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A

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT
ON

“CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR ON BALL
PENS”

Submitted for the partial fulfillment towards the
Award of degree in Bachelor of Business Administration of
Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT NEHA PATHANIA
Govt. PG College Dharamshala BBA
Roll. No : 7910
Batch: 2011-2014
Semester: VI Sem.
INTERNAL GUIDE:
MRS. MEENAKSHI
Assistant Professor
Dept. of BBA

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
GOVT. POST GRADUATE COLLEGE
DHARAMSHALA

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
GOVT. PG COLLEGE DHARAMSHALA

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that this project titled “CONSUMER BUYING
BEHAVIOUR ON BALL PENS” is submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of
Business Administration of Himachal Pradesh University by Ms.
NEHA PATHANIA, Roll No. 7910 has been executed under
my supervision and guidance. Data reported is original to the
best of my knowledge.

Date: PROJECT GUIDE:
MRS. MEENAKSHI
Place:
Assistant Professor
Dharamshala Dept. of BBA

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project report entitled

“CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR ON BALL PENS”

is the produce of my sincere efforts. This project is submitted to School Of
Business Management, Govt. PG College, Dharamshala in partial fulfillment of the
award of degree of BBA, is a bonafide work carried out by me. This work has not
been submitted anywhere else for any other degree/ diploma.

Date: April 2014 Neha Pathania
Roll No. 7910

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many lives and destinies are destroyed due to a lack of proper
guidance, direction and opportunity. It is in this respect I feel
that I am in much better position today due to continuous
process of motivation and focus provided by my Parents and
Teachers in general.

The process of completion of this project was a tedious job and
required careful guidance at all stages. I would like to highlight
the role played by many individuals towards this.

First and foremost I express my heartily thanks to Prof. R. P.
Chopra (Director, Dept. of BBA), Prof. Sunil Mehta
(Coordinator, Dept. of BBA) and Mrs. MEENAKSHI (Assistant
Professor) for their cooperation and able guidance.

At last but not least I would like to thank my dedicated and respected
parents who were supported all the time and also to my friends who gave
me a constant support and suggestions for preparation of my research
report.

2 History of the Company 5 1.1 Meaning of Research 2. This marketing plan summarizes the company's situation at the time different note books were introduced and the different marketing strategies that we believe would be best for cello company and their new note book. and consumers became better informed about the benefits of note books. .7 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.5 Market Players 12 1. and promotion. Because consumer interest and note book purchases began to increase. INTRODUCTION 1. Consumers began to purchase note books based on the specific benefits each note books and company had to offer.2 Data Collection 2.6 SWOT Analysis 13-14 2. TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter No.4 Awards & Business Mission 8-11 1. FINDINGS 5. advertising and promotion also began to increase. CONCLUSION . price. which lead to the development and addition of the super-premium product class. but also on the quality of pages and their need . DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 4. Title Page No.4 Objectives of the Study 3.I.3 Company Profile 6.Consumers first purchased note books without much knowledge or information concerning the product's benefits.1 Introduction of Ball Pen Industry 1-4 1. As new product development increased. they began to focus their interest not only on writing . Executive Summary Cello Note books involves different types of note books which would be entering the market in 2010 by cello company.The marketing strategies include proposed strategies involving product.Included in the marketing plan are pro-forma income statements for Launch of the note book. place.3 Tools used for Data 2. 1.

It is expected that promotion. School. In fact.Wriritng Instruments continue to play integral part in the life of particularly every Business. The size of the writing Instruments Industry in India is estimated at about Rs 1800 Crores of which organized players account for 70% of the market share and the unorganized players for the rest.INTRODUCTION TO BALL PEN INDUSTRY There has been a need to document through the use of writing instruments since the dawn of makind. .largely driven by the growth of organized sector.6. RECOMMANDATIONS 7. The advent of computers and related technologies has yet to make writing industry and Instruments Slow Paced and Obsolete.5% in 2005-06. BIBLIOGRAPHY 9. ANNEXURE 1. LIMITATIONS 8. easy availability. The industry Grew by about 15% in 2004-05 and by 13. the writing Instruments embraces the evolution of technology by incorporating it into new products and using it to enhance business aspects and client services. indicating that consumer are responding favourably to Quality and Branding.Pens and Pencils continue to be the staples of everyday life and indispensable items for everyday use. branded off make will accelerate and help the organized sector eat into unorganized Presence. and affordability. and household.1.

Today Cello offers one of the largest range of pens offered by any manufacturer in the world. A colossus towering over the rest. cutting-edge manufacturing technology. the buying preference of major retailers has been shifting to Indian Products and Brands. globally sourced material and exhaustive quality standards are among the best in the world. processes.) Cello Group. Cello ceaselessly endeavours to bring in the newest and the best of technology to set new benchmarks in quality and innovates constantly to blaze new trails in the market place. High Volume Low Value Strategy) While International Players cater to Premiums segment operating through exclusive Distributors.As a result critical pen component like refills are manufactured in house. India is an extremely competitive Rs 1200 crore (US$272 mn) market for plastic moulded writing instruments and Cello is the undisputed leader. Cello has been achieving unrivalled growth rates of 12% p.India's Writing Instruments Industry is reserved for the small sector with a statutory limit on the maximum Investment in Plant and Machinery at Rs 50 Crores. But given the superior quality perception that "Made In India" pens have over the Chinese. it is a key business process. dynamism and a defining attitude. Cello's extensive global R & D. Most Indian companies cater to the "Value for Money"(i. are a part of Rs. presently manufacturing 4. production. China controls approximately 10% of the global markets while the Indian share had so far been Mini scale. Globally writing Instruments Industry is estimated at Rs 50000 Crores (p. The makers of India's favorite Cello pens. with an installed capacity of 4.vast range of innovative pen across every price point. all conforming to the highest global standards.5 million pens per day. innovation is not just a guiding philosophy.9 mn) turnover. At Cello.2 million pens per day.800 crore (US$ 182mn.a. It's what make a Cello a Cello.e. in the domestic market and exports growing at 60% contribute 14% of the domestic turnover. Cello has well over 33% share in the domestic market and Rs 400 Crore (US$90. unparalleled . Thanks to the cutting edge technology. Lauded as one of the world's best and India's largest pen manufacturer's and well known for its dynamism and spirit of innovation. The result of a well-equipped assembly line with over 175 ultra- sophisticated injection moulding machines and a highly trained and dedicated work force of 5000.a). It's what makes Cello Group strong business conglomerate. while all non critical components are outsourced.

And these units are sold in local markets – in stationery shops. There is a wide range for the pricing of pens – a pen can cost as low as below Rs 15 per piece and as high as Rs 100. Experts predict that the writing instrument industry will survive for years because of the technological advancements in this sector. and distributed in offices. the organized sector is worth Rs 2. the major market players are Cello. The market for pens below the price of Rs 15 is growing at 7-8% annually whereas the market for pens above Rs 15 is growing at the rate of 8-10% annually. and supermarkets. The Indian market comprises 15 large-scale. . Despite an increase in the usage of computers and smart phones. In the mass segment.600 crores. its really no wonder Cello today sells nearly 4. and Reynolds. majority of the revenue comes from pens that are below Rs 15 and a small percentage of revenue comes from pens that are priced between Rs 100 and Rs 300. The writing instrument industry in India is huge.consumer reach and strong brand equity. and it is estimated at about Rs 2. So. and 900 small-scale manufacturing units. Linc. people still continue to use pen and paper. which increase the user friendliness of the products. Pens of premium brands form a miniscule segment of the market. where the price of the writing instrument is below Rs 20. There are technological improvements in the raw materials.2 million pens a day. And this is the reason why consumers still use pens and pencils in this technological era. India exports pens worth Rs 200 crores. followed by executives and office-goers at approximately 20%. Around 55% of the consumers of writing instruments are students. Close to 80% of the revenues of the pen industry in India come from pens that are below Rs 15 per piece. Out of this. Not only is India a huge producer of writing instruments.000 crores. 100 mid-size.000. every day. In fact. book shops. And these units have a total production capacity of over 10 million units on a daily basis. but it is also a large exporter of writing instruments. ink and metal used in the making of writing instruments.

  CHANGING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR The Purchase of a single Pen used to be a considered decision until not too long ago. some Companies Catalog are Used along with Internet Support. the leading brand in writing instruments in India. whereas in the premium segment. Financial Express. where the price is above Rs 400. . we will witness the growth of this industry in India. has close to 15% market share. During corporate events. the major market players are Mt Blanc. the market players are Uni-ball. Cross. Earlier there was one pen to write. The demand for writing instruments will continue to grow in India because India’s working population is expected to grow by 20% by 2020. writing instruments are given as gifts or mementoes. which in turn leads to greater literacy and a growing demand for stationery. most consumers buy multiple pens in a single Purchase. Linc. Needs and Situations. Lamy and Sheaffer. Size for different Moods. where the price is between Rs 20 and Rs 400.In the high-value segment. As long as companies continue to make pens and pencils of good quality that are on par with technological advancements. The following Information regarding the Writing Instruments Industry Has been obtained from the Public Sources like: Business Line. leading to a higher per capita income. Many people have the misconception that technological advancements will reduce our dependency on pens and pencils. Economic Times. Ink. Today. At present. This is not true. Because the consumer would go out specifically to buy a pen earlier. there is different pen. Writing instruments have also made their way into the corporate gifting segment. now interestingly even as communication is getting increasing psychological. today most buy along with a number of other things as apart of their monthly provisions. Linc has a Rs 500-crore market size in the Indian pencil industry. Parker. Pilot and Parker.

where as China as Cheaper and Lower quality Products. The global Writing Instrument Industry is estimated at Rs 50000 Crores. Gone are the days where pen were just considered as merely an item of writing. due to it manufacturing Process.  The Annual Turnover of the Industry in India is now estimated at Rs 1800 Crores (p. (p. Of course Still the Pen purchase Decision is considered As Low Involvement Decision.a) approx. Indian Products Quality is among best in the world. Japan.  India is Viewed as Quality Supplier.  Germany.. where the organized sector now controls 70%+ market share as compared to 54% up to 2000.a) USA market alone is $2. But now it a Quasi Fashion Statement Something that’s aligns with Your Personality.   MARKET AND MARKET INFORMATION (IN DETAIL).  Previously Switzerland was the manufacturing centre for Ball point Tips. Taiwan & Korea were hubs for the Writing Instrument Industry.   GLOBAL WRITING INSTRUMENT INDUSTRY Globally. . India is becoming most preferred manufacturing destination after china.  India's Pens Exports are merely Rs 200 Crores (p. China controls approximately 10% of the global market.2 Billion Dollars (App 10000 Crores Rs) approx. but now India is emerging as a major Tip Manufacturer satisfying not only Domestic demand but Global Demand Also.  The worldwide Market's Size for Writing Industry is Rs 50000 crs (p.  Chinas exports of Pens are over Rs 5000 Crores (p.a) approx. Compared to china Mass Market Products.a) and is expected to Increase annual growth rate by 15-20% (p. Indian Market is Growing healthily at 15 to 20% and is Expected to Grow with same Rate for upcoming 2 to 3 years (acc to CAGR).a). Writing Instrument Industry is rising at a Healthy rate despite growing computerization. But due to cast factor manufactured have started shifting to China and India.a) where USA Markets grew by 5% last year (2005-06) and is expected to grow by the same Proportionate at this time too.

Cello Group ventures into manufacturing moulded furniture. cello furniture brings convenience and style to consumers at surprising economical price. Behind this step the founder has a vision of uncompromising quality and total consumer satisfaction. Elegant. Thus there is ceiling on Investment in Plant and Machinery Manufacturing Process (Max Rs 50 Crores). G. insulated water bottles. the manufacturing of writing instruments is reserved or falls under the category of SSI (Small Scale Industry Sector). Cello Writing Instruments. 1. versatile and durable. smooth flowing pen not just took the market by storm but market a new era in writing instruments in India. the company . Soon demand rises for the new and quality products. Mumbai capable of manufacturing the finest range of hot pots and casseroles. 1994. Mr. D. Cello exploded on the scene with Cello Clear Pens with Swiss tips and German ink and changed forever the way pen ran on paper. Cello Household Products began to be exported to a number of countries. A new factory for Cello Thermo ware is set up in Goregaon. Rathod makes a small beginning in manufacturing. Of course any EOU (Export Oriented Unit) does not fall under this Purview of SSI. 1995. to keep up with which a new factory is set up in Daman. In 1995. attractive range of insulated jugs and flasks. Set up on this deep foundation. excluding Mould Making as it is Highly Capital Intensive part of Manufacturing. Cello becomes a household name in quality.  REGULATORY REQUIREMNTS In India as per current law. Cello begins its journey to become a leader. a part of Cello Group entered in plastic mouled ball points pen market.2 HISTORY OF THE COMPANY 1982 . made from special grade plastic and state-of-the-art moulds from Italy. With a tiny factory for making plastic household goods. The revolutionary new smear free. Not too long after. Your browser may not support display of this image 1986.

Starting from Cello Alpha Gel . Be it a school kid . globally sourced material and exhaustive quality standards are among the best in the world.COMPANY PROFILE CELLO WRITING INSTRUMENTS the makers of India’s favourite Cello pens .Maxriter and Gripper pens for pressure-free writing that are a hit with . with an installed capacity of 6. processes. India is an extremely competitive Rs 1500 crore (US$350mn) market for plastic moulded writing instruments and Cello is the undisputed leader. The result of a well-equipped assembly line with over 180ultra-sophisticated injection moulding machines and a highly trained and dedicated work force of 10000. 1. high-performance gel ink and ballpoint pens in different ink colours and at a variety of price points. Today Cello offers one of the largest range of pens offered by any manufacturer in the world. there is a Cello for every one. in the domestic market and exports growing at 60% contribute 14% of the domestic turnover. production.vast range of innovative pen across every price point. its really no wonder Cello today sells nearly 6 million pens a day. all conforming to the highest global standards. dynamism and a defining attitude. Thanks to the cutting edge technology. At Cello. Cello has been achieving unrivalled growth rates of 12% p.3. every day. Cello has India's largest range of smart looking. presently manufacturing 6 million pens per day. A colossus towering over the rest. It's what makes Cello Group strong business conglomerate. took wings.a. Cello ceaselessly endeavours to bring in the newest and the best of technology to set new benchmarks in quality and innovates constantly to blaze new trails in the market place. are part of 1000 crore (US$250 mn). a young professional or a senior executive. a college student . Cello has well over 33% share in the domestic market and Rs600 Crore (US$1200mn) turnover. it is a key business process. cutting-edge manufacturing technology.2 million pens per day. Cello's extensive global R & D. innovation is not just a guiding philosophy. unparalleled consumer reach and strong brand equity. Cello Group lauded as one of the world’s best and India’s largest pen manufacture and well known for its dynamism and spirit of innvotion. unveiled two more models Prism and Crystal and with that started as a mere 3-machine company .

Starting from Cello Alpha Gel . coupled with Cello's aggressive below-the-line promotional initiatives. Cello's foray into notebooks. This. Pointec and the stylish Cello Powermaxx that has become the working professionals' most preferred to the Cello Sapphire. Pinpoint and Technotip XS that the college going crowd vouches for.. OHP & CD markers and mechanical pencils will lead to enormous growth in the coming years. Maxriter and Gripper pens for pressure-free writing that are a hit with school kid to the cool looking Cello Finegrip. office files (stationery products) pencils. There's also Cello's new range of Highlighters and markers that have carved out an enviable name for themselves in a very short time Cello is now poised on the verge of an exciting new leap forward. From the ever-dependable Cello Finer. Be it a school kid .school kid to the cool looking Cello Finegrip. Cello has India's largest range of smart looking. Pointec and the stylish Cello Powermaxx that has become the working professionals' most preferred to the Cello Sapphire. there is a Cello for every one. a college student . . makes sure Cello stays the most asked for pen in India. coupled with Cello's aggressive below-the-line promotional initiatives. Papersoft and Executive pens with a certain understand luxury that have become a common sight on the desks of senior executives. There's also Cello's new range of Highlighters and markers that have carved out an enviable name for themselves in a very short time. This. Cello Pens are backed by well-thought out marketing and advertising campaigns based on strategically sound positioning that have driven the name Cello to the tip of every tongue. with an ambitious diversification plan that will propel Cello well beyond the realm of pens and writing instruments. Today. desktop accessories. Cello enjoys very high top-of-mind consumer recall and a prime spot of consumer mindspace. a young professional or a senior executive. Papersoft and Executive pens with a certain understand luxury that have become a common sight on the desks of senior executives. high-performance gel ink and ballpoint pens in different ink colours and at a variety of price points.Cello Pens are backed by well-thought out marketing and advertising campaigns based on strategically sound positioning that have driven the name Cello to the tip of every tongue. makes sure Cello stays the most asked for pen in India. From the ever-dependable Cello Finer. . Cello enjoys very high top-of-mind consumer recall and a prime spot of consumer mindspace. Pinpoint and Technotip XS that the college going crowd vouches for. Today.

AWARDS & BUSNIESS MISSION Awards True merit never goes unrecognized.Vision further positions cello as a market driven.30 out of 10 in the 3 rd edition of Consumer Superbrands and it falls within the top 25% of all brands across all segments and all categories.1.4. manufacturing practices. Cello has bagged national and international recognitions and awards there are to win in fields associated to its endeavors for product quality. manufacture and customer response. . And the company' vision is to plan to offer the customer the world's most finest and advanced products and to become the leading consumer durable brands in the country. The aim is to make cello the leading brand in notebook segment .  To create incremental demand for note books through marketing and promotion strategies. Cello is proud of its achievements and grows only more resolute to raise the bar higher still every it receives an honour. environmental safety standards. 2007 and 2008 as well as Plexcouncil Export Award . people centric company with a strategy and a structure that fully reflect the needs of its customer base while also increasing shareholder value.  To create incremental enterprise and brand value to increase the net worth of the group  To build in-house resources of unsurpassable skill in design. Business Mission  To develop. Cello brand has received an overall average score of 6. produce and sell high quality note books worldwide and help our customers to get the maximum value for money. service. export performances and for excellence in marketing. Cello has also won Reader's Digest Trusted Brand in Asia for three successive years 2006.

INSIGHTFUL MARKETING: - The market share depends a lot on the psyche of the customer. Only by taking recourse to advance planning and strategy that a business can hope to survive. there has been a huge growth in the number of different styles for note book on the market . globally diversified infrastructure and integrated operations efficiently linking note book from rough to retail. INSIGHTFUL THINKING ABOUT THE FUTURE:- The future is unpredictable but not doing anything about it is the foolishness. with a strong.The marketing objective is to strengthen the positioning of cello note book and with this note book segment to grow from 5 percent to 15 percent. The main objective is to file survey during the project to find out the market share of the cello and to find out the potential dealer and development of these dealers. Many consumers base a lot of their . impared technology. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. The objective was to find out that what are the parameters which affect the customer while purchasing product. Cello extrapolates future trends on the basis of current changes in technology and preferences The INDIAN Consumers Recently. THROUGH INGENIOUS STRATEGY.a trend that is set to have caught the imaginations of many consumers who have grown tired of boring and simple white paged notebooks. Marketing Objective The objective is to establish the company as India's best note book making company. Product development innovations and customizations are the tools cello uses to stay ahead of the competitors. innovative products. To enhance the knowledge about marketing and branding activity. This means that those with deeper insights into the elusive mind of the buyer are likely to dominate.To delight and deliver beyond expectations through ingenious strategy implied enterprenuership. insightful marketing and inspired thinking about the future. To be the world's leading manufacturer of note book and retailer of branded note books .

For rough work For making notes For other purposes People using note book for rough work are more concerned about the number of pages Other who use it for fair work or making notes are concerned about quality so that they can read easily what they write and will remain with them for a long time The people using it for other purposes do not bother much about or don't take much interest about these facts and use note book because they have something to write But. whether the note book suits their purpose or whether the note book contains all the qualities to fulfill their needs . there are three different consumer groups. They also base their purchases around the ability of the note book In INDIA.''cello Note book" From "cello company ".Long-lasting breath and whitening forever.purchase decisions on how attractive useful and effective a note book can be . Product Name . . when it comes time to purchasing a note book. whether the pages are good enough. SLOGAN . our target would be all three types of consumers which is quite huge.

. Pen as a product is close to people of all walks of life at different age and of different gender and the association of it is a life long one. heat etc B) Thick notebooks are ment for those who need more pages in their note books so that they can use it for a longer period The main characteristic of these note books are what ever is written on these books can only be rubbed by eraser while the water has no impact over what is written either with pencil or pen .5. As the present scenario Cello is considered to be market leader in the Industry.  TODAY’S It is at number 2 Position in the Market and is considered to be the toughest Competitor of Cello (Market Leader) and not only the Leader but other followers In organized Sector.MARKET PLAYERS  CELLO It is the biggest Player In the Industry with Turnover of Rs 800 Crores(US$ 182mn) .Product description Types of note books: A) Nylon sheet note books are specially made for those customers who believe need quality pages that cannot be damaged by water . For some with a good quality pen at finger tips actually elevates their confidence level and makes them feel good. even they are not easy to damage by water and fire 1.

likely returns . Assets. knowledge.Market Break-Up (Value) 1 Ball Pens 72% 2 Gel Pens 28% Ball and Gel Pens . People  Experience.Linc and other players Table 1: Ball and Gel Pens . The brand leaders in this market are Cello.6 SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths  Advantages of proposition  Capabilities  Competitive advantages  USP's (unique selling points)  Resources. Ball pens forms the biggest chunk of the pen market in India and accounts for 72 percent of the total pen market followed by gel pen at 28 percent (Refer Table 1).Market Break-Up (Value) 1. Todays. data  Financial reserves.

succession Weaknesses  Disadvantages of proposition  Gaps in capabilities  Lack of competitive strength  Reputation. communications  Cultural. quality  Accreditations. commitment. etc . start-up cash-drain  Reliability of data. behavioral  Management cover. distribution.reach. attitudinal. awareness  Innovative aspects  Location and geographical  Price. plan predictability  Morale. qualifications.  Marketing . value. leadership  Accreditations. certifications  Processes. deadlines and pressures  Cash flow. IT. systems. presence and reach  Financials  Own known vulnerabilities  Timescales.

weather. vertical. distribution  Volumes.surprise. etc  Business and product development  Information and research  Partnerships. major contracts. production.  Processes and systems. succession Opportunities  Market developments  Competitors' vulnerabilities  Industry or lifestyle trends  Technology development and innovation  Global influences  New markets. agencies. fashion influences Threats  Political effects . import  New USP's  Tactics . economies  Seasonal. etc  Management cover. horizontal  Niche target markets  Geographical. export.

services. . comparison and experiment. It is the pursuit of the truth with the help of study . weather effects 2. Thus .home.1 MEANING OF RESEARCH The term ‘research’ is composed of two words ‘RE’ and ‘SEARCH’ which means to search again. abroad  Seasonality.  Legislative effects  Environmental effects  IT developments  Competitor intentions . research is a process and means to acquire knowledge about any natural or human phenomena. observation.various  Market demand  New technologies. ideas  Vital contracts and partners  Sustaining internal capabilities  Obstacles faced  Insurmountable weaknesses  Loss of key staff  Sustainable financial backing  Economy . The obvious function of research is to add new knowledge to the existing store as well as to remove the misconceptions and ignorance of mankind. Research is conducted to search for new facts or to modify the existing facts.

.Meaning of Research Design Research design is a working plan prepared by the research before the actual start of research work. Example: A house builder prepares a blueprint of the entire building before commencing the actual construction. Research design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operation to collection. Meaning of Sample A part of the population which is studied for making judgment about the entire population is called a sample. Different methods of drawing a sample out of a given population have been developed by the statisticians. It is the conceptual structure within which research activity is conducted. It is a strategic plan of research. analysis and interpretation of data. These methods with help of which a sample is drawn out of a given population are called as a technique of sampling.

it was decided to conduct the study based on sample size of 100 respondents. 2) Sample Area : Himachal Pradesh 3) Sampling Method : Non-probability sampling.Sample Design 1) Sample size : considering the constraints. Convenience sampling 4) Sampling Unit : Dealers and customers .

researcher may select those consumers whom he may contact easily. The researcher usually prefers non- probability sampling over probability sampling due to cheap and convenient. Convenience sample As the suggests . This is the simplest method to use and requires no special knowledge for sample selection. Researcher interviewed people whom he happens to meet. Example: For survey of consumer satisfaction level in a particular area of the city towards FMCG products. in this method the researcher selects the sampling unit according to his convenience.Sampling Method Non-Probability Method Non-Probability method is not based on the theory of probability. But however. This method is highly biased and does not represent the universe. Convenience samples contain unknown amounts of both variable and systematic selection errors. . Although non- probability sampling does not yield certain benefits like probability sampling. The selection of place and prospective respondents is subjective rather than objective. therefore is also known as Accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidently are included in the sample . The researcher generally goes for non-probability sampling because he has limited funds at his disposal for conducting research. Convenience sample are often used in explorating situations when there is need to get only an approximation of the actual value quickly and inexpensively. The principal of normal distribution is not applicable in the case of non-probability samples because the probability of the member of population being selected is unknown. It suffers from sampling bias which may distorts results. This method .

According to Prof. These data are available either in the published or unpublished form and are collected for the time other than the first time by investigation at hand. For the purpose of statistical investigations. 1) Primary Data : Through interaction with dealers & Retailers. It is first hand information. . the sources of reservation or storage where the data are stored after being collected and used for some purpose by some other agency.Secrist “……primary data are meant those data which are original. They are essentially raw material. that is. H.2 Methods of Data Collection There are two methods of data collection:- Primary Data It is collected by an investigator or agency for the first time. those in which little or no grouping has been made . 2) Secondary Data : Websites. Through questionnaire filled from Dealers . Books etc. Magazines. Secondary Data Secondary data are the data which are collected from some secondary sources i.2.” Primary data once collected and published becomes secondary data. the instance being recorded or itemized as encounted.retailers and consumers.e.

Many studies have been made of shopping behavior to determine the relative effects of such variables as displays. This method is generally used by researcher scholars. Observation Method The observation method is the most commonly used method specially in studies relating to behavioural sciences. Under the observation method the information is sought by way of investigator’s own direct observation without asking from the respondent. Direct observation of people and how they behave in situations of interest is a commonly used method of collecting information. private personnels. The success of this technique depends upon how the questions are framed and their replied by the respondents. in a study relating to consumer behavior. may himself look at the watch. the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by the respondent. The investigator also assures about maintaining secrecy about the information given by respondent. The questionnaire contains questions relating the object of inquiry and provides space for their answers.2. .particularly in case of big enquiries. non-government agencies and sometimes even by the government. availability and reliance on sales person’s advice on brand selected and the quantity purchased. Important are-  Observation method  Through questionnaires  Interview method In this project I have used questionnaire method.3 Tools Used for Data Collection There are several methods of collection primary data. particularly in surveys and descriptive research. For example. Questionnaire Method This method of data collection is quite popular.

 To know customer awareness regarding various brands of Ball Pens. 2. This method can be used through direct personnel interviews and indirect oral interviews.  To know the reasons for their preference.4 Objectives of study  To check the brand awareness of Cello Ball Pens in Himachal Pradesh.Interview Method The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. .  To know factors influencing customers preferences of a particular brand.  To study media role in brand awareness.

. of Respondents 100 0 Table No.1 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that people are aware about the cement brands available in the markets.Question 1.1 Awarness Yes No 100% Figure 3. 3. Are you aware of various brands of ball pens available in market? Awareness Yes No No.

3. 3% preferred the Montax pens. 3.9% preferred the other pens.2 Brand Preference 9% 11% Today's 8% Parker 9% 19% Cello Montax 3% Addgel Reynolds 41% Other Figure 3. 11% preferred the Today’s pen.2 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that people 41% people preferred the Cello ball pen. 19% preferred the Parker pens. of Respondents Black 30 Blue 40 Red 20 Green 10 Table No. of 11 19 41 3 9 8 9 Responden ts Table No.3 . Question 3: Which colour of pens do you normally use? Colour No.8% preferred the Reynolds.Question 2: Which brand of Ball pens do you prefer to write? Brand Today’s Parker Cello Montax Addgel Reynold Other Preference s No.9% preferred the Addgel.

3. & Lawyers. 20% used Red colour.3 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that 40% people used Blue colour.8 No. 10% used Green colour.6 0. 30% used Black colour. of 40 6 40 14 Respondents Table No. Blue colour pens are normally preferred by the students and Black and Red colour pens are preferred by Prof. Question 4: Which Ball Pen Point do you normally use? Ball pen Point 0.4 . Colour 10% 30% Black 20% Blue Red Green 40% Figure 3.45 0.5 0.

6 Ball point pens. 3. 14% are preferred 0. Question 5:Which source plays a significant role in pull strategy of customer? Media Source No. Ball Pen Point 14% 0.8 6% Figure 3.45 0.5 .5 40% 0.60000000000000064 40% 0. 6% are preferred 0.8 Ball point pens.4 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that 40% people are preferred 0.5 Ball point pens.45 Ball point pens. 40% are preferred 0.V 40 Newspaper 20 Hoardings 20 Wall Paintings 20 Table No. of Respondents T.

of 15 11 26 6 7 35 respondent s Table No. 3.V..20% people are influenced with hoardings and 20% are influenced with wall paintings.20% are influenced by newspaper. 40% Newspaper Hoarding 20% Wall Paintings 20% Figure 3. Question 6: Which characteristics of pen influence your buying decisions? Features Point Grip Price Long-life Ink Performanc e No. Media Sources 20% T.V.6 .5 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that media source plays a major role in customer decision making process 40% people are influenced by T.

15% Point 35% Grip 11% Price Long-life Ink 7% 26% 6% Performance Figure 3.26% are influenced by price. . Buying Decisions 15.6 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that 15%people are making buying decision by ball point. 6% are influenced by long-life. 11% are influenced by grip.7% are influenced with ink. 35% are influenced with performance.

24% belongs to 20. 7% belongs to 50. 3.7 Price Range 5% 7% 17% 5 7% 10 20 30 24% 50 40% 100 Figure 3. . 7% belongs to 30. 40% belongs to 10. of 17 40 24 7 7 5 respondent s Table No.Question 7: Which price range does your pen belongs to? Price 5 10 20 30 50 100 No.7 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that17% people price range of pens belongs to 5. 5% belongs to 100.

3. Question 9: According to you which pen brand enjoys market leadership position? Brand Cello Linc Reynolds Fair No. 44% people are affected from discount of bulk.8 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that17% people are affected from buying a pens scheme of extra refills.8 Scheme Affects on Buying Decision 9% 14% Extra Refills Discount of Bulk 40% Free Pen 37% Other Figure 3. of 17 44 28 11 respondents Table No.11% people are affected from others. of 59 6 10 25 respondents .Question 8: Which type of scheme affects your buying decisions? Scheme Extra Refills Discount of Free Pen Other Bulk No. 28% people are affected from free pens.

9 Market Leadership Position 25% Cello Linc 10% 59% Reynolds Fair 6% Figure 3.9 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of 100 respondents it is concluded that 59% people are preferred Cello’s pens. 3. So Cello’s pen brand enjoys market leadership position. Table No. 3.10 . Question 10: Rating attributes other than price and quality? Option Brand Image Design Advertisement Response 50 30 20 Table No.

30% people are influenced by designing. . Attributes Other Than Price and Quality 20% Brand Image 50% Designing Advertisement 30% Figure 3.10 Interpretation: From above analysis of the given sample of respondents it is concluded that attributes other than price and quality plays a great role among which 50% are influenced by brand image. 20% people are influenced with advertisement.

FINDINGS: After completing the survey many interesting things have been found by me.  Media sources play a major role in customer decision making process. and lawyers.  To know which characteristics in pens are influenced to customer for making buying decisions.  To know which prices of pen customer are belonged.V is the major source of creating customer awareness of various brands.  Majority of respondents prefer Cello’s and Today’s ball pens.  To know about the customers which colour of pens they preferred. As per my findings I found the following:  All the respondents were aware of the various brands available in market. Blue colour is mostly used by students and black and red colour pens are used by prof.  T. .  Mostly people preferred the Cello’s pens.  To know about the customers which ball point pen they used.

But student wants everything in the Pen Affordable Price. of course in different consumer segments there are different characteristics impacting buying Decision.CONCLUSION  Cello Brand enjoys market leadership position and it is also prefer by the majority of the consumer for writing among different brands OF Pen available in the market.5 & 0. o For Service Person: Price & Performance have impact influence on buying decision. LongLife. Occupation Wise Classification o For Business Person: The most influencing characteristic impacting buying decision is Price. o For Students: .  In different types of Pen. proper Grip. But still Price & Performance are dominating features for this Consumer Segments. It signifies that Service Person purchase pen not only considering price but along with it some different features such as Grip.In this consumer segment it cannot be predicted or analyzed that any 1 characteristic is impacting their decision. Long Life and even the performance of the . Ballpen is preferred by most of consumer’s and they have ranked Ball-Pen as No 1 among different Types of pen  Blue Colour is preferred by the consumer among different Colour’s  Majority of the Consumer prefer Ball Point of 0.6 mm and they like Crispy and Fluent hand writing as this point size gives the desired writing to consumers  Most of the consumers Buying Decision is not only influenced by any specific single characteristics but it is influenced by either the combination of more than 1. etc are also impacting the Decision.Thus majority buying decision is influenced by Performance of Pen in Total.

Thus almost all media is having the impact on buying decision of different consumer Segments. They do not refill pen as the Believe that New Pen Cost is Negligible as compared to purchasing a refill For Eg.Even the refilling does not give the same writing performance as of the original refill. Thus student buying decision regarding pen is influenced equally by almost all variables  In the Pen Market the consumers are not loyal to a particular Brand. Todays Wonder Gel Rs 5 and refill of the same is of Rs 4. Consumers do not purchase the same brand mainly due to Influx of Newer and Newer Products in the Market by different players and in different Price range ultimately changing the consumer buying Decision  In the Present market condition where Pen is available even in the Price Range of Rs 1 – 3. The major reason for this is Pen is Low Involvement Product. Repeat Purchase is very less. majority of them do not stick or purchase the same brand. So consumer refrains from refilling the Pen. consumers do not go for refilling the Pen. as well as low price but in huge product varities and Price range. . Influence of different Advertising Media is not differing byProfession. pen.  Tv Advertisement is having a significant impact on majority of the Consumer.

Other variables does not impact their decision as the above mentioned  Eg: Service Person :.  For Student:. So hereby I suggests that Company (Todays) should Come up with the product in Effective Price range Of Rs 5 – 20.g. For  E.5 & 0. targeted to different consumer segments.5 & 0. that gives good writing performance and on the basis of that positioning the product in the same way emphasizing the two variables for Specifically Business Person. At the same price range Todays have very less products which can satisfy consumer need and even in the Point Size it has more Pen in 0.6.6 & 0.: Business Person Producing the Pen in the Price range of Rs 11 -20. And in the Point Size of 0.RECOMMANDATIONS:  Cello Company is regarded as No 1 market leader due to its product varities mainly in the Price range ranging from Rs 5 – 20 this is Low Price Segment where majority of consumers prefer to buy their pen. with Point Size of 0. From the survey it is clear that different variable/features influence buying decision of consumer in different segments.6 cello has huge product range.8 mm and do not have large varities in that Point Size which is impacting the sales in different consumers segments.  Company is spending huge sum of money on Advertisement. with Logo (Every Pen Speaks) but like other Companies it is not targeting specific segments.PRICE RANGE— Rs 11 -20 Characteristics to Emphasize – Price. The companies should try to focus on a target group by focusing on various characteristics that affect their buying decision.PRICE RANGE— Rs 1 -10 Characteristics to Emphasize – Complete Performance Thus if the Company uses all the above mentioned features for specific target market and makes the product. fixes the Price and positioned properly and effectively than it can definitely outperform it competitors in Different Segments. . Thus Company should not have a common Positioning for all Target Markets.

e.  Company is almost leader in Gel Pen Segment. There is huge Opportunity for the Company to have such type of pens and even take First Move Advantage in this type of pen as still no organized player is producing Pen in Price Rs 1 – 3. but in ball pen its is competitor due to many reasons. due to its huge product varities and price range.Todays is also getting tough competition ny unorganized players. . I hereby suggest the Company to Increase the Product Varieties substantially in Ball Pen Segment as it as about 82% of the total Market.GENERAL SUGGESTION  In this world of Competition there is competition not only from organized players but unorganized players also.) Use & Throw which are favorite among students now a Days. I hereby suggest that Todays with its own R & D facilities can outperform this unorganized players by producing the Pen In the price range of Rs 1 -3 (i.

Limitations of the Study:  It was an academic effort and limited to cost. .  Numbers of respondents were restricted due to the time factor. time and geographical area.  Scattering from respondents and dealers.  There is a lack of time.

com/topimagearchives.R.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=84&Itemid=112  http://www.php?id=1165  http://www.”Research Methodology” New Age International (P) Ltd.Bibliography Books:  Kotler Philip.”Marketing Management.com/index.ukessays.cellowriting.php .. Websites:  http://www.  Kothari C.11th edition.mbarendezvous. Publisher 2004.” Prentice Hall Publishers.com/essays/marketing/indias-favorite-cello- pens.

I am doing the final project on Consumer Buying Behaviour For Ball Pens (Cello’s Group) . Post Graduate College Dharmshala. Do You Choose Only One Brand? a) Yes b) No If Yes. I am seeking your cooperation . Which Colour of Ball Pen do you normally use? a) Blue b) Red c) Black d) Multiple Colors Q4). Than why do you not purchase the same brand? a) Advertisement b) New Price Range c) New Products Design d) Performance e) Due to Fashion f) Others___________________ . Which type of Pen do you currently use? a) Ball Pen b) Gel Pen c) Ink Pen d) Pilot Pen Q3). Than Frequency of Buying High Moderate Low If No.45 c) 0. Questionnaire Hello. Given by you will be kept confidential.5 b) 0. Any info.6 d) 0. As a part of BBA curriculum. I am Neha Pathania pursuing BBA from Govt.8 Q5). Which Ball Pen Point do you normally use? a) 0. Which Characteristics of Pen Influence your Buying Decision? a) Point b) Grip c) Price d) Long-Life e) Ink f) Performance Q6). Q1) Which Brand Of Ball Pen do prefer to write? a) Today's b) Parker's c) Cello d) Montax e) Add Gels f) Reynolds Others ______________________________ Q2).

____________________.______________ Q8) Which Advertising Media Influences You The Most? a) TV Advertisements b) Banners & hoarding c) Newspapers d) Internet Q9). Rate the Following types Of Pen Ranging From Rank (1. According to you which Brand Enjoys the Leadership Position in the Market? a) Today's b) Parker's c) Cello d) Montax e) Add Gels f) Reynolds g) Others ____________________ Q12).5 b) 6-10 c) 11-20 d) 21-30 e) 31 -50 f) 50 & Above Q10). Do You Refill Your Pen regularly? a) Yes b) No If No.4)? a) Ball Pen b) Gel Pen . O7). Which Price Range Does your Pen Belong to? a) 1. Why a) Pen Cost IS Negligible b) Replacement Results into Poor Performance c) Refill Is Unavailable d) Specify If Others.If No. Which Type of Schemes Affect your buying Decision? a) Extra Refill b) Discount On Bulk Purchase c) Free pen d) Others _______________________________ Q11). than Which Brand Do you Prefer the Most for Re Purchase? a) Today's b) Parker's c) Cello d) Montax e) Add Gels f) Reynolds g) Specify Others If Any.