Citizens

had three Guldens, and the old

souldierssixeGuldensby the moneth. The Captainehad

thepayfor eightandthe Lieutenantfor two horses,each

horseat twelve Guldens by the moneth. The Ensigne
hadsixteeneGuldensby the moneth,foure Corporalsor






Campe-Mastershad eachten Guldens,the Scout-Master

ten Guldens,and the quarter-Mastereight Guldens. He
gave honourablestipendsto foure great Captaines,who
lived at home, but were bound to serve him when he

shouldcal them. His Court was no lessemagnificall,

wherein he had three Dukes for his Pensioners,namely
ChristianPrince of Anhalt, John D. of Winbrooke (both
yonger brothers),and the Duke of Desh, whoseDukedomelies upon the confinesof Hungary. And to eachof
thesehe gave the pay of twenty Horse, eachHorse at


the moneth.


had also in his Court

three Earles,BastianStick a Bohemian,Phillip Countof

Hollock, and one of the Counts of Mansfield, and to

eachof them hee gave the like pay for twelve Horses.
He had also in his Court five Barrens, namely, two
Cousens Barrons of Zantzke in Bohemia, the Barren of
Ausse, the Barron of Shinck, and the Barren of Done,

and to the fower first he gave like pay for ten, and to
the last for twelve Horses.

He had in his Court twenty

young Gentlemen,who carriedhis Launceand Helmet,

vulgarly called Spissyongen(Youths of the Speare),to
whomhe gaveyeerelycoatesof Velvet, andall necessaries
and to eachof them he gave a chaineof gold to weare.
Hee had twelve Gentlemen of his chamber, and to each

of themhe gavea chaineof gold, his diet in Court,and

like pay for ten horses. He had sixteeneyouthsof his

Chamber,andto sixeof the eldest(yet not bearingArmes)

he gave eachlike pay for two Horses,and the otherten
he maintained


all necessaries.


had fiftie Pen-

sionersto waiteat histable,vulgarlycalledDruckses,

thesedid ride before him, and to eachof them he gave
his diet in the Court, and like pay for threehorses. He
had twelve Sexhsruss,and to eachof them he gavelike

pay for sixehorses. He hadfifty Audlepursen,

of a short piece they carried (in English we call them

and to eachof themhe gavethe pay of one
Horse, apparrelltwice in the yeere,and two hundred
Guldensyeerelystipend. These(asall otherdegrees)









their Captainesand Liefetenants,and eachthird night by

turnes, they did watch at the doore of the Electors

Chamber,having no diet in Court, but onely the night of

their watch,both living otherwise,and lying in the City.
He hadfifty Einspaunerswith a CaptaineandLiefetenant,
who did ride as Scoutsfarre before the Elector, and looked

to the safetyof the wayes,eachof which had pay for one

Horse. He had sixteeneTrumpeters,whereof threedid
ride alwaieswith the Elector, and two Drummesbeating
a Drummeof brasse,vulgarly called,Kettell Drummern,
andeachriding, had sixteeneGuldensby the moneth,out
of whichthey kept eachMan his Horse, and eachstaying
at home,had ten Guldens monethly stipend, and all of
themat solemneFeastswere apparrelledby the Elector.
Hee had of his Guard one hundred, (vulgarly called
whereof the Gentlemenhad eight, the rest
sixeguldensmonethly; and the Gentlemenkept watch
at thedooreof the ElectorsChamber,carrying Holbeards,
andthe rest kept watchat the gatesof the Court, armed
with Muskets, and yeerely they were apparrelled. He

whereofonewasalwaiesto be at the
side of the Elector. He had sixteene Singingmen,
whereoften being Men, had eachof them 400 Dollers
stipend,& six being boyes, had some 100 dollers for
maintenance. He had 18 Musicians of divers Nations,

whereofeachhad some140 dollers yeerelystipend. He

hadtwo Tumblers or Vaulters,one an English man, the
other an Italian, with the like, or somewhatgreater
stipend. He hadeight Frenchand two Dutch Lacqueis,
to runneby his stirrop, or the side of his Coach,whereof
eachhad some 100 Dollers stipend, & apparrell,besides
The Dukes Stable may not be omitted, being more TheDukes
magnificall,then any I did ever seein the World, (whereof
I haveat large spokenin the first Part, writing of my

journeythrough Dresden): for thereinI did seeone

hundredthirty sixeforraigneHorsesof the bravestraces,
(besidestwo hundred Horses kept in other Stablesfor






drawing of Coachesand like uses); and in this cheefe

Stable a boy and a man were kept to attend each horse,

the men having for diet thirty grosh weekely,the boyes

twenty foure grosh, (that is, a Doller), and the men for
yeerely wageshad also sixteendollers, besidesapparrell
twice in the yeere,and bootsboth to Men and Boyes. It
cannotbee expressed,at least this is not the fit placeto
write, how sumptuouslyand curiously all things were
preparedfor the Horses and their Keepers. A Gentle-

man of speciallaccountwasoverseerof this Stable,and

had a greatstipendfor his carethereof. He had eight
Leibknechlen,(that is, Servantsfor the body), who did

leade the Horses for the Electors saddle, whereof each

had the monethlypay for two Horses,and threehundred

Guldensyeerelystipend. He had foure Riders,whereof
eachhad two hundredDollers yeerelystipend,andapparrell.



and two




Smiths, foure Armourers(to pollish the Armes for Tilting), three Sadlers,two Cutlers (to pollish the Swords),
two Feathermakers,and two Porters of the Stable, had

eachof them one hundredGuldensyeerelystipend,and

apparelltwice in the yeere.
TheDukes Besides,the Elector Christian had a Kingly Armoury,

QrArsonallfor ArtilleryandMunitionsof warre,which
they said had furniture for an Army of eighty thousand
Men, overseeneby a Captaineor Master of the Ordinance,his Liefetenant,and three Captainesof the watch,
who had no small stipends; besidesfifty Gunners,who

hadeachof themsixeguldensby themoneth,with yeerely

apparrell: But when I was at Dresden,this Armory was
muchunfurnishedby aidesnewlysentinto Franceto King
Henry the fourth, at the instanceof his Ambassadour
Earle of Turine. These aides, though sent with the
consent of the foresaid Princes confederate,yet were

levied as at the chargeof the King of France,andas

voluntary men, becausethe Princesarebound upon paine

to leesetheir fees,andby the covenantsof the peacegiven
to the confession
of Augsburg,not to undertakeanywarre









withoutthe Emperoursknowledge,
broken, the Princes of Germany administring all as
absolutePrinces,onely with consentof their confederates
But I passeover this, and returne to the matter in hand.

The foresaidsomanyandsogreatstipends,
weremost [III. iv.231.]
readily paid without delay out of the Exchequer,called
the Silver Chamber,monethly or yeerely, as they did
grow due. And all the Pensionersaforesaid,did keepe
the horsesin the city, for which they had pay, to which
if you addethe 136 horsesof the chiefe stable,and the
200 kept by the D. in other stables,you shal find, that
Dresden was never without a 1000 horses of service, for
any suddenevent. And the number was not lesseof the

horseswhich the Elector kept in his Castlesnot farrefrom

the Citie; so as he had ever (as it were in a moment)
ready 2000 horses for all occasions. This Christian

Elector of Saxony, was said to impose most heavy

exactionsupon his subjects (no lesse then the Italian
Princes,who place all their confidencein their treasure,
none at al in the love of their subjects, or then
the Netherlanders, who for feare to become slaves to

the Spaniard,beareuntollerableexactions.) The Country

peopleabout Dresden cried, that they were no lesse
oppressedthen the Jewes in Egypt, being daily
forced to labour at their owne charge in fortifying
the City. And many complained,that the Red Deare,
wilde Boares, and like

beasts destroied their fields

(for I saidthat the Duke was muchdelightedin hunting,

which is also forbidden to all, even the best Gentlemen)

no mandaringsomuchasto drivethe beastsout of their

pastureand corne, he that sets a Dog on them, being

subjectto greatpenalty,and he that killes oneof them,

beingguilty of death. But nothing did more causethe
Duke to be maligned,then that he had left the positions

of Luther in religion, and carefully endevouredto

establishthoseof Calvin, as shalbe shewedin due place.

His subjectswerewont to pay for severallgoods,as a

sheepe,a cow,and the like, a yeerelytribute; but of late






it had been decreedby the 3 States,that after the value

of goods,eachmanfor 60 groshshouldpaytwo fennings

yeerely,I meaneas well moveablegoods (namely,wares
and ready money), as houseslands,and all unmoveable
goods, and that not accordingto the yeerelyvalue, but
yeerely accordingto the value at which they were (or
might be) bought or sold. Neither could any man
dissemblehis wealth,sincethat deceitwill appeareat least
upon the last Will and Testament,and once found useth
to be punishedwith repairing the losse,and a greatfine.

This tribut wasat first grantedonly for 6 yeres,but those

ended, the terme was renewed, and so it continueth for

ever. And this tribute alone was said to yeeld yeerely

600000 guldens: but the chieferevenueof the Elector
was by the imposition

The Brewers /-



upon Beare, which (as I have

j " i


A j

formerly said) that people drmkes in great excesse. And

they said, that this tribute alsoat first wasimposedonly

for certaine yeeres. But the Elector meaning nothing
lessethen to easethem of this burthen, of late there had

bin a paperset by somemerry lad upon the Court gates,

containingthesewordsin the Dutch tongue: Ich woundschihmlang leben; und kein gutten tag darneben: und
darnochden hellischfewr: der hatt auffgehebtdabbear
stewer: Undergeschreiben.Das wort Gottes und das
berestewer,wherenin ewigkeit. That is:
I wish long life may him befall,
And not one good day therewithall:
And Hell-fier after his life here,

Who first did raise this Taxe of Beare.

Post-script. The Word of God,andthe Tax of Beare

last for ever and ever.

The Brewerspay tribute accordingto the value of the

brewing,not accordingto the gainethey make,namely,

someeighth part for one kind of Beare,somefifth part
for another kind in most places. At Wittenberg I

observed,that for one brewingof some48 bushelsof

Mault, worth some 48 guldens, the Dukes Treasurer









received8 guldens. This Treasurer doth foure times

yeerelyview the brewing vessels,andnumbertheStudents

of Wittenberg,to preventany defraudingof Tribute.

For howsoeverin all theseparts they drinke largely, yet
at Wittenberg,in respectof the greatnumberof Students,
andat Leipzig, for the samecause,and in respectof a
greatFaire, this tribute growesto an higher rate, then in
othercities; yet the Citie Torge, though lessein circuit
then these,only exceedstheseand all other, in yeelding
this tribute, becausethe bearetherof is so famouslygood,
asit is in greatquantitietransportedto otherCitiesof these[III.iv.232.]
Provinces, where the better sort most commonly drink

it and no other; so as that Citie aloneyeeldsone yeere

with another seventeenethousand gold Guldens for
tribute of Beare. The sameCitie makesyeerely seven
thousandwollen clothes,eachcloth thirty two elleslong,
andworth somefourteeneDollers ; yet for eachcloth they
payonely one silver Grosh,wherebyit appeares,
that the
tribute of cloth and like commodities,is lightly esteemed,
asof lesseimportance,then the transcendenttraffique of
Beare. Torge likewise yeerelypaiesto the Elector 500
Dollers for the fishing of a Lake nearethe City, which
oncein 3 yeereswas said to yeeld 5000 Dollars to the
City: One soleProvince, yet much inhabited,and very
fertill, namelyMisen, was saidone yeerewith anotherto
yeeld 1800000 Dollers for all tributes, and halfe part
thereof onely for Beare. The Mines of Silver are of
greatimportance,which by the Law belongto the Electors
in their Provinces, not to the Emperour. And this
Elector hath many of these Mines-namely, those of
Friburg, those of Scheneberg,those of Anneberg, and
thoseof the valey of Joachim,of al which I havewritten
at large in the Geographicalldescription. And no doubt
this Elector is potent in treasure,so as howsoeverhe be
inferiour in dignity to the Elector Palatine,yet he is most
powerfull of all the Electors.

Among the walled Cities subjectto him (not to speake

of the Townes,Castles,and pleasantVillages),Leipzig







is next to Dresden, to which it onely yeelds for the

fortifications,and the Electors Court. Leipzig gives the
Law to the upper Territorie, as Wittenburg doth to the
lower, and both are adornedby being Universities: but
at Leipzig the Scabines
sit, Judgesof greatAuthoritie for

theLaw of Saxony,beingin numberseven,namely,three

Senatorsof the City, andfoure Doctorsof the Civill Law.
But Wittenberghath not the right of the Swordto execute
malefactors,which the Elector Augustus (they say) translated to Leipzig, becausethe Judges obstinatelydenied
him powerto pardonmalefactors,
or to moderatethe Law.
So as when any man is capitally accusedat Wittenberg,
the causeis first referredto the Scabinesat Leipzig, who
finding him guilty, give powerto the Senatorsof Wittenberg, to pronouncesentence,
anddoeexecution. Wittenberg is no faire City, but a famousUniversitie, andat this
time had a great many of Students,and it is not subject
to the Duke asinheritancefrom his progenitors,but ashe
is Elector, for to the Electorshipit properly belongeth.
Besidesthe great tributes it paiesfor Beare,it alsoyeelds
yeerely to the Duke 1500 gold Guldens,for the Bridge
built over the Elve. Here, as in all other places,Lime
and Brick are sold in the Dukes name, and to his use.

As well Leipzig as Wittenberg, in difficult cases,aske

counsellfor the Civill Law, of their owneand (if needbe)
of forraigneUniversities,wherethe Doctorsof the Civill
Law, in the nameof the Faculty,write downetheir judgement in the casepropounded. These Doctors are also
Advocates, whereof there were twenty two at this time at

Leipzig, andbecause
this professionis muchesteemed,

willingly applythemselves
to the studythereof.

The Count Palatine of the Rheine, by old institution

ofthejs cheefeamongthetemporallElectors,andis of thesame

and Family,of whichtheDukesof Bavaria

of Pedegree
of themboth,is derivedfrom the Emperour

Charles the Great.

Otho the elder brother Palatine of

Wirtelbach,upon the proscriptionof the Duke of Bavaria,

had that Dukedome conferredon him in fee by the







Emperourin the yeere1180. From his youngerbrother

the Counts of Salmesnow living. But from the
said Otho the elder brother, are descended, both the

PalatinesElectors,and the Dukes of Bavarianow living.

LodwickeDuke of Bavaria,who died in the yeere1231,

the Palatinate

of the Rheine

in fee from


Emperour Fredericke the second. Otho the fourth,

succeededhim in the Dukedome of Bavaria, and the
Palatinate of the Rheine, and was the first Elector of this

Family, who died in the yeere 1253. His sonneLodwicke the severe, Elector Pallatine and Duke of Bavaria,

madeRodolphusof Habsburg Emperour, who was the

first Emperour of the House of Austria. He married
this Emperours Daughter, & died in the yeere 1294,
leaving two sonnes, who divided the inheritance, as




















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Palatines and

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Thus of Rodulphusthe eldestsonneto Lodwick the Severe,d

fthe CountesPalatines,
whereofthe chiefeand first haththe Elec

" the secondsonneto Lodwick the Severedescendthe Dukes of B

The Dukes of Bavaria.

Lodwick the Emperour had

StephenDuke of Bavaria,
who died 1392.



William Count

descendedthe Cou

of Bavaria

died IAOA.

Georgethe rich foundedthe Universitie of Ingolstat, and

built the Colledge of Saint George, and died 1503.


Elizabeth his Daughter was maried to Rupert

Count Palatine, and to Rupert George by his
g last Will gavethe Dukedomeof Bavaria,but the
^ Emperour Maximilian would not confirme this

Albert the fo
to Monach, an
hardly escape
the Emperour

"^gift, as injuriousto the next heirein this pede- the Palatine,w

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It was covenanted,and stands agreed betweenethe

House of the Electors Pallatines, and the house of the

Dukes of Bavaria,that upon want of heiresmales,oneof

them should succeede
the other; and when the Daughte
to the Duke of Bavaria,in the time of the Emperou
Maximilian, opposedher selfe to this contract,shewa
forcedto yeeld to it by the Emperour.


\ returne

to the Electors Palatines.

The foresaid

Frederickthe fourth, Pallatineand Elector,beingunde

age, had Duke John Casimirehis fathersbrother for his

Tutor, who at his brothersdeath besiegedthe Citie of
Colen, in the nameof the Bishop,whom they haddriven
out for being married. This Casimire,in his brother
life-time had a noble inheritancebeyond the Rheine,to
him andhis heires,andthen hearingof his brothersdeath
hasted to Heidleberg, where he brought the peopleto

obedience, who would not have him Administrator,

becausehe professedthe ReformedReligion afterCalvins

doctrine,not after that of Luther. And he presentlysen

backe the Emperours Ambassadours, who were come

thither about that controversie,refusingto yeeldhisright

in the Tutorageof his Nephew,which he defendedin the
Imperiall Chamberat Spire. After he brought up his
Nephew wisely and religiously, appointing him his diet
apart with his Teachersand the Steward of his Court, to

whosetable one Professourof the University wasdaily

invited, who had charge to propound a questionto
the Prince, out of the Histories, and controversiesof


And the Prince did not presently make

exceptit werein a commonsubject,but aske

time to consider of it, and consulting apart with his

Teachers,after some halfe houer returned to give his
answere. Thus by daily practise the chiefe acciden

of Histories,and controversies
of Religion weremad
familiar to him. The Citie Heidelberg,somtimes
in Feefrom the Bishopof Wormz,wasin time beutifie

with buildings and an University, and becamethe seat

of the Electors.

The said Elector Frederike the fourth,








beinga pupill, wasafter the foresaidmannerbroughtup

in the Reformedreligion, accordingto the doctrineof

but in the meane time


the Duke


Hunnesruck his next heire, if hee should die without

issuemale, did obstinately follow the reformed doctrine

of Luther, and so did the rest of his kinsmen, the Dukes

of Rweybruck(their towne being so called of the two

Bridges)exceptingthe secondbrother of them, who consented in Religion with the Elector. This Elector
Frederickthe fourth, married the daughterto the Prince
of Orange,by his wife of the Frenchfamily de Chastillion.
His Court wasnot great, nor any way comparableto that
of the Elector of Saxony. For he had scarcethirtie
Gentlemento attend him, and to them he gave no more
then sometwenty five Guldens for stipend, which they
spentupon their servantsthat attended them and kept
theirhorses. And he hadno morethen eight Yeomenfor
the Guardof his body. Wine was sparinglydrawne,and
all expences
madewith greatfrugalitie. But the fameof
this Electors wisedome and affabilitie, made him much

of strangers,and while he conversedwith his
Citizensoften commingto the publike placefor exercise
of the Peeceand Crosse-bow,and being easieof accesse,
yet carriedhimselfe like a grave and noble Prince, hee
becamedeare to his subjects. Of whom hee exacted
moderatetribute for their lands, houses, money, and
goods,and sometwo small fennings for eachMosse or
measureof wine. In five placesupon the Rheine he
impositionsor taxes,which oneyeerewith another
yeelded some twelve or sixteene thousand French

Crownes,and they said, that hee receivedyeerelysome

fifty or sixty thousandCrownesby the silver Mines of
Anneberg, besides extraordinarie subsidies,which his

use to grant him upon occasion
of war, or like [IH.iv.236.]

necessitiesof the Commonwealth. And I remember,

whenthe Citizensof Strasburghis neighboursmadewarre

with the brother of the Duke of Loraine, about their

Bishopricke,soasthe Palatinewasforcedto levy souldiers


for defenceof his peoplefrom the rapineof bothArm

subsidieupon his subjects,

of a quarterof a Dolle
in moveableor unmoveablegoods.

The Margrave(or Marquis) of Brandeburgis b

thenanyof themin the

are much larger then thoseof the Elector of Saxo

great. He heldhisCourtat Berlin,some


Saxony.His pedigree
is derivedfrom PeterColum

blood of the Camilli), who banishedby Pope Greg

in Sueviaby the EmperourHenrie the fourth,and bu

ayeere 1120 had a sonne called Burchard.

Burchard Count of Zoller (his C

Frederick,the first raceof the Burgravesof Nurnberg being ex

of that dignity by the EmperourRodulphus,


Frederick the second

Burgrave of Nurnberg,
died in the yeere 1330.

Conrade dividing th
Nurnberg, and foure o
Order of the Teutonike






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Brandeburg, at his fa-

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yeeldedthe Electorship

O rt

to his second brother,

and died in the yeere

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Frederick Marquisse
and Elector going into
Palestine,did yeeld the
Electorship to his brother Albert, and died in

0 S2 o

B 2 4J_ theyeere1470.

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O i=l y

Achilles of Germany,

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battels,andin theninth
being overcome, pro-


first made league with

the Elector of Saxony
and the Langrave of
Hessen,and died sud-

denlyin a Bath in the

yeere 1486.


of Nurnberg in eight

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( Cassimiremarried the_
daughter to the D. of"

Albert, calledthe Alcibiadesof

Germany,most warlike,was pro-


scribedby the Empire,and died

George gave the Confession of Religion at


William Bishop of
AlbertMr. of theTeutonikeOrder,beingovercome by the King of
Poland, was made D. of

in banishment
in theyeere1557.




ElectorPalatine,died 1567.

Geo. Fred,recovered
fromtheK. ofPoland,
& tookit in
Fee 1578. He married Elizabeth

of Brandeburg
daughterto the D. of Brunswick
I. 1579. He hadfivesisters.

Prussia,the Order being

By the daughterof the Dukeof

extinguished,and founded
the Universitie at Konigs-

Brunswick he had Albert Frederick

borne I553>said to be frantick, so~

berg,he died1568.

asGeorgeFrederickhis unclesson

Five sisters all married.

governedthe Dukedomeof Prussia,

he was at this time living.
By Dorothy Queeneof Denmark
hee had Anna Sophia,married to

thefirst,Elecat Franckfort
uponViadrus,in theyere1506;he mariedElizabeth,

Dukeof Meckelburg,
died 1591. Besides males and
killinga Turk, hada Military



tor, foundedthe University

to the King of

Anna,marriedto the

Kingof Denmark
Frederick the first,died 1521.




Girdleof Charles
for thecaptiveElectorof Saxony,_


John leaguedwith the Protes-

tants,yet servedthe Emperour at

his brothers perswasion,but after

Saxonyagainstthe Emperour,he
Dukeof Meckelburg.
Albert Archbishop and
Elector of Mentz &

Five sisters,Anne marriedto the

Duke of Meckelburg. Elizabeth


to the Duke of Brunswick.

made the war of

Religion, which Lodwick


to George
He died 1545.
Brandeburg. And Catherineto &c.




of the



By hisfirstwifeSophia

D. of Julec hee had some

somesay)daughterto the Count


Frederick borne 1546, heire to

daughters.How the of Barba,hee had Joachim




andof the

the Electorship,
at this time

in Prussia is

Administrator of the Arch-

formerlyspokenin this bishop15,

of Halla. Heemarried
Chapter,and in the oneoftheHouse
description intheyeere
& (if I benot


hadat this timea
secondwife, the daughterof the
Duke of Wirteberg.

By Sabinadaughterto George
Marquis of Brandeburgmarried

Georgius 1547,and dying1574. Hee
the Elector then had threedaughters,
living,bornein the_ married
to JohnFrederick

yeere 1525.




the D. of Breganin


Anna Maria married





Pomern,and Sophiamarriedto
Christian Elector of Saxony

Elizabetha Magdalena
D. of Lune-

O burg.

to the
Prince of Anhalt married 1577,

Hedvigis maried

at the fifty three yeereof his

to Julius, Duke of

age,and fourteenth of her age,


he had three sonnes,Christian,

and JoachimErnest,and a third

whose name I know not; and
in the yeere 1592,when he was

Sophiamarried to
the Barren

of Rosen-

burg Viceroyin 67
besides two other daughters
Bohemia, 1564.

formerly begotten.






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Spiritual! Hitherto I have spoken of the Temporall Electors.

Electors. The secondamongthe SpirituallElectorsis the Archbishopof Mentz, which Seate,when I passedthrough
by Wolfgang of the nobleFamily
of Dalberg, and all his Kinsmen,dwelling neareHeidel-

berg,wereof the ReformedReligionafterthedoctrineof

Luther, and therefore lesseesteemedhim, who notwith-

standing was thought no enemie to the Reformed

Religion, but rather willing to permit it, did he not feare
the oppositionof the Chapter. For GebhardTruchsesse
Arch-bishopof ColenandElector, hadlately bin deposed,
andanotherplacedin that Seate,because
he mariedAgnes
Countesseof Mansfield, with whom at that time he lived,

being madea Cannonat Strasburg,(for that citie having

abolishedthe RomanReligion, yet kept the placesof

Cannonswithout any bond of superstition,and usedto
bestowthem onely upon Princes and Gentlemenof the
ReformedReligion),and in this citie he then lived a quiet
life, after he had in vaine tried by force of Armesto

regaine that Arch-Bishoprick. The third Spirituall

Elector, but first by institution, is the Arch-Bishop
Trier, a Citie seatedbeyondthe Rheine,upon the confines
of France,which Seate,when I passedthrough Germany,

by John(if I mistakenot his name)of the
Noble Family of Schonburg. And whereasthe other
Electorsdwell in the citieswhereofthey arenamedfor the
most part, his continuall abodewas at the castleErbrotsteine,seatednearethe Rheine,somehalfe daiesjourney



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The foresaidWilliam Langraveof Hessen,of his

chiefeCity calledthe Langraveof Cassiles,hadin division
with his brethren halfe his Fathers inheritance, the other

halfe being divided betweenehis two brothers. And

since that time I heard, that his brother Lodwick of Mar-

purg was dead without issue; and that his fourth part
of this inheritance was returned to Mauritius, eldest sonne
to William.

Yet because Mauritius

was addicted to the

reformedReligion, after the doctrineof Calvin, whichhee

and his Courtiers with many subjectsprofessed,howsoever heehad not yet madeanygenerallalteration,whereas
his Uncle Lodwick persistedin the doctrine of Luther,
I rememberthe commonspeechin the land of Hessen,
that Lodwick had threatned his Nephew Mauritius to
disinherit him, and give his lands to the children of his

brotherGeorgeof Dormstatt,if he madeany generall

alterationin Religion.
I have formerly said, that the dignity of the Empire
decaying,manyPrincipalitieswere given in Fee, andthe


became absolute



that time

manygreatCities wereimmediatelysubjectto the Empire,

whereofmanywere at sundrietimes after ingagedfor

moneyto the said Princes. At last the powerof the
Empire being morefallenby manyCivill warresraised
by the Popes,to confirmetheir usurpedpoweroverthe








Emperours,theseCities with moneybought their liberty,

partlyof the Emperours,partly of the saidPrinces,from
whichtime theseCities being calledImperiall, andhaving
freedomewith absolute power, becamedaily more and

morebeautifiedwith buildings,and strongby fortifica-

tions; yet some Cities still subject to divers Princes,

yeeldnot to them in beautyand strength,asDresdenand
Leipzig subjectto the Elector of Saxony; Monach and
Ingolstat subject to the Duke of Bavaria; and Breslaw

thechiefeCitie of Silesia,a Provincejoynedto the Kingdome of Bohemia.

The Emperour at his election sweares, that hee will

maintaine these Cities in their freedome, and not suffer

themto be drawnebacketo the subjectionof the Empire,

or the saidPrinces. Also I haveformerly spokenof the
manyand just suspitionsbetweenethe Emperour, the
Princes, and these Free Cities, which it were needlesse to

repeate. Of old the great Cities of the Empire were

ninetysixe in number,but many of them havesincebeen
alienated to the Princes of Netherland, or united by

Leagueto the Cantons of Sweitzerland,so at this day

thereremaineonly sixty Free Cities of the Empire.
Of the Common-wealths of these Cities, it shall suffice

in generallto have said, that the Governementis very

moderateand equall. The Patritians live upon their
revenues,asGentlemen. The Plebeansintend Traffique
andShop-keeping;and beethey never so rich, never so
wise, can never become Patritians, but still keepe their
ownerancke, as all other Orders doe. And the Artisans

sothey keepethe Lawes,(which bind the highestas well [III.iv. 240.]

asthem) are securefrom the injuries of any greaterman.
In civill causesthey judge not after strict Law, but according to equity, and without delay: but more easily to
conjectureof all in generall,it will not be amissepar-

ticularlyto observethe governement

of somefew.
And becauseNurnberg is one of the chiefe,I will TheCityof

withit. TheMargraves
of Brandeburg
wereof Nurn6erS
old Burgravesof Nurnberg,till Frederickethe fourth





about the yeere 1414,soldthat his right, and the Castleof

Nurnberg to the Citizens thereof. Albert his sonne,
calledthe Achillesof Germany,for someduety deniedto
him, made warre upon the City, drawing seventeene
Princesto take his part, as the other free Cities assisted

Nurnberg. At this day the Margraveof Anspach,
of of that Family,calshimselfeBurgraveof Nurnberg,but

Anspach.fafa one}yfa bare^\Q) withoutanycommand

in the

City: yet becausehis lands lie on somesidesunder the

very wals thereof, the Citizens repute him a dangerous
neighbour. The commonreport was,that this Margrave
had lately sold to the City a great wood, growing very
neerethe wallesthereof,and that shortly after heewasat
variancewith them,asif heehadsoldonely the wood,and
not the soyle, so as (if vulgar speechmay be beleeved)
they were forcedagaineto buy the ground: And yet he
hath not renouncedhis right of hunting therein,whichhe
challengethproperto himselfe. Give me leaveto digresse
so much from my purpose,as to say,that the neighbourhood of this Margrave, is no lesse suspectedby the
free City Wasenburg, not farre distant, where upon a
mountainein his owneground, hangingover the City, he
hath built a strong Castle. And becauseall the streetes
of that little City lie open to it, the Citizens when first

he beganne
to build, complained
to the Emperourof that
wrong, and obtainedletters to commandthe Margraveto
build no further, but he not onelydisobeyedthoseletters,
but built the samewith more speedand strength. Now

I returneto Nurnberg,the Common-wealth

Aristocraticall. The great Counsellhath no set number,
but commonly consistsof somethree hundred persons,
whereofmanyarePatricians,living honourablyupontheir
rents, as Gentlemen, others are Merchants, and some few
Artisans, of the best and richest workemen. The Senate

referresto this Counsell,the impositionsof tributes, and

the decreesof peaceandwarre,which Subjectsof Counsel
being rare, this Counsell is seldomecalled together,but
the authority of them is sogreat, asthe scalesof any two







of them, set to any last Testament, servesin steedof seaven

requiredby the Civill Law. Out of this great
Counsell,the new Senateis yeerelychosen,andwhen the
time of Election is at hand, this great Counselnamesa
Consull and a Scabine, of the Gentlemen called ancient,
or out of the cheefe of the next Order ; and in like sort

the old Senateof the yeere past, namesthree of the

ancient Gentlemen.

These five are called the Electors of

the new Senate,and as soone as they are chosen,all

Magistracyceaseth. Then theseElectors being sworne,
areshut up into a Chamber,whencethey comenot forth,
till they have chosentwenty six Consuls and Scabines,of
each thirteen. Then they chuse the rest of the new

and assooneas they are chosen,they nameamong
themselvesthose that are called ancient, which are com-

monlythe samemen, exceptsomebeeput in the placeof

them that are dead, for it is a disgraceto be put from
thatdignity. This Election is madein one day, and the
Senateconsistsof forty persons,whereof thirty foure are
Patriciansor Gentlemen, and so the governementis
especiallyin the hands of the Gentlemen,as a thing
whereofthey hold the commonpeople to be uncapable.
Of these Gentlemen are held the seven Men, and the

of theancient,asalsothe CaptainesandTreasurers.
To be a Doctor of the Civill Law, makes a Gentleman, TheDoctor:

or anyother,to be uncapeable
of a Senators
place. But f^f
whenin dificult casesthey needethe adviseof Doctors,
they sendtwo Senatorsto consult with them, who relate
their judgment to the Senate. For this cause, and

all judgmentsare accordingto equity, not after
the strictLaw, therebe feweDoctorsin that Citty, neither
have they many Advocates; the Senategiving stipend
only to foure, who pleadall causes. Yet the Citty intertainessomeDoctors, to advisethem, as I formerly said,
& to assist them in judgment, exhibiting the causein [III. iv.241.]
writing, as also to be Ambassadors.To the said 34
Gentlemen, 8 Plebeans are added, which make the said

Senate,and these Plebeanshave free voyces,but are







removed from secretCounsels,and having liberty to be

absent,seldomemeetewith the Senate,except they be
called. So as the common people have little or no

authoritie,and are kept under,in so muchasmeetings

(exceptingfuneralsandlike ceremonies)
night are forbidden,yet they havetheir priviledgesinviolably kept, and live in great libertie, under a most

equallgovernement.Of theseGentlemen
Citie, they have(asI haveheard)twenty eight honourable
Families or there about. And of the said thirty foure
Gentlemenof the Senate,eight are called the Ancient,
who like old soldiers are freed from service, the other

twentie sixe diligently attendingthe publike affaires,with

capitallandCivill judgements,and oneof them is chosen,
to intertaine passengers
worthy of Honor, by presenting
wine to them in name of the Senate,and also to call the

Senatetogether,to propoundthe causesupon which they

deliberate; to aske their Voyces, and to doe many like

duties. These twenty sixe Gentlemenare divided into

thirteene Consuls, and thirteene Scabines, and these

judge capitallcauses(first examinedby the whole
Senate)as the Consulsjudge Civill causes. And theyso
divide the yeere betweenethem, as eachof them for a

is Consult

or Scabine.

Out of them are chosen

sevenmen, who have the greatestauthority, and determine all secretsof State, and to them the Treasurersmake

account. And howsoevertwo of one Family may be

Senators,yet two of one Family cannotbe of theseseven
men. Three of thesesevenare chosenCaptaines,who

havethe keepingof the Armory, and the keyesof the

Gates,and upon any tumult all flie to them,andyeeld

them obedience. Two of theseCaptainesareTreasurers,

whereof the chiefehath the first placein all Assemblies.
To these Treasurers one of the Plebeans is added, to

overseethe expenceof the treasure,

and two of the best
sort of the Plebeansare Clerkesof the Exchequer,but

onely the two chiefeTreasurers

disburseand lay up all
moneys. They have in all publike Counselstwo







Chauncellors,whereof one alwaiesattends the Counsell of

seven men, and these Chauncellors write the Decrees of
Counsell, receive and reade, write and send, all letters,

beingas Secretaries,
and they have sixe Clerkesto write
underthem. All the Senatorshavetheir severallstipends
out of the common



of the seven men

hath yeerely five hundred Guldens, besides gainefull

Offices,as the keeping of the Scales,and eachTreasurer
hath eight hundred Guldens,and eachChauncellortwo
hundredGuldens yeerely. In Judgementsthey doe not
muchusethe pleadingsof Proctorsor Advocates,but use
to judge summarilyupon oath, or to appointArbiters to
But among the Courts of Judgements,one is of five TheCourts
men,from whom thereis no appeale,yet they referrethe Judgements
greatestcausesto the Senate.The secondCourt is of eight
men, and hath two Tribunals, where the causesof citizens
are determined, which exceede not the value of thirtie
two Crownes, and these two Tribunals in greater causes

areunited, and havethree of foure Doctorsappointedby

the Senateto advisethem; for onely the Scabinesjudge,
andfrom theseTribunals appealeis grantedto the Senate,
if the cause exceede the value of five hundred


Thesechusea Judge to seetheir Decreesput in execution,

and to seecapitall offendersexecuted. They appoint a
Judgefor the Villages and territories subjectto the City,
for whose assistance the Senate chuseth some out of the

great Counsell. These weekely give the Law to the

Villagesand Country people,and by the exerciseof this
Office,the Judgesare inabledfor the Office of Scabines.

Also they chusea Judgeto havecareof the Fairesand

Markets,who setsthe price of Bread,Flesh,andall things
there sold, and he hath foure Senators to assist him in

weekelyinquiringafterthe workesof Artificers,that they

sell no unperfectworkes, nor use any fraude. Of the
threeare chosensupremeTutors for pupils and
widowes, who divide inheritances,see that all Testaments

be performed,and appointnewTutors, in casethe old bee







or absent. ThesesupremeTutors provide, that the moneisof pupils be put forth to use,and
that the profit returnesto the pupills. They receivethe

[III.iv.242.]accomptsof the Tutors, and providethat the Pupilsbe

religiously and honestlybrought up. One Senatoris set
over each Church, Monastery,and Almes house,to see
the revenueswell administred,and to promotethe causes
thereunto belonging. Five Governorsare set over the

Territory without the walls,amongwhich,the Chancelor

eachof theresttwenty
five Crownesfor stipend. In time of warre, they chuse
sevenSenators,who take upon them the careto provide
all necessaries
for the same. I understoodethere, that not

long before, they had numbred in the City twenty two

thousandArtificers, servants,and peopleof inferior rank,
and that the last subsidyimposedin time of warre,was
oneGold Gulden in the hundreth,of everymansmovable
and unmovablegoods,and onegold Gulden by the Pole,
for all suchashadneitherinheritancenor Art to live upon.
Augsburg. Augsburg is one of the Imperiall Cities (vulgarly Ein
Reichsstatt) and in the yeare1364. the Senateconsisted
of two Patritian Consuls, and of ten Marchants, and

seavenArtisans, with power of Tribunes, all yearly

chosen. The Emperor Charlesthe 4 gave the City new
priviliges, & confirmedthe old, because
the Citizensswore
obedienceto his Sonne. And the Emperor Sigismund
confirmedand increasedthe same. When the Emperour
Charlesthe fifth held a Parliamentin this Citty, (asmany
Parliamentshave beeneheld there) the old honour was
restored to the Patritians, & the Plebean Tribunes were

taken away, two Advocatesbeing set in their roomes.

Two GentlemenConsuls,at this day governe the City,

with six Judgesfor criminallcauses,

Gentlemen, two Citizens, one Plebean. These are chosen

by the greatSenate,
of thosethreeOrders: but
in causes
of Religion,theCity is subjectto thejurisdiction
of the Bishopof Tilling. This City hath manynoble
and rich Merchants,whereofmanyhavepriviledgesof






andsomeof Earles; andamongthem,thechiefe
Familyis of the Fuggari,famouslyknowne,beingat this TheFamlyo

thirtyin number,
andthe Fuatt-

chiefeof them was Marke of the Fuggari, who had

marriedthe Daughter to the Earle of Schwartzenburg,

andwas much delighted in the gathering of antiquities,
with much curtesie using to shew the same to such
as tooke pleasuretherein. Three Cozensof
this Family hadgreat and large,but dispersedlyscattered
besidesthat they were rich in treasure,for
supplywhereof,the Emperour Charlesthe fifth, and his
sonnePhillip King of Spaine,often made use of them,
ingagingto them the impositions& customeof Havens
for ready money, and giving them great priviledges of
trafficke. In which kind the said King of Spaine so

obligedthemto him, asthe heartbeingalwaieswherethe

treasureis, hee made them no lesseobsequiousto him
then subjects,so difficult a thing is it, for covetous
Merchantsto preservetheir liberty. Greatjealousieswere
this City and the Duke of Bavaria,whoseterritory extends to the very walles of the City. And I
rememberat my last passagethrough Augsburg, this
Duke attemptedto stop the courseof water from the
City, whereuponthe Citizens sent out Souldiersto beate
backe the Dukes workemen, but the controversie was

sooneafter appeased,and came not to blowes. They

perpetually,even in time of peace,keepe some five
hundredSouldiersin the City, who dwell in a streeteby
and the City being seatedupon the mouth of
the Alpes, leading into Italy, and the Citizens being
diligent in trafficke,it cannotbe that it shouldnot abound
in riches. Augsburg in the foresaid Parliament held
there, after Charles the fifth had overcome the Protestant

Princes,was said to have bought their peaceof the

Emperourwith 3000gold guldens. I knownot for what

causethey are severetowards strangers,but I observed,
that they havea Law forbidding strangersto dwell in the

City, allowingthem onely a short time of abode,and









duringthe same,curiouslyobservingwhatbusinesse


Strasburgis alsoa free City of the Empire, and (asthe

rest) governedby a Senateyeerelychosen: for howsoever
it is one of the Cities leagued with the Cantonsof
Sweitzerland,yet it is still numbered among the free
Imperiall Cities: And it is stately built, and rich in

treasure,for so it must needesbe, sincethe ordinary

tributesandtaxesaresogreat,asI haveheardtheCitizens
[III.iv.243.] professe,that they yeerelypay one doller in a thousand,
for the valueof their movableand alsounmoveable
(whereinthe full value of Land, not the yeerelyrent,is
reckoned),and that if any fraud be detected,in the last
Testament,or otherwise,the heire or the party offending
(if heelive) is deepelyfinedfor the same. While I passed
through the City, they hadbegun a warrewith the Duke
of Loraine, about the choiceof their Bishop,whichwarre
they had unprovidentlydenounced,beforethey hadlevied
Souldiers, or made provisions to make it, so as their terri-

tories were exposedto many oppressions,before they

could gather troopes to defend them, and offend the
enemy: And it was vulgarly reported, that they could
deliberateof nothing in counsellso secretly,asit wasnot
presentlymadeknowneto the enemy.
Franckfort. The Imperiall City Franckfort, is famousfor the two

yeerelyMarts,oneat Midlent, theotherat themiddest

September,at which times all neighbourPrinceskeepe
Horsemen to guard the Merchantspassingthat way,to
which HorsemenI rememberthat eachpassenger
creitzers, either of duty or in curtesie, for his person.

Also this City is famousfor anotherpriviledgecontained

in the Lawes of the Golden Bulk, namely, that all
Emperours must be chosen there, and in case two

Emperoursbe chosen,the sameLaw defines,that if one

of them shallbesiegethe City, andthereexpecthis enemy
halfe a moneth, and if in that time he come not to breake

the siege,thenit shallbe freefor the City to receivethe

first, as having the victory: For of old customethe new







chosenEmperours keepe their coronation Feast in this

City, with great magnificence,which was lastly kept (as
theysaid)by Maximilian the second,at which time among
othersolemnities,they roastedan Oxe in the middestof
the field for the people,and when the Marshal of the
Court hadcut a peeceasfor the Emperor, the rest of the
Oxe was in a moment rent in peecesby the common
I must makeat least somemention of the Cities lying
upon the Seaof Germany towards the North, whereof
mostarenot onely called free, becausethey are Imperiall
Cities,but by the samename,though in divers signification, arecalledHans steten,that is, FreeCities, in respect
of the priviledgesof trafnckegranted to them of old in
the neighbourCountries.
Among theseLubecke is the chiefe of the neighbor Lubeck.
Citiesjoined in leaguefor commondefence,whither the
of all the other Cities comeoncein the yeere,to
consultof publike affaires. The territory of the City
reachethnot above a German mile, but after some few

milesdistance,there is a certaineTowne which belongs

to Lubecke and Hamburg, by common right, being
ingagedto them for moneyby the Duke of Lower Saxony,
of whom they after bought the rest of his Inheritance.
This Towne for sixe yeeresspacewaswont to be kept by
thoseof Lubecke,appointingthe Governour,and receiving the rents; which time ended,thoseof Hamburg were
wont to have it in like sort for sixe yeeres, and
so by turnes they were wont to enjoy it. Lubecke
of old had a Duke, till it was subjected to the

Empire by the Emperour Frederickethe first, after

whosedeath it becamesubject to their Duke againe,
and after five yeeres became subject to the Danes,

but by the helpeof Frederickethe scondit freedit selfe

fromthe Danesin the yeere1226,andafterby favourof
the Emperoursobtainedfreedomeand absolutepower:
BothLubeckeand Hamburg are said of old to have
the Kingsof Denmarke,but at last expel-






ling the Kings Proctors,they becamefree, and submitted

themselvesto the defenceof the Empire: For which
causeto this day they warily observethe actionsof the
Kings of Denmarke,and live in feareand suspitionof
their attempts, and howsoeverthey have freedomeand
absolutepower, yet they are carefull to have the favour
of the Kings of Denmarke,becausethey have powerto
hinder their trafficke in the Baltike Sea: yet sometimes
leaguedwith the neighbourcities (which in the common

causeof freedome
areeasilydrawneto givemutuallaide),
they have made warresagainst the Kings of Denmarke
with good successe. Lubecke is commendedfor just
government, (not to speakeof their hospitality, very
faire and uniforme buildings, and the very pleasantseate
of the Towne). It is governedby the civill Law, andby
statutesmade by the Senate; as also somemadeby the
[III.iv.244.] consentof the confederatecities. No appealeto Universitiesor to the Chamberof the Empire is admitted,
except the causebe above the value of five hundred
dollers. They lately madesumptuaryLawes,restraining
the number of guestsand dishesin Feasts,with penalties
according to the excesse. The Citizens yeerelychuse
twenty new Senators,and this Senatorchusethof their
number foure Consuls,with a Judge skilfull in the civill
Lawes. These Magistratesdefine all civill and criminal
causes,the wholeSenatefirst examiningthem, andjudgementsaregiven by commonconsentwith the dooresshut:
but when any capitalljudgementis to be executed,at the
day appointedto the Malefactor,and the very houreheis

to die, the hangmanpronounceththe sentence

in the

market place. The consulstake the highest placeby

turnes,one in the morning, the other in the afternoone,
at which times they also by turnes heareAmbassadours,
and receive complaints. Many Officesare devided among

the Senators,
twogatherthe rents,othershavecareof the
wines,(which are sold in a publike houseto publike use,
no private man beingallowedto makethat gaine),others

the buildings,that theybe uniformeandstrongly






built, and free from dangerof fier, and likewisethe

of the City. Foure Serjeants
attiredin red
gownes,attend the Senate,and summonmen to appeare,
twelveinferiour Serjeants),and they neithercarry
Swordnor any Mace before the Magistrates,but follow
them in the streetes like Servants. They doe not
imprisonany debtor or light offender,but onely summon
suchto appearebeforethe Magistrate,and declareto them

thefinesimposedfor not appearing:but they apprehend

capitalloffenders,and prevent their escapeby flight. It

is not lawfull for a creditorto put his debtorin prison,

but after a set time and with cautions,prescribedin the
Law of Saxony, wherein notwithstanding, they of
Lubeckeso favour strangers,as they onely have right in
thiskind with expedition,and havea proper tribunall (or
seateof judgement) for themselvesonely: yet herein
theyseemenot favourableto strangers,in that they permit
themnot to dwell in the City, otherwisethey doe as the
commonuse is, to keepe all commoditiesin the hands
of Citizens,not to be sold to strangers,but by a Citizen,
sincewithout the helpeof strangersthey have
theirowneshipsto bring in andcarry out all commodities.
Hamburgis in like sort governed,but I cannotsomuch Hamburg.
themfor hospitality,being rude to all strangers,
andmaliciousto Englishmenabove others,for no other
thenfor that our Merchantsleavingthat City, seated
themselvesat Stoade: so as it was not safe for any
stranger,muchlessefor an Englishman,to walke abroade
afterdinner,whenthe commonpeoplearegenerallyheated
with drinke: And the very Justicewashereincommonly
taxed,not that they punishedwhoredom(which no good
manwill disallow)but that they permittedwhoresin great
multitudes,andyet favouredthe knaveryof the Sergeants,

whocombiningwith the whores,intrappedmenin their

houses,so as not onely the whores & Sergeantsmade

profit thereby, but the very Magistrates were justly

to approvethis coursefor their ownegaine.
Brunswickan ImperiallCity, worthily to be numbredBrunswuke.






amongthe cheefe,& socalledasthe Villageof Bruno,is

not farre distant from Hamburg, and seatedin the center

of Saxony,wasof old (astheysay)the MetropolitanCity

therof. It consistsof five Cities gatheredinto one,
wherof eachhath his severallpriviledges,and they are
thus seated,Alstatt is the part on the West side,Newstatt
on the North side, Imsacke the part towardsthe East,

Imhagen,& Altweg(built first of all therest)arethepart


the South.



all these have each

their severall Senatorsand priviledges,yet all of them

jointly making the city of Brunswick, live under one
commonLaw and government,the Senatorsof eachby
yerelycoursesgoverningthe wholebody of that commonwealth. For howsoevertenn Consulsbe yeerly chosen,
two of each City, yet to the two Consulsof that City
which by courseis to governfor the yeere,the othereight
as inferiour, and much more all the Senatorsof the five

Cities, yeeldefor the time great reverencein the Senate

and all meetings,and great obediencein all thingscommanded.

One Senate house is common

to all the five

Cities, yet eachof them hath alsoa private Senate-house

[III.iv.245.]The forme of the publike governementis Democratical

(or popular.) They live in suchfeareof the Dukeof

Brunswick,lest he should take awaytheir liberty, asthey

have not onely fortified the Towne very strongly against
assaultsor sieges,but alsowillingly imploy their Citizens
in forraignewarresashired souldiers,insomuchasno man
is made free who hath not first served one or two yeeres
in the warres.


The Dukesof Brunswick& of Luneburg,derivetheir

fromthe old familyof

fae. Dukes of Bavaria: for Henrie called the Lion, D.

of Bavaria,(whowasDuke and Electorof Saxonyalso,

a mostampleTerritory),beingproscribe
by theEmperour,andfor a time living asa banished

in England,the Dukedomeof Bavariawasby the

Emperourgiven in Fee to the Palatinesof the Rheine,

and so passed
to a newFamily. This Henrie the Lion


in Brunswicic

Emperour, was overcomeby his Competitor,ana

put from it by Frederike the second,and die
forced to yeeld the Dukedome of Saxony to t
And the Emperour Frederick the secondcast
helpe of the Citizens,and madeBrunswick a free
upon the submissionof Otho forgavehim, and crea
This Otho died in the yeere1252, from whom th
Families. From Henrie the Wonderfull, desce
From Albert the Fat, dying in the yeere 1318
Luneburg, as followeth.

: the castleCalkberg), left three sonne


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From Bernard

OthoLordof Harburg,

descendOtho, who

had to his first wife the

exhibitedthe Re-_
at Augsburgand

daughterto the Earle

of Schwartzenburg;
with the secondWife,
to theEarleoP


And Ernest, who

reformed Religion,
and died 1546,"
buried at Cella.


Emden, hee then lived

when I passed though

Anne borne 1526.

of the re-

formed religion, left

two daughters




Henry mariedthe

of rheD. ofthe-

at Angria.

the Vic-

torious, at the death





erick possessed

William in the yere

Dukedomeof Bruns-

1561, married Dorothy,_

wick, which

Daughter to Christian


Uncle Bernard did

yeeld to him. Hee

King of Denmarke.

died 1482.


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the same titles.


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wise Dukes of Lunebu

and Brunswick.





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Julius, his two elder Brethren being killed, left his

Priest-hood,reformed Religion after Luthers doctrine,
founded an Universitie at Helmstat, and called it


Julia; married Hedvigis,daughterto Joachimthe

second,Elector of Brandeburg,
and diedin the yeere




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The secondhouseof the Duke of Brunswicke,

By hisfirs
morepowerfullthen all the formerjoyned.
by the seco







The Duke of Brunswicke

keepeshis Courtat a strong

Castle,within the little City Wolfenbeiten,

Germanmile distant from Brunswick,of which City he

bearesthe title, in respectit of old belongedto his Progenitors (in which kind he is also calledDuke of Luneburg, to which he hath right of succession,
and Burgrave
of Nurnberg,which title hathbeenelong extinct), not that
he hath any least power over the City, or so much asa
housetherein,whom the Citizensrather wish manymiles
removedfrom them. I havesaidthat Henry Julius Duke
of Brunswick hath three brothers, and that the eldest of

themwasBishopof Verden,but whenmy selfepassedthat

way, I understoodthat of thesethree younger brothers,
the eldestwasBishopof Osenburg,the next Channonof
Strasburg,and that the youngestwas a Student in the
University of Helmstatt, foundedby his Father: And it
is worth observation, that the Duke himselfe wasAdminis-

trator of two Bishoprickes. I have shewedthat the City

of Brunswickegot their liberty by the Sword,in the time
of Duke Otho, and with the aide of the Emperour
Frederickethe second: And as they gainedit by Armes,
so they maintaineit, having beeneoften besiegedby the
Dukes, and to this day bearingup the sameagainstthe
Dukes, with whomthey ceasenot to expostulate,that they