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WTS 3 and 5

Positive Learning Environments

Beth Duellman
Saint Marys University of Minnesota
Schools of Graduate and Professional Programs
Portfolio Entry for Wisconsin Teacher Standards Three and Five
EDUW 694 Classroom Environment
Instructor: Catherine Anderson
April 2, 2016

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WTS 3 and 5
Selected Wisconsin Teacher Standard Descriptors

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Wisconsin Teaching Standard (WTS) 3: Teachers understand that children learn differently.
The teacher understands how pupils differ in their approaches to learning and the barriers
that impede learning and can adapt instruction to meet the diverse needs of pupils, including those
with disabilities and exceptionalities
Knowledge. The teacher understands and can provide adaptations for areas of
exceptionality in learning, including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and
special physical or mental challenges.
Dispositions. The teacher makes students feel valued for their potential as people, and
helps them learn to value each other.
Performances. The teacher makes appropriate provisions (in terms of time and
circumstances for work, tasks assigned, communication and response modes) for individual
students who have particular learning differences or needs.

Wisconsin Teaching Standard (WTS) 5: Teachers know how to manage a classroom.

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The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to
create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in
learning, and self-motivation.
Knowledge. The teacher recognizes factors and situations that are likely to promote or
diminish intrinsic motivation, and knows how to help students become self-motivated.
Dispositions. The teacher values the role of students in promoting each others learning
and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate of learning
Performances. The teacher analyzes the classroom environment and makes decisions and
adjustments to enhance social relationships, student motivation and engagement, and productive

Danielson Framework for Teaching

Domain 2: The Classroom Environment

WTS 3 and 5

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Component 2b: Establishing a culture for learning

Element: Transitions
Component 2d: Managing student behavior
Element: Response to misbehavior

Self-Reflection Assessment of Classroom Environment Related to WTS 3&5

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For Wisconsin Teaching Standards 3 and 5, I focused on six descriptors to direct my
learning process. I wanted to improve the learning environment for all students especially for those
students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). I began teaching for the Eau Claire Area
School District (ECASD) in 2003, and have worked as a Title I math teacher, middle school math
teacher, and an elementary teacher. I currently teach 4th grade regular education at Sam Davey
Elementary School in Eau Claire, WI. Sam Davey is not a SAGE school nor does it receive Title I
support. I have 23 students between the ages of 9 and 10. I teach reading, writing, math, social
studies, and science. My class is composed of the following students: 21 White students, 2 Asian
students, 15 boys, 8 girls, and 6 special education (SPED) students. The knowledge descriptor
stating that the teacher understands and can provide adaptations for areas of exceptionality in
learning is critical for my current class make up. According to the most recent state report card,
Sam Davey exceeds expectations on the overall accountability score. The report card for Sam
Davey also showed that 38.6% of the students are economically disadvantaged, 11.4% of the
students have disabilities, and 3.4% of the students have limited English proficiency.
According to the STAR assessment, my students range from a first grade reading level to
twelfth grade reading level. There is a similar range in math with students ranging from mid-first
grade to seventh grade plus. My students wide ranges of abilities require me to make certain
provisions for individual students who have particular learning differences or needs which is why
I chose to focus on that performance descriptor. This class is one that has struggled with behaviors
since kindergarten. With the large number of special education students in this grade level, it
requires special attention to having clear and consistent routines and procedures set in place. While
this class has really struggled with talking, they have grown tremendously with overall behavior.
The needs of my special education students are speech and language, learning disabilities (LD) in

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reading, autism, Tourettes Syndrome, and EBD. Seven of my students have Individualized
Education Plans (IEPs) with accommodations of behavior breaks, extra time on tests, push in and
pull out support, check in check out sheets, and tests read aloud.
Overall, this years class is eager to participate and learn but needs frequent reminders and
redirection. They are a kind and social group that has dealt with a wide range of behavioral
diversity throughout their schooling. The disposition descriptor stating that the teacher makes
students feel valued for their potential as people, and helps them learn to value each other was a
central focus this year. Ive concentrated on empowering them to be positive change agents within
the grade level and the school. They are happy to work with each other in class and are very
successful in partner groups. They are most engaged when learning is collaborative and creative. I
have focused on the disposition descriptor that the teacher values the role of students in promoting
each others learning and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate
of learning, and the performance descriptor that the teacher analyzes the classroom environment
and makes decisions and adjustments to enhance social relationships, student motivation and
engagement, and productive work to create a learning environment for student success. I
incorporate brain breaks frequently to keep the mood upbeat and allow for extra movement. When
we focus on social emotional learning, they take the subject matter seriously and want to be the
best they can be. They just love to socialize all of the time so we are working on that.
In the ECASD, elementary schedules are set before the start of the year with all classrooms
in a grade level teaching the same subject at the same time. This schedule makes planning for
SPED students easier, as well as allowing a grade level to have a common planning time during the
day. I currently team teach with a SPED teacher during our writing block. SPED students receive
most of their instruction in the general education classroom, but they also have some time they

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spend learning outside of the general education classroom. The district has a curriculum for each
subject and has high standards for what is expected from teachers. The curriculum moves at a fast
pace, with each day packed from start to finish.
Students in 3rd through 5th grade have 1:1 access to iPads and it has transformed the learning
in my classroom. Within the school day, we use our iPads for creativity, collaboration, and
communication. Students work on writing projects together on Google Docs, they create iMovie
trailers summarizing their favorite book, and they use technology seamlessly throughout their day.
Technology also allows us to break away the walls of the school and become global citizens.
Mystery skype allows us to connect to classrooms around the world making learning geography
and culture more exciting because its in live time. We also use Google Earth and Microsoft in
Education to take virtual fieldtrips to see places far away. Weve become part of something bigger
than just a classroom on the north side of Eau Claire. Technology has allowed us to continue our
work outside of the school day. I post instructional videos for parents and students to use at home
to support homework. Students can also access websites and apps we use in class as well. Learning
can continue beyond the school day.
Sam Davey has a strong sense of community within its walls. The staff believe in educating
the whole child and value the experiences the children have while attending school at Sam Davey.
We use a combination of Restitution, Responsive Classroom, and Positive Behavioral Interventions
& Supports (PBIS) to build that atmosphere. Our PTA is extremely generous and supports teachers
and classrooms regularly. Some of the ways PTA supports Sam Davey are providing meals on
conference days, purchasing Scholastic News, funding fieldtrips, donating time in the classroom,
organizing family events like back to school night and the talent show, providing teachers with a
stipend, and supporting the curriculum by sponsoring parent workshops and author visits. Parents

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in my room stay connected by posting on our classroom Facebook page and contacting me by
email. They are kind, supportive, and courteous which makes teaching much easier.
I have a strong belief in a positive classroom community built on mutual respect. I begin
each year using the philosophy of Restitution and the five needs which includes (a) power, (b) fun,
(c) freedom, (d) belonging, and (e) survival. This helps students make choices, take responsibility,
and build intrinsic motivation. The knowledge descriptor focusing on intrinsic motivation and
helping students become self-motivated guides my learning in this area. I also incorporate
morning meeting, rule creation, interactive modeling, positive teacher language, logical
consequences, guided discovery, and academic choice from Responsive Classroom. PBIS is the
system we use to track behaviors to identify areas where we need more focus. We have monthly all
school meetings, all school celebrations, and after school events for families to enjoy. The students
and I create the rules and expectations for our classroom of learners together at the beginning of the
year. With ownership of the rules and understanding of the expectations, discipline is minimal and
centers around reminders, redirection, and fix-it plans.
Learning in my classroom is student centered and engaging through use of technology,
project based learning, and inquiry-based learning. Assessments are formative, interim, and
summative. Those assessments include classroom common assessments, STAR reading and math
screeners, and the Forward Exam. Throughout the year, I share inspirational videos to students that
encourage them to take ownership of their learning and overall educational experience. For
example, Kid President is a student favorite and helps them to stay awesome.
Periodically I change the desk arrangement from partner pods to a U shape to small groups.
I also allow the students to choose their own spots as long as they can do their job in the chosen
spot. We spend time on the carpet in circle sit and story sit. We have 3 bean bag chairs and an

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antique rocking chair to make it more comfortable. Students can also choose to stand or use a yoga
ball to sit on while working in class. They have great choice in their learning during Daily 5 and
Genius Hour. Student work is posted throughout the classroom including their hopes and dreams,
their classroom mission statement, their writing projects, their social studies technology projects,
and their genius hour research topic on the wonder wall. At the beginning of the year, each student
makes a birthday card for one other student. We all sign the card and celebrate on the big day.
Birthdays are posted in the classroom for students to see the entire year.
When referencing Charlotte Danielsons Framework for Teaching Domain 2, I am strongest
in 2a, creating an environment of respect and rapport, and 2b, establishing a culture of learning. I
could show the most growth in 2c, managing classroom procedures, and 2d, managing student
behavior. I have a strong sense of community in my classroom (2a, creating an environment of
respect and rapport). The teacher to student and student to student interactions are positive. We
work together to create a classroom we are all excited to be a part of. I establish a culture for
learning by having high expectations for all students and providing an engaging experience (2b,
establishing a culture for learning). I could manage my classroom procedures a little better to make
my classroom run more smoothly (2c, managing classroom procedure). I plan to post my learning
targets more clearly in one space in the classroom. This small change will help students be visually
aware rather than just verbally aware of the specific learning targets from each lesson. Although
student behavior in class is good, I think I can focus on improving my work with supporting
students that need behavior supports (2d, managing student behavior). I would like those students
to be successful in all school settings so I will spend more time focusing on positive interventions
for those specific students before tasks that cause frustration. I would also like to focus on
improving transition times (2d, managing student behavior). Students frequently talk with their

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neighbor during this time. We have an official attention getting signal at Sam Davey, show five. I
also use call and response, countdown, music, lights, chants, claps, Simon says, and show five. My
current group of students is more attentive with a variety so I try to be creative and mix it up.
Students seem to struggle the most when putting away iPads or lining up to leave the classroom.
With an increase in the frequency of students with EBD, I decided to focus my learning
around that population within my classroom. Increasing my knowledge about creating positive
learning environments for students with EBD will also benefit other students.
Essential Question to Guide Learning Process and Growth
As I reflected on my current classroom environment, I found I needed to focus on
managing student behavior especially with my students with EBD. Outbursts and defiance can
destroy a learning environment. Providing students with EBD the supports to be successful in the
general education classroom is critical for creating a positive learning environment for all students.
I centered my focus on the following question: How will I create a positive learning environment
for students with EBD?
Synthesis of Research
As a teacher, I am faced with many unique and exceptional conditions. I chose to focus on
emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD). I have had many students with EBD as well as those
with EBD tendencies. Students with EBD have difficulty participating in the general education
classroom either socially or emotionally. In my experiences, I have had students with EBD that
destroy property, interrupt class, engage in power struggles, have difficulty interacting with others,
show defiance, throw items, or are irrational in thoughts and action. Without strategies to include
students with EBD successfully, the rest of the class loses a large percentage of their learning time
with the disruptions.

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According to Wagner, Kutash, Duchnowski, Epstein, and Sumi (2005), 6.2% of elementary
students have EBD and 80% of students with EBD are male. All of the students that I have worked
with have been male EBD students. I have used check in check out (CICO), positive teacher
language, clear expectations, and redirection to promote a positive atmosphere with students with
EBD. Currently, I have one male student identified with EBD and one male student with EBD
I chose EBD as my exceptional condition because it impacts all students. Outbursts from
students with EBD effect all of the students in the classroom so understanding this condition can
contribute to a positive environment for all students. I would like to learn about instructional
strategies, interventions, and positive supports for general education teachers to include students
with EBD productively in class. If I can be preventative in my interventions with students with
EBD, then student success for all should increase. At times, I find it challenging to meet the needs
of an escalating student and want to be purposeful in my support of students during that time. My
strength working with students with EBD is that I am understanding and work with the students to
create successful environment. I have had positive partnerships with parents of students with EBD
because I keep the lines of communication open.
Students with EBD require a special education with accommodations to create a successful
experience. The struggle for students with EBD often comes out in a disruptive way that causes
problems with relationships in the classroom. It is important for the classroom teacher to take the
time to create a safe classroom that is consistent and fair. Hirn and Park (2012) stated that
effective teacher-based interventions include preventive and predictive actions that manage the
disruptive behaviors (p. 1). The teachers role in this process will influence student access to
uninterrupted learning for all students in the classroom.

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Before students even enter the classroom, the teacher needs to be thoughtful about planning
for independence. It all begins with lesson planning. Identifying problem behaviors and tasks will
help when planning the lessons for the day. Routines and expectations should be established at the
beginning of the year to allow for continued performance throughout the year. Routines add
structure to the lesson and provide students with a sense of predictability. Expectations should be
concise and followed consistently. The teacher should also plan a welcoming and organized
classroom environment. Seating arrangements, flow of the classroom, and distribution of materials
should all be considered when planning (Hirn & Park, 2012). Not only will students with EBD
benefit from thoughtful planning, but also all students will benefit from a well thought out plan.
During instruction, the teacher can predict areas that may be more difficult for students with
EBD and provide support to work through the lesson. Creating purpose and meaning to start the
lesson will provide the hook for students to be engaged. The lesson should have breaks
incorporated and allow for student movement. Teacher modeling before guided practice is another
way to promote student independence. Throughout the lesson, the teacher should provide specific
positive feedback for the students (Hirn & Park, 2012). Some strategies to use during the lesson are
structured academic tasks, cooperative learning, and peer-mediated interventions. Structured tasks
provide students with a list of tasks to complete in sequential order and can be used to support
students through difficult parts of a lesson. It provides framework to support student learning.
Cooperative learning allows students with EBD a chance to positively interact with peers and build
foundational relationships with others. With respectful peer relationships, peer-mediated
interventions can be utilized. Students with EBD can relate to the language of peers and thrive on
the positive feedback from peers. General education students can benefit from working with EBD
students by building empathy for the condition (Ryan, Pierce, & Mooney, 2008).

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Additionally, teachers can provide other support during lessons through the use of graphic
organizers and lesson checklists. These interventions will be universally beneficial. Graphic
organizers can help students gain a deeper understanding of the content by providing a framework
for learning. Visual connections and relationships are easier to see with use of a graphic organizer.
It explicitly makes the connection rather than hoping students will make the connection on their
own. Lesson checklists allow for students with EBD to have structure to learning as well as embed
behavior checkpoints into the lesson. These accommodations allow for responsible behavior and
academic achievement for EBD students (Watt, Therrien, & Kaldenberg, 2014).
After instruction is complete, teachers can provide students with a summary of the lesson, a
checklist of tasks to organize materials, and a signal to alert students that transition time is
happening. Students with EBD often struggle with unstructured or transition times. Utilizing these
strategies helps make this time more effective for students with EBD. With the lesson summary,
students with EBD can reflect on the lesson and reinforce learning targets. A checklist of tasks will
help students stay organized by putting materials away properly and placing work in its proper
place. Taking the time at the beginning of the year to teach a signal to mark the end of teaching
time is important. This signal is the auditory clue for students to begin moving to transition time
efficiently. Providing structure to this time will increase success for all students especially those
with EBD (Hirn & Park, 2012).
Working with students with EBD requires a teacher to be preventative in planning and
precise and positive in interactions. Teacher positive feedback, clear rules, consistent routines,
scaffold independent work from teacher to student, peer mentor opportunities, student choice,
direct instruction, and increase opportunities for correct responses are all strategies that are

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evidence based for success (Neisyn, 2009). I will look more closely at teacher language, transition
time checklist and graphic organizers, and peer mentoring.
Teacher language is important for all students but is critical for students with EBD. Teacher
language should be clear and concise in regards to directions or redirections. When redirection is
needed, the teacher should give the student choices. Positive response for compliance and negative
response for noncompliance. Students with EBD receive little positive feedback; however, that
feedback can have a big effect. Positive feedback should happen in the moment and be specific to
the student. No training is needed to increase specific, positive feedback so this is an intervention
that can be made immediately (Neisyn, 2009).
Graphic organizers and checklists can be used to help students with EBD during times that
could potentially cause challenges. Graphic organizers can organize student work during the lesson
and checklists can help students clean up and prepare for the next activity after the lesson. These
strategies are preventative and give students with EBD a chance to be more respectfully involved.
With this success will come more positive feedback and less undesirable behaviors. Using these
strategies also allows students with EBD the opportunity to be more engaged with less frustration
(Hirn & Park, 2012).
Finally, the last instructional strategy to implement is peer mentoring. It is a powerful tool
to use with students with EBD that has been proven to be effective. Student engagement and
increased achievement are outcomes of implementing peer mentoring. Students with EBD form
better relationships within the classroom hearing the positive feedback and mentoring from a
fellow student. Peer mentoring can take place within the classroom or with older students
mentoring younger students (Niesyn, 2009).

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Working with students with EBD in the general education classroom is not uncommon
today. There is potential for regular and severe interruptions to learning for all students without
implementing interventions. Being preventative in planning and anticipating problems is critical for
student success. Peer mentoring can take some work to implement but teacher positive feedback
can be implemented with little to no work. Positive integration of students with EBD into the
general education classroom will benefit all learners.
Professional Implications of Research
My essential question was how will I create a positive learning environment for students
with EBD? I knew teacher language was an important factor for student success and the research
supported that. I will continue to use positive teacher language with all of my students; however, I
will pay special attention to my language with students with EBD.
I was most surprised by the research with the suggestion of peer mentoring. The positive
results from peer mentoring were easy to see once I thought about the process. It is an interesting
intervention that I have discussed with the SPED teacher in my classroom.
Within my classroom, I plan to change my use of checklists for transition times. I often give
a multi-step plan for students to complete. This can be overwhelming and troublesome for students
with EBD. Giving the directions along with a checklist will create conditions for students with
EBD to be positively involved and have the opportunity to receive more positive feedback. During
academic lessons, I plan to create additional checklists so students are fully aware of their
responsibilities. These checklists will give students with EBD a supported structure to be a positive
member of the learning community.
Research-based Action Plan
Action Plan Summary

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1. Create checklists for transition times including morning routines, start and end of class,
and end of the school day. Steps are easy to follow and understand.
2. Record unplanned transitions under the document camera for students to access during
transition times. Visual reminder in addition to the verbal task given.
3. Continue positive teacher language and feedback to create a welcoming environment
where students with EBD can be successful.
4. Work with SPED teacher to explore peer mentoring. Discuss different methods and the
potential outcomes for students.
5. Scaffold lessons by providing student support through graphic organizers. Allows
students with EBD to be positively engaged and remain with the group during class.
Anticipated Implementation
Many of the strategies I found could be implemented right away. I added a visual
checklist for all students during difficult transition times. I record the steps students should
complete on the board when giving work time. These visual checklists helped all students
complete tasks independently without needing as many verbal reminders. I will continue to
create and use checklists.
Additionally, I plan to meet with SPED teachers to discuss the potential use of peer
mentoring. I will also continue to discuss with SPED teachers the interventions I am using
with students with EBD to evaluate the effectiveness. We will work together to create a plan
for success.
Anticipated Outcomes
My anticipated outcomes would be that students with EBD will be more successful in class.
With this success, will come less time out of the room in breaks and more time participating in the
general education classroom. I will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the checklists by
monitoring the check in check out (CICO) sheet of my student with EBD. CICO is a behavior

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intervention used with students to monitor behavior and increase teacher feedback for students that
need frequent instant feedback. A secondary outcome of creating an environment where students
with EBD would be more successful would be higher assessment scores.
I also anticipate positive outcomes for all students. Positive teacher language, checklists,
and graphic organizers will help all students be successful in class. The classroom community will
be more peaceful and students will be more self-sufficient. Students with EBD will be more
relaxed in this atmosphere and have improved behavior.
Post-assessment: Reflection
Classroom environment creates the conditions for students to be engaged learners. It is
important for all students and especially students with EBD to have clear rules, consistent routines,
and positive feedback. I will continue to keep this as a focus because of its importance for all
learners. I will work on ways to intrinsically motivate learners in my classroom to keep them
engaged in content. I need to keep directions concise and provide a visual aid to support those
directions. Students with EBD can keep their independence with guiding checklists.
Communication is critical and should remain positive and proactive. Communication creates the
atmosphere which should be collaborative and cooperative. All of these strategies will allow
students with EBD to remain in the classroom with less disruptions in learning.
What Worked (or anticipate what will work) and Why
1. Transitions ran more smoothly because students could complete the tasks independently
when referencing the checklist. There was less off task behavior because the expectations were
clear. I did not see students skipping steps during the transition times because the checklist outlined
the steps to take.

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2. Students with EBD remained in the classroom and met their goals on CICO more
frequently when teacher language was positive and feedback was immediate. Students with EBD
feel safe being a member of the classroom community and share ideas with others.
What Did Not Work (or anticipate what will not work) and Why
1. Creating peer mentors takes a lot of planning within the classroom as well as with
students and families. Without a clear example to use, beginning a peer mentor program is a huge
task. The peer mentor from the general education classroom must be responsible and respectful to
take on the responsibility of being a peer mentor for a student with EBD. Work with SPED teachers
to incorporate another student into the plan while protecting the confidentiality of the student with
EBD is another challenge.
2. Another problem is that students with EBD can react negatively even with all of the
proactive forethought to maintaining positive teacher language. Classroom relationships are
important to student success so it can be difficult to continue to help repair those bonds with other
students after a student with EBD reacted negatively with an outburst.
My Next Steps
1. Create checklists for students to follow during transition times as well as instruction
times. I plan to use checklists for students to complete projects thoroughly, transition smoothly
between subjects, and guide independent work time.
2. Provide instant, positive feedback for students regularly throughout the day. I will be
cognizant of giving students with EBD positive feedback more often.
Examples of Artifacts
Artifact A

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Artifact A is a visual of learning targets or I can statements for students to

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reference. In the past, I would tell the students the learning target
during the lesson. It was not very effective because students did not
have the predictability to know what the targets were. To solve this
problem, I made an electronic copy of the learning targets for
reading, writing, math, social studies, and science. I printed out the
I can statements and they are now hanging on the white board in the front of the classroom. The
visual reminder along with the verbal reinforcement will help more students make the connection
to the objectives for the lesson. It helps the students identify the main idea or key points of each
Additionally, I decided to make a checklist for students in math, reading, and writing. I plan
to give each student a handout with the learning objectives from the current unit. This allows
students to see the scope and sequence of the lessons. As we move forward, they can reference
what has already been covered and ask questions if needed. It gives the students ownership to
monitor the objectives covered in class. All of these visual reminders create structure,
predictability, and routines within the classroom.
Artifact B
Artifact B is an example of a morning routine checklist for my students to complete when
arriving at school. It has been the same routine ever since the beginning of the year but it was only
being completed some of the time. This checklist has helped all students be more efficient and
independent in the morning routine.
Morning Routine
Open your Davey folder and leave on your desk.

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Go to the carpet and skip count by _____ until the morning announcements start.
Return to desk when the morning announcement music starts and put Davey folder away.
Take out math student guide and homework book.
Listen to announcements.
Work on homework, remembering, and your white packet until we begin.
Artifact C
Artifact C is a list of websites to help create a positive learning environment where students
take ownership and have intrinsic motivation. Restitution and Responsive Classroom create an
environment where students with EBD can be successful because they both support clear rules,
consistent routines, and positive teacher language. PBIS also supports modeling, positive teacher
language, and clear rules and routines. The other websites listed have supported my research on
classroom management. I have utilized something from each of the programs listed below
throughout my years teaching.
Resources for creating a positive learning environment
Restitution Self-Discipline

Responsive Classroom


Celebrate Calm

Love and Logic

Social Thinking

Second Step

Mindfulness in Schools

Growth Mindset

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Hirn, R.G., & Park, K.L. (2012). Teacher-mediated instructional strategies for students with
emotional or behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 32-39.
Niesyn, M.E. (2009). Strategies for success: Evidence-based instructional practices for students
with emotional and behavioral disorders. Preventing School Failure, 53(4), 227-234.
Ryan, J.B., Pierce, C.D., & Mooney, P. (2008). Evidence-based teaching strategies for students with
EBD. (cover story). Beyond Behavior, 17(3), 22-29.
Wagner, M., Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A.J., Epstein, M.H., & Sumi, W.C. (2005). The children and
youth we serve: A national picture of the characteristics of students with emotional
disturbances receiving special education. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,
13(2), 79-96. doi:10.1177/10634266050130020201
Watt, S.J., Therrien, W.J., & Kaldenberg, E.R. (2014). Meeting the diverse needs of students with
EBD in inclusive science classrooms. Beyond Behavior, 23(2), 14-19.