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Texto A

Localizing Cultures
Jeremy Seabruk

01 Although the word globalization suggests a comprehensive and self-evident process, it is


02 an incomplete term. It does not indicate precisely what is being globalized: the
03 assumption is that it means the emergence of a single worldwide economy, into which
04 all economies must integrate themselves, or more accurately, be integrated in the passive
05 voice.
06 One U.S. academic describes globalization as a confrontation between global
07 civilization and local cultures. One reason for the sense of incompleteness in the word
08 globalization may be that it is a euphemistic contraction of global civilization; and that it
09 is how it is promoted.
10 It is disingenuous to assume that economy, society and culture operate in separate
11 spheres. Indeed, the way in which geographical entities are now designated shows the
12 increasing porosity of these notions. An advanced economy, an industrialized nation, a
13 mature economy are set against a developing country, an emerging market, a liberalizing
14 society. The terms are almost interchangeable. This suggests that, once exposed to the 15
globalizing imperative, no aspect of social life, customary practice, traditional behavior 16
will remain the same.
17 There have been, broadly, two principal responses in the world, which we may call the
18 fatalistic and the resistant. It is significant that among the most fatalistic have been the
19 leaders of the G-7. Ex-President Clinton said globalization is a fact not a policy choice.
20 Tony Blair said it is inevitable and irreversible. It may be considered paradoxical that 21
the leaders of the most dynamic and expanding economies in the world offer such a 22
passive, unchallenging view of what are, after all, human-made arrangements. These are 23
among the richest and most proactive regimes, which can wage endless war on the great 24
abstraction that is terror, topple regimes and lay down one WTO* law for the poor and 25
another for themselves. Is their helplessness in the presence of these mighty economic 26
and cultural powers merely pretence?
27 There are two aspects to resistance. One is the re-assertion of local identities - even if
28 local actually means spread over very large parts of the world. The reclaiming of the
29 local is often focused in the field of culture - music, song, dance, drama, artifacts and
30 folk culture. This suggests an attempt to quarantine it from the effects of economic
31
integration; a kind of cordon sanitaire set up around a dwindling culture. Some people 32
believe it is possible to get the best of both worlds - they accept the economic
33
advantages of globalization and seek to maintain something of great value, language, 34
tradition and custom. This is the relatively benign response. The other has become only 35
too familiar: the violent reaction, the hatred of both economic and cultural globalization 36
which many not merely perceive, but feel in the very core of their being, as an
37
inseparable violation of identity. The resentment of many Muslims (not only extremists) 38
toward the U.S. and Israel, the defensive posturing of Hindu fundamentalism, opposed 39
both to Islam and Christianity, are the most vivid dramatizations of this.
* WTO - World Trade Organization
Marque com um X em cima da letra que representa a alternativa correta, dentro do
contexto apresentado pelo texto (ex. (A)).

O trecho entre as linhas 01 e 09 sugere que a globalizao um processo vago,


autoritrio e prejudicial s culturas locais. Entre as alternativas abaixo, escolha
aquela que no deixa perceber esse fato.
(A) Globalization is a self evident process.
(B) Globalization is an incomplete term.
(C) Globalization is a process into which all economies must be integrated in the
passive voice.
(D) Globalization is a confrontation between global civilization and local cultures.
(E) Globalization may be a euphemistic term for global civilization and how it is
promoted.
Est implcito na frase It is disengenuous to assume that economy, society and
culture operate in separate spheres (linhas 10-11) que essas entidades:
(A) operam em esferas totalmente diferentes.
(B) so entidades geogrficas independentes.
(C) sempre permanecero estveis.
(D) s atuam separadamente em economias maduras.
(E) estariam igualmente expostas aos efeitos da globalizao imperativa.
A expresso passive, unchallenging view (linha 22) est se referindo
(A) s duas principais respostas no mundo.
(B) s posies do ex-presidente Clinton e de Tony Blair.
(C) aos arranjos feitos pelo homem.
(D) a regimes que mantm guerras interminveis contra a grande abstrao que o
terror.
(E) pretenso das poderosas foras culturais e econmicas.
A idia de um cordo sanitrio (linha 31) representaria uma
(A) maneira de disseminao de culturas globais.
(B) proteo contra doenas tropicais
(C) tentativa de defender o campo cultural dos efeitos da integrao econmica.

(D) aceitao das vantagens econmicas da globalizao.


(E) resposta fatalista globalizao.
O ressentimento de muulmanos em relao aos EUA e Israel (linhas 37-38) um
exemplo de
(A) resposta relativamente benigna.
(B) reao violenta decorrente da percepo de uma violao de identidade.
(C) uma defesa do fundamentalismo.
(D) uma oposio ao islamismo e ao cristianismo.
(E) uma reao fatalista globalizao.
Traduza para o portugus o segmento de frase: ... topple regimes and lay down one
WTO law for the poor and another for themselves. (linhas 24-25)
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Traduza o segmento de frase: ... even if local actually means over very large parts of
the world (linhas 27-28).
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A expresso the other (linha 34) est se referindo a(o)
(A) outro aspecto da posio de resistncia.
(B) uma espcie de cordo sanitrio.
(C) outro efeito da integrao econmica.
(D) outra resposta benigna.
(E) uma resposta desconhecida.

Texto B. *
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Institutional racism is about innate systems prevalent in a society that gives


advantage to certain groups over others because of perceived racial difference.
For example, in the United States, white privilege is a result of institutionalized
racism being identified as whites afford certain advantages throughout many
systems of day-to-day life.
These systems can be difficult to identify, especially for the advantaged group,
because it is inherent within the structure, system, or process. Institutional racism is
systemic, not personal; therefore, one does not have to be racist to benefit from
being white. Racism is prejudice plus power manifested by the privileged race
through social and institutional structures that reinforce and maintain the privilege
and oppression.
Racist individuals can grow more tolerant with time and circumstance, but
institutionalized racism lingers within organizations and is far more difficult to
drive out. In fact, it can almost appear invisible, except for its outcomes and
manifestations. Members of affected organizations often redefine racisms
manifestations as other issues.
Because racism can be both personal and institutional, efforts to combat it must
address personal attitudes as well as organizational structures. Focusing on
diversityparticularly racial diversityis a positive approach that does both. It is a
process of creating and maintaining a positive environment where the differences of
all employees are recognized, understood and valued. Through this process, all may
fully participate in achieving their full potential and maximizing their contributions
to the organization. Honesty and social analysis--a cultural assessment survey--help
us identify inequalities within the systems that would otherwise go undetected.
Some of these systems are practices of hiring or selection, promotions, terminations,
compensation, employee development, performance appraisals and work styles.
The goal of anti-racism is personal and institutional transformation, not simply adding
people of color to an organization. It is not enough to be multi-cultural. There are
organizations that are multi-cultural and still racist in their institutional structure.

*Texto extrado e parcialmente adaptado do stio: www.txconfchurches.org/institutional

Marque com X a letra que representa a resposta correta de acordo com o texto B.
- Conforme diz o autor, no primeiro pargrafo, o racismo institucional identificado
em razo
(A) de vantagens concedidas a certos grupos raciais.
(B) de sistemas que prevalecem em instituies pblicas.
(C) de questes econmicas.
(D) das diferenas entre sistemas sociais.
(E) de questes sistemticas da vida cotidiana.
- De acordo com o segundo pargrafo, depreende-se que, sendo sistmico, o racismo
institucional pode ser
(A) exercido por poucas pessoas.

(B) identificado somente pelo grupo privilegiado.


(C) aceito pelos grupos discriminados.
(D) preconceituoso, porm no racista.
(E) exercido mais pela omisso do que pela ao dos indivduos.
- A expresso affected organizations (linha 15), diz respeito a organizaes
(A) institucionais preocupadas em livrar-se do racismo.
(B) onde no h racismo.
(C) onde se verifica racismo.
(D) onde o racismo j foi erradicado.
(E) que no toleram o racismo.
- A palavra both, na linha 19, refere-se a:
(A) esforos e negligncias.
(B) atitudes pessoais e estruturas organizacionais
(C) processos raciais e sociais.
(D) questes raciais e econmicas.
(E) diversidades e igualdades.
- As duas ocorrncias do pronome their (linha 22) se referem a:
(A) personal attitudes (linha 18)
(B) organizational structures (linha 18)
(C) the differences (linha 20)
(D) all (may...)(linha 21)
(E) contributions (linha 22)
- A expresso otherwise (linha 24), dentro do contexto dado, pode ser traduzida por:
(A) de outra forma
(B) em todo caso
(C) quase sempre
(D) de antemo
(E) muito embora
- Como se pode traduzir a expresso performance appraisals (linha 26)?
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- Traduza a frase: The goal of anti-racism is personal and institutional transformation,
not simply adding people of color to an organization. (linhas 27-28)
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