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The chemistry of acids and bases

Why is it important to know acids and bases?

Body of water (safe for the sea

Cells of living organisms

Industrial process

Some properties of acids

Produce H+(as H3O+) in water
Taste sour, corrode metals
Electrolytes (conduct electricity)
React with bases to form a salt &
pH is less than 7
turns blue litmus paper to red

Some properties of bases

produce OH- ions in water
taste bitter, chalky/powdery
electrolytes, feel soapy/slippery
react with acids to form salts and
pH greater than 7
turns red litmus paper to blue

Acid/Base Definitions
#1 Arrhenius (traditional)
1st scientist to study this
Acids: produce H+ ions
Bases: produce OH- ions

Conjugate base: base that remains
when an
acid donates
a proton
Conjugate acid: acid that formed
when the base
accepts a

#2 Bronsted-Lowry
A proton is really just a hydrogen atom
that has lost its electron
Acids: proton donor
Bases: proton acceptor
*Amphoteric: can act as an

#3 Lewis
Lewis acid: a substance that accepts
an electron pair
Lewis base: a substance that
donates an electron pair


ACIDS start with H
2 elements

3 elements

-ic ending

No hydro
-ate ending
become ic ending

-ite ending
become ous

Classification of Acids and Bases: Strength

Strong acids and bases: ionize completely in water
Weak acids and bases: are only
How to name bases: cation + hydroxide;
partially ionized
OH as ending
Classification of Acids and Bases: Organic or Inorganic
Inorganic Acids: any substance that contains CO3
Organic Acids: contains carbon
Classification of Acids and Bases: Anhydrides (no water present in product)
Base anhydrides: ionic metals oxides dissolve in water to form bases
Acid anhydrides: nonmetals oxides dissolve in water to form acids

Salt is formed when an acid anhydride reacts with a base anhydride

Neutralization reaction
double replacement reaction between acids and bases (w/c forms salt & water)
diprotic acid, monoprotic acid, triprotic acid
to lessen or absorb shock
buffer solution resists changes in pH caused by the addition of limited amounts of a strong
acid or a strong base
significance: buffers in the blood/stomach; living cells internal pH 7.35
pH concept
acidity is measured by the (H3O+)
basicity is measured by the (OH-)
application of electroplating (a reaction wherein there is a base metal and cover it with
Redox Reaction
Oxidation: process by which a substance loses one or more electrons
Reduction: process by which substance gain electrons
*Oxidation is always accompanied by reduction hence reactions of this type are called Redox
Oxidation (oxidized)
Reduction (reduced)

lost of egain of e-

reducing agent
oxidizing agent

the tendency to be oxidized or reduced may be related to ionization energy. The energy
required by an atom to lose an electron
metals tend to lose electrons due to its low ionization energy compared to nonmetals

Oxidation numbers
system devised to help identify oxidizing and reducing agents
no changes
a system that help keep track of

+ = loss electrons
- = gain electrons

Oxidation number determination

the oxidation number of an atom in an uncombined element is 0
the oxidation number of any monoatomic ion equals its ionic charge
in compounds, the oxidation number of many elements corresponds to the elements
position in the periodic table
Elements in Group IA are always at +1; Elements I Group IB are always at +2
Aluminum is always +3
Hydrogen is +1 when combined with nonmetals
Oxygen is -2 in most compounds and ions
The oxidation numbers of elements in compounds are written per atom

The algebraic sum of the individual oxidation numbers of all atoms in the formula for a
compound is 0
The algebraic sum of the individual oxidation numbers of all atoms in the formula for a
polyatomic ion is equal to its change