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EXAMPLEPROBLEMS

PROBLEM1.1
Aspacecraft'sengineejectsmassatarateof30kg/swithanexhaustvelocity
of3,100m/s.Thepressureatthenozzleexitis5kPaandtheexitareais
0.7m2 .Whatisthethrustoftheengineinavacuum?

SOLUTION,
Given:q=30kg/s
Ve=3,100m/s
Ae=0.7m2
Pe=5kPa=5,000N/m2
Pa=0

Equation(1.6),

F=qVe+(PePa)Ae
F=303,100+(5,0000)0.7
F=96,500N

PROBLEM1.2
Thespacecraftinproblem1.1hasaninitialmassof30,000kg.Whatisthe
changeinvelocityifthespacecraftburnsitsengineforoneminute?

SOLUTION,
Given:M=30,000kg
q=30kg/s
Ve=3,100m/s
t=60s

Equation(1.16),

V=VeLN[M/(Mqt)]
V=3,100LN[30,000/(30,000(3060))]
V=192m/s

PROBLEM1.3
Aspacecraft'sdrymassis75,000kgandtheeffectiveexhaustgasvelocity
ofitsmainengineis3,100m/s.Howmuchpropellantmustbecarriedifthe
propulsionsystemistoproduceatotal vof700m/s?

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SOLUTION,
Given:Mf=75,000kg
C=3,100m/s
V=700m/s

Equation(1.20),

Mo=Mfe( V/C)
Mo=75,000e(700/3,100)
Mo=94,000kg

Propellantmass,

Mp=MoMf
Mp=94,00075,000
Mp=19,000kg

PROBLEM1.4
A5,000kgspacecraftisinEarthorbittravelingatavelocityof7,790m/s.
Itsengineisburnedtoaccelerateittoavelocityof12,000m/splacingit
onanescapetrajectory.Theengineexpelsmassatarateof10kg/sandan
effectivevelocityof3,000m/s.Calculatethedurationoftheburn.

SOLUTION,
Given:M=5,000kg
q=10kg/s
C=3,000m/s
V=12,0007,790=4,210m/s

Equation(1.21),

t=M/q[11/e( V/C) ]
t=5,000/10[11/e(4,210/3,000) ]
t=377s

PROBLEM1.5
Arocketengineburningliquidoxygenandkeroseneoperatesatamixtureratio
of2.26andacombustionchamberpressureof50atmospheres.Ifthenozzleis
expandedtooperateatsealevel,calculatetheexhaustgasvelocityrelative
totherocket.

SOLUTION,
Given:O/F=2.26
Pc=50atm
Pe=Pa=1atm

FromLOX/KeroseneChartsweestimate,

Tc=3,470K

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M=21.40
k=1.221

Equation(1.22),

Ve=SQRT[(2k/(k1))(R*Tc/M)(1(Pe/Pc)(k1)/k )]
Ve=SQRT[(21.221/(1.2211))(8,314.463,470/21.40)(1(1/50)(1.2211)/1.221 )]
Ve=2,749m/s

PROBLEM1.6
Arocketengineproducesathrustof1,000kNatsealevelwithapropellant
flowrateof400kg/s.Calculatethespecificimpulse.

SOLUTION,
Given:F=1,000,000N
q=400kg/s

Equation(1.23),

Isp=F/(qg)
Isp=1,000,000/(4009.80665)
Isp=255s(sealevel)

PROBLEM1.7
Arocketengineusesthesamepropellant,mixtureratio,andcombustionchamber
pressureasthatinproblem1.5.Ifthepropellantflowrateis500kg/s,
calculatetheareaoftheexhaustnozzlethroat.

SOLUTION,
Given:Pc=500.101325=5.066MPa
Tc=3,470K
M=21.40
k=1.221
q=500kg/s

Equation(1.27),

Pt=Pc[1+(k1)/2]k/(k1)
Pt=5.066[1+(1.2211)/2]1.221/(1.2211)
Pt=2.839MPa=2.839106 N/m2

Equation(1.28),

Tt=Tc/(1+(k1)/2)
Tt=3,470/(1+(1.2211)/2)
Tt=3,125K

Equation(1.26),

At=(q/Pt)SQRT[(R*Tt)/(Mk)]
At=(500/2.839106 )SQRT[(8,314.463,125)/(21.401.221)]
At=0.1756m2

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PROBLEM1.8
Therocketengineinproblem1.7isoptimizedtooperateatanelevationof2000
meters.Calculatetheareaofthenozzleexitandthesectionratio.

SOLUTION,
Given:Pc=5.066MPa
At=0.1756m2
k=1.221

FromAtmosphereProperties,

Pa=0.0795MPa

Equation(1.29),

Nm2 =(2/(k1))[(Pc/Pa)(k1)/k 1]
Nm2 =(2/(1.2211))[(5.066/0.0795)(1.2211)/1.221 1]
Nm2 =10.15
Nm=(10.15)1/2 =3.185

Equation(1.30),

Ae=(At/Nm)[(1+(k1)/2Nm2 )/((k+1)/2)](k+1)/(2(k1))
Ae=(0.1756/3.185)[(1+(1.2211)/210.15)/((1.221+1)/2)](1.221+1)/(2(1.2211))
Ae=1.426m2

SectionRatio,

Ae/At=1.426/0.1756=8.12

PROBLEM1.9
Fortherocketengineinproblem1.7,calculatethevolumeanddimensionsofa
possiblecombustionchamber.Theconvergentconehalfangleis20degrees.

SOLUTION,
Given:At=0.1756m2 =1,756cm2
Dt=2(1,756/ )1/2 =47.3cm
=20o

FromTable1,

L*=102127cmforLOX/RP1,let'suse110cm

Equation(1.33),

Vc=AtL*
Vc=1,756110=193,160cm3

FromFigure1.7,

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Lc=66cm(secondorderapproximation)

Equation(1.35),

Dc=SQRT[(Dt3 +24/ tan Vc)/(Dc+6tan Lc)]

Dc=SQRT[(47.33 +24/ tan(20)193,160)/(Dc+6tan(20)66)]
Dc=56.6cm(fourinterations)

PROBLEM1.10
Asolidrocketmotorburnsalongthefaceofacentralcylindricalchannel10
meterslongand1meterindiameter.Thepropellanthasaburnratecoefficient
burnrateandtheproductgenerationratewhenthechamberpressureis5.0MPa.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=5.5
n=0.4
Pc=5.0MPa
p=1.70g/ml
Ab= 110=31.416m2

Equation(1.36),

r=aPcn
r=5.55.00.4 =10.47mm/s

Equation(1.37),

q= pAbr
q=1.7031.41610.47=559kg/s

PROBLEM1.11
Calculatetheidealdensityofasolidrocketpropellantconsistingof68%
ammoniumperchlorate,18%aluminum,and14%HTPBbymass.

SOLUTION,
Given:wAP =0.68
wAl =0.18
wHTPB =0.14

FromPropertiesofRocketPropellantswehave,

AP =1.95g/ml
Al =2.70g/ml
HTPB =0.93g/ml

Equation(1.38),

p=1/ i (w/ )i
p=1/[(0.68/1.95)+(0.18/2.70)+(0.14/0.93)]
p=1.767

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PROBLEM1.12
Atwostagerockethasthefollowingmasses:1ststagepropellantmass120,000
kg,1ststagedrymass9,000kg,2ndstagepropellantmass30,000kg,2ndstage
1stand2ndstagesare260sand320srespectively.Calculatetherocket's
total V.

SOLUTION,
Given:Mo1 =120,000+9,000+30,000+3,000+3,000=165,000kg
Mf1 =9,000+30,000+3,000+3,000=45,000kg
Isp1 =260s
Mo2 =30,000+3,000+3,000=36,000kg
Mf2 =3,000+3,000=6,000kg
Isp2 =320s

Equation(1.24),

C1 =Isp1 g
C1 =2609.80665=2,550m/s

C2 =Isp2 g
C2 =3209.80665=3,138m/s

Equation(1.39),

V1 =C1 LN[Mo1 /Mf1 ]

V1 =2,550LN[165,000/45,000]
V1 =3,313m/s

V2 =C2 LN[Mo2 /Mf2 ]

V2 =3,138LN[36,000/6,000]
V2 =5,623m/s

Equation(1.40),

VTotal = V1 + V2
VTotal =3,313+5,623
VTotal =8,936m/s

PROBLEM3.1
UsingtheBarrowmanmethod,calculatethelocationofthecenterofpressurefromthe

SOLUTION,
Given:LN =400mm
d=200mm
dF =200mm
dR =160mm
LT =120mm
XP =900mm

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CR =240mm
CT =120mm
S=240mm
LF =247mm
R=80mm
XR =120mm
XB =1,760mm
N=3each

Equations(3.1)through(3.6),

(CN )N =2

XN =0.466LN
XN =0.466400=186mm

(CN )T =2[(dR /d)2 (dF /d)2 ]

(CN )T =2[(160/200)2 (200/200)2 ]
(CN )T =0.72

XT =XP +LT /3[1+(1dF /dR )/(1(dF /dR )2 )]

XT =900+120/3[1+(1200/160)/(1(200/160)2 )]
XT =958mm

(CN )F =(1+R/(S+R))[4N(S/d)2 /(1+SQRT[1+(2LF /(CR +CT ))2 ])]

(CN )F =(1+80/(240+80))[43(240/200)2 /(1+SQRT[1+(2247/(240+120))2 ])]
(CN )F =8.01

XF =XB +XR /3(CR +2CT )/(CR +CT )+1/6[CR +CT CR CT /(CR +CT )]
XF =1760+120/3(240+2120)/(240+120)+1/6[240+120240120/(240+120)]
XF =1,860mm

Equations(3.7)and(3.8),

(CN )R =(CN )N +(CN )T +(CN )F

(CN )R =20.72+8.01=9.29

X=[(CN )N XN +(CN )T XT +(CN )F XF ]/(CN )R

X=[21860.72958+8.011860]/9.29
X=1,570mm

PROBLEM4.1
CalculatethevelocityofanartificialsatelliteorbitingtheEarthina
circularorbitatanaltitudeof200kmabovetheEarth'ssurface.

SOLUTION,
FromBasicsConstants,

GMofEarth=3.9860051014 m3 /s2

Given:r=(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m

Equation(4.6),

v=SQRT[GM/r]
v=SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,578,140]

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v=7,784m/s

PROBLEM4.2
Calculatetheperiodofrevolutionforthesatelliteinproblem4.1.

SOLUTION,
Given:r=6,578,140m

Equation(4.9),

P2 =4 2 r3 /GM

P=SQRT[4 2 r3 /GM]
P=SQRT[4 2 6,578,1403 /3.9860051014 ]
P=5,310s

PROBLEM4.3
wheretheEarth'srotationalperiodis86,164.1seconds.

SOLUTION,
Given:P=86,164.1s

Equation(4.9),

P2 =4 2 r3 /GM

r=[P2 GM/(4 2 )]1/3

r=[86,164.12 3.9860051014 /(4 2 )]1/3
r=42,164,170m

PROBLEM4.4
AnartificialEarthsatelliteisinanellipticalorbitwhichbringsitto
analtitudeof250kmatperigeeandouttoanaltitudeof500kmatapogee.
Calculatethevelocityofthesatelliteatbothperigeeandapogee.

SOLUTION,
Given:Rp=(6,378.14+250)1,000=6,628,140m
Ra=(6,378.14+500)1,000=6,878,140m

Equations(4.16)and(4.17),

Vp=SQRT[2GMRa/(Rp(Ra+Rp))]
Vp=SQRT[23.9860051014 6,878,140/(6,628,140(6,878,140+6,628,140))]
Vp=7,826m/s
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Va=SQRT[2GMRp/(Ra(Ra+Rp))]
Va=SQRT[23.9860051014 6,628,140/(6,878,140(6,878,140+6,628,140))]
Va=7,542m/s

PROBLEM4.5
AsatelliteinEarthorbitpassesthroughitsperigeepointatanaltitudeof
200kmabovetheEarth'ssurfaceandatavelocityof7,850m/s.Calculatethe
apogeealtitudeofthesatellite.

SOLUTION,
Given:Rp=(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m
Vp=7,850m/s

Equation(4.18),

Ra=Rp/[2GM/(RpVp2 )1]
Ra=6,578,140/[23.9860051014 /(6,578,1407,8502 )1]
Ra=6,805,140m

Altitude@apogee=6,805,140/1,0006,378.14=427.0km

PROBLEM4.6
Calculatetheeccentricityoftheorbitforthesatelliteinproblem4.5.

SOLUTION,
Given:Rp=6,578,140m
Vp=7,850m/s

Equation(4.20),

e=RpVp2 /GM1
e=6,578,1407,8502 /3.9860051014 1
e=0.01696

PROBLEM4.7
AsatelliteinEarthorbithasasemimajoraxisof6,700kmandaneccentricity
of0.01.Calculatethesatellite'saltitudeatbothperigeeandapogee.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=6,700km
e=0.01

Equation(4.21)and(4.22),

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Rp=a(1e)
Rp=6,700(1.01)
Rp=6,633km

Altitude@perigee=6,6336,378.14=254.9km

Ra=a(1+e)
Ra=6,700(1+.01)
Ra=6,767km

Altitude@apogee=6,7676,378.14=388.9km

PROBLEM4.8
AsatelliteislaunchedintoEarthorbitwhereitslaunchvehicleburnsoutat
analtitudeof250km.Atburnoutthesatellite'svelocityis7,900m/swiththe
zenithangleequalto89degrees.Calculatethesatellite'saltitudeatperigee
andapogee.

SOLUTION,
Given:r1=(6,378.14+250)1,000=6,628,140m
v1=7,900m/s
=89o

Equation(4.26),

(Rp/r1)1,2 =(CSQRT[C2 4(1C)sin2 ])/(2(1C))

whereC=2GM/(r1v12 )
C=23.9860051014 /(6,628,1407,9002 )
C=1.927179

(Rp/r1)1,2 =(1.927179SQRT[1.9271792 40.927179sin2 (89)])/(20.927179)

(Rp/r1)1,2 =0.996019and1.082521

Rp=6,628,1400.996019
Rp=6,601,750m

Altitude@perigee=6,601,750/1,0006,378.14=223.6km

Ra=6,628,1401.082521
Ra=7,175,100m

Altitude@agogee=7,175,100/1,0006,378.14=797.0km

PROBLEM4.9
Calculatetheeccentricityoftheorbitforthesatelliteinproblem4.8.

SOLUTION,

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Given:r1=6,628,140m
v1=7,900m/s
=89o

Equation(4.27),

e=SQRT[(r1v12 /GM1)2 sin2 +cos2 ]

e=SQRT[(6,628,1407,9002 /3.9860051014 1)2 sin2 (89)+cos2 (89)]
e=0.0416170

PROBLEM4.10
Calculatetheangle fromperigeepointtolaunchpointforthesatellite
inproblem4.8.

SOLUTION,
Given:r1=6,628,140m
v1=7,900m/s
=89o

Equation(4.28),

tan =(r1v12 /GM)sin cos /[(r1v12 /GM)sin2 1]

tan =(6,628,1407,9002 /3.9860051014 )sin(89)cos(89)
/[(6,628,1407,9002 /3.9860051014 )sin2 (89)1]
tan =0.48329

=arctan(0.48329)
=25.794o

PROBLEM4.11
Calculatethesemimajoraxisoftheorbitforthesatelliteinproblem4.8.

SOLUTION,
Given:r1=6,628,140m
v1=7,900m/s

Equation(4.32),

a=1/(2/r1v12 /GM)
a=1/(2/6,628,1407,9002 /3.9860051014 ))
a=6,888,430m

PROBLEM4.12
Forthesatelliteinproblem4.8,burnoutoccurs20001020,15:00UT.The
geocentriccoordinatesatburnoutare32o Nlatitude,60o Wlongitude,andthe

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andlongitudeofascendingnode.

SOLUTION,
Given: =86o
=32o
2 =60o

Fromproblem4.10,

=25.794o

Equation(4.33),

cos(i)=cos( )sin( )
cos(i)=cos(32)sin(86)
i=32.223o

Equations(4.34)and(4.36),

tan( )=tan( )/cos( )

tan( )=tan(32)/cos(86)
=83.630o

=
=83.63025.794
=57.836o

Equations(4.35)and(4.37),

tan( )=sin( )tan( )

tan( )=sin(32)tan(86)
=82.483o

1 = 2
1 =6082.483
1 =142.483o

=Siderealtimeat142.483longitude,20001020,15:00UT
=7h 27'34"=111.892o

PROBLEM4.13
Asatelliteisinanorbitwithasemimajoraxisof7,500kmandaneccentricity
of0.1.Calculatethetimeittakestomovefromaposition30degreespast
perigeeto90degreespastperigee.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=7,5001,000=7,500,000m
e=0.1
tO =0

Equation(4.40),

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cosE=(e+cos )/(1+ecos )

Eo=arccos[(0.1+cos(0.52360))/(1+0.1cos(0.52360))]

E=arccos[(0.1+cos(1.57080))/(1+0.1cos(1.57080))]

Equation(4.41),

M=EesinE

Mo=0.475570.1sin(0.47557)

M=1.470630.1sin(1.47063)

Equation(4.39),

n=SQRT[GM/a3 ]
n=SQRT[3.9860051014 /7,500,0003 ]

Equation(4.38),

MMo=n(ttO )

t=tO +(MMo)/n
t=0+(1.371130.42978)/0.00097202
t=968.4s

PROBLEM4.14
Thesatelliteinproblem4.13hasatrueanomalyof90degrees.Whatwillbethe
satellite'sposition,i.e.it'strueanomaly,20minuteslater?

SOLUTION,
Given:a=7,500,000m
e=0.1
tO =0
t=2060=1,200s

Fromproblem4.13,

Equation(4.38),

MMo=n(ttO )

M=Mo+n(ttO )
M=1.37113+0.00097202(1,2000)
M=2.53755

METHOD#1,LowAccuracy:

Equation(4.42),

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~M+2esinM+1.25e2 sin2M
~2.53755+20.1sin(2.53755)+1.250.12 sin(22.53755)
~2.63946=151.2degrees

METHOD#2,HighAccuracy:

Equation(4.41),

M=EesinE
2.53755=E0.1sinE

Equation(4.40),

cosE=(e+cos )/(1+ecos )

Rearrangingvariablesgives,

cos =(cosEe)/(1ecosE)

=arccos[(cos(2.58996)0.1)/(10.1cos(2.58996)]
=2.64034=151.3degrees

PROBLEM4.15
Forthesatelliteinproblems4.13and4.14,calculatethelengthofitsposition
vector,itsflightpathangle,anditsvelocitywhenthesatellite'strueanomaly
is225degrees.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=7,500,000m
e=0.1
=225degrees

Equations(4.43)and(4.44),

r=a(1e2 )/(1+ecos )
r=7,500,000(10.12 )/(1+0.1cos(225))
r=7,989,977m

=arctan[esin /(1+ecos )]
=arctan[0.1sin(225)/(1+0.1cos(225))]
=4.351degrees

Equation(4.45),

v=SQRT[GM(2/r1/a)]
v=SQRT[3.9860051014 (2/7,989,9771/7,500,000)]
v=6,828m/s

PROBLEM4.16
Calculatetheperturbationsinlongitudeoftheascendingnodeandargumentof
perigeecausedbytheMoonandSunfortheInternationalSpaceStationorbiting
atanaltitudeof400km,aninclinationof51.6degrees,andwithanorbital

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periodof92.6minutes.

SOLUTION,
Given:i=51.6degrees
n=1436/92.6=15.5revolutions/day

Equations(4.46)through(4.49),

Moon =0.00338cos(i)/n
Moon =0.00338cos(51.6)/15.5
Moon =0.000135deg/day

Sun =0.00154cos(i)/n
Sun =0.00154cos(51.6)/15.5
Sun =0.0000617deg/day

2 i)/n
Moon =0.00169(45sin
2 51.6)/15.5
Moon =0.00169(45sin
Moon =0.000101deg/day

2 i)/n
Sun =0.00077(45sin
2 51.6)/15.5
Sun =0.00077(45sin
Sun =0.000046deg/day

PROBLEM4.17
Asatelliteisinanorbitwithasemimajoraxisof7,500km,aninclination
of28.5degrees,andaneccentricityof0.1.CalculatetheJ2 perturbationsin
longitudeoftheascendingnodeandargumentofperigee.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=7,500km
i=28.5degrees
e=0.1

Equations(4.50)and(4.51),

14 a7/2 (cosi)(1e2 )2
J2 =2.0647410
14 (7,500)7/2 (cos28.5)(1(0.1)2 )2
J2 =2.0647410
J2 =5.067deg/day

14 a7/2 (45sin2 i)(1e2 )2

J2 =1.0323710
14 (7,500)7/2 (45sin2 28.5)(1(0.1)2 )2
J2 =1.0323710
J2 =8.250deg/day

PROBLEM4.18
AsatelliteisinacircularEarthorbitatanaltitudeof400km.Thesatellite
hasacylindricalshape2mindiameterby4mlongandhasamassof1,000kg.
Thesatelliteistravelingwithitslongaxisperpendiculartothevelocity
vectorandit'sdragcoefficientis2.67.Calculatetheperturbationsdueto

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SOLUTION,
Given:a=(6,378.14+400)1,000=6,778,140m
A=24=8m2
m=1,000kg
CD =2.67

FromAtmosphereProperties,

=2.621012 kg/m3
H=58.2km

Equation(4.6),

V=SQRT[GM/a]
V=SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,778,140]
V=7,669m/s

Equations(4.53)through(4.55),

arev =(2 CD A a2 )/m

arev =(2 2.6782.621012 6,778,1402 )/1,000
arev =16.2m

Prev =(6 2 CD A a2 )/(mV)

Prev =(6 2 2.6782.621012 6,778,1402 )/(1,0007,669)
Prev =0.0199s

Vrev =( CD A aV)/m
Vrev =( 2.6782.621012 6,778,1407,669)/1,000
Vrev =0.00914m/s

Equation(4.56),

L~H/ arev
L~(58.21,000)/16.2
L~3,600revolutions

PROBLEM4.19
Aspacecraftisinacircularparkingorbitwithanaltitudeof200km.
CalculatethevelocitychangerequiredtoperformaHohmanntransfertoa
circularorbitatgeosynchronousaltitude.

SOLUTION,
Given:rA =(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m

Fromproblem4.3,

rB =42,164,170m

Equations(4.58)through(4.65),

atx =(rA +rB )/2

atx =(6,578,140+42,164,170)/2
atx =24,371,155m

ViA =SQRT[GM/rA ]
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ViA =SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,578,140]
ViA =7,784m/s

VfB =SQRT[GM/rB ]
VfB =SQRT[3.9860051014 /42,164,170]
VfB =3,075m/s

VtxA =SQRT[GM(2/rA 1/atx )]

VtxA =SQRT[3.9860051014 (2/6,578,1401/24,371,155)]
VtxA =10,239m/s

VtxB =SQRT[GM(2/rB 1/atx )]

VtxB =SQRT[3.9860051014 (2/42,164,1701/24,371,155)]
VtxB =1,597m/s

VA =VtxA ViA
VA =10,2397,784
VA =2,455m/s

VB =VfB VtxB
VB =3,0751,597
VB =1,478m/s

VT = VA + VB
VT =2,455+1,478
VT =3,933m/s

PROBLEM4.20
Asatelliteisinacircularparkingorbitwithanaltitudeof200km.Using
aonetangentburn,itistobetransferredtogeosynchronousaltitudeusinga
transferellipsewithasemimajoraxisof30,000km.Calculatethetotal
requiredvelocitychangeandthetimerequiredtocompletethetransfer.

SOLUTION,
Given:rA =(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m
rB =42,164,170m
atx =30,0001,000=30,000,000m

Equations(4.66)through(4.68),

e=1rA /atx
e=16,578,140/30,000,000
e=0.780729

=arccos[(atx (1e2 )/rB 1)/e]

=arccos[(30,000,000(10.7807292 )/42,164,1701)/0.780729]
=157.670degrees

=arctan[esin /(1+ecos )]
=arctan[0.780729sin(157.670)/(1+0.780729cos(157.670))]
=46.876degrees

Equations(4.59)through(4.63),

ViA =SQRT[GM/rA ]

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ViA =SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,578,140]
ViA =7,784m/s

VfB =SQRT[GM/rB ]
VfB =SQRT[3.9860051014 /42,164,170]
VfB =3,075m/s

VtxA =SQRT[GM(2/rA 1/atx )]

VtxA =SQRT[3.9860051014 (2/6,578,1401/30,000,000)]
VtxA =10,388m/s

VtxB =SQRT[GM(2/rB 1/atx )]

VtxB =SQRT[3.9860051014 (2/42,164,1701/30,000,000)]
VtxB =2,371m/s

VA =VtxA ViA
VA =10,3887,784
VA =2,604m/s

Equation(4.69),

VB =SQRT[VtxB 2 +VfB 2 2VtxB VfB cos ]

VB =SQRT[2,3712 +3,0752 22,3713,075cos(46.876)]
VB =2,260m/s

Equation(4.65),

VT = VA + VB
VT =2,604+2,260
VT =4,864m/s

Equations(4.70)and(4.71),

E=arccos[(e+cos )/(1+ecos )]
E=arccos[(0.780729+cos(157.670))/(1+0.780729cos(157.670))]

TOF=(EesinE)SQRT[atx 3 /GM]
TOF=(2.116880.780729sin(2.11688))SQRT[30,000,0003 /3.9860051014 ]
TOF=11,931s=3.314hours

PROBLEM4.21
Calculatethevelocitychangerequiredtotransferasatellitefromacircular
600kmorbitwithaninclinationof28degreestoanorbitofequalsizewith
aninclinationof20degrees.

SOLUTION,
Given:r=(6,378.14+600)1,000=6,978,140m
=2820=8degrees

Equation(4.6),

Vi=SQRT[GM/r]
Vi=SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,978,140]
Vi=7,558m/s

Equation(4.73),

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1/31/2017 Example Problems

V=2Visin( /2)
V=27,558sin(8/2)
V=1,054m/s

PROBLEM4.22
Asatelliteisinaparkingorbitwithanaltitudeof200kmandaninclination
of28degrees.Calculatethetotalvelocitychangerequiredtotransferthe
satellitetoazeroinclinationgeosynchronousorbitusingaHohmanntransfer
withacombinedplanechangeatapogee.

Given:rA =(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m
rB =42,164,170m
=28degrees

Fromproblem4.19,

VfB =3,075m/s
VtxB =1,597m/s
VA =2,455m/s

Equation(4.74),

VB =SQRT[VtxB 2 +VfB 2 2VtxB VfB cos ]

VB =SQRT[1,5972 +3,0752 21,5973,075cos(28)]
VB =1,826m/s

Equation(4.65),

VT = VA + VB
VT =2,455+1,826
VT =4,281m/s

PROBLEM4.23
Aspacecraftisinanorbitwithaninclinationof30degreesandthelongitude
oftheascendingnodeis75degrees.Calculatetheanglechangerequiredto
changetheinclinationto32degreesandthelongitudeoftheascendingnodeto
80degrees.

SOLUTION,
Given:ii =30degrees
i=75degrees
if =32degrees
f=80degrees

Equation(4.75),

a2=sin(ii )sin( i)=sin(30)sin(75)=0.482963

a3=cos(ii )=cos(30)=0.866025

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b1=sin(if )cos( f)=sin(32)cos(80)=0.0920195

b2=sin(if )sin( f)=sin(32)sin(80)=0.521869

b3=cos(if )=cos(32)=0.848048

=arccos(a1b1+a2b2+a3b3)
=arccos(0.1294100.0920195+0.4829630.521869+0.8660250.848048)
=3.259degrees

PROBLEM4.24
Calculatethelatitudeandlongitudeoftheintersectionnodesbetweenthe
initialandfinalorbitsforthespacecraftinproblem4.23.

SOLUTION,
Fromproblem4.21,

a1=0.129410
a2=0.482963
a3=0.866025
b1=0.0920195
b2=0.521869
b3=0.848048

Equations(4.76)and(4.77),

c1=a2b3a3b2=0.4829630.8480480.8660250.521869=0.0423757

c2=a3b1a1b3=0.8660250.09201950.1294100.848048=0.0300543

c3=a1b2a2b1=0.1294100.5218690.4829630.0920195=0.0230928

lat1 =arctan(c3/(c12 +c22 )1/2 )

lat1 =arctan(0.0230928/(0.04237572 +0.03005432 )1/2 )
lat1 =23.965degrees

long1 =arctan(c2/c1)+90
long1 =arctan(0.0300543/0.0423757)+90
long1 =125.346degrees

lat2 =23.965degrees
long2 =125.346+180=305.346degrees

PROBLEM4.25
CalculatetheescapevelocityofaspacecraftlaunchedfromanEarthorbitwith
analtitudeof200km.

SOLUTION,
Given:r=(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m

Equation(4.78),

Vesc =SQRT[2GM/r]

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Vesc =SQRT[23.9860051014 /6,578,140]
Vesc =11,009m/s

PROBLEM4.26
AspaceprobeisapproachingMarsonahyperbolicflybytrajectory.Whenat
itsflightpathangleis85.300degrees.Calculatetheprobe'seccentricity,
semimajoraxis,turningangle,angle ,trueanomaly,impactparameter,

SOLUTION,
FromBasicsConstants,

GMofMars=4.2828311013 m3 /s2

Given:r=100,0001,000=100,000,000m
v=5,140.0m/s
=85.300o

Equations(4.30)and(4.32),

e=SQRT[(rv2 /GM1)2 cos2 +sin2 ]

e=SQRT[(100,000,0005,1402 /4.2828311013 1)2 cos2 (85.3)+sin2 (85.3)]
e=5.0715

a=1/(2/rv2 /GM)
a=1/(2/100,000,0005,1402 /4.2828311013 )
a=1,675,400m

Equations(4.80)through(4.85),

sin( /2)=1/e
=2arcsin(1/5.0715)
=22.744o

cos =1/e
=arccos(1/5.0715)
=101.37o

=arccos[(a(1e2 )r)/(er)]
=arccos[(1,675,400(15.07152 )100,000,000)/(5.0715100,000,000)]
=96.633o

b=a/tan( /2)
b=1,675.4/tan(22.744/2)
b=8,330.0km

ro =a(1e)
ro =1,675.4(15.0715)
ro =6,821.4km

p=a(1e2 )
p=1,675.4(15.07152 )
p=41,416km

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PROBLEM4.27
Thespaceprobeinproblem4.26hasmovedtoatrueanomalyof75degrees.

SOLUTION,
Given:a=1,675,400m
e=5.0715
=75o

Equations(4.43)through(4.45),

r=a(1e2 )/(1+ecos )
r=1,675,400(15.07152 )/(1+5.0715cos(75))
r=17,909,000m

=arctan[esin /(1+ecos )]
=arctan[5.0715sin(75)/(1+5.0715cos(75))]
=64.729o

v=SQRT[GM(2/r1/a)]
v=SQRT[4.2828311013 (2/17,909,0001/1,675,400)]
v=5,508.7m/s

PROBLEM4.28
AspacecraftislaunchedfromEarthonahyperbolictrajectorywithasemimajor
axisof36,000kmandaneccentricityof1.1823.Howlongdoesittaketomove
fromatrueanomalyof15degreestoatrueanomalyof120degrees?

SOLUTION,
Given:a=36,0001,000=36,000,000m
e=1.1823
O =15o
=120o

Equation(4.87),

coshF=(e+cos )/(1+ecos )

Fo=arccosh[(1.1823+cos(15))/(1+1.1823cos(15))]
Fo=0.07614

F=arccosh[(1.1823+cos(120))/(1+1.1823cos(120))]
F=1.10023

Equation(4.86),

ttO =SQRT[(a)3 /GM][(esinhFF)(esinhFoFo)]

ttO =SQRT[(36,000,000)3 /3.9860051014 ][(1.1823sinh(1.10023)1.10023)
(1.1823sinh(0.07614)0.07614)]
ttO =5,035s=1.399hours

PROBLEM4.29
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AspacecraftlaunchedfromEarthhasaburnoutvelocityof11,500m/satan
altitudeof200km.Whatisthehyperbolicexcessvelocity?

SOLUTION,
Given:Vbo =11,500m/s

Fromproblem4.25,

Vesc =11,009m/s

Equation(4.88),

V 2 =V 2 V 2
bo esc
V =SQRT[11,5002 11,0092 ]
V =3,325m/s

PROBLEM4.30

SOLUTION,
FromBasicsConstants,

Dsp =149,597,870km
MP =5.97371024 kg
MS =1.98911030 kg

Equation(4.89),

REarth =Dsp (MP /MS )0.4

REarth =149,597,870(5.97371024 /1.98911030 )0.4
REarth =925,000km

PROBLEM5.1
Usingaonetangentburn,calculatethechangeintrueanomalyandthe
departureis1.000AUandthatofMarsatarrivalis1.524AU.Thesemimajor
axisofthetransferorbitis1.300AU.

SOLUTION,
Given:rA =1.000AU
rB =1.524AU
atx =1.300AU149.597870109 m/AU=194.48109 m

FromBasicsConstants,

GMofSun=1.3271241020 m3 /s2

Equations(4.66)and(4.67),

e=1rA /atx

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e=11.0/1.3
e=0.230769

=arccos[(atx (1e2 )/rB 1)/e]
=arccos[(1.3(10.2307692 )/1.5241)/0.230769]
=146.488degrees

Equations(4.70)and(4.71),

E=arccos[(e+cos )/(1+ecos )]
E=arccos[(0.230769+cos(146.488))/(1+0.230769cos(146.488))]

TOF=(EesinE)SQRT[atx 3 /GM]
TOF=(2.413830.230769sin(2.41383))SQRT[(194.48109 )3 /1.3271241020 ]
TOF=16,827,800s=194.77days

PROBLEM5.2
Forthetransferorbitinproblem5.1,calculatethedeparturephaseangle,given
thattheangularvelocityofMarsis0.5240degrees/day.

SOLUTION,
Given: 2 1 =146.488o
t2 t1 =194.77days
o /day
t =0.5240

Equation(5.1),

=( 2 1 ) t (t2 t1 )
=146.4880.5240194.77
=44.43o

PROBLEM5.3
AflighttoMarsislaunchedon2020720,0:00UT.Theplannedtimeofflight
is207days.Earth'spostionvectoratdepartureis0.473265X0.899215YAU.
Mars'postionvectoratinterceptis0.066842X+1.561256Y+0.030948ZAU.
Calculatetheparameterandsemimajoraxisofthetransferorbit.

SOLUTION,
Given:t=207days
r1=0.473265X0.899215YAU
r2=0.066842X+1.561256Y+0.030948ZAU
GM=1.3271241020 m3 /s2
=1.3271241020 /(149.597870109 )3 =3.9640161014 AU3 /s2

Fromvectormagnitude,

r1=SQRT[0.4732652 +(0.899215)2 ]
r1=1.016153AU

r2=SQRT[0.0668422 +1.5612562 +0.0309482 ]

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r2=1.562993AU

Fromvectordotproduct,

=arccos[(0.4732650.0668420.8992151.561256)/(1.0161531.562993)]
=149.770967o

Equations(5.9),(5.10)and(5.11),

k=r1 r2 (1cos )
k=1.0161531.562993(1cos(149.770967))
k=2.960511AU

=r1 +r2
=1.016153+1.562993
=2.579146AU

m=r1 r2 (1+cos )
m=1.0161531.562993(1+cos(149.770967))
m=0.215969AU

Equations(5.18)and(5.19),

pi =k/( +SQRT(2m))
pi =2.960511/(2.579146+SQRT(20.215969))
pi =0.914764AU

pii =k/( SQRT(2m))

pii =2.960511/(2.579146SQRT(20.215969))
pii =1.540388AU

Since < ,0.914764<p<

Equation(5.12),

Selecttrialvalue,p=1.2AU

a=mkp/[(2m 2 )p2 +2k pk2 ]

a=0.2159692.9605111.2
/[(20.2159692.5791462 )1.22 +22.9605112.5791461.22.9605112 ]
a=1.270478AU

Equations(5.5),(5.6)and(5.7),

f=1r2 /p(1cos )
f=11.562993/1.2(1cos(149.770967))
f=1.427875

g=r1 r2 sin /SQRT[GMp]

g=1.0161531.562993sin(149.770967)/SQRT[3.9640161014 1.2]
g=3,666,240

=SQRT[GM/p]tan( /2)[(1cos )/p1/r1 1/r2 ]

=SQRT[3.9640161014 /1.2]tan(149.770967/2)
[(1cos(149.770967))/1.21/1.0161531/1.562993]
=4.747601108

Equation(5.13),

E=arccos[1r1 /a(1f)]
E=arccos[11.016153/1.270478(1+1.427875)]

Equation(5.16),

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t=g+SQRT[a3 /GM]( Esin E)

t=3,666,240+SQRT[1.2704783 /3.9640161014 ](2.798925sin(2.798925))
t=21,380,951s=247.4647days

Selectnewtrialvalueofpandrepeatabovesteps,

p=1.300000AU,a=1.443005AU,t=178.9588days

Equation(5.20),

pn+1 =pn +(ttn )(pn pn1 )/(tn tn1 )

pn+1 =1.3+(207178.9588)(1.31.2)/(178.9588247.4647)
pn+1 =1.259067AU

Recalculateusingnewvalueofp,

p=1.259067AU,a=1.336197AU,t=201.5624days

p=1.249221AU,a=1.318624AU,t=207.9408days
p=1.250673AU,a=1.321039AU,t=206.9733days
p=1.250633AU,a=1.320971AU,t=206.9999days<closeenough

PROBLEM5.4
FortheMarstransferorbitinProblem5.3,calculatethedepartureandintecept
velocityvectors.

SOLUTION,
Given:r1=0.473265X0.899215YAU
r2=0.066842X+1.561256Y+0.030948ZAU
r1=1.016153AU
r2=1.562993AU
p=1.250633AU
a=1.320971AU
=149.770967o

Equations(5.5),(5.6)and(5.7),

f=1r2 /p(1cos )
f=11.562993/1.250633(1cos(149.770967))
f=1.329580

g=r1 r2 sin /SQRT[GMp]

g=1.0161531.562993sin(149.770967)/SQRT[3.9640161014 1.250633]
g=3,591,258

=SQRT[GM/p]tan( /2)[(1cos )/p1/r1 1/r2 ]

=SQRT[3.9640161014 /1.250633]tan(149.770967/2)
[(1cos(149.770967))/1.2506331/1.0161531/1.562993]
=8.795872108

=1r1 /p(1cos )
=11.016153/1.250633(1cos(149.770967))
=0.514536

Equation(5.3),

v1=(r2fr1)/g

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v1=[(0.066842+1.3295800.473265)/3,591,258]X
+[(1.561256+1.3295800.899215)/3,591,258]Y
+[(0.030948+1.3295800)/3,591,258]Z

v1=0.000000193828X+0.000000101824Y+0.00000000861759ZAU/s149.597870109
v1=28996.2X+15232.7Y+1289.2Zm/s

Equation(5.4),

v2= r1+ v1

v2=[8.795872108 0.4732650.5145360.000000193828]X
+[8.795872108 0.8992150.5145360.000000101824]Y
+[8.795872108 00.5145360.00000000861759]Z

v2=0.000000141359X+0.0000000267017Y0.00000000443406ZAU/s149.597870109
v2=21147.0X+3994.5Y663.3Zm/s

PROBLEM5.5
FortheMarstransferorbitinProblems5.3and5.4,calculatetheorbitalelements.

SOLUTION,
Problemcanbesolvedusingeitherr1&v1orr2&v2wewilluser1&v1.

Given:r1=(0.473265X0.899215YAU)149.597870109 m/AU
=7.0799441010 X1.3452061011 Ym
r1=1.016153149.597870109 =1.5201441011 m
GM=1.3271241020 m3 /s2

Fromproblem5.4,

v1=28996.2X+15232.7Y+1289.2Zm/s

Also,

v=SQRT[28996.22 +15232.72 +1289.22 ]=32,779.2m/s

Equations(5.21)and(5.22),

h=(rY vZ rZ vY )X+(rZ vX rX vZ )Y+(rX vY rY vX )Z

h=(1.3452061011 1289.2015232.7)X+(028996.27.0799441010 1289.2)Y
+(7.0799441010 15232.7+1.3452061011 28996.2)Z
h=1.734241014 X9.127461013 Y+4.979051015 Z

n=hY X+hX Y
n=9.127461013 X1.734241014 Y

Also,

h=SQRT[(1.734241014 )2 +(9.127461013 )2 +(4.979051015 )2 ]=4.982911015

n=SQRT[(9.127461013 )2 +(1.734241014 )2 ]=1.959771014

Equation(5.23),

e=[(v2 GM/r)r(rv)v]/GM

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e=[2.01451108 (7.0799441010 X1.3452061011 Y)

3.802781012 (28996.2X+15232.7Y+1289.2Z)]/1.3271241020
e=0.106639X0.204632Y0.000037Z

Equations(5.24)and(5.25),

a=1/(2/rv2 /GM)
a=1/(2/1.5201441011 32779.22 /1.3271241020 )
a=1.976141011 m

e=SQRT[0.1066392 +(0.204632)2 +(0.000037)2 ]

e=0.230751

Equations(5.26)though(5.30),

cosi=hZ/h
cosi=4.979051015 /4.982911015
i=2.255o

cos =nX/n
cos =9.127461013 /1.959771014
=297.76o

cos =ne/(ne)
cos =(9.127461013 0.1066391.734241014 (0.204632)+0(0.000037))
/(1.959771014 0.230751)
=359.77o

cos o =er/(er)
cos o =(0.1066397.0799441010 0.204632(1.3452061011 )0.0000370)
/(0.2307511.5201441011 )
o =0.226o

cosuo =nr/(nr)
uo =0(launchpoint=ascendingnode)

Equations(5.31)and(5.32),

= +
=297.76+359.77
=297.53o

o = + + o
o =297.76+359.77+0.23
o =297.76o

PROBLEM5.6
ForthespacecraftinProblems5.3and5.4,calculatethehyperbolicexcess
velocityatdeparture,theinjection V,andthezenithangleofthedeparture
asymptote.Injectionoccursfroman200kmparkingorbit.Earth'svelocity
vectoratdepartureis25876.6X+13759.5Ym/s.

SOLUTION,
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Given:ro =(6,378.14+200)1,000=6,578,140m
r=0.473265X0.899215YAU
VP=25876.6X+13759.5Ym/s

Fromproblem5.4,

VS=28996.2X+15232.7Y+1289.2Zm/s

Equation(5.33),

VS/P=(VSX VPX )X+(VSY VPY )Y+(VSZ VPZ )Z

VS/P=(28996.225876.6)X+(15232.713759.5)Y+(1289.20)Z
VS/P=3119.6X+1473.2Y+1289.2Zm/s

Equation(5.34),

VS/P=SQRT[VS/PX 2 +VS/PY 2 +VS/PZ 2 ]

VS/P=SQRT[3119.62 +1473.22 +1289.22 ]
VS/P=3,683.0m/s

V =VS/P=3,683.0m/s

Equations(5.35)and(5.36),

Vo =SQRT[V 2 +2GM/r
o ]
Vo =SQRT[3,683.02 +23.9860051014 /6,578,140]
Vo =11,608.4m/s

V=Vo SQRT[GM/ro ]
V=11,608.4SQRT[3.9860051014 /6,578,140]
V=3,824.1m/s

Equation(5.37),

r=1.01615AU

=arccos[(rX vX +rY vY +rZ vZ )/(rv)]

=arccos[0.4732653119.60.8992151473.2+01289.2)/(1.016153683.0)]
=87.677o

PROBLEM5.7
ForthespacecraftinProblems5.3and5.4,givenamissdistanceof+18,500km
atarrival,calculatethehyperbolicexcessvelocity,impactparameter,and
semimajoraxisandeccentricityofthehyperbolicapproachtrajectory.Mars'
velocityvectoratinterceptis23307.8X+3112.0Y+41.8Zm/s.

SOLUTION,
Given:d=18,500km/149.597870106 =0.000123664AU
r=0.066842X+1.561256Y+0.030948ZAU
VP=23307.8X+3112.0Y+41.8Zm/s

FromBasicsConstants,

GMofMars=4.2828311013 m3 /s2

Fromproblem5.4,

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1/31/2017 Example Problems

VS=21147.0X+3994.5Y663.3Zm/s

Equation(5.33),

VS/P=(VSX VPX )X+(VSY VPY )Y+(VSZ VPZ )Z

VS/P=(21147.0+23307.8)X+(3994.53112.0)Y+(663.341.8)Z
VS/P=2160.8X+882.5Y705.1Zm/s

Equation(5.34),

VS/P=SQRT[VS/PX 2 +VS/PY 2 +VS/PZ 2 ]

VS/P=SQRT[2160.82 +882.52 +(705.1)2 ]
VS/P=2,438.2m/s

V =VS/P=2,438.2m/s

Equations(5.38.A)and(5.38.B),

dx =dry /SQRT[rx 2 +ry 2 ]

dx =0.0001236641.561256/SQRT[0.0668422 +1.5612562 ]
dx =0.000123551AU

dy =drx /SQRT[rx 2 +ry 2 ]

dy =0.0001236640.066842/SQRT[0.0668422 +1.5612562 ]
dy =0.0000052896AU

Equation(5.39),

=arccos[(dx vx +dy vy )/(dv)]

=arccos[(0.0001235512160.8+0.0000052896882.5)/(0.0001236642,438.2)]
=150.451o

Equations(5.40)through(5.42),

b=dsin
b=18,500sin(150.451)
b=9,123.6km

a=GM/V 2

a=4.2828311013 /2,438.22
a=7.2043106 m=7,204.3km

e=SQRT[1+b2 /a2 ]
e=SQRT[1+9,123.62 /7,204.32 ]
e=1.6136

PROBLEM5.8
AsaspacecraftapproachesJupiter,ithasavelocityof9,470m/s,aflight
pathangleof39.2degrees,andatargetedmissdistanceof2,500,000km.At
intercept,Jupiter'svelocityis12,740m/swithaflightpathangleof2.40
degrees.Calculatethespacecraft'svelocityandflightpathanglefollowing
itsswingbyofJupiter.

Given:VP =12,740m/s
P =2.40o
VSi =9,470m/s
Si =39.2
o

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1/31/2017 Example Problems
d=2,500,000km

FromBasicsConstants,

GMofJupiter=1.266861017 m3 /s2

Equations(5.44)and(5.45),

VP=(VP cos P )X+(VP sin P )Y

VP=(12740cos(2.40))X+(12740sin(2.40))Y
VP=12729X+533Ym/s

VSi=(VSi cos Si )X+(VSi sin Si )Y

VSi=(9470cos(39.2))X+(9470sin(39.2))Y
VSi=7339X+5985Ym/s

Equations(5.46)and(5.47),

VS/Pi=((VSi )X VPX )X+((VSi )Y VPY )Y

VS/Pi=(733912729)X+(5985533)Y
VS/Pi=5390X+5452Ym/s

VS/P=SQRT[(VS/Pi )X 2 +(VS/Pi )Y 2 ]
VS/P=SQRT[(5390)2 +54522 ]
VS/P=7,667m/s

V =VS/P=7,667m/s

Equation(5.48),

i =arctan[(VS/Pi )Y /(VS/Pi )X ]
i =arctan[5452/5390]
i =134.67o

Equations(5.40)through(5.42),

b=dsin
b=2,500,000sin(134.67)
b=1,777,900km

a=GM/V 2

a=1.266861017 /76672
a=2.1552109 m=2,155,200km

e=SQRT[1+b2 /a2 ]
e=SQRT[1+(1,777,900)2 /(2,155,200)2 ]
e=1.2963

Equation(5.49),

=2arcsin(1/e)
=2arcsin(1/1.2963)
=100.96o

Equation(5.50),

f = i
f =134.67100.96
f =33.71o

Equation(5.51),

VS/Pf=(VS/P cos f )X+(VS/P sin f )Y

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1/31/2017 Example Problems
VS/Pf=(7667cos(33.71))X+(7667sin(33.71))Y
VS/Pf=6378X+4255Ym/s

Equations(5.52)and(5.53),

VSf=((VS/Pf )X +VPX )X+((VS/Pf )Y +VPY )Y

VSf=(6378+12729)X+(4255+533)Y
VSf=19107X+4788Ym/s

VSf=SQRT[(VSf )X 2 +(VSf )Y 2 ]
VSf=SQRT[191072 +47882 ]
VSf=19,698m/s

Equation(5.54),

Sf =arctan[(VSf )Y /(VSf )X ]

Sf =arctan[4788/19107]

Sf =14.07
o

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