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Daily Average Volume

Human waste 80 grams
Urine 950 grams
Sewage solids - 50% organic
Types of Sewage Disposal System
Cesspool hole curbed with stones,
bricks, CHB
Privy concrete vault with wooden shelter
Septic Tank expedite decomposition of
raw sewage
Public Sewer Line consists of STP
Public Sewer Line
Combination Public Sewer storm &
sanitary wastes
Sanitary Sewer sanitary wastes only, no
Intercepting/Trunk Line Sewer
- Conveys sanitary wastes (0.6-3m
Tributary Sewer
- intercepting sewer branch
- open trench, smaller diameter
Storm Drain storm water
Manhole device of main and storm sewer
- interval distance of 75 to 150 m
- diam. 90 to 120 cm
Sewage Ejector- pump that will discharge
waste in sump to the house drain (2-4m
below street level)
Septic Tank collect organic waste
discharged from HS
- 60-70% by sedimentation
- sludge - semi-liquid, bottom
- scum floating, lighter organic
Digestion - Anaerobic bacteria (liquid to gas)
ST Sedimentation + Anaerobic
Decomposition of organic matter:
1. Aerobic bacteria - Aerobes
2. Anaerobic bacteria Anaerobes
3. Facultative bacteria
Antiseptics or disinfectants kill bacteria
Process of Decomposition stabilization
Putrefaction decomposition (anaerobic
Septic- dark and smell unpleasant
Gases Produced
Methane Gas - hydrogen and carbon

Carbon Dioxide - oxide of carbon

Carbon Monoxide- product of methane,
Hydrogen moist gas from organic waste
Hydrogen Sulfide- colorless, offensive
Sulfur Dioxide colorless, irritating odor

ST Constructed from:
*Reinforced concrete
*Plastered concrete hollow block
Prefabricated asbestos
Thin metal and plastic
Size of Septic Tank
- Rectangular
- 90 cm wide 150 cm long 120 cm
depth liquid
* Aerobic bacteria subsoil only not more
than 150 cm
Oxidation deeper than 150 cm would
be difficult.
Location of Septic Tank
2 m from outside wall
15 m from water supply
Activated Sludge process, trickling or
sprinkling filter process most common
sewage treatment
Waste Pipe
- smaller in size than soil pipe,
plumbing fixtures
DWV drainage, waste, vent
Drainage Pipe discharge from water closet
House Sewer horizontal drainage system
- outer face of building to main sewer
- 90 cm from outer face of building
- Building Sewer
Main Sewer financed by govt
House sewer main sewer by boring
small hole
- 45 degrees or directly from top
150 mm/ 6 in. cement or vitrified clay
100 mm plastic
Storm Drain - rain or storm water
- Not to septic tank or Main Sewer Line
Splash Pan collector of water from

Classified into:
1. Inside SD under basement, inside
2. Outside SD outside foundation
3. Overhead SD- street elev >
basement floor
20 mm in 5 min interval max, rainfall

Slope not more than 2%

Roof Leader- water conductor/downspout
- concealed or exposed