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# Functions:

## In difference between relation and function, the concept of a function is essential in

mathematics. It is denoted a y =f(x) here y depend on value of x. There are two types of
common notations in use:
(a) f(x)= x2 + 2 ,
(b) f : x x2 + 2 .
Part (a) is commonly used.
Part (b) is interpreted as the function f maps x to x 2 + 2.
Example:
If two functions are given as f(x) = 2x + 3, and g(x) = 3 - 2x, then
(a) f(2) = 2 2 + 3 = 7
(b) f(-3) = 2 (-3) + 3 = -6 + 3 = -3
Relation:

In difference between relation and function, given two sets X and Y (not necessarily
different) a relation from X to Y is any subset
X Y. If (a, b)

R.

We write aRb and say that a is related to b. If a is not related to b, i.e. (a, b)
aNRb.

## If X = Y, a relation on X is any subset R

X X.

Example:
Let A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {x, y, z}.
(a) R1 = {(a, x), (b, z), (d, y), (c, x)} is a relation beginning A to B.
(b) R2 = {(x, d), (y, c)} is a relation from B to A.
(c) R3 = {(x, x), (x, y), (x, z)} is a relation on B.

R, write

The following statements explain the difference between relation and function,
1. Function has a special with output and input.
Relation is a mapping of input and output.
2. In a function all inputs have only one output.
In a relation a input can have as many outputs as it wants as long as all inputs have outputs.
3. In difference between relation and function, the relation is somewhat like a entire function
problem and with input and output.
4. In difference between relation and function, the function is merely a particular relation with
accurately one output for every input.

In difference between relation and function, a relation on a set A can satisfy any of the following
properties:
R is reflexive: for all x A, (x, x) R, i.e.
x : (x, x) R.
R is symmetric: for all x, y A, if (x, y) R then (y, x) R, i.e.
x,

y : ((x, y) R) ((y, x) R) .

(x, z) R, i.e.
x,

Continuous

y,

Discrete

## Definition: A set of data is said to becontinuous if

the values belonging to the set can take
on ANY value within a finite or infinite interval.

## Definition: A set of data is said to be discreteif

the values belonging to the set are distinct and
separate (unconnected values).

Examples:
The height of a horse (could be any value within
the range of horse heights).
Time to complete a task (which could be
measured to fractions of seconds).
The outdoor temperature at noon (any value
within possible temperatures ranges.)
The speed of a car on Route 3 (assuming legal
speed limits).

Examples:
The number of people in your class (no
fractional parts of a person).
The number of TV sets in a home (no fractional
parts of a TV set).
The number of puppies in a liter (no fractional
puppies).
The number of questions on a math test (no
incomplete questions).

## NOTE: Continuous data usually requires a

measuring device. (Ruler, stop watch,
thermometer, speedometer, etc.)

## NOTE: Discrete data is counted. The description

of the task is usually preceded by the
words "number of...".

## Function: In the graph of a continuous function,

the points are connected with a continuous line,
since every point has meaning to the original
problem.

## Function: In the graph of a discrete function,

only separate, distinct points are plotted, and
only these points have meaning to the original
problem.

## Graph: A discrete graph is a series of

unconnected points (a scatter plot).

## Domain: a set of input values consisting

ofall numbers in an interval.

## Domain: a set of input values consisting of only

certain numbers in an interval.

## In Plain English: A continuous function allows

the x-values to be ANY points in the interval,
including fractions, decimals, and irrational
values.

In Plain English: A discrete function allows the xvalues to be only certain points in the interval,
usually only integers or whole numbers.