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DOCUMENTATION

Index

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Spreadsheet title
Author
Summary
Copyright
Licensing conditions
Disclaimer
Modification history
Detailed instructions for use
Matters requiring some elaboration
Units
Test problem
Use of "protection" within the spreadsheet
References
A personal note
End of documentation
Spreadsheet title

Dynamics of Machinery Foundation

Current version

3.02

Author

Robert Niall
rmniall48@gmail.com
http://rmniall.com

Summary

This spreadsheet implements the analysis method described in the book


"Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines" by S.Arya,
M.O'Neill & G.Pincus, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, 1979.
In particular it emulates Table 6-2 of the book.
The foundation is assumed to be a rigid concrete pad, possibly with some
additional concrete blocks rigidly attached to it. This is bearing on the
ground, perhaps embedded slightly within it. The foundation is supporting a
vibrating machine which is imposing a harmonic loading upon it.

Copyright

Copyright 1991 2017 Robert Niall

Licensing conditions
This spreadsheet is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License,
or (at your option) any later version.
See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of this license
along with the spreadsheet. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Disclaimer

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This spreadsheet is distributed in the hope that it will be useful. However it is distributed WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY, without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
The spreadsheet cannot be guaranteed to give correct results, and anyone who uses it must check its results
by hand calculations or other means. All information it presents is for review, verification, interpretation,
approval and application by a suitably qualified Professional Engineer.
Modification history
Version
1.00

2.00

2.10
3.00
3.01

3.02

Comments
Written to bypass the enormous tedium and
error-proneness of the manual process. (Lotus 2.01)
Numerous improvements over the intervening years.
Converted from Lotus 2.01 to Microsoft Excel-97.
Numerous improvements over the intervening years.
Coupling introduced. Some minor cosmetic changes.
Converted to an appropriate format for public release.
Rough isometric sketch added.
Added warning when rotation level is not at underside of
main foundation. Display "sign" of each concrete block.
Documented the need to put any Spreadsheet password
into the VBA. Minor cosmetic improvements.
Commenced in January 2015.
Checked the s/s runs under Excel-2013.
Minor change to subroutine GiveActivePlotEqualScales.

When
released
Oct 1991

By whom
released
Rob Niall

Jan 2001

Rob Niall

Apr 2002
Nov 2013

Rob Niall
Rob Niall

Jan 2015

Rob Niall

Jan 2017

Rob Niall

Detailed instructions for use


Do not attempt to use this spreadsheet unless you have done at least one set of calculations by hand.
This is to ensure you understand the problem and the approach taken.
Set up a three dimensional cartesian coordinate system whose Z axis must point vertically upwards.
Note that the spreadsheet uses units of kg m & kN for its input values.
Enter some sort of job description in the title line.
Enter the geometry of the mass concrete. Each rectangular block is described by the end coordinates
of its three-dimensional diagonal. This diagonal should normally "point" in the positive direction. If it
points in the negative direction the block concerned will be subtracted rather than added.
Ensure that the first block is the main bearing one, as it defines:
(a) the length and breadth of the soil contact area;
(b) the RL of the soil contact area.
If necessary, use a dummy first block, either by giving it a trivial thickness, or by "subtracting it out"
with a later block.
Change the assumed density of concrete if necessary.
Enter the mass properties for the machine whose dynamic forces are being analysed.
Enter the mass properties of any other components.
Check the assumed rotation level in the "Rotation point" line, and change it if necessary.
Enter the soil properties and the EFFECTIVE embedment. If the default values offered are OK,
leave those cells alone.
Enter the amplitudes of the dynamic forces (see below).
Enter the coordinates of the point of application of the dynamic forces.
(These default to the centre of gravity of the main machine.)
At this stage you can look at the isometric sketch for some visual verification of you model.

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Enter the frequency at which the dynamic force is applied.


If the frequency ratio is close to unity, most codes of practice require you to assume that resonance
will occur. Enter the range inside which you wish resonance to be assumed.
Enter different values for the internal soil damping ratio if 0.03 is not to your taste.
If there is a key point at which displacements are wanted, enter its coordinates in the cells provided.
Matters requiring some elaboration
When specifying the dynamic force, if you enter a non-zero value for more than one of the directions
then each component will be treated as a separate, independent force. (They will not be treated as
vector components of a single force.) All of these independent, orthogonal forces will be assumed to
have magnitudes that vary sinusoidally, but their relative phases are unspecified and will be taken so as
to produce the worst result.
The components of the calculated "combined displacements" are derived assuming that all independent
vibration modes combine with whatever relative phases produce the worst result. (Coupled modes are
not independent, and are treated with their correct phases relationships relative to each other.)
In response to the obvious question of when to use the uncoupled results and when to use the
coupled ones, the spreadsheet's author is still thinking about it. He is increasingly inclining towards
preferring the results from the coupled analysis, but in the meantime prudence suggests that you
should use whichever approach gives the worst result.
Units
The spreadsheet uses inconsistent and "hard-wired" units throughout, but these are identified at every
appropriate location.
Test problem
The spreadsheet is supplied with its input cells preloaded with a "standard" sample problem.
An image of what should flow from this is shown on the Sample_problem worksheet.
Use of "protection" within the spreadsheet
All worksheets in this spreadsheet are "protected", with the only unlocked cells being those in which the
user is allowed to enter data. This is done purely as a way of ensuring that cells containing important
formulae cannot be overwritten in a careless moment. As a visual aid to the user, the unlocked cells
have been given a faint yellow background colour.
There is no password enforcing the protection, so you can readily "unprotect" any worksheet if you
want to. However this is not recommended unless you have a good reason, and so to make such
behaviour a bit more difficult the protection is automatically re-applied whenever the spreadsheet is
opened. If you do decide to put a password on the worksheets you will need to share that news
with the VBA code in the WorkbookOpen event handler.
The macro code (the "VBA Project") that forms part of the spreadsheet is also protected, but with a
password enforcing the protection. This is done so that if the VBA code encounters an error it will not
expose itself to the user. The password that has been used for this purpose is "Foundation".
References
Arya, S., M. O'Neill & G. Pincus, Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines,
Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, 1979. In particular see Table 6-2 of this book.

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Prakash, S., and V. Puri, Foundations for Machines: Analysis and Design,
John Wiley & Sons, 1988. In particular see Chapter 6 of this book.
NOTE. While studying this book to implement its approach to coupled vibrations I encountered
what I strongly believe to be several errors. I sought the opinion of a knowledgeable colleague
at my work, and he agreed with me. I then wrote a short document describing the errors.
A copy of this document will have been included in the download package for this spreadsheet.
Bowles, J.E., Foundation Analysis and Design, by J.E.Bowles, McGraw-Hill, 1977.
In particular see Section 20-8 of this book.
A fourth edition was published in 1988, and a paperback version was released in 2001.
A personal note
This is the very first spreadsheet I ever wrote. I embarked upon it principally as a learning exercise,
and it has continued to teach me things from time to time ever since.
It is a moot point whether the spreadsheet in its current encarnation can claim to be the "same"
spreadsheet as that Lotus-based thing I struggled with all those years ago. The situation reminds me
of that joke about the old family axe: "This has been the family's axe since my grandfather's time. It
has had two new heads and five new handles, but it's still going strong."
End of documentation

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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MACHINERY FOUNDATION

Version 3.02

This spreadsheet implements the analysis method described in the book "Design of Structures and
Foundations for Vibrating Machines" by S.Arya, M.O'Neill & G.Pincus, Gulf Publishing Company,
Houston, 1979. In particular it emulates Table 6-2 of that book.
For brief instructions, see the "Documentation" worksheet.
Standard sample problem
Centre of gravity calculations
Concrete density

2,400 kg/m3
X1

Y1

Z1

X2

Y2

Z2

(m)
-1.750

(m)
-1.750

(m)
0.000

(m)
1.750

(m)
1.750

(m)
3.250

Mass

Xg

Yg

Zg

Ixx

Iyy

Izz

(kg)
32,000

(m)
0.000

(m)
0.000

(m)
6.450

(kg.m2)
5,600

(kg.m2)
5,600

(kg.m2)
0

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

1.625
6.450
2.836
0.000

321,656
423,666
745,322

321,656
423,666
745,322

195,081
0
195,081

1,770,836

1,770,836

Concrete blocks:
Main Foundation
Add'l block #1
Add'l block #2
Add'l block #3
Add'l block #4
Add'l block #5
Add'l block #6
Add'l block #7
Add'l block #8
Add'l block #9

(+)

Machinery etc:
Main Machine
Add'l mass #1
Add'l mass #2
Add'l mass #3
Add'l mass #4
Add'l mass #5
Add'l mass #6
Add'l mass #7

TOTALS (Concrete / Machinery / Both combined):


Concrete alone
95,550
0.000
Machinery alone
32,000
0.000
Combined
127,550
0.000
Rotation/resistance point
0.000
Combined props about rot'n level
Soil properties
Dyn shear modulus (MPa)

75

Poisson's ratio

0.40

Density (kg/m )

2000

Effective embedment (m)

2.7

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Dynamic forces
X
Force amplitudes (kN)
35
Point of app'n (m)
0.000
Operating frequency (rpm)
250
Assume resonance if frequency ratio (r) is inside the range

0.000

6.250
0.70

1.30

Dynamic properties
Spring constants:
Equiv radius (m)
Ro

Embedment factor

Coefficient
Equiv spring const (kN/m or kN.m/rad)
Damping ratios:

Embedment factor
Mass ratio
B
Effective damping coef't
n
Geometric damping ratio
Dg
Internal damping ratio
Di
Total damping ratio
Dt

X-dir'n

YY-rot'n

Y-dir'n

XX-rot'n

Z-dir'n

1.975
2.203
0.960
1,554,608

1.998
2.763
0.486
7,191,041

1.975
2.203
0.960
1,554,608

1.998
2.763
0.486
7,191,041

1.975
1.492
2.130
1,390,577

3.474
1.639

2.369
6.264
1.070
0.02
0.03
0.05

3.474
1.639

2.095
1.242

0.78
0.03
0.81

2.369
6.264
1.070
0.02
0.03
0.05

1054
609

607
35.0
218.8
0.237
0.411
0.237
0.411
0.981
1.202
2.209E-005 3.656E-005
1.051
1.203
36.8
263.1

1054

0.0
0.237
0.237
0.981
0
1.051
0.0

609
607
0.0
0.411
0.411
1.202
0
1.203
0.0

997

0.0
0.251
0.251
0.975
0
1.056
0.0

Z
0.0640
0.0000
6.450
0.0000

Resultant
0.1547
0.2579

0.78
0.03
0.81

0.80
0.03
0.83

Calculations for uncoupled motions


Natural (undamped) freq (rpm)
Resonant freq (rpm)
App force (kN or kN.m)
Calculated frequency ratio
Freq ratio used in calcs below
Magnification factor
Displacement () (m or rad)
Transmissibility
Trans force (kN or kN.m)

fn
ft
r
Md
T

Combined displacements () (mm):


At footing upper corner
At machine C of G
At any other point
Coords (m)
Displ (mm)

X
0.1409
0.2579

Y
0.0000
0.0000

0.2579

0.0000

0.2579

Calculations for coupled rocking and sliding motions


Since the exciting horizontal force is (in general) applied at a different level from the horizontal sliding
resistance, there is a possibility that the rocking and sliding modes will not be independent as assumed
above, but will be coupled. The following calculations investigate the consequences of coupling.
The method used for the natural frequencies comes from the book "Foundations for Machines: Analysis
and Design", by S.Prakash and V.Puri, John Wiley & Sons, 1988, in its chapter 6.
The method used for the damped response analysis comes from the book "Foundation Analysis and Design",
by J.E.Bowles, McGraw-Hill, 1977, in its section 20-8.

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Coupled (undamped) nat freq #1

(rpm)

X & YY

Y & XX

551

551

Elev of centre of rotation #1

(m)

-1.068

-1.068

Coupled (undamped) nat freq #2


Elev of centre of rotation #2

(rpm)
(m)

1793
4.333

1793
4.333

Frequency ratio #1
Frequency ratio #2
Op freq assumed in calcs below

(rpm)

0.45
0.14
250

0.45
0.14
250

Cosine component of translation


Sine component of translation
Cosine component of rotation
Sine component of rotation

(m)
(m)
(radian)
(radian)

0.00013258
1.412E-005
3.764E-005
1.194E-006

#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

Combined displacements () (mm):


At footing upper corner
At machine C of G
At any other point
Coords (m)
Displ (mm)

X
0.1489
0.2693
0.000
0.2693

Y
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
0.000
#VALUE!

Z
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
6.450
#VALUE!

Resultant
#VALUE!
#VALUE!
#VALUE!

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SAMPLE PROBLEM
Below is an image of the Calculations worksheet for the sample problem. (This image was created
using the 6 pulldown beside the Copy button in the Clipboard section of the Ribbon's Home tab.)