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SEMINAR ON APA FORMAT

FOR DEPARTMENT OF
ARCHITECTURE
Gina S. Tumang, MSEE-CpE
APA formatting
APA 6TH EDITION
3
Resources
for a tutorial about APA Style
http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm

for a tutorial about the changes


http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/whatsnew/index.htm
APA Format
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Why learn APA manuscript formatting
guidelines
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professional standard
need to know when you publish
need for continued graduate work
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APA publication guideline history
started in 1928
anthropological and
psychological journal editors
met
purpose: to standardize
publication formats
first guidelines 7 pages long
latest 6th edition printed 2009
General formatting guidelines
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Margins: 1 inch around


Font: Times New Roman 12 pt.
Line spacing: double spaced
throughout
Word spacing:
1 space after commas, colons, and semi-
colons
1 space after period in name (A. B.
Smith)
1 space after period separating parts of
reference citation
1 or 2 spaces after periods in sentences
in text
APA Format Manuscript Format
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APA Format Manuscript Format
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APA Format Manuscript Format
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Mechanics
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Two spaces instead of one after a


period at the end of sentences
About three
and a half Numbers expressing approximate
years ago lengths of time are written as words
0.23 cm Use zero before a decimal fraction

New ways to cite statistics and present


tables
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Levels
Use levels consecutively, meaning that, if your paper
has three levels, use levels 1, 2, and 3
Levels have slightly different formatting
Level of
Formatting of Heading
Heading

1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

2 Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.

5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.


Levels: more like an outline
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Outline How it would look in your paper

I. Method Method

In this paper I used two types of methods to figure out


a. First type
the results of my experiment.
i. Part One
First Type: Sand Collecting

ii. Part Two The first type of method I used was the sand
collecting method.
b. Second Type
Part one of the sand collecting method: collection.
i. Part One
This part included collecting sand and putting it into

ii. Part Two giant buckets to be sorted by grain size.

II. Results Part two of the sand collecting method: testing.

This part included


Reducing Bias in Language
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Reducing Bias in Language
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Reducing Bias in Language
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Reducing Bias in Language
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APA Format Manuscript Main
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Sections
Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Appendices
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Title Page
No more Page Header
Running head: SHORT TITLE ALL CAPS IN HEADER 1
No more
than 50
characters

Full Title of Paper: Sentence Case, Centered Left to Right Full title is
centered and
Name of Author positioned in
upper half of
Authors Affiliation
the page

Author Note

Author note with more information about affiliation, research grants, conflict

of interest and how to contact.


Abstract
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Begin a new page. Your abstract page


should already include the page header.

On the first line of the abstract page,


center the word Abstract (no bold,
formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation
marks).
Abstract
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Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary


of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.)
Your abstract should contain at least your research
topic, research questions, participants, methods,
results, data analysis, and conclusions.
You may also include possible implications of your
research and future work you see connected with your
findings.
Abstract
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Your abstract should be a single paragraph


double-spaced.
Your abstract should be between 150 and 250

words.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper
in your abstract.
To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a
new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then
list your keywords.
Listing your keywords will help researchers find your
work in databases.
Sample - Abstract
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Introduction
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Identify the problem situation and describe in


terms of global, national, regional, and local or
discipline-related perspectives.
Describe the background of the study including
related literature or studies
Introduce the study and justify the

topic/problem, mention the scope, coverage


and purpose or objectives of the study
Introduction
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State the rationale or significance of the study,


the conceptual framework, the Statement of
the Problem/Hypothesis and the objectives of
the study
The last paragraph is a closing portion that is
intriguing and challenging to the readers, to
keep up their interest to know the results of the
study.
26 Note:

The objectives flow from the research problem

The methods to be used will be based on the


objectives
Method
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Describes in detail how the study is to be/was


conducted and how to evaluate the appropriateness
of the methods and the reliability and the validity of
the results.
The subsections are identified as to
apparatus/instruments used, procedures in the
execution of the research, tests or evaluation
conducted, simulation, prototyping, etc.
Results
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Summarizes data collected, data analysis


treatment but not the interpretation or
implications
Results are reported using tables and figures

and these should be explained in text.


Tables
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Tables can help you


present a large amount
of material efficiently.
Table layout needs to
be logical and easy for
readers to understand.
Tables
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Here are some guidelines on formatting your table.


Place each table on a separate page at the end of
your manuscript, after the reference list.
If font size and style are not specified by the
organization for which you are writing (e.g., publisher,
university), the suggested font is 12-point Times New
Roman.
Tables
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Here are some guidelines on formatting your table.


Margins depend on the size of the table but must be at
least 1 in. (2.54 cm).
Tables may use single-spacing or one-and-a-half
spacing
Information necessary for understanding the table
and definitions of abbreviations used within the
table appear in a table note.
Figures
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Many types of
figures can help you
present data to the
reader, including
graphs, charts, maps,
drawings, and
photographs.
A good figure is
easy to read with
elements large
enough to be read
easily.
Figures
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Here are some guidelines on creating your figure.


Place each figure on a separate page at the end of
your manuscript, after any tables (or after the
reference list, if there are no tables).
Place a caption below each figure describing its
contents and defining any abbreviations used in the
figure.
Discussion
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Evaluate, interpret and qualify the results


Highlight any theoretical significance or
consequences of the results and the validity of
the conclusions
Comment on the importance of the findings

Address issues like levels of analysis,

application and synthesis


Citing others work
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A citation is giving credit whenever you


use someones ideas, figures, unique
approach, or specific reasoning. This is
done whether you paraphrase anothers
ideas or use direct quotes.

The purpose of using citations is twofold:


1. to give credit for the person whose
material you are using and
2. to offer a way for readers of your
work to find out more information
about that source.
Plagiarism
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Plagiarism: act of using someone


elses ideas, words, figures,
unique approach, or specific
reasoning without giving
appropriate credit.

Its a bad thing!


Citing within text
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Paraphrasing within text:


In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwins most
effective metaphors.

Author cited in text:


Gould (1989) attributed Darwins success to his gift for
making the appropriate metaphor.

Author not cited in text:


As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used
the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature
(Gould, 1989).
Quotes within text
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Direct quote from author:


Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of
the tree of life to express the other form of
interconnectedness-genealogical rather than ecological-
and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of
life (p.14).

Direct quote without name of author:


Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life to express
the other form of interconnectedness-genealogical rather
than ecological (Gould, 1989, p.14).
Long Quotes (40 words or more)
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General format for long quotes:


indented 5 spaces
do not use quotation marks
citation appears one space after last punctuation of quote

Friedman (2006) draws connections between two seemingly disparate


events: November 9 (dismantling of the Berlin Wall) and September 11
(attack on the World Trade Center). He believes

these two dates represent the two competing forms of imagination at


work in the world today: the creative imagination of 11/9 and the
destructive imagination of 9/11. One brought down a wall and opened
the windows of the world. . . [the other] putting up new invisible and
concrete walls among people. (p. 543). (p. 543) (p. 543)
(p. 543)
Multiple works within same parenthesis
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Example:

Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kammil,


1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) confirm
the use of metaphors increases learning.
One work with multiple authors
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First citation in text:


Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, German, and Rock (1994)
found. . .
The use of metaphors was found to be helpful (Wasserstein,
Zappula, Rosen, German, & Rock, 1994)

Subsequent citations (3 or more authors):


Wasserstein and colleagues (1994) found
Wasserstein et al. (1994) found
The use of metaphors was found to be helpful (Wasserstein
et al., 1994)
Citation from secondary source
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Text:
Seidenberg and McCellands study (as cited in Coltheart,
Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).

Reference page:
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993).
Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-
distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review,
100, 589-608.

Use sparingly!
Basic Citation Styles
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References
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References are listed on separate page


Only citations that appear in the text should appear on
the reference page
Everything cited in the text should appear on the
reference page.
References are double-spaced, flush left with subsequent
lines indented 5 spaces
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References: electronic sources
Add as much info as print sources in the same order
Do not need the retrieval date unless source may
change over time
Add Retrieved from before a URL
Shotton,M. A. (1998). Computer addiction? A study of
computer dependency. Retrieved from
http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk.asp

No period at end
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References: electronic sources
Add the Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
A number assigned to everything once its made available
online
Typically located on first page of electronic journal article,
near copyright notice; also on the database landing page
for article
If have DOI, do not need URL
Use for BOTH electronic and print if available
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References: electronic sources
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer
support, marital status, and the survival times of
terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2),
225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

doicomes last
No period at end
Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)
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DOIs are unique strings of


numbers used to identify online
articles content and provide a
persistent link to their location
on the Internet.
1. When DOIs are present, no
longer have to include URL.
2. When DOIs are not
present, include URL
Online periodical when DOI is present
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General format:
Author, A. A. (date). Title of article. Title of Journal,
volume(number), page numbers. doi: xx.xxxxxxx

Example:
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005).
Volunteer support, marital status, and the
survival times of terminally ill patients.
Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:
10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
Online article when DOI is not present
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General format:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article Title of
Journal, volume(number), page numbers. Retrieved from
URL
Example:
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional
intelligence and self-esteem mediate between
perceived early parental love and adult happiness.
Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap
Periodicals
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General format:
Author, A. A (year, add month and date of publication for daily or
weekly publications). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume
number(issue), pages.

Example:
Little, D. W. (200l). Leading change: Creating the future for
education technology. Syllabus International, 15(5), 22-
24.
Book, edition, multiple authors
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General format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year of publication).
Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (number ed.).
Location City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.

Example:
Anderson, A. B., Smith, S. D., & Jones, J. C. (1978). A
distant mirror: The calamitous fourteenth century (3rd
ed.). New York, NY: Knopf.
Chapter in book
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General format:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Ed.),
Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Example:
James, J. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth
according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.),
Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport, CT:
Greenwood.
Resources
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American Psychological Association (2010). Publication manual


of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.

Online Writing Lab (n.d.). Retrieved from


https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/17/

APA 6th Edition Corrected Quick-View Sample Pages (n.d.).


Retrieved from
https://www.regent.edu/admin/stusrv/writingcenter/files
/APA%206th%20Edition%20Quickview.pdf

APA Website: www.apastyle.org


RMA (Research Methods in Architecture)
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OUTLINE of CONTENTS
OUTLINE
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Content Remarks
Title Title Includes on the left side:
Page Author - Running head: Brief title of the
And others project
(check thesis - Title (10-12 words excluding
books) articles and prepositions)

Abstract Executive Summary of the Introduction,


Summary Methods, Results and Discussion
Introduction 1. Background of the Problem 1 to 2 Paragraphs
- includes Literature Review
Conceptual Literature: written by the
authorities giving concepts/ theories
which will be the basis of your Research

Research Literature: results of researches/


studies conducted

Contextual review establishes


significance of the study.

2. Statement of the Problem 1 Paragraph

3. Objectives Measurable

Enumerate (1 to 3 Objectives)
- to solve a problem
- not focused on the architectural solution
- Similar to our Project Objectives
4. Significance of the Study 1 Paragraph

5. Scope and Limitation Focused on the intangible problem/solution

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Methods 1. Research - Architectural Researches usually fall under
Design Qualitative since they are Descriptive in nature.
2. Sources of - Primary Data: Gathered from interviews, survey
Data - Secondary Data: From other researches, journals,
articles, case studies, government documents, laws,
and etc.
3. Participants - Refer to respondents
- Should conform to the nature of the project
4. Procedure - Conduct survey (tool: questionnaireusing Slovins
formula or snowball technique)
- Conduct interviews (purposive, focused group
discussion,)
5. Data Analysis - In narrative form (paragraph), explain how to treat
Plan the data gathered.
- Will you tabulate them? Put them in charts?
- Will you use a software? e.g. use of Excel to organize
the data alphabetically or based on numerical
values, least to greatest or vice versa.

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Results All the gathered May be represented and synthesized using
data for evaluation. tables, figures and other diagrams aside from
the narratives (paragraphs) to present the
- Considered the organized raw data.
OUTCOMES of
the study e.g. Site Selection

Discussion Contains the In this section, its where the researcher double
particular data checks if the OUTCOMES conform to the
needed for the study OBJECTIVES presented in the INTRODUCTION.

- Integration of the Here, the researcher presents analyzed data


OUTCOMES and needed to solve the problem/s of the study.
OBJECTIVES

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Architectural 1. Design Brief Similar to what is usually written on the higher Designs Major Plates
Design
Development Pertaining to the particular task of the study to execute the synthesized
- solely for data into architectural solutions.
architecture
2. Definition of Terms List of Keywords to understand further the architectural solutions of the
department
study
3. Project Objectives General Objectives pertaining to the non-architectural aspects of the
problem.

- In tabular form
4. Design Objectives Architectural translation in objectives of the Project objectives

Design Objective 1 shall conform to Project Objective and so on and so


forth.

- In tabular form
5. Design Considerations Consideration/s per Design Objective

- In tabular form
6. Design Criteria Architectural Approach/es using the corresponding Consideration/s

7. Design Philosophy May be personally made or adapted


8. Design Concept May include the idea generation (evolution of the concept), illustrated

9. Innovations and All the innovations, green and building technologies applied in the
Technologies applied study
61 10. Provisions of the Laws Excerpts of Specific Sections from Pertinent Laws
References

Appendices

APA format
8.5 x 11 paper
1 margin on all sides
Times New Roman, size 12

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