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Periodic Trends

Atomic radius or atomic size

The trend for atomic radius in a vertical column is to go from smaller at
the top to larger at the bottom of the family. Why?
The increased attraction pulls the cloud in making atoms smaller as we
move from left to right across a period

Ionization energy
The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is ionization
Ionization energy and atomic radius are inversely proportional
Removing electrons

Electron affinity
Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when an atom gains
an electron
Where ionization energy is always endothermic, electron affinity is
usually exothermic but not always
Electron affinity is exothermic if there is an empty or partially empty
orbital for an electron to occupy (group 2 and 18)
If there are no empty spaces, a new orbital or PEL must be created,
making the process endothermic

Endothermic absorbing energy

Exothermic releasing energy

Metallic character
This is simple a relative measure of how easily atoms lose or give up

Electronegativity is a measure of an atoms attraction for another
atoms electrons
Transfer electrons
The higher the electronegativity, the higher reaction
Scale that ranges from 0 to 4 and units are Paulings
Generally, metals are electron giver and have low electronegativity
(Left ion is +)
Nonmetals are electron takers and have high electronegativities (Right
ion is -)

Noble gases unreactive; 0 electronegativity; stable

Overall Reactivity

The most reactive metals are the largest since they are the best electron
The most reactive non-metals are the smallest ones, the best electron takers

*the bigger the atom, the better electron giver

The Octet rule
The goal of most atoms (except H, Li and Be) is to have an octet or group of
8 electrons in their valence energy level
May accomplish this by gaining or losing electrons

When an atom gains an electron, it becomes negatively charged and is called

an anion
If they lose electrons they become positively charged cations
Cations are always smaller than the original atom
Conversely, anions are always larger than the original atom

Types of ions
Monoatomic ions from single atoms

Cations same as the name of the element (+ ion)

Ex. K+ (potassium ion), Al3+ (aluminum ion), Fe2+ (Iron ion)

Anion derived from the name of element (+ide)

Ex. S2- (sulfur->sulfide ion), F- (Flourine->fluoride ion)

Polyatomic ions a group of atoms that behaves as a unit and carries a net
electrical charge
Ex. NH4+ (ammonium ion), SO42- (sulfate ion), OH- (hydroxide ion)
How do atoms behave in a material?
Kinetic molecular theory
Explained the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases
High densities
High melting and boiling point
High conductivities
Malleable and ductile
Metallic bonding
The array of cations are held together by the strong attraction between
cations and electrons
How do atoms combine to form other compounds?
Ionic bonds
Covalent bonds

Ionic bonds and ionic compounds

Ionic compound is formed when a positively charged ion is attracted to a
negatively charged ion (metals tend to form cations; non-metals anions)
Composed entirely of ions
Electrons are transferred
Ions forms a pattern to maximize the attraction between them
Ionic Compound properties (metal and non-metal)
Usually have high melting points
Tend to be brittle
Many dissolve in water
Good conductors of electricity (molten state)
Almost any combination of cations and anions can form ionic compounds
Covalent bonding (non-metal and non-metal)
2 covalent bond if formed by a shared pair of electrons between 2 atoms
A group of atoms united by covalent bond is called a molecule and formed
molecular substances or covalent molecular compounds
May contain as few as 2 atoms or as many as thousand, even millions
Describing Covalent bond
The octet rule is the principle that describes covalent bonding
Instead of transferring, electrons are shared
Bond length is the distance between the nuclei of 2 bonded atoms and it
decreases with increasing number of electrons shared
Properties of Covalent bond
Polar Covalent Bond/ Bond Polarity
Formed when one atom is significantly more electronegative than another
*Oxygen will extract more electrons towards itself

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Formed when both atoms have the same electronegativity
Bond Type by Electronegativity
Electronegativity Difference
Bond Type
< 0.4
Nonpolar covalent
0.4 to 1.9
Polar covalent
1.9 <


Dot Diagram/ Electron Dot Diagram

Representation of atoms
Show valence electron and how it bonds with other electrons
Way to emphasize valence electrons and apply the octet rule
Valence electrons are represented by dots around the element symbol

Lewis Structures for covalent molecular compounds

Get the theoretical valence electron (# of valence electron an atom will
Add the number of valence electrons of each element
Subtract Step 2 from Step 1 to get the shared electron
Divide Step 3 by 2 to get the number of bonds
Molecular Geometry
Ball and Stick Model
Why do atoms in many small molecules arranged symmetrically?
VSEPR Theory
VSEPR valence electron shell repair repulsion theory
The repulsion force between electron pairs
States that in a small molecule, the pairs of valence electrons are arranged as
far apart from each other as possible
Common Shapes

Atoms are connected in a straight line

Bond angle is 180o

Bonding pair is 2

Formula is AX2

Trigonal Planar

Triangular, flat shape

Central atom is bonded to 3 other atoms

Bond angle is 120o

Bonding pair is 3

Formula is AX3


4 surfaces

Bond angle is 109.5o

Bonding pair is 4

Formula is AX4


Bond angle is 105o

There can be 2 or 1 lone pair
Bonding pair is 2
Formula is AX2


Central atom bonded to 3 other atoms and has an unshared pair of

valence electrons
Bond angle is 107o
Lone pair is 1
Bonding pair is 3
Formula is AX3

Polarity of Molecule
*Polar molecules are also called dipoles and tend to attract one another
*Molecules without dipoles are nonpolar molecules
Determining Polarity of molecules
Nonpolar molecules contains nonpolar bonds, however, molecules containing
polar bonds is not necessarily polar molecules
The shape of a molecule and the polarity of its bonds together determine
whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar
*look at the central atom to know its shape
Trigonal planar

Lone pair

Bonding pair


*Boron will only need 6 electrons to complete it and the valence is only 3
Polar 2 different elements
Nonpolar same element