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You are on page 1of 6

&

& 6th International Conference on

Lightning Physics and Effects

6th LPE Manaus, Brazil May, 2014

EFFECT USING COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS

Vilson L. Coelho* and Alexandre Piantini**

Regional University of Blumenau, FASATC Faculty SATC* and University of So Paulo**

Brazil

Abstract This paper aims at presenting a procedure problems, apparently it has not been used in applications

developed to improve the use of COMSOL Multiphysics for involving the transient behavior of grounding systems.

simulating grounding systems, taking into account the soil Then, another objective of this work is to demonstrate

ionization phenomena. The approach has been validated by

that this software appears as an attractive alternative to

comparing the numerical results with data reported in the

technical literature. be used as a computational tool in studies related to this

subject matter.

1 - INTRODUCTION

2 - MODELING OF SOIL IONIZATION PHENOMENA

The soil ionization is an important phenomenon to be

considered in the analysis of grounding systems. When As mentioned previously, in this study the effect of soil

lightning strikes a grounded structure, the electric field ionization on the transient behavior of grounding systems

associated with the high impulsive current injected into will be considered from the use of DM and EBM models.

the grounding conductors may cause the soil around Both models, when implemented in a numerical method,

them to breakdown. This phenomenon causes a allow to simulate different types of grounding topologies,

decrease in the electric potential in the area of soil regardless of their geometric characteristics. In this

ionization and consequently reduces the value of the section, brief descriptions are provided for the DM and

ground impedance. The transient characteristics of the EBM.

grounding systems during the soil ionization process are

typically non-linear [1 - 5]. 2.1 Dynamic Model (DM)

Several mathematical models have been proposed to The Dynamic Model proposed by Liew and Darweniza [4]

take into account the dynamic effect of soil ionization on was initially applied to concentrated electrodes. The

grounding systems submitted to lightning currents. Some method is based on experimental results and considers a

of them, like the Dynamic Model (DM) [2, 4] and the space-time variable function of soil resistivity for the

Energy Balance Model (EBM) [3, 6] make use of region surrounding the electrode.

analytical functions to represent the space-time variation

of the soil resistivity. In both models the resistivity of the When the actual electric field E (V/m) in the soil region

soil ionization areas decreases due to the discharge and under analysis exceeds the critical electric field strength

then gradually recovers its initial value when the Ec (V/m), the ionization begins and the following

deionization process occurs. These approaches seem to expression is adopted for the resistivity [2, 4]:

be closer to the physical phenomenon than the purely

geometric ones [5]. In order to implement computationally

the different methodologies for analyzing the transient = . e (1)

behavior of grounding systems, some numerical methods

such as e.g. the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD), where 0 (m) is the steady state resistivity, t (s) is the

the Finite Element Method FEM, and the Transmission time, and t1 (s) is the ionization time constant. In the

Line Model (TLM) have been adapted and used. same manner, during the deionization process the time

variable resistivity behavior is expressed as [2, 4]:

The main goal of this work is to use the software

COMSOL Multiphysics [7] as a modeling tool for typical

= + . 1 . 1

(2)

grounding topologies subjected to lightning currents,

taking into account the soil ionization effects predicted by

the DM and EBM. For this purpose, a procedure has where (m) is the minimum value reached by the soil

been developed to implement efficiently the soil resistivity during the ionization and t2 (s) is the

ionization algorithms using LiveLink for MATLAB, an deionization time constant. The parameters t1 and t2

interfacing module that allows integrating COMSOL with depend only on the surge waveform and must be

MATLAB to extend the modeling possibilities with obtained experimentally [2, 4].

scripting programming in the MATLAB environment.

Equations (1) and (2) show that the soil resistivity decays

Although COMSOL has been used successfully for many exponentially when the electric field on the soil region

years in solving a lot of physical and engineering exceeds the critical value. Afterwards, when the electric

field decreases, the deionization process starts. This 3.1 DEFINING THE SOIL IONIZATION ZONES BY

process stops when the initial stationary value of the soil EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES

resistivity is restored.

It is well known that soil breakdown takes place when the

2.2 Energy Balance Model (EBM) electric field overcomes the soil dielectric strength. So, it

is possible to divide the soil in various regions, according

Similarly to the DM, the Energy Balance Model describes to the geometry of the equipotential surfaces formed from

the soil ionization by changing the material properties of the injected electrode. Figure 1 shows the distribution of

the soil and not the geometry of the electrodes. the equipotential lines for a vertical rod. The electric field

values in each sub-division should be the same or very

The model was derived from the premise that the soil close from each other to ensure that the computation

ionization process is similar to the arc phenomenon results of the ionization on each soil division will be very

occurring inside a circuit breaker during a current close to those obtained from each individual region cell.

interruption [3]. Therefore, the soil ionization could be

represented according to an energy balance [6] which

associates the input energy with the variation of the

resistivity.

grounding resistance model based on the energy balance

of soil ionization. The general expression for the

resistivity is given by

= . 1 + . !" (3)

#= (4) (a)

$

and conductance, respectively, & (J/m) is an energy

constant, i (A) is the discharge current, P (W/m) is the

power loss, and (s) is the time constant for the

resistivity to recover its initial value [3]. The constant &

must be obtained from experimentally.

the emphasis is on the Finite Element Method. Automatic

meshing tools are also available. The meshes may be (b)

constituted by tetrahedral, hexahedral and pyramidal Figure 1 - Equipotential lines for a vertical rod. (a) Top view.

elements [7]. (b) Side view.

In a typical COMSOL mesh for modeling grounding As an example, Figure 2 shows the soil divisions for a

systems, a very large number of cells are used even for single vertical rod embedded in a homogeneous soil. The

very simple configurations such as a vertical rod. Then, rod is at the center of the discretized domain and the soil

during the simulations, the soil ionization algorithms regions are cylindrical and concentric to the electrode.

implemented in the MATLAB codes must be solved for During the COMSOL time domain simulation, the

each time step of the iterative process in each cell of the MATLAB codes run and compare, step by step, in each

mesh, in order to upgrade the values of the soil region, the calculated electric fields with the soil dielectric

resistivity. That means that the whole simulation process strength. These MATLAB codes have been developed

is computationally very expensive in terms of processing with the implementation of the time-variable soil resistivity

time and memory space required. approaches proposed by the DM [2] and EBM [3]

methods. Thus the soil zones can be ionized or not

In order to overcome this problem and at the same time depending on the local electric field intensity.

take into account correctly the nonlinear behavior of the

grounding system during the ionization, a new approach

is proposed in this work. Basically, the procedure

consists in dividing the soil in various regions or zones

from the excitation electrode. For each region the soil

ionization is assessed; there is no need to do this at each

node. Thus, a significant reduction in processing time

and memory storage is achieved. The proposed scheme

consists of three basic steps which will be briefly

described in this section.

Figure 2 Example of soil divisions for the ionization study in the

case of a single vertical rod.

3.2 DEFINITION OF THE MAXIMUM EXTENSION OF

THE IONIZED SOIL REGION

occurs mainly around the current injection point on the

ground surface. This means that, in a typical situation,

only a small portion of the study domain that is being

modeled suffers from this phenomenon. Then, in order to

improve the computational efficiency of the simulations,

the maximal radial distance where the ionization occurs

was obtained. Therefore, the soil division described

Figure 3 - Electric field intensity as function of the radial distance

previously will be defined according to this radius and not in the instant when the lightning current reaches its peak value.

in the whole domain to be modeled.

For this example and considering a typical electrical

Equations (5) to (11) were deduced in cylindrical strength (Ec = 300 kV/m), the maximum extension

coordinates for finding the final equation (12) which considered for the ionized soil region is rm = 53.05 cm.

represents the maximum radius of ionization. Assuming

that the current ' A injected into the top of the rod is 3.3 CALCULATION OF THE CURRENT FLOWING IN

distributed uniformly across its lateral surface and EACH SOIL ZONE

*

defining )

as the current density, then

+

According to the Energy Balance Model [3], the time

(5)

variable soil resistivity is directly proportional to the

' = ) -.

injected current which penetrates into the soil divisions.

On the other hand, the AC/DC COMSOL module used in

3 2

' = ) / 0 1 (6) this work allows computing the electric potential to

remote ground for all cells of the domain modeled.

' = 4 26 7 / (7) Therefore, in order to obtain this current, the Ohm's Law

is applied in each predefined soil zone, considering the

8

)=

3 9 2

:; (8) difference between the electric potentials at the internal

and external radius of the region, valid for the cylindrical

symmetry of concentrated electrodes.

where ' A is the current flowing from the rod into the

soil, r m is the radial distance from the rod, L m is the D

length of the electrode and :; is the unit vector in the ' = (13),

E

radial direction. The radial distance can be computed

from the point form of Ohm's Law, where V V is the difference between the electrical

potentials of the two limits of the soil region under

) = @

(9) analysis and R is the resistance of this division,

?

calculated according to the direction in which the current

is injected. However, two different situations must be

@=' :;

assessed to find R, as will be described next.

(10)

3 9 2

/ = '

(11) 1. Rod's side regions, in which the current flows to the

3 2

soil in the radial direction from the rod, as indicated in

where (m) is the soil electric resistivity and A (V/m) is Figure 4

the electric field.

obtained from (11) for the case of electric field equal to

the critical electric field value A (V/m) and current equal

to the peak value of the injected current 'B (A):

/+ = 'C (12).

3 2

distributed, the radius obtained from (12) can be used as

a reference during the modelling. To illustrate the

application of the procedure described above, a

simulation was done for the case of a vertical rod with

length and diameter of 1 m and 1.6 cm, respectively. The

soil resistivity is 100 m and the peak value of the

lightning current is equal to 10 kA. Figure 3 shows the

behaviour of the electric field intensity, as a function of

the radial distance from the rod.

Figure 4 Rod's side regions.

The potential difference between the radial limits of the The resistance is obtained from (22) as the ratio V(L) / I:

soil region is given by

2

J

S= (23)

I= K @ -;

3 J K

(14),

where b m and a m are, respectively, the external and 3.4 COMPUTED PROCEDURE FLOWCHART

internal radii of the soil region. Substituting (10) into (14)

and integrating: A flowchart of the algorithm of the proposed procedure is

presented in Figure 6. It shows the exchange of

I = ' NO P/R (15). information between the simulation in COMSOL and the

3 2

parallel algorithm in MATLAB, in which the simulations

The resistance is obtained from the Ohm's Law, so that using the ionization models DM and EBM are performed.

S = NO P/R (16).

3 2

current flows orthogonally from the rod, as indicated in

Figure 5

followed to find an expression to compute the resistance

of the soil regions below the bottom rod end to the

current flowing into the soil. Now, the current flux is in the

z-direction.

2

I = @ -T (17)

3 J

' = K ) / 0 / (18)

Figure 6 - Flowchart of simulation procedure.

8

)= :T (20)

3 J K

The proposed procedure has been validated by

@= ' :T (21)

3 J K

comparing the results of the simulations with data

reported in the technical literature related to concentrated

Substituting (21) into (17) and integrating: electrodes. Specifically in this paper, a case from [2] was

used for the analysis.

I7 = ' 7 (22)

3 J K

In [2], a FDTD scheme was used to model a single rod,

61 cm long and with radius of 1.4 cm, embedded in

homogeneous soil ( = 50 m, r = 8, and Ec = 110

kV/m), using the Dynamic Model approach. The lightning

current injected into the top of the electrode has a peak

value equal to 3.5 kA and a double-exponential waveform

(5/16.5 s). The results voltage at the injected point to

the remote ground obtained from the simulations using

COMSOL with those presented in [2] (using FDTD) are

compared in Figure 7a. A comparison of the transient

ground impedances is shown in Figure 7b.

(a) (a)

(b)

results for a vertical rod. (a) Voltage at the injection point.

Figure 7 - Comparison between COMSOL results (DM (b) Transient grounding impedance.

approach) and FDTD simulations [2]. (a) Voltage at the injection

point. (b) Transient ground impedance.

and DM, a common grounding topology for electrical

distribution systems was simulated: a vertical steel

copperweld rod, 2.4 m long, and with diameter of 14 mm.

The soil resistivity was assumed to be 500 m and the

relative permittivity (r) was equal to 10. The critical

electric field was set to 300 kV/m. The lightning current

injected into the top of the electrode has a double-

exponential waveform (1.5/6 s) with peak value of

10 kA. The constants of the DM were 0.5 s (ionization

time constant) and 1 s (deionization time constant). The

Figure 9 - Geometric dimensions of the simulated

energy constant Qo for the EBM was 7000 J/m. The

concrete pole base.

voltage at the injection point and the transient grounding

impedance calculated with the two methods are shown in

The soil properties were the same of the previous case

Figure 8.

(single rod). For the concrete block, the following values

were adopted for the electric parameters: = 75 m and

A more complex structure was considered for the

r = 5. The conductive reinforcements were modeled by

evaluation of the COMSOL capabilities and the proposed

steel bars with length of 1.8 m and diameter of 10 mm.

procedure: a concrete pole base acting as a grounding

The field strength was set to 300 kV/m. The values

topology for overhead power distribution lines. This kind

adopted for the ionization and deionization time

of structure has an internal metal reinforcement mesh

constants for the DM were 4 s and 8 s, respectively.

and penetrates the soil to a depth of up to a few meters.

The energy constant Qo for the EBM was 5000 J/m. The

electrode located in the central part of the structure was

The geometric characteristics used to model the concrete

chosen as the excitation electrode. The injected current

pole base are presented in Figure 9. This case

surge has a double-exponential waveform (3/10 s) with

corresponds to a 12 m long "Double T" type concrete

peak value equal to 10.7 kA. Figure 10 shows the

pole with mechanic resistance of 300 daN and base

distribution of the equipotential lines at the instant when

1.8 m deep [8]. This pole base has six reinforcement

the current surge reaches its peak value.

rods.

significant and fast decrease of the impedance values.

Thereafter, during the deionization stage, the transient

impedance attempts to return to the steady state value,

but more slowly. A comparison between the ionization

models shows that, for the DM, the deionization process

starts immediately when the instantaneous electric field

gets below the critical value. Then the impedance returns

to the steady state value faster than in the case of the

EBM, for which the deionization occurs only when the

accumulated energy is smaller than the accumulated

losses in the soil, which makes the process slower.

5 - CONCLUSIONS

modeling grounding systems with COMSOL Multiphysics

and MATLAB taking into account the soil ionization

effects according to the Dynamic and Energy Balance

models. Comparisons between calculated results and

Figure 10 Distribution of the equipotential lines for

a concrete pole base.

results reported in the technical literature show a

satisfactory agreement and validate the proposed

It may be noted that, although this is a more complex procedure. The behavior of both ionization models were

structure, the potential distribution is mostly radial and compared for some grounding topologies commonly used

has a similar behavior to the single rod shown in Figure in electric distribution systems. The next steps of the

1. This indicates that the pole base can be regarded as a investigation include the development of experiments to

concentrated ground and the procedure proposed in this enable comparison between measured and calculated

paper can be applied. results.

the transient grounding impedance obtained for both

models of soil ionization. This work was supported by the CPFL and RGE electric

power companies and developed within the framework of

the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) R&D

Program. Special thanks are due to Eng. Plinio L. Nosaki,

from RGE, for his important support.

7 REFERENCES

Series, Vol. 58, 2010.

[2] G. Ala; P. L. Buccheri; P. Romano and F. Viola, Finite

difference time domain simulation of earth electrodes soil

ionization under lightning surge condition, IET Science,

Measurement and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 134-145, 2008.

(a) [3] S. Sekioka et al., Current-Dependent Grounding Resistance

Model Based on Energy Balance of Soil Ionization, IEEE

Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 194-201,

Jan. 2006.

[4] A. C. Liew and M. Darveniza, "Dynamic Model of impulse

characteristics of concentrated earths", Proc. IEE, Vol. 121,

No.2, pp. 123-135, Feb. 1974.

[5] L. Grcev, Modeling of grounding electrodes under lightning

currents, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility,

Vol. 51, No. 3, Aug. 2009.

[6] O. Mayr, Contributions to the theory of static and dynamic

electric arc (in German), Archive for Electrical Engineering, Vol.

37, pp. 588-608, 1943.

[7] COMSOL Multiphysics. Available in: http://www.comsol.com/,

(b) (Accessed: Dec./2013).

Figure 11 - Comparison between DM (blue) and EBM (red) [8] H.A.D. Almaguer; R.A. Coelho; P. Luiz Nosaki; V.L. Coelho;

results for a concrete pole base. (a) Voltage at the injection and A. Piantini, "A feasibility study on the use of concrete pole

point. (b) Transient ground impedance. bases as a grounding topology for distribution systems,"

International Symposium on Lightning Protection (XII SIPDA),

pp. 209-213, Oct. 2013.

As shown in Figures 8 and 11, both ground structures

single vertical rod and pole base have similar Main author

behaviors. That is, at the beginning of the process, when Name: Vilson Luiz Coelho

the electric field is growing but still below the critical Address: R. Tenente Silveira 570/Ap.308; CEP 88.010-301

value, the impedance curves tend to reach the steady Florianpolis SC.

state values. When the soil ionization begins, it causes a Phone: (48)9980.6238; E-mail: vilson.coelho@vlc.eng.br

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