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2016 PROJECT REPORT- MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Na m e - BL ITZ KU
2016
PROJECT REPORT-
MEANING,
DEFINITION
&
OBJECTIVE OF
RESEARCH
Na m e -
BL ITZ KU M AR SU D H ANS H U
C
l a s s
Roll
No .- 0 1 ,
Un i v e r s it y
Ro ll
No. -
CUS B1 6 1 3 13 1 0 0 1 ,
P r o g r a m - L L . M . ,
S e me s t e r -
F i r s t,
S e s s i o n-
C
e n t r a l
Un i v e r s it y
of
S ou th
Bih a r ,
Ga y a ,
2016- 2017 ,
Bi h a r .
D
a t e
o f
su b m i s s i on :- 1 0 / 1 1/ 2 0 1 6
GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)
GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)
GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)

GAYA (BIHAR)

GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)
GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)
GAYA (BIHAR) Project Report On MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH Under the Guidance of: Dr.(Prof.)

Project Report

On

MEANING, DEFINITION & OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH

Under the Guidance of:

Dr.(Prof.) Pawan Kumar Mishra

Associate Professor School of Law & Governance

CUSB, Gaya

Submitted By:

Blitz Kumar Sudhanshu Class Roll No.- 01 University Roll No.- CUSB1613131001 LL.M.-I st. Year (I st. Sem) Session: 2016-17 Central University of South Bihar, Gaya Date of Submission: 10-11 -2016

CONTENTS
CONTENTS

TOPICS

PAGE NO.

I.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

--

II.

INTRODUCTION

1

III.

MEANING OF RESEARCH

2

IV.

DEFINITION OF RESEARCH

3-8

V.

OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH

8-11

VI.

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

11-12

VII.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

13

VIII. APPENDIXES

14

==X==

Acknowledgement

I, Blitz Kumar Sudhanshu bearing Roll No. CUSB1613131001, LL.M.(2016-2017), am highly grateful to Dr. (Prof.) Pawan Kumar Mishra for giving me a project on an important topic on research.

The topic is Meaning, Definition and Objective of Research.

The value of the topic can be judged by its application in various fields where research is undertaken by researchers on a hypothesis keeping in mind the goal of their project. The meaning of research if not understood can deviate them from their track, whereas definition would help them understand the rules and objectives would help them maintain the limitations under which their research should be done.

The topic is very encouraging for our master’s degree as research oriented study is the main objective of a LL.M. course. The given topic is also very much helpful for our future legal career. I hope the concerned examiner may find the project up to the mark.

I would be ever obliged for any suggestions and/or comments regarding this project.

With Regards, Blitz. Kr. Sudhanshu Class Roll No.- 01 University Roll No.- CUSB1613131001 LL.M.-I st. Year (I st. Sem) Session: 2016-17 Central University of South Bihar, Gaya Date of Submission: - -2016

Introduction:

„Research‟, in simple terms, can be defined as „systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of human knowledge‟ and as a „process‟ of identifying and

investigating a „fact‟ or a „problem‟ with a view to acquiring an insight into it or finding an apt solution therefore, an approach becomes systematic when a researcher

particular point and making advancement in the science of law. However, the finding law is not
particular point and making advancement in the science of law. However, the finding
law is not so easy. It involves a systematic search of legal materials, statutory,
subsidiary and judicial pronouncements. For making advancement in the science of
Generally, law is influenced by the prevailing social values and ethos. Most of the
times, law also attempts to mould or change the existing social values and attitudes.
these aspects of law helps in knowing the existing and emerging legislative policies,
laws, their social relevance and efficacy, etc.
activities warrant a systematic approach. An approach becomes systematic when a
researcher follows scientific method.
law, one needs to go into the „underlying principles or reasons of the law‟. These
In this context, legal research may be defined as „systematic‟ finding law on a
„understanding‟ of „law‟ and its „operational facets‟. A systematic investigation into
Such a complex nature of law and its operation require systematic approach to the
follows certain scientific methods.
Most of research in social sciences contains endless word-spinning and too may
jargons. Therefore, a great deal of research tends to be futile. It might be of a great
importance to mention that, the significance of research lies in its quality and not in
quantity in the context of planning and development. The need for those concerned
with research is to pay due attention in designing and adhering to the appropriate
methodology throughout for improving the quality of work rather than stressing on
elaboration and devising the tools of research. The methodology is dynamic in nature
so it may differ from problem to problem but the basic approach towards research
remains the same.

Systematic research leads to growth in various fields of existence. New products, new facts, new concepts and new ways of doing things are being found due to ever increasing important research in the physical, biological, the social and the psychological fields. Research today is no longer restricted to the science laboratory. The manufacturers, the agricultural specialist and the archaeologists are carrying on

Page 1 of 14

research in their respective spheres, moreover, the sociologist, anthropologists, economists and educationists. 1

Meaning of Research:

Research is a skill of systematic exploration. It is actually a passage of innovation. It is a necessary and influential tool leading human being towards progress. Without systematic research there would have been not even little progress.

Research in simple terms, refers to search for knowledge. It is also known as a scientific
Research in simple terms, refers to search for knowledge. It is also known as a
scientific and systematic search for information on particular topic or issue. It is also
known as the art of scientific investigation. 3
Or, in general terms we can say that Research is a process for collecting, analyzing
and interpreting information to answer questions, subject to condition that the process
must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable,
empirical and critical.
Research is considered to be formal, systematic and intensive process of problem
formulation, identification, observation, analysis and drawing a conculsion. Thus it is
a systematic activity that is directed towards discovery and development of an
organized body of knowledge. 4-5
-------------------------------------
The term „research‟ has received a number of varied meanings and explanations. In its
ordinary sense, the term refers to a search for knowledge. The prefix „re‟ in the word
„research‟, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, means „repeated, frequent or
intensive‟. „Research‟, therefore, implies a continued „frequentative‟ „intensive‟
„search‟ for truth and/or an inquiry for the verification of a fresh theory or for
supplementing a prevailing theory. Research is, thus, a continuum. 4
2
  • 1. Social Research: An Introduction; Sharma, Dr. Sanat Kumar; Vijay Prakashan Mandir (P) Ltd., Bulanala,

Varanasi, Edition 2013, Introduction at Pg 3

  • 2. Ibid at pg 3.

  • 3. Ibid at pg 4

  • 4. Legal Research Methodology, H.N. Tiwari (2006) Pg no.142

5.

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Definition of Research:

„Research‟ has been defined by various scholars, academicians, social scientists,

researchers and various professionals in their own ways. But the crux of all the definitions is the same what we have discussed in the meaning of this project paper.

As beginners in research we should understand that research is not all technical, complex, statistics and computers. It can be a very simple activity designed to provided answers to very simple questions relating to day-to-day activities. On the other hand, research procedures can also be employed to formulate intricate theories or laws that govern our lives. 5-6

applied to find any aspect of the research process. It ensures that in a research study
applied to find any aspect of the research process. It ensures that in a research study
There are several paradigms and approaches in research - positivist, interpretive,
phenomenolist, action or participatory, feminist, qualitative, quantitative - and the
academic discipline in which a researcher is trained. The concept of „validity‟ can be
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English defines Research as “the
systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish
facts and reach new conclusions.” Another meaning of research by same dictionary is
“an endeavor to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a
subject or by a course or critical investigation.” 7-8
correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. „Reliability‟ refers
to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.
„Unbiased and objective‟ means that we have taken each step in an unbiased manner
and drawn each conclusion to the best of your ability and without introducing our own
vested interest. Subjectivity is an integral part of our way of thinking that is
conditioned by our educational background, discipline, philosophy, experience and
skills. Bias, on the other hand, is an deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight
something. For example, a psychologist may look at a piece of information differently
from the way in which an anthropologist or a historian looks at it. 6-7

-------------------------------------

  • 5. Ranjit Kumar, Research methodology: a step by step guide for beginners, Dorling Kindersley Publishing

Inc. , New Delhi licensees of pearson education in south asia, 1st Impression, 2006, pg 6, 7.

  • 6. Id

  • 7. Della Thompson (Ed.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (Oxford University Press, New

Delhi, Ninth Edition, 1995, Second Imp.1996) Pg. 1169-1170.

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The Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English spells out the meaning of „research‟ as „a careful investigation or inquiry specifically through search for new

facts in any branch of knowledge‟. 8-9 Redman and Mory, in a similar tone, define research as a „systematized effort to gain new knowledge‟. 9-10 According to the Webster‟s International Dictionary, „research‟ is „a careful, critical inquiry or

explanation in seeking facts or principles; diligent investigation in order to ascertain

authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value
authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or
inventions made, no theories of any value propounded….”
something‟. While Webster Dictionary explains the term „research‟ to mean „a
styled research and it may be said that without „research‟ no
“The act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry
directed to the discovery of truth and in particular, the trained scientific
investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original
and first hand study of authorities or experiment. Investigations of every
kind which has been based on original sources of knowledge may be
is not research which can never lead to valid conclusions. But diligent, intelligent,
continued search for something is research. It refers to the process and means to
acquire knowledge about any natural or human phenomenon. It involves a systematic
inquiry into a phenomenon of interest. It is the process of discovering or uncovering
new facts. It aims to contribute to the thitherto known information of the phenomenon.
systematic investigation towards increasing the sum of knowledge.‟ D.Slesinger and
M.Stephenson perceived the term „research‟ as „the manipulation of things, concepts
or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge,
whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art‟. 10-11
The 1911 Cambridge edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica defines research as:
A combined reading of all the above-mentioned „explanations‟ of the term „research‟
reveals that „research‟ is the „careful, diligent and exhaustive investigation of a
specific subject matter‟ with a view to knowing the truth and making original
contribution in the existing stock of knowledge. It is, in short, „systematic search‟ in
„pursuit of knowledge‟ of the researcher. Mere aimless, unrecorded, unchecked search

-------------------------------------

  • 8. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Oxford, 1952) 1069.

  • 9. L. V. Redman and A. V. H. Mory, The Romance of Research (1923) 10.

10. D. Slesinger and M Stephenson, The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, vol IX (MacMillan, 1930).

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Therefore, only systematic intensive investigation into, or inquiry of, fact qualifies to get the label of „research‟. And a „search‟ becomes „systematic‟ when a researcher, in his quest for knowledge and pursuit of truth, attempts to collect the required information from various sources and in a variety of ways systematically and exposes data to a severe and intensive scrutiny. Research, thus, involves systematic scientific investigation of facts (or their hidden or unknown facets) with a view to determining or ascertaining something, which may satisfy the curiosity of the investigator and carry forward (his) knowledge. Such research involves identification of a research problem, the ascertainment of facts, their logical ordering and classification, the use of (inductive and deductive) logic to interpret the collected and classified facts and the assertion of conclusions premised on, and supported by, the collected information.

„research‟ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the
„research‟ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem,
formulating a hypothesis, collecting the data, analysing the facts and reaching certain
conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in
certain generation for some theoretical formulation. 11-12 According to Greenfield
(1996), “Research is an art aided by skills of inquiry, experimental design, data
collection, measurement and analysis, by interpretation, and by presentation. A further
skill, which can be acquired and developed, is creativity or invention.” 12-13
Also Noltingk (1965) believes that Research is in essence an investigation into
processes. 13-14 Therefore a research is the finding of answers related to the questions. It
is a systematic search for truth, finding new knowledge about our world through
combination of ideas and facts.
to determining (or searching) something, which may satisfy the curiosity of the
investigator and carry forward his knowledge. It requires a sound design for
investigation, the appropriate methods of data collection and a mode of analysis.
Kothari (2004) defines that the research is an original contribution to the existing stock
of knowledge making for its development. The systematic approach concerning
generalisations and formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term
„Research‟, therefore, means a scientific collection and inspection of facts with a view

-------------------------------------

  • 11. C.R. Kothari, “Research Methodology Methods & Techniques”, Second Edition, New Delhi: New Age

International publisher, 2004, PP. 1-2.

  • 12. Tony Greenfield, “Research Methods: Guidance for Postgraduates”, London: Arnold, 1996, P. 3.

  • 13. B.E. Noltingk, “The Human Element in Research management”, Third Printing, Amsterdam: Elsevier

Publishing Company, 1965, P. 57.

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Webiester (1985) has defined „legal research‟ as careful, diligent and studious inquiry

or examination, especially the investigation or experiment aimed at the discovery and interpretation of fats, revision of accepted theories or laws. It can also be the collection of information about a particular subject. A mere compilation and representation of interpretation of fats, revision of accepted theories or laws. It can also be the collection of information about a particular subject. A mere compilation and representation of existing knowledge is no research. The real research lies in creative analysis and synthesis of primary materials in terms of impact, or effect of each.

unearthinig of new facts or a new interpretation of already existing facts or phenomenon. According to
unearthinig of new facts or a new interpretation of already existing facts or
phenomenon. According to John W. Best, research is powerful tool which pushes back
the areas of ignorance by discovery new truths which in turn, lead to betterment of
life.
Legal research is a multi faceted study distinctive in some respects from research in
humanities or social science but it would be erroneous to think it as wholly different
from researches in other disciplines, as there are some elements common in both.
Bacon has defined „research‟ as a careful inquiry or critical analysis of principles for
According to Slesinger, social science research includes “the manipulation of things,
knowledge, which helps in construction of theories. It is thus a systematized effort to
concepts, or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify
gain knowledge.”

W.S.Monroe(Illinois) has defined research as method of studying problems whose solutions are to be derived partly or wholly from facts. The purpose of legal research as to ascertain principles and develop procedures for use in the field of law. It therefore, follows that mere collection and tabulation of facts or information is not research, though it may preliminary to it. According to H.N.Tiwari, “Research is considered to be a formal, systematic, and intensive process of problem formulation, identification, observation, analysis and drawing a conclusion. Thus, it is a systematic activity that is directed towards discovery and development of an organized body of knowledge. 14-15 Research according to C. Francis Rummel, is an endeavour to discover, develop and verify knowledge. Any research must contribute to new knowledge in a particular field.

-------------------------------------

14. H.N.TIWARI , Legal Research Methodology (2006) P. 142

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According to Grinnell (1993) “The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning again, anew or over again and the latter as a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe. Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles. He further adds : “research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and creates new knowledge that is generally applicable.

According to Lundberg (1942) “ Scientific methods consist of systematic observation, classification and interpretation of data.
According to Lundberg (1942) “ Scientific methods consist of systematic observation,
classification and interpretation of data. Now, obviously, this process is one in which
nearly all people engage in the course of their daily lives. The main difference
between our day-to-day generalizations and conclusions usually recognized as
scientific method lies in the degree of formality, rigorousness, verifiability and general
A combined reading of all the above-mentioned „explanations‟ of the term „research‟
reveals that „research‟ is the „careful, diligent and exhaustive investigation of a
specific subject matter‟ with a view to knowing the truth and making original
contribution in the existing stock of knowledge. It is, in short, „systematic search‟ in
„pursuit of knowledge‟ of the researcher. Mere aimless, unrecorded, unchecked search
According to Kerlinger(1986), “scientific research is a systematic, controlled,
empirical and critical investigation of propositions about the presumed relationships
about various phenomena.”
Burns (1994) defines research as “a systematic investigation to find answers to a
problem.”
According to Bulmer(1977), “ Nevertheless sociological research, as research, is
primarily committed to establishing systematic, reliable, and valid knowledge about
validity of the latter.”
the social world.”

is not research which can never lead to valid conclusions. But diligent, intelligent, continued search for something is research. It refers to the process and means to acquire knowledge about any natural or human phenomenon. It involves a systematic inquiry into a phenomenon of interest. It is the process of discovering or uncovering new facts. It aims to contribute to the thitherto known information of the phenomenon.

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Therefore, only systematic intensive investigation into, or inquiry of, fact qualifies to get the label of „research‟. And a „search‟ becomes „systematic‟ when a researcher, in his quest for knowledge and pursuit of truth, attempts to collect the required information from various sources and in a variety of ways systematically and exposes data to a severe and intensive scrutiny. Research, thus, involves systematic scientific investigation of facts (or their hidden or unknown facets) with a view to determining or ascertaining something, which may satisfy the curiosity of the investigator and carry forward (his) knowledge. Such research involves identification of a research problem, the ascertainment of facts, their logical ordering and classification, the use of (inductive and deductive) logic to interpret the collected and classified facts and the assertion of conclusions premised on, and supported by, the collected information.

The purpose of research is to acquire knowledge or to know about „something‟ in a scientific
The purpose of research is to acquire knowledge or to know about „something‟ in a
scientific and systematic way. Its purpose may be to find solution to the identified
problem. The former is referred to as „basic‟ or „pure‟ or „fundamental‟ research while
the latter takes the label of „applied‟ or „action‟ research. Fundamental research is
mainly concerned with generalizations and with formulation of a theory or re-
confirmation of the existing theory. Its main aim is to acquire knowledge for the sake
of acquiring it. Applied research, on the other hand, aims at finding or discovering
solutions or answers to the identified „problem(s)‟ or „question(s)‟.
to determining (or searching) something, which may satisfy the curiosity of the
investigator and carry forward his knowledge. It requires a sound design for
investigation, the appropriate methods of data collection and a mode of analysis.
„research objective‟ of a given research study may fall under either of the following
„Research‟, therefore, means a scientific collection and inspection of facts with a view
Obviously, every research study has its own goal(s) or objective(s). Nevertheless,
broad categories of „research objectives‟:
Objective of Research:

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated.

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To test causal relationship between two or more than two facts or situations. 15-16

To „know‟ and „understand‟ a phenomenon with a view to formulating the

problem precisely. To „describe‟ accurately a given phenomenon and to test hypotheses about relationships among its different dimensions.

The objective of research may be theoretical, factual or practical. The theoretical objective includes formulation of
The objective of research may be theoretical, factual or practical.
The theoretical objective includes formulation of a new theory and establishing new
concept, as functional theory of law. Its major contribution is explanatory in nature
and conclusion derived may be based on critical legal analysis. A sound theoretical
foundation provides significant lead to inquiry. The relation of theory and research is
of mutual contribution. Theory can point out the areas in which research may be
useful. To conduct research without theoretical interpretation or to theorise without
research is to ignore essential function of theory as a tool for achieving new thoughts.
It must be stated that the three objectives mentioned above are not necessary mutually
exclusive, instead they may overlap and a research project of peculiar type may need
to be approached with a combination of these objectives taken together. For example,
any research involving cyber space law or e-commerce or e-governance will not only
have to be approached with a practical objective but shall also require a factual aid
theoretical probe in the area of research. It may also require the use of scientific
processes and a critical analysis of legal issues involved therein by resorting to trial
and error method.
The practical objective of research is to solve a practical problem which is of
immediate concern to the researcher, keeping in view the impact of the problem on
society and legal regime.
The factual objective of research is accumulation of facts or specific information
through the process of investigation and inquiry.

-------------------------------------

15 C R Kothari, Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2nd edn, 2004, Reprint 2007)

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The twin objects of legal research are firstly to suggest in the existing law where it has failed to produce the desired results and secondly, to suggest new laws to deal with a particular fact situation for which there is no law in existence. The research work must lead to discovery of new facts or formulation of some new theory of law in relation to some existing law, the main object being either to resolve the obscurities and conflicts in law by discovering or innovating new facts.

A study classified as descriptive research attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or
A study classified as descriptive research attempts to describe systematically a
situation, problem, phenomenon, service or program or provides information about the
living conditions of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. For
example, it may attempt to describe the types of service provided by an organisation,
the administrative structure of an organisation, the living conditions of Aboriginal
people in the outback, the needs of a community, what it means to go through a
divorce, how a child feels living in a house with domestic violence, or the attitudes of
employees towards management. The main purpose of such studies is to describe what
is prevalent with respect to the issue/problem under study.
The main emphasis in a correlational research study is to discover or establish the
existence of a relationship/association/interdependence/ between two or more aspects
of a situation. What is the impact of an advertising campaign on the sale of a product?
What is the relationship between stressful living and the incidence of heart attack?
What is the relationship between fertility and mortality? What is the relationship
between technology and unemployment? What is the effect of a health service on the
control of a disease, or the home environment on educational achievement? These
studies examine whether there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a
situation or phenomenon and, therefore, are called correlational studies.
If we examine a research study from the perspectives of its objectives, broadly a
research endeavour can be classified as descriptive, correlational, explanatory or
exploratory.

Explanatory research attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or phenomenon. This type of research attempts to explain, for example, why stressful living results in heart attacks, why a decline in mortality is followed by fertility decline; or how the home environment affects children‟s level of academic achievement.

The fourth type of research, from the viewpoint of the objectives of a Study, is called

Page 10 of 14

exploratory research. This is when a study is undertaken with the Objective either to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study. When a study is carried out to determine its feasibility it is also called a feasibility study or a pilot study. It is usually carried out when a researcher wants to explore areas about which s/he has little or no knowledge. A small-scale study is undertaken to decide if it is worth carrying out a detailed investigation. On the basis of the assessment made during the exploratory study, a full study may eventuate. Exploratory studies are also conducted to develop, refine and / or test measurement tools and procedures. Table 1.1 shows types of research study from the viewpoint of objectives.

Research is most debated concern by academicians, practitioners and students in the social science. It always
Research is most debated concern by academicians, practitioners and students in the
social science. It always remains in the core of any methodology we decide to enhance
our knowledge. Research is not a new concept in this field but it is as old as any other
branch of knowledge. It originated due to curiosity of human being in order to search
solution to certain fundamental questions of prime importance in all sciences may be
natural, physical or social. Application of research in social sciences is comparatively
new but gaining popularity among the learners.
Although, theoretically, a research study can be classified in one of the above
perspectives, in practice most studies are a combination of the. First three categories;
that is, they contain elements of descriptive, correlational and explanatory research.
Conclusion and Suggestions:

All research is the gathering of evidence or information for ascertaining an assumption or verifying some hypothesis. Research is, therefore, an enquiry for the verification of a fresh theory or for supplementing prevailing theories by new knowledge. No research can be purely new, as even original discoveries are an extension of the search already undertaken, being shaped generally as expressing agreement or refutation or plain addition. A researcher is unavoidably burdened with the heritage of information already collected in his area of work. Communicated information, i.e., knowledge is the universal property of mankind and its sharing is not encumbered by any inherent limits in terms of time or number. Man-made barriers and devices which obstruct the free flow and sharing of information do exist in society. The motive for not sharing knowledge can be pure selfishness or pure public spiritedness. In the former case, it is for the preservation of some vested interest, whereas, in the latter case, it is to safeguard the interest of the society, i.e., to protect its physical or mental health. Non-

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disclosure of the scientific know-how of nuclear energy to many nations today, and prescribing Socratic thought in 300 BC. may both be read as illustrations of the same protective process. However, the futility of keeping knowledge secret is obvious. There cannot be planned suppression of knowledge, though its communication may, with some effort, be limited or delayed. Resurrection of buried ideas is implicit in the development of human society. Like rivers, acquired human knowledge does not flow backwards. It is not open to any individual or generation to proclaim self disinheritance from already acquired knowledge. Thus, Research is a continuum.

The objectives of research are goals in which a particular research work should move. The deviations
The objectives of research are goals in which a particular research work should move.
The deviations would result in ambiguous findings and purpose would, therefore,
would not be solved. The aim or objective should be crystal clear and a part of fair
experimentation on any given topic of research work.
“Research is a continuous experiment to find a new data based on predefined rules and
limitations, with a definite goal to which the process will lead to.”
about the rules that should be followed while making a research, be it a doctrinal or
non-doctrinal in nature. The main theme after analyzing various definitions is that
The varied definition propounded by various philosophers give general overview
==X==

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Table1.1: Types of Research studies form viewpoint of objectives
E-RESOURSES:
PAPERS:
BOOKS:
6.
B.
A.
1.
2.
1.
1.
8.
7.
C.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.
Appendix:
2016)

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Appendix Table1.1: Types of Research studies from viewpoint of objectives Examples Aim Main theme Type of
Appendix
Table1.1: Types of Research studies from viewpoint of objectives
Examples
Aim
Main theme
Type of
Research
Socioeconomic
characteristics of
To describe what is prevalent
regarding:
To describe what is prevalent
Descriptive Research
residents of a community
Attitudes of students towards quality
of teaching
Types of service provided by an
agency
Need of a community
A group of people
A community
A phenomenon
A situation
A program
An outcome
Sale of a product
Attitudes of nurses towards death and
dying
Number of people living in a
community
Problems faced by new immigrants
Extent of occupational mobility
among immigrants
Consumers‟ likes and dislikes with
regard to a product
Effects of living in ahouse with
domestic violence
Strategies put in place by a company
to increase productivity of workers
Impact of a program
Relationship between stressful living
an dincidence of heart attacks
Impact of technology on employment
Impact of material and child health
services on infant mortality
 Effectiveness of a marriage
counseling service on extent of
martial problems
Impact of an advertising campaign on
sale of a product
Impact of incentives on productivity
of workers
Effectiveness of an immunization
program in controlling infections
disease
To establish or explore:
To
ascertain
if
there
is
a
Correlational Research
A relationship
relationship
An association
An interdependence
Why does
stressful living result in
To explain:
To
explain
why
the
Explanatory Research
Why a relationship, association
or interdependence exists
Why a particular event occurs
relationship is formed
heart attacks?
 How does technology creat
unemployment/employment?
Why do some people have a positive
attitude towards an issue while others
do not?
Why does an particular intervention
work for some people and not for
others?
Why do some people use a product
while others do not?
Why do some people migrate to
another country while others do not?
Why do some people adopt a program
while others do not?
==X==
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