Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Durlun Khola HEP

3. HYDROLOGY
3.3 General
This section contains an overview of the hydrology of the Durlun Khola catchment at the
proposed intake site.

The main objective of the hydrological study is to study rainfall pattern, pertain discharging
capacity of the catchment, predict design discharge of the river, and acquire
sedimentology information at the proposed intake site.

An accurate assessment of long-term hydrology is essential to any hydropower project.


Longer the hydrological record, more reliable is the estimation of design flow for the
project. In case of ungauged rivers or rivers with limited flow records, it is necessary to
look at the catchments in the vicinity with similar characteristics and has long term flow
data. Based on river location, different empirical methods are also available to estimate
flow in the river.

In the case of Durlun Khola, there are no flow or rainfall records around the intake area.
However there is processed long term stream flow data available in the hydrological
similar catchments for a gauging station established by Department of Hydrology and
Meteorology (DHM) at Rosi. Hence, care should be taken to predict the flow available in
the river. Other empirical methods used in case of ungauged river can also be used to
compute the flow.

The estimation of hydrological parameters for Durlun Khola Hydroelectric Project (DKHEP)
is based on the combination of above mentioned methods. The flow is obtained from
correlation with flow measured in Rosi Khola at Panauti, the gauged river in the vicinity
and empirical methods.

3.4 Durlun Khola catchment


3.4.1 Catchment Physiography
The Durlun Khola is a perennial and rainfed type river. Durlun Khola is one of the
tributaries of Bagmati River. The catchment area of the Durlun Khola at the proposed
intake site is calculated to be 59.72 km2 (Figure 3.4-1). All the catchment area lies below
3000 masl. Geographically, the basin is located between latitude 270 25 and 270 31 north
and between longitude 850 22 and 850 30 south in the Lalitpur District and Kavre District
Central Development Region, Nepal.

The Khola gradient is 1:10 at the proposed headworks area. The width of the Khola at the
proposed intake varies between 10 m to 25 m.

Durlun Khola is an ungauged river. DHM data are available at the nearby hydrological
similar catchment of Rosi Khola with same physiographic and climatologically

Work Progress Report Page 1 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

characteristics. The station was established in 1964 . The catchment is covered with hills
with highest elevation of 2740 masl. Hence, all area lies below 3000 masl. The hills are
covered with forests and very little plain land is available for cultivation. The river bed is
gently sloping towards north -south direction.

Figure 3.4-1 Catchment area of Durlun Khola at intake


As stated earlier, DHM has established a gauging station at Rosi Khola (Station No. 640) at
Panauti. The river discharge is continuously measured at the gauging station since 1964.
The catchment area at the gauging stations is 86.63 km2. The catchment area of Durlun
Khola is 59.72 km2.

The catchment characteristics of the Gauging Station 640 (Rosi Khola) and the proposed
intake site

Table 3.1 Characteristics of the Durlun Khola catchment at the proposed intake site

Parameters Durlun Khola Rosi Khola


Location Intake site Rosi
Catchment Area (km2) 59.72 86.63
Area Below 3000m 59.72 86.63
Precipitation 1823.90 1683.77
coefficient 0.75

3.5 Available Data


3.5.1 Stream flow data
Stream flow records are important to estimate the flow. DHM has set up a gauging station
nos. 640 at Panauti . Since, Durlun Khola is a ungauged Khola the flow data are unavailable

Work Progress Report Page 2 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

within this catchment so hydrological similar catchment of Rosi Khola is taken for
catchment coorelation. Though Durlun khola is a tributary of Bagmati River and Bagmati
River is gauged river, coorelation with Bagmati is not done due to lage catchment of
BAgmati River and different climatological and physiographic patern of drainage. Rosi
Khola is located near by catchment of Durlun and both are rainfed catchments with
elevations ranging less than 3000 m. The published mean monthly data covers the period
between 1964 and 1987. The stream flow data for Station at Rosi station (st.640) is
presented in Error! Reference source not found..

Table 3.2 Monthly flow data at Gauging Station 640 at Rosi khola
Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1964 1.22 0.9 0.84 0.79 1.24 1.04 3.25 4.01 5.56 3.51 2.14 1.43
1965 1.13 0.96 0.81 0.77 0.67 1.18 4.6 7.25 3.74 2.26 1.81 1.39
1966 1.25 1.07 0.93 0.82 0.74 0.81 3.96 9.26 5.02 2.03 1.71 1.54
1967 1.13 0.9 0.93 0.72 0.59 1.15 4.05 5.26 3.86 2.48 1.78 1.4
1968 1.34 1.11 1.07 0.78 0.76 1.94 7.67 8.85 4.79 7.14 2.46 1.68
1969 1.27 0.94 0.85 0.74 0.78 0.73 2.5 4.01 3.23 2.15 1.45 1.22
1970 1.06 0.99 0.86 0.75 0.53 0.81 3.46 7.21 3.62 2.72 1.75 1.28
1971 1.08 0.81 0.71 0.9 1.42 8.86 5.39 7.58 3.11 2.36 1.65 1.37
1972 1.21 1.23 1.07 0.87 0.86 1.18 4.49 4.49 5.06 3.13 2.25 1.5
1973 1.27 1.22 1.2 0.95 1.14 4.51 5.16 7.82 6.51 8.58 2.76 2
1974 1.61 1.31 1.1 0.98 1.2 0.89 5.32 7.85 7.97 3.39 2.32 1.9
1975 1.61 1.44 1.18 1.05 1.01 1.33 8.9 7.7 6.54 3.92 2.41 2
1976 1.57 1.39 1.22 1.2 1.57 2.39 4.39 6.8 7.24 3.55 2.38 1.92
1977 1.63 1.46 1.33 1.19 1.4 1.83 3.1 3.66 2.79 2.1 1.35 1.23
1978 1.13 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.86 3.12 8.79 9.74 3.33 2.43 1.04 0.78
1979 0.74 0.64 0.58 0.55 0.45 0.68 3 3.76 1.81 1.21 1.2 1.21
1980 1.07 1.08 1.16 1 0.77 2.16 3.37 4.32 3.42 2.54 2.05 1.67
1983 0.85 0.78 0.74 0.7 0.77 0.52 2.58 3.03 5.32 3.98 2.22 1.6
1984 1.3 1.08 0.84 0.76 0.73 0.89 4.43 4.85 10.6 4.67 2.98 2.35
1985 1.98 1.7 1.46 1.42 1.59 1.99 8.81 9.26 7.82 5.63 2.88 1.97
1986 1.5 1.12 0.95 0.84 0.54 1.39 2.05 2.42 4.45 3.52 2.21 1.89
1987 1.54 1.38 1.14 0.82 0.83 0.67 4.15 4.71 3.63 3.4 2.76 2.08

The datas after 1987 is not available from DHM and it is observed that the flows as there is
no considerable variation in flows from 1964-1987(i.e about 23 years ),the considering the
same pattern of flow till today, the same general hydrology datas of Rosi khola is
considered for further calculation of discharge of Durlun Khola at intake site.

Detail discussion on the analysis of different stream flow data is discussed in Section 3.6
and Table 3.3 presents the summary of gauging stations in the vicinity of the Durlun Khola
HEP.

Work Progress Report Page 3 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

Table 3.3 Gauging stations near the Durlun Khola SHP catchment
Station number River name Location Elevation(m) Period of record
640 Rosi Khola Panauti 1849 1964-1987

3.5.2 Rainfall data


Precipitation data is needed for the analysis of surface runoff and to know the nature of
the catchment with respect to the river flow. The DHM is responsible for the collection of
all precipitation data throughout Nepal. There are more than 253 DHM precipitation
stations throughout Nepal and station no 1022 of Godavari station in Lalitpur District,
station no 1049 of Khopasi in Kavre District and station no 1117 of Hariharpur in
Makwanpur district is the nearest to the catchment and is being used in this project Details
of rain gauge stations nearby the proposed Durlun Khola Small Hydropower Project is
presented in the Table 3.4 below:

Table 3.4 Rain gauge station near the proposed Durlun Khola small hydropower
project
Name of Location Annual Records
Station Elevation, m
Station Latitude Longitude precipitation mm Length
1022 Godavari 27.58 N 85.40 E 1400 1875 43
1049 Khopasi 27.58 N 85.52 E 1517 1377 25
1117 Hariharpur 27.33 N 85.50 E 250 2383 18

3.6 Hydrological analysis


Since the Durlun Khola Hydroelectric Project (DKHEP) is a run-off-the-river project, it is
essential to conduct long term hydrological investigation as well as to estimate the low
flow and flood flow to ensure reliable flow data. Careful judgment should be made to
correlate data of Durlun River from Gauging Station 640 and other nearby catchment. For
such purpose various attempts were made to compute these parameters and are
discussed hereunder.
3.6.1 Correlation between Gauging Station at Rosi khola at Panauti and Durlun Khola
HEP intake
Correlation between the Rosi Gauging Station established by DHM and the Gauging Station
at Panauti is used for the generation of long term average flow of Durlun Khola HEP at
intake. With Gauging station (st. no 640) at Panauti being nearby the catchment area of
Durlun khola HEP intake with same climatological ,physiographic characteristics and same
vegetation and geographic features revealing the same catchment characteristics, this
particular gauging station has been recommended as the reference gauging station for
hydrological analysis.

Work Progress Report Page 4 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

3.6.2 Empirical methods


In addition, other empirical methods used for determination of flow in ungauged river are
also used for the determination of mean annual flow at intake site. The methods used
were MIP, HYDEST and MHSP. The calculation by MIP gave very low mean monthly
discharge and hence was also used for analysis in case of the Durlun Khola HEP.
The HYDEST method has been used to estimate mean flow series at the proposed intake
site. This method was developed by WECS/DHM in 1991 for evaluating the hydrologic
characteristics of an ungauged catchment. It consists of a computer excel program that
uses hydrological data measured throughout Nepal. It is modified in 2004.
In order to run this program for a complete hydrological analysis, the catchment area and
its distribution in altitude must be entered as well as an annual monsoon index of the
catchment. The catchment area of the project is 59.72 km2 out of which whole area lies
below 3000 masl. The monsoon wetness index from the isoheytal map for Durlun Khola
catchment is 1823 mm. In addition, the entire area lies in the region 5 for computation of
flow in MIP method.
The values calculated by different methods were compared carefully to determine reliable
flow for HKSHP. The mean monthly flows obtained from different methods are presented
in Table 3.5. Details of the flow obtained from each method are presented in Appendix B.
Table 3.5 Comparison of mean monthly flow derived using different methods

Month Hydest Modified MHSP(NEA) MIP Catchment


Hydest Correlation
Jan 0.79 1.14 1.07 0.88 0.97
Feb 0.67 0.94 0.87 0.66 0.83
Mar 0.59 1.18 0.78 0.49 0.74
Apr 0.58 0.97 0.89 0.36 0.66
May 0.74 1.10 0.62 0.33 0.69
Jun 2.90 3.20 3.16 0.99 1.36
Jul 8.90 9.29 9.43 4.07 3.51
Aug 10.90 13.47 11.45 5.06 4.54
Sep 8.46 9.95 9.06 3.63 3.71
Oct 3.69 4.54 4.36 2.37 2.60
Nov 1.68 2.02 2.10 1.65 1.55
Dec 1.10 1.37 1.35 1.21 1.20

Work Progress Report Page 5 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

Figure 3.6-1 Hydrograph of mean monthly flows with different method


The results obtained from different method gives different results for each month. The
HYDEST method gives the highest value for the discharge whereas the flow obtained using
MIP method gives the least value.
The MIP method is used for this year (2011) measurement. The measured value came
closer to Catchment correlation but with no measurement on other days it varies
considerably.
3.6.3 Adopted mean monthly flow
With Gauging station (st. no 640) at Panauti being nearby the catchment area of Durlun
khola HEP intake with same climatological ,physiographic characteristics and same
vegetation and geographic features revealing the same catchment characteristics with
Durlun Khola catchment ,the long term mean monthly flows from catchment correlation
has been considered for further analysis.
Table 3.6 Adapted mean monthly flow at the proposed intake site

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Discharge
(m3/sec) 0.97 0.83 0.74 0.66 0.69 1.36 3.51 4.54 3.71 2.60 1.55 1.20

Work Progress Report Page 6 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

Figure 3.6-2 Adopted Mean Monthly Hydrograph of HKSHP


3.6.4 Riparian Flow
For the environmental purposes, it is mandatory to release 10% of river flow as
compensation flow for the benefit of downstream aquatic lives even during the driest
periods. The lowest discharge of Durlun Khola is 0.66 m3/s in the month of April. Hence,
the compensation flow of about 0.066 m3/s will be released in the driest months. The
corresponding 10% flow will be released in other months.
3.6.5 Flow duration curve
A flow duration curve (FDC) at the intake of the project has been developed from
correlated flows at the headworks. Error! Reference source not found. contains the
discharge corresponding to an interval of 5% probabilities of exceedence and Figure 3.6-3
shows the plot of discharge versus probability of exceedence of monthly series of
discharge correlated from station at Rosi Khola at Panauti.

Table 3.7 Flows at different percentile of exceedence

Exceedence
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
Discharge
3
(m /s) 5.74 3.95 3.29 2.71 2.42 2.09 1.78 1.51 1.45 1.25
Exceedence
55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Discharge
3
(m /s) 1.10 1.01 0.91 0.87 0.80 0.70 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.34

Work Progress Report Page 7 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

Figure 3.6-3 Flow duration curve at Durlun Khola


From the above graph , 1.51 m3/s is adopted as design discharge at 40 % of exceedence.

3.6.6 Extreme flood flow


The annual maximum instantaneous flood discharges of Rosi Khola for the period 1964 to
1987 is available from DHM. These data are used to flood frequency analysis for different
return periods by correlating in headwork site of Durlun intake. The flood of different
return period is calculated using rational methods, empirical methods and other methods
used for ungauged catchments.
Table 3.8 shows the estimates of floods of Durlun Khola at the proposed intake site for
various return periods using different methods.
Table 3.8 Flood estimates of Durlun Khola at intake
`
Summary of flood frequency analysis
Instantaneous Flood (m3/s)
Gumbel's
Return extreme
Period Modified value Log Pearson Log Normal
(years) Hydest Hydest MIP MHSP distribution III distribution
2 68.78 77.14 68.78 28.72 24.39 25.95
5 116.97 139.12 283.64 87.11 55.46 38.96 35.63
10 154.38 189.34 287.89 73.16 62.25 60.45
20 194.10 244.14 291.45 143.77 90.15 57.63 73.17
50 251.22 325.12 295.51 188.25 112.13 45.72 100.60
100 298.24 393.35 298.24 226.88 128.60 157.58 120.37
200 349.18 468.62 349.18 145.01 201.20 141.95
500 422.44 578.99 422.44 166.67 245.94 161.20
1000 482.88 671.67 482.88 397.68 183.03 343.71 199.25

Work Progress Report Page 8 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

From the above datas obtained, Log Pearson III is adopted as a flood flows for the purpose.
3.6 Rating Curves

With the cross sections taken at weir axis and power house axis, rating curves has been
developed.The rating curves at the intake and power house sites have been developed
with the aid of Flow master computer software.
As the river reach at the damsite area is very steep with slope of 1 in 10 in the river
Mannings n value of 0.045 has been assumed for the hydraulic analysis. By using the
Manning's coefficient of 0.045 for higher discharges, the estimated water levels for the
high discharges are conservative. At the powerhouse site, a Mannings n of 0.045 has
been used.
The rating curves are shown in Figure 3.3 and 3.4 for the damsite and powerhouse site
respectively. The 100 yr flood level at downstream of the weir site and at the tailrace
outlet site is Elevation 499.80 m and Elevation 423m respectively. It is recommended that
the daily river water levels at both sites be observed and to study the variations of water
levels with corresponding flows.

Figure 3.3: Rating Curve at Weir Site

Work Progress Report Page 9 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy


Durlun Khola HEP

Figure 3.3: Rating Curve at Power house Site

3.7 Conclusion And Recommendation

The 100 year design flood is 157.58 m3/s at intake


The design discharge is 1.51 m3/s corresponding to 40% dependable flow.
It is recommended that daily staff gauge readings of the river at the intake site and tailrace
site are taken. River discharge measurements should also be taken at various gauge height
so as to develop reliable rating curves at both the sites.
It is also strongly recommended that the measurements of suspended sediment be carried
out in the future on a daily basis covering the principal months of the monsoon period and
including discharge measurements so that a sufficient data base is available for a reliable
and representative assessment of suspended sediment transport in the Durlun Khola at
the proposed damsite.

Work Progress Report Page 10 of 10 Sai Baba Power and Energy