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URBAN PLANNING

Subject: Elective I: Town Planning

Architect & Town Planner: Inter-relationship


An Architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the planning and design of buildings and
participates in the oversight of the building construction. The word architect comes from the Latin
word, Architectus, which in turn is derived from Greek arkhitekton (arkhi chief + tekton builder). In
its broadest sense, an Architect is a person who translates a users requirements into a built
environment. (Source: architectureideas.info)

Town Planner
A Town Planner plans for built environment in order to provide basic amenities and to fulfill the needs of
people of a town or a region.
Scope of work

Architect

Town Planner

Inter-relation

Concern with built


environment

Micro-level

Macro-level

A building should not be


seen as a separate entity
from the social fabric

Concern with life of


people

Micro-level

Macro-level

26% of Indians spend


90mins in travelling, daily

Social concerns

Macro-level

Macro-level

Inter-dependent

Environmental concerns

Micro & Macro-level

Macro-level

Inter-dependent

Economic concerns

Micro level

Macro-level

Inter-dependent

Architect & Town Planner: Inter-relationship


Examples:Rem Koolhaas: A Dutch Architect, architectural theorist, urbanist and Professor in Practice of
Architecture and Urban Design at the Graduate School of Design
Charles Correa: A noted Indian Architect, urban planner and activist. An influential architect credited for
the creation of modern architecture in post-independence India. He is noted for his sensitivity to the
needs of the urban poor and for his use of traditional methods and materials.
Le Corbusier: Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner and writer.
Margaret Anne Feilman : Her nations first female town planner, architect and urban designer.

(Source: Census of India)

URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING SYSTEM


The urban and regional planning system could be divided under two heads,
a) Core Area Planning and
b) Specific and Investment Planning.

The Core Area Planning could comprise a set of 4 interdependent


plans:
(i) a long term Perspective Plan with a vision and policy orientation,
(ii) a sustainability based long term Regional Plan (and District Plans) with
optimization of regional resources for development,
(iii) a comprehensive long term settlement plan as Development Plan for urban and
peri-urban areas
(iv) a short term rolling Local Area Plan within the framework of Development Plan.
The Specific and Investment Planning could comprise a set of three plans,
(i) A rolling Special Purpose Plan for special areas within the framework of
Development Plan,
(ii) Annual Plans to translate the physical and fiscal resource requirement of
Development/ local Area Plan, and (iii) Project/ Research to focus on items of
execution.

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

The planning regions could be classified under three heads:


(a) Administrative Regions, which can be District Regions or Metropolitan Regions as
per the recommendations of the 74th
Constitutional Amendment Act,
(b) Investment Regions, which can be new investment manufacturing zones,
industrial and freight corridors, special investment regions etc. They could be
identified under National Acts/ policies,
(c) Special regions, which are sensitive in terms of environment/ socio economic or
political aspects.
The planning process in the cities of India were initially managed by Sanitary
Commissions which further evolved to Improvement Trusts and with the complexities
in the urbanisation, urban local bodies Municipal Corporations were formed through
State Municipal Acts. However, the Municipal Bodies were limited to public health,
public works & roads, water supply, drainage, permission and regulation of buildings
and were found highly inefficient to meet the requirements of large cities or the
metropolitan areas. So, the need for Urban Development Authority Acts and
Metropolitan Regional Development Authority Acts in various states was felt and
Urban Development Authorities/ Metropolitan Authorities with its designated
jurisdiction covering urban and peri-urban areas were formed. The multiplicity of
urban local bodies in large cities and overlapping jurisdiction has many a times led to
confusion in their roles and cross-purpose functioning. Isolation in spatial planning and
lack of coordination are among the common issues faced by all State Governments.

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

As per the Working Group on Urban Strategic Planning, 12th Five Year Plan, lack of
integration between spatial and sectoral planning is among the major issues. It
states that most of the sectoral (socioeconomic) planning efforts are focused on
program and project formulation and have very weak spatial
planning components. The most recent additions in the context of urban
development are the plans required under JnNURM and other GOI programs.
Various plans not covered in the previous guidelines and some of those which have
emerged lately are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Master plan, Concept plan,


Urban Revitalisation Plan, Slum Redevelopment Plan,
City Development Plan, Comprehensive Mobility Plan, City Sanitation Plan,
Coastal Zone Management Plan, Environmental Conservation Plan, Riverfront
development projects,
Heritage Conservation Plan, Tourism Master Plan
Investment plan

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Definition of census for an urban settlement as per the Census of India 2011, the definition of
urban area is
as follows;
1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area
committee, etc.
2. All other places which satisfied the following criteria:
a. A minimum population of 5,000;
b. At least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural
pursuits; and
c. A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.
The first category of urban units is known as Statutory Towns. These towns are notified under
law by the concerned State/UT Government and have local bodies like municipal
corporations, municipalities, municipal committees, etc., irrespective of their demographic
characteristics as reckoned on 31st December 2009.
Examples: Vadodara (M Corp.), Shimla (M Corp.) etc.
The second category of Towns is known as Census Town. These were identified on the basis of
Census 2001 data. The human settlement classification for planning purposes, its
nomenclature and population range is redefined in the URDPFI guidelines based on:
Census 2011 and reference to census towns
Master plan formulation in numbers in the states
Emerging agglomerations in India

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

In terms of conversion from rural to urban, the number of Census Towns increased by 185%
whereas the number of statutory towns has increased by 6.37%. This signifies that a
number of rural settlements have attained Urban characteristics and accordingly has
been classified as Census Towns.

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Following are the stages of planning process:


Selection of Aims and Objectives,
Identification of site needs,
Identification of projected needs,
Plan formulation,
Inclusive planning,
Statutory obligations,
Decentralisation of plan approval process,
Peoples participation,
Plan modification,
Review and revision of plans.

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Government of India has recognized the potential of transport corridors as a


mechanism to impart economic push to large region and has launched Delhi
Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) Project. The objective of this project is to
expand India's manufacturing and services base and develop DMIC as a "Global
Manufacturing and Trading Hub". The project will provide a major impetus to
planned urbanization in India with manufacturing as the key driver.

Sustainable Urban & Regional Development


The important concepts influencing planning are: Transport network, Drainage
network, Density distribution and Disaster proofing. For achieving the above,
there should be adequate emphasis of these on the basic concept in planning.

Transit Oriented Development (TOD)


Transit Oriented Development is essentially any development, macro or micro that is focused around a transit node, and
facilitates complete ease of access to the transit facility thereby inducing people to prefer to walk and use public
transportation over personal modes of transport.
This is an attempt to compact the cities and reducing dependency on the new urban developments in the periphery which
highly encourage the shift from non-motorized to motorized modes of travel. Approach to TOD development highly
depends on establishing mixed landuse zone by strategic densification. The policy includes:
Network & Connectivity: Disperse high traffic volumes over multiple parallel streets rather than concentrating traffic on
few major arterial streets. Create a fine network of streets that provides choice of routes for all modes, reducing distances
between places as well as journey times.
Last mile connectivity: Provide fast, convenient interchange options and spatial provision for various modes of Intermediate
Public Transport (IPT) at Multimodal Transit Station for seam less travel. Provide multiple mode choices for last-mile
connectivity at various prices and comfort levels. And at a given situation, eliminate the need of Intermediate Public
Transport by design and engineering5.
Pedestrian access: Provide the shortest direct route to pedestrians and non-motorised modes to station as well as between
building blocks.
High Density, Mixed-Income Development: Compact neighborhoods for shorter commutes and equity for all sections of
society. Mix of use to promote 24 hour activity.
Streetscape Design: Urban places should be designed for enjoyment, relaxation and equity. Pedestrian friendly designated
space for all activities.
Promote Place Making to Create a Sense of Place - Focus on promoting liveability, quality and uniqueness of each space
Direct Business to TOD Locations- Create transit services to regional job centers, focus job creation investments in transit
serviced locations
Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Source: UDPFI Guidelines

Source: UDPFI Guidelines

Source: UDPFI Guidelines

Source: UDPFI Guidelines

Classification of Urban road


1. Urban Expressway: Expressways are divided highways for through traffic with full or partial control of
access and generally with grade separations at major crossroads.148
2. Arterial road149: They are the primary roads for ensuring mobility function. They carry the largest
volumes of traffic and longest trips in a city. These roads are characterized by mobility and cater to
through traffic with restricted access from carriageway to the side. In such cases, special provisions
should be introduced to reduce conflict with the through traffic.
3. Sub Arterial Road: This category of road follows all the functions of an Arterial Urban road and is
characterized by mobility, and caters to through traffic with restricted access from carriageway to the
side. It carries same traffic volumes as the arterial roads. Due to its overlapping nature, Sub arterial
roads can act as arterials. This is context specific and is based on the function and the land use
development it passes through.
4. Distributor/Collector Roads: As the name suggests, these are connector roads which distribute the
traffic from access streets to arterial and sub arterial roads. They are characterized by mobility and
access equally. It carries moderate traffic volumes compared to the arterial roads. Due to its
overlapping nature, distributor roads can act as sub arterial and as access streets, depending upon the
function and the land use of the surroundings.
5. Local Street150: These are intended for neighbourhood (or local) use on which through traffic is to be
discouraged. These roads should be made pedestrian and bicycle friendly by using modern traffic
calming designs to keep the speeds within limits as per design.
6. Access Street: These are used for access functions to adjoining properties and areas. A majority of
trips in urban areas usually originate or terminate on these streets

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Design considerations for urban roads as stated in the URDPFI Guidelines,


Volume 1

Source: URDPFI Guidelines

74th Constitutional Amendment Act (74th CAA)


The 74th CAA (referred to as part IXA of Constitution) made
provisions for decentralisation, thereby, ensuring democracy in the establishment and operation of local
self-government. It bestows power to the people to plan for themselves and participate in the decision
making process.
Provisions of 74th Constitution Amendment Act:1) Constitution of Municipalities: constitution of Municipalities in every
State as given under:
a) Nagar Panchayat for transitional area, that is to say, an area in transition from rural to urban in
character.
b) Municipal Council for a smaller urban area, and
c) Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.
2) Constitution of Ward Committees: constitution of ward committees,
consisting of one or more wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a population of
three lakhs or more.
3) Duration of Municipalities: fixed term of 5 years of a municipality from
the date appointed. Elections to constitute a municipality are required to be completed before the
expiration of the duration of the municipality.
4) Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities: powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities subject
that legislature of the State
by law endow:
a. The Municipality with such powers and authority those are necessary to enable them
to function as institutions of self-government. The law prepared by the state
government may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon
Municipalities, with or without conditions with respect toi.
the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;
ii. the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be
entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth
Schedule;
b. The Committees with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to
carry out the responsibilities conferred upon them including those in relation to the matters
listed in the Twelfth Schedule.
Source: URDPFI Guidelines

New Roles and Functions of State Town and Country Planning Department after 74th
Constitutional Amendment
The new role of Town and Country Planning Departments that emerges out of the provisions of the 74th
CAA shall, among others, include: (Source: Original UDPFI Guidelines)
a) Advice and technical assistance to the State Government on matters pertaining to spatial planning
and development as well as implementation of state programmes;
b) Initiation of action pertaining to provision of legal support in relevant Acts for spatial planning and
development processes; and on the suggested urban development planning system;
c) Assistance to the State Urban and Regional Planning Board in formulation of the State Perspective
Plan and strategy of spatio-economic development of the State, having regard to proposals
contained in district and metropolitan area development plans;
d) Division of the State into various planning regions taking into account the physical, socio cultural,
economic and climatic considerations and formulation of plans of their spatio-economic
development to serve as a guide for resolving inter-district developmental issues and provide basis
for inter-district co-operation and co-ordination with a view to prepare district development plans
more harmonious;
e) Scrutiny of the district and metropolitan area development plans for approval of State Government,
taking into account the State perspective plan, spatio-economic development strategy and
proposals of relevant planning region covering the district of the metropolitan area;
f) Ensuring that the urban development plans prepared by local authorities are within the framework
of the approved perspective plan of the settlement;
g) Technical assistance to local authorities if so requested at the cost of the concerned body
Preparation of the development plan in case of default by the local authority, district planning
committee or the metropolitan planning committee, if so directed by the State Government, at the
cost of the concerned planning body;
i) Provision of necessary research input directly or through the help of consultants in formulation of
policies, strategies, norms, standards, laws, regulations and rules pertaining to urban and regional
planning and development matters;
j) Provision of manpower training facilities;
k) Establishment of an Urban and Regional Information System and dissemination of information.
Source: URDPFI Guidelines

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a mechanism for government to procure and


implement public infrastructure and/or services using the resources and expertise
of the private sector. Where governments are facing ageing or lack of infrastructure
and require more efficient services, a partnership with the private sector can help
foster new solutions and bring finance.
PPPs combine the skills and resources of both the public and private sectors
through sharing of risks and responsibilities. This enables governments to benefit
from the expertise of the private sector, and allows them to focus instead on policy,
planning and regulation by delegating day-to-day operations.
In order to achieve a successful PPP, a careful analysis of the long-term
development objectives and risk allocation is essential. The legal and institutional
framework in the country also needs to support this new model of service delivery
and provide effective governance and monitoring mechanisms for PPPs. A welldrafted PPP agreement for the project should clearly allocate risks and
responsibilities.

Source: World Bank

Types of PPP models include:


Design-Build (DB): The private-sector partner designs and builds the infrastructure to
meet the public-sector partner's specifications, often for a fixed price. The privatesector partner assumes all risk.

Operation & Maintenance Contract (O & M): The private-sector partner, under
contract, operates a publicly-owned asset for a specific period of time. The public
partner retains ownership of the assets.

Design-Build-Finance-Operate (DBFO): The private-sector partner designs, finances


and constructs a new infrastructure component and operates/maintains it under a
long-term lease. The private-sector partner transfers the infrastructure component
to the public-sector partner when the lease is up.

Build-Own-Operate (BOO): The private-sector partner finances, builds, owns and


operates the infrastructure component in perpetuity. The public-sector partner's
constraints are stated in the original agreement and through on-going regulatory
authority.
Source: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Public-private-partnership-PPP

Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT): The private-sector partner is granted


authorization to finance, design, build and operate an infrastructure component
(and to charge user fees) for a specific period of time, after which ownership is
transferred back to the public-sector partner.

Buy-Build-Operate (BBO): This publicly-owned asset is legally transferred to a


private-sector partner for a designated period of time.

Build-lease-operate-transfer (BLOT): The private-sector partner designs, finances


and builds a facility on leased public land. The private-sector partner operates the
facility for the duration of the land lease. When the lease expires, assets are
transferred to the public-sector partner.

Operation License: The private-sector partner is granted a license or other


expression of legal permission to operate a public service, usually for a specified
term. (This model is often used in IT projects.)

Finance Only: The private-sector partner, usually a financial services company,


funds the infrastructure component and charges the public-sector partner interest
for use of the funds.
Source: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Public-private-partnership-PPP

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT


Apart from being a critical driver of economic growth, foreign direct
investment (FDI) is a major source of non-debt financial resource for the
economic development of India. Foreign companies invest in India to take
advantage of relatively lower wages, special investment privileges such as tax
exemptions, etc. For a country where foreign investments are being made, it
also means achieving technical know-how and generating employment.
According to Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), the total
FDI investments India received in FY 2015-16 (April 2015-March 2016) was
US$ 40 billion, indicating that government's effort to improve ease of doing
business and relaxation in FDI norms is yielding results.

Investments/ developments
Some of the recent significant FDI announcements are as follows:
Apple Inc has started its first development centre outside the US in
Hyderabad, which will employ over 4,000 people and focus on Apple Maps,
the companys digital maps and navigation service.
Japan has won the right to construct Indias first bullet train, while offering
a loan of US$ 8.11 billion to India for the same

Important Articles from ITPI to be read :-

Causes, forms and issues of Urban Sprawl: ITPI_Jan-March 2014 Issue


Genesis and Growth of Slums in India : ITPI_Jan-March 2015 Issue