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MBA PROGRAMME

INTRODUCTION
Meaning:
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a management function that helps
mangers recruit, select, train and develops members for an organization. Obviously,
HRM is concern with the peoples dimension in organizations.

Human resource management refers to a set of programmes, functions and


activities designed and carried out in order to maximize both employees as well as
organizational effectiveness. It is the process of binding people and organizations
together so that the objectives of each are achieved.

HRM involves the application of management function and principles. The


functions and principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing, maintaining, and
remunerating employees in organizations.

Human resource management means employing people, developing their


resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with job and
organizational requirements. HR is the most significant factor of production every
human being is born with tremendous potential. HR refers to the knowledge, skills,
and beliefs of an organizations workplace. Enhance their skills, abilities, knowledge in
accordance with the changing requirements of groups, organization and society is the
essence of HRD.

Human Resource Development (HRD) is a continuous process to ensure the


development of employee dynamism, effectiveness, competencies and motivation in a
systematic and planned manner.

HRD includes potential development, fast achievement, skill development,


ability to reach out, systems development, understanding of subordinates goals, greater
commitment existing and creating climate, developing integration etc. One of the
important mechanisms of HRD is training and development.

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DEFINITIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


According to French:
Human resource management is the recruitment, selection, development, utilization
of and accommodation of human resources by organizations. The human resource of
an organization consists of all individuals regardless of their role, who are engaged in
any of the organizations activities.
According to Flippo:
Human resource management is the planning, organizing, directing and
controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance
and reproduction of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and
societal objectives are accomplished.

According to Milkovich and Boudrean:


Human resource management is a series of integrated decisions that form the
employment relationship, their quality contributes to the ability of the organizations
and the employees to achieve their objectives.
Human resource management is a management function that helps managers
plan, recruit, select, train, develop, remunerate and maintain members of an
organization. It is concerned with the peoples dimension in organizations.
Human resource managements is known by different names, such as personnel
management, manpower management, staff management and knowledge management
etc.
SCOPE OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The scope of HRM is indeed vast. All major activities in the working life of a
worker from the time of his or her entry into an organization until he or she leaves
come under the purview of HRM. Specifically the activities included are HR
planning, job analysis and design, recruitment and selection, orientation and
placement, training and development, performance appraisal and job evaluation,
employee and executive remuneration, motivation and communication, welfare, safety

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and health, industrial relations (IR) and the like. For the sake of convenience, we can
categorise, we can categorise all these functions into seven sections,
1. Introduction to HRM.
2. Employee hiring.
3. Employee and executive remuneration.
4. Employee motivation.
5. Employee maintenance.
6. IR, and.
7. Prospects of HRM .

OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


1) To help the organization to attain its goals by providing well-trained and well-
motivated employees.
2) To utilize the human resources effectively in the achievement of organizational
goals.
3) To enhance job satisfaction and self-actualization of employees by encouraging
and assisting every employee to realize his or her full potential.
4) To establish and maintain productive, self-respecting and internally satisfying
working relationships among all the members of the organization.
5) To bring about maximum individual development of members of the
organization by providing opportunities for training and advancement.
6) To secure the integration of all the individuals and groups with the organization
by reconciling individual and group goals with those of the organization.
7) To develop and maintain a quality of work-life which makes employment in the
organization a desirable personal and social situation.
8) To maintain high employee morale and sound human relations by sustaining
and improving the various conditions and facilities.
9) To manage change to the mutual advantage of individuals, groups, the
organization and the society.

FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

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1. Human resource management is a part of management discipline.


2. Human resource management is a process, just like management process.
3. Human resource management is a continuous process and not a one-stop action.
4. Human resource management is concerned with people in the organization,
both present and potential.
5. Human resource management is directed towards achievement of organizational
objectives by providing tools and techniques of managing people in the
organization effectively.
6. Human resource management is relevant to all functional areas of a business
organization, such as, production, marketing, finance, research and
development, etc.

PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RESOUCE MANAGEMENT


(1) Principle of maximum individual development.
(2) Principle of scientific selection.
(3) Principle of high morale
(4) Principle of dignity of labour.
(5) Principle of team spirit.
(6) Principle of effective communication.
(7) Principle of fair remuneration.
(8) Principle of effective utilization of human resources.
(9) Principle of participation.
(10) Principle of contribution to national prosperity.

HUMAN RESOURCES
From the national point of view:

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Human resources are knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and attitudes
obtained in the population.
From the view point of an organization:
Human resources represent the people at work. They are the sum-total of the
inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and
aptitudes of its employees.
According to Jucius:
Human resources refer to a whole consisting of inter-related, interdependent,
and interacting physiological, psychological, sociological and ethical components.
According to Sumantra Ghoshal:
Human resources as human capital consisting of three types of capital, namely,
intellectual capital, social capital and emotional capital.
Features of human resources:
(1) Human resources are heterogeneous.
(2) Human resources are dynamic and behave differently.
(3) Human resources have the greatest potential to develop and grow provided the
right climate is provided to them.

SIGNIFICANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human resources are the most precious assets of an organization. They are
activators of non-human resources, means of competitive advantages and source of
creativity provided they are managed effectively. Human resource management, thus,
has great significance.
The significance of human resource management can be discussed at four levels
organizational, professional, social and national.

Organizational significance:

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(1) Attracting and retaining the required talent through effective human resource
planning, recruitment, selection, placement, orientation, compensation and
promotion policies.
(2) Developing the necessary skills and right attitudes among the employees
through training, development, and performance appraisal, etc
(3) Securing willing co-operation of employees through motivation, participation,
grievance handling, etc.
(4) Utilizing effectively the available human resources.
(5) Ensuring that the organization will have in future a team of competent and
dedicated employees.

Professional significance:

(1) Developing people on continuous basis to meet the challenges of their jobs.
(2) Maintaining the dignity of personnel at the work place.
(3) Providing proper physical and social environment at the work place to utilize
the capabilities of the people effectively.
(4) Providing environment and incentives for developing and utilizing creativity.

Social significance:
(1) Maintaining balance between jobs and job-seekers in terms of job
requirements and job-seekers abilities and attitudes.
(2) Providing most productive employment from which socio-psychological
satisfaction can be derived.
(3) Utilizing human capabilities effectively and matching rewards for the
contributions made by people.
(4) Eliminating wasteful organizational and individual practices.

National significance:

(1) Increase in the size and complexity of organizations.


(2) Rapid technological developments like automation, and computerization etc.
(3) Rise of professional and knowledgeable workers.

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(4) Increasing proportion of women in the workforce.


(5) Growth of powerful nation-wide trade unions

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JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It refers to a
persons feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the
self-satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction on the job. It relates to the
total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. Satisfaction
does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the attainment of any goal; the end state is
feeling accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objective. Job dissatisfaction mean
absence of motivation oat work.
There are a variety of factors that can influence a persons level of job satisfaction;
some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the
promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and
social relationships, and the job itself. The happier an individual is within their job, the more
satisfied they are said to be.

CONSEQUENCES OF SATISFACTION:

High job-satisfaction may lead to improved productivity, increased turnover, improved


attendance, reduced accidents, less job stress, and lower unionization.

PRODUCTIVITY:

The relationship between job-satisfaction and productivity is at definitely established.


The consensus, however, is that in the long-run job-satisfaction leads to increased
productivity. But, four decades job research into this issue, unfortunately, does not lend
support to this belief.

First, the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is weak. In the
latters findings, the median correlation between satisfaction and performance is only.

Second, there is more evidence to suggest that job performance leads to job-
satisfaction and no the other way round developed by these two illustrates the similarity

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between performance and satisfaction. An employee who performs well in his job gets both
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards which will lead to his satisfaction. A poor performer will feel
worse about his incompetence and will receive fewer rewards. He will be less satisfied with
his work experiences.

Third, there are some conditions under which high productivity more clearly leads to
high job-satisfaction. One condition is that the employees perceive that intrinsic and extrinsic
rewards ate contingent upon their productivity. The second condition is that the extrinsic
rewards be distributed equitably. Inequitable distribution fails to convince the employees
close correlation between hard work and rewards.

However, the edge a happy worker is a productive worker is not always

wrong. True, there may not be a relationship between job-satisfaction and productivity;
performance may be affected indirectly by absenteeism or turnover which is related to
satisfaction.

JOB-SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE TURNOVER:

High employee turnover is of considerable concern for employers because it disrupts


normal operations, causes morale problems for those who stick on, and increases the cost
involved in selecting and training replacements. The employer does whatever possible to
minimize turnover, making the employees feel satisfied on their jobs, being one such.

Unlike the relation between satisfaction and productivity, the connection between job-
satisfaction to employee turnover is established beyond doubt. In four major reviews of the
relationship between satisfaction and turnover, it has been demonstrated that workers who
have relatively low levels of job-satisfaction are the most likely to quit their jobs and that
organizational units with the lowest average satisfaction levels tend to have the highest
turnover rates.

SATISFACTION AND ABSENCES:

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Correlation of satisfaction to absenteeism is also proved conclusively. Workers who


are dissatisfied are more likely to take mental health days, i.e., days of not due to illness or
personal business. Simply stated, to modification by certain factors. The degree to which
people feel that their jobs are important has moderating influence on their absences.
Employees who feel that their work is important tend to clock in regular attendance. Besides,
it is important to remember that while high job-satisfaction will not necessarily result in low
absenteeism, low satisfaction is likely to bring about high absenteeism.

SATISFACTION AND SAFETY :

Poor safety practices are a negative consequence of low satisfaction level. When
people are discouraged about their jobs, company, and supervisors, they are more liable to
experience accidents. An underlying reason for such accidents is that discouragement may
take ones attention away from the task at hand. Inattention leads directly to accidents. For
example, many hand injuries from power tools can be attributed to the operator not paying
careful attention.

SATISFACTION AND JOB STRESS:

Job stress is the bodys response to any job-related factor that threatens to disturb the
persons equilibrium. In the process of experiencing stress, the employees inner state
changes. Prolonged stress can cause the employee serious ailments such as heart disease,
ulcer, blurred vision, lower back pain, dermatitis, and muscle aches.

Chronic job-dissatisfaction is a powerful source of job stress. The employee may see no
satisfactory short-term solution to escaping this type of stress. An employee trapped in a
dissatisfying job may withdraw by such means as high absenteeism and tardiness: or the
employee may quit.

Employees under prolonged stress stemming from job-dissatisfaction often consume


too much alcohol, tobacco and drugs. These employees are costly to the management in terms
of time lost due to frequent absences and increased payments towards medical
reimbursements.

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UNIONIZATION:

It is proved that job-dissatisfaction is a major cause for unionization. Dissatisfaction


with wages, job security, fringe benefits, chances for promotion and treatment by supervisors
are reasons which make employees join unions. Another dimension is that job-dissatisfaction
can have an impact on the tendency to take action within the union, such as filing grievances
or striking.

SOURCE OF JOB-SATISFACTION:

Several job elements contribute to job-satisfaction. The most important amongst them
are wage structure, nature of work, promotion chances, and quality of supervision, work
group, and working conditions.

WAGES:

Wages play a significant role in influencing job-satisfaction. This is because of two reasons.
First, money is an important instrument in fulfilling ones needs; and two, employees often
see pay as a reflection of managements concern for them.

Employees want a pay system which is simple, fair, and in line with their
expectations. When pay is seen as fair, based on job demands, individual skill level, and
community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. What needs emphasis is that it is not
the absolute amount paid that matters, rather it is ones perception of fairness.

NATURE OF WORK:

Most of employees crave intellectual challenges on jobs. They tend to prefer being
given opportunities to use their skills and abilities and being offered a variety of tasks,
freedom, and feedback on how well they are doing. These create boredom. But too much
challenge creates frustration and a feeling of failure. Under conditions of moderate challenge,
employees experience pleasure and satisfaction.

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PROMOTION:

Promotional opportunities affect job-satisfaction considerably. The desire for


promotion is generally strong among employees as it involves change in job content, pay,
responsibility, independence, status and the like. An average employee in a typical
government organization can hope to get two or three promotions in his entire service, though
chances of promotion are better in the private sector. It is no surprise that the employee takes
promotion as the ultimate achievement in his career and when it is realized, he feels extremely
satisfied.

SUPERVISION:

There is a positive relationship between the quality of supervision and job-satisfaction.


Supervisors who establish a supportive personal relationship with subordinates and take a
personal interest in them contribute to their employees satisfaction. On realizing the role of
supervision in creating satisfaction, a number of supervisory roles have been suggested for the
purpose. The below points are the supervisory actions.

1. Maintain open lines of communication

2. Create a good physical environment

3. Remedy sub-standard conditions

4. Transfer discontented employees

5. Change the perception of dissatisfied employees

6. Display concern for employees

7. Gibe ample recognition

8. Allow for participative management

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9. Practice good management

10. Conduct morale building programs

WORK GROUP:

The work group does serve as a source of satisfaction to individual employees. It does
so, primarily by providing group members, with opportunities for interaction, with each other.
It is well-known that, for many employees work fills the need for social interaction.

The work group is an even stronger source of satisfaction when members have similar
attitudes and values. Having people around with similar attitudes causes less friction on a day-
to-day basis. Co-workers with similar attitudes and values can also provide some confirmation
of a persons self-concept: we are ok and you are ok.

WORKING CONDITIONS:

Working conditions that are compatible with an employees physical comfort and that
facilitate doing a good job contribute to job-satisfaction. Temperature, humidity, ventilation,
lighting and noise, hours of work, cleanliness of the work place, and adequate tools and
equipment are the features which affect job-satisfaction.

The assumption that working conditions and satisfaction are interrelated contradicts
the two-factor theory of motivation. According to this theory, working conditions are a part of
maintenance factors which, when provided, help remove dissatisfaction. And the opposite of
dissatisfaction is no-dissatisfaction but not satisfaction.

MEASURING JOB-SATISFACTION:

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Also called survey of morale, opinion, attitude, climate, or quality of work life, job-
satisfaction survey is conducted by management in order to get information for making sound
decisions. A job-satisfaction survey is a procedure by which employees report their feelings
towards their job and work environment. The responses are then combined and analyzed.
Various ways of measuring job-satisfaction are available. Before discussing the ways, an
explanation of the benefits of such surveys is in order.

BENEFITS OF JOB SATISFACTION STUDY :

1. One benefit of job-satisfaction surveys is that they give management an indication of


general levels of satisfaction in a company. Surveys also indicate specific areas of
satisfaction or dissatisfaction and particular groups of employees. In other words , a
survey tells how employees feel about their jobs, what parts of their jobs these feelings
are focused on, which departments are particularly affected, and whose feelings are
involved (for example, supervisors, employees, or staff specialists). The survey is a
powerful diagnostic instrument for assessing employee problems.

2. Improved communication is another benefit of the surveys. Communication flows in all


directions as people plan the survey, talk, and discuss its results. Particularly beneficial to
the company is, the upward communication when employees are encouraged to comment
about what they really have in their minds.

3. A job-satisfaction survey is an indicator of the effectiveness of organizational reward


systems. As was discussed earlier, there is a positive relationship between performance
and satisfaction. This relationship will be strong when rewards are distributed equitably
contingent upon performance. Now, job-satisfaction surveys can provide some clues as to
the effectiveness of the organizational rewards system. They help managers judge
whether the best performers are receiving the most rewards and the most satisfaction
from their jobs. The best performers are likely to quit if they are not suitably rewarded.

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4. One of the best uses of job-satisfaction surveys is in the evaluation of the impact of
organizational changes on employee attitudes. For example, the management wants to
know whether the job redesign programme recently implemented in the organization has
resulted in increased satisfaction to the employees. By comparing pre-change data and
post-change data, it is easy to determine what impact the redesigned work has on
employee attitudes.

5. Finally, it is not that, satisfaction surveys, benefit only management. They are useful to
unions too. Often, both management and union argue about what the employees want, but
neither really knows. The job-satisfaction survey is one way to find out. It is for this
reason that unions support surveys.

But the benefits discussed above would be realized subject to certain prerequisites.
Following are the conditions:

Top management actively supports the survey.

Employees are fully involved in planning the survey.

A clear objective exists for conducting the survey.

Management is capable and willing to take follow up action.

Both the results and action plans are communicated to employees.

WAYS OF MEASURING JOB-SATISFACTION:

There are a number of ways of measuring job-satisfaction. This is not surprising since
hundreds of studies have been conducted over the past three and a half decades, employing
varied techniques. The most common ways of measurement include rating scales, critical
incidents, interviews, and action tendencies.

RATING SCALES:

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The most common approach for measuring job-satisfaction is the use of rating scales.
These scales fall into two general categories. One is called tailor-made scales, which are
constructed for a particular setting or a project. The second set comprises standardized scales
which, before their use, have been developed to establish group norms o the scales and to
ensure the reliability and validity of the measuring instruments. It is the tailor-made scales
which are frequently used in practice.

One of the most popular standardized scales is the Job Descriptive Index(JDI)
developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). The JDI has separate scales for satisfaction
with pay, promotion, supervision, work and co-workers.

It has been used with a large variety of employee samples, and norms are provided for
employees according to their age, sex, education, income, and type of community. Requiring
only 10-15 minutes to administer, JDI has been widely used by behavior researchers over the
years and provides a broad picture of employee attitudes towards the major components of
jobs.

CRITICAL INCIDENTS:

The critical incidents approach to the measurement of job-satisfaction was developed


by Hertzberg and his associates in their research on the two-factor theory of motivation.
Employees were asked to describe incidents on their content-analyzed in determining which
aspects were closely related to positive and negative attitudes.

INTERVIEWS:

Personal interviews are yet another method of measurement of satisfaction. Employees


are interviewed individually and the responses reveal their satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

ACTION TENDENCIES:

These represent the inclinations people have to avoid or approach certain things. By
gathering information about how they feel like acting with respect to their jobs, the job-
satisfaction can be measured. Below there are some examples of action tendencies.

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1. When you wake up in the morning, do you feel reluctant to go to work?

2. Do you ever feel reluctant to go home from work at night because of the enjoyment you
are getting from the job?

3. Do you often feel like going to lunch at work sooner than you do?

4. Do you feel like taking a coffee break more often than you should?

5. Do you ever wish you could work at your job on evenings or weekends?

6. Are you sometimes reluctant to leave your job to go on a vacation?

7. When you are on vacation, do you ever look forward to getting back to work?

8. Do you ever wake up at night with the urge to go to work right then and there?

9. Do you ever wish holidays or weekends would get over with so that you could go back
to work?

USE OF EXISTING INFORMATION:

Before conducting any formal satisfaction survey, managers do well to examine two
other methods of assessing employee feelings daily contacts and existing data. Managers are
tin contact with their employees through constant interaction and communication. This is a
practical and tamely method of determining the job satisfaction. Besides, there are a number
of indicators already available in the organization, and their collection in the form of reports
will throw much light on the degree of employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Some of the
available data relate to turnover, absenteeism, performance, suggestions, accidents,
grievances, and the like.

Job-satisfaction represents a persons feelings towards his job. Ob-satisfaction receives


the attention of researchers and practicing managers because of its effect on employee

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turnover, absenteeism, accidents, unionization, and indirectly on productivity. Job-satisfaction


depends on the nature of work, promotion chances, and quality of supervision, work group,
and working conditions.

Attempts have been made to measure job-satisfaction. Measurement of satisfaction


benefits management because it helps managers know the general level of satisfaction
employees; communication upward communication improves; attitudes change for the
better; reasons for absenteeism and turnover are known;

And helps assess the training needs of employees. Benefits are available only when
top management is committed to the measurement and extends all encouragement and
cooperation for the successful administration of a survey.

Several ways of measurement of job-satisfaction are available. The most popular ways
are the rating scales, critical incidents, interviews, and action tendencies. Before designing
and implementing a survey method, management does well to make use of existing data
relating to absenteeism, turnover and accidents. Its day-to-day interaction with employees can
also be useful in assessing employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Personal Factors:
They include workers sex, education, age, marital status and their personal characteristics,
family background and socio-economic background.
Factors inherent in the job:
Instead of being guided by their co-workers and supervisors, the skilled workers
would rather like to be guided by their own inclination to choose jobs in consideration of
what they have to do. These factors include: the work itself, conditions, influence of internal
and external environment on job which are controlled by the management etc.
Factors controlled by the management:
They include the nature of supervision, job security, kind of work group, wage rate,
promotional opportunities, and transfer policy, duration of work and sense of responsibilities.
All these factors greatly influence the workers and provide a sense of job satisfaction.

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There are four approaches/theories of job satisfaction.


They are:
1) Fulfillment Theory
2) Discrepancy Theory
3) Equity Theory
4) Herzbergs Theory

FULFILLMENT THEORY:
The proponent of this theory measures satisfaction terms of rewards a person receives
or the extent, which his needs are satisfied. Further they thought that there is a direct/positive
relationship between job satisfaction and the actual satisfaction of the expected needs. The
main difficulty in this approach is that job satisfaction of the expected needs. The main
difficulty in this approach is that job satisfaction as observed by willing, is not only a function
o what a person receives but also what he feels he should receive as there would be
considerable difference in the actual and expectations of the persons. Thus job satisfaction
cannot be regarded as merely a function of how much a person receives from his job.
Another important factor/variable that should be included to predict job satisfaction
accurately is the strength of the individuals desire of his level o aspiration in a particular area.
This led to the development of the Discrepancy theory of the job.
DISCREPANCY THEORY:
The proponents of this theory argue that satisfaction of what a person actually receives
from his job situation and what he thinks he should receive or what he expects to receive.
When the actual satisfaction received is less than expected satisfaction, it results in
dissatisfaction. As discussed earlier, job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are functions of the
perceived relationship between what one wants from ones job and what one perceives it is
offering. This approach does not make it clear whether or not over satisfaction is a part of
dissatisfaction and if so, how does it differ from dissatisfaction. This led to the development
of equity theory of job satisfaction.
EQUITY THEORY:

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The proponents of this theory are of the view that a persons satisfaction is determined
by this perceived equity, which in turn is determined by his input-out balance compared to his
comparison of others input-output balance. Input-output balance is the perceived ratio of what
a person receives from his job relative to what he contributes to the job. This theory of the
view that both under the over rewards lead to dissatisfaction while the under reward causes
feelings of unfair treatment, over reward leads to feeling of guilt and discomfort.
HERZBERGS THEORY (TWO FACTOR THEORY):
In the late 1950s, Frederick Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in
motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what them satisfied and
dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:
1. Think of time when you felt especially good about your job. Why do you feel that
way?
2. Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why do you feel that
way?
From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are two dimensions
to job satisfaction: motivation and hygiene. Hygiene issues, according to Herzberg, cannot
motivate employees bit can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly.
In other words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygiene
topics include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working
conditions. They are issues related to the employees environment. Motivators, on the other
hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals needs. They are issues such as achievement,
recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Once the hygiene areas are
addressed, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production.

APPLYING THE THEORY:


Hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction; these issues must be dealt first to
create an environment in which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible.

COMPANY AND ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES:


An organizations policies can be a great source of frustration for the employees if the
policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not everyone is required to follow them. Employees

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dissatisfaction can be decreased in this area by making sure that the organizations policies are
fair and apply equally to all. Also, the organization has to make printed copies of their policies
and procedures manual easily accessible to all members. If you do not have a written manual,
create one, soliciting staff input along the way. If you already have one, consider updating it
(again with staff input) the organization has to compare its policies to those of similar
practices ask themselves whether particular policies are unreasonably strict or whether some
penalties are too harsh.
Supervision:
To decrease dissatisfaction in this area, organization must begin by making wise
decisions when they appoint someone to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees
do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It requires
leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. Supervisors should give positive
feedback wherever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and
feedback so that no one feels singled out.
Salary:
The old age you get what you pay for tends to be true when it comes to staff
members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If
individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for.
Organization has to consult salary surveys or ever-local help-wanted ads to see whether the
salaries and benefits given are comparable to those organizations. In addition, the company
has to be about the policies related to salaries and bonus.
Interpersonal Relation:
Part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so employee
should be allowed a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g., over lunch during
breaks between patients). This will help them to develop a sense of camaraderie and
teamwork. At the same time, the organization should crack down on rudeness inappropriate
behavior and offensive comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, charge must be
taken on the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.
Working Condition:
The environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride
for themselves and for the work they are doing. Even a nice chair can make a world of

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difference to an individuals psyche. Also, if possible, overcrowding should be avoided and


each employee has to be allowed his or her own personal space, whether it is a desk, a locker,
or even just a drawer. Before moving on to the motivators, hygiene factors discussed above
should not be neglected.
Work Itself:
Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the
work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Emphasis that their
contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes. Employees may not find all their
tasks interesting or rewarding, but the organization should show the employee how those
tasks are essential to the overall processes that make the practice succeed.
Recognition:
Individual at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their
achievements on the job. Their successes dont have to be monumental before they deserve
recognitions, but the organizations praise should be sincere. If the organization notice
employees doing something well, it has to take time to acknowledge their good work
immediately. The individual should be thanked publicly for handling a situation particularly
well. Kind note of praise should be written or bonus should be given, if appropriate.
Responsibility:
Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have ownership of their
work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so
that they feel they own the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, opportunities should
be provided for added responsibility. The organization should be careful, however, that they
do not simply add more work. Instead, find ways to add challenging and meaningful work,
perhaps giving the employee greater freedom and authority as well.
Advancement:
Rewards loyalty and performance with advancement. If the organizations do not have
an open position to promote a valuable employee, a new title should be given to him or her
that reflects the level of works he or she has achieved. When feasible, employee must be
supported by allowing them to pursue further education, which will make them more valuable
to organizations practice and more fulfilled professionally.

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Job satisfaction is good not only for employees but employers, too; it increases
productivity and decreases staff turnover.
An organizations policies, if unclear or unfair, can stand in the way of employee
satisfaction.
Although employees do want to be paid fairly for their work, money is not an effective
way to motivate individuals.
Employees need a reasonable amount of social interaction on the job.
When employees do good work, recognize them for it immediately.

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NEED FOR THE STUDY

The main purpose behind this project is to study the satisfaction of employees regarding
their in the organization.

It is necessary for an organization to evaluate and examine the satisfaction of its human
resources.

To take steps to increase the level of job satisfaction.

To suggest for the important of working conditions if not up to the mark.

To know who will apprise and when to apprise.

To know whether the employees are satisfied with Coromandel Agro Products & Oils Ltd
policies and processers.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

As researcher committed to implement research plan effectively and make study


more realistic and comprehensive, the researcher have demand the following objectives quite
necessary. In other words, the present study is expected to realize the following objectives.
The main objectives of the study are to acquire knowledge.

To find out the level of job satisfaction among workers.

To identify the relationship between employees and superiors.

To know about the attitude of the workers towards the job.

To know whether the employees are satisfied with the welfare measures or not.

To suggest measures to improve employee satisfaction and commitment.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study of job satisfaction makes it clear that researcher made varied attempt to
get into the core of this construct however there was not much success as all the approaches
were criticized for being Unitary at the same time these approaches improved upon the
understanding of job satisfaction.

The intrinsic factor of jobs provided more clarity to the concept of job satisfaction
than extrinsic factor of jobs. Likewise the human relation approach emerged as a boom in
explaining this remained under.

This understanding has led to the synthesis of a new and rather broader approach to the
study of job satisfaction in which emphasis was placed on analysis and then summation o the
factor related to work-role and individual characteristics. Satisfaction analysis therefore
requires both variables the man and his in the organization

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IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The researcher is of the opinion that the present study is of vital important and
immense use. The researcher has decided to support his opinion by giving the reasons in
support of his opinion.

The study on job satisfaction of employee of Coromandel Agro Products & Oils Ltd
assumes much attention and importance, since the company has the distinction of being one of
the well managed companies with god track regarding corporate sectors.

Company is expected to derive advantage by getting the opportunities of knowing


strength and weaknesses in HR area, the study is also useful to researchers in future.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any
branch of knowledge.
- The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1952, p.
1069.
This is a systematic way to solve the research problem and it is an important
component for the study without which researcher may not be able to obtain the facts and
figures from the employees.

The methodology adopted for the study is as follows:

Sources of data:
Data was collected based on two sources:
Primary data.
Secondary data.

Primary data:
The primary data is collected with the help of questionnaires. The questionnaires are
chosen because of its simplicity and reliability researchers can expect a straight answer, which
is directly related to the questions.
Secondary data:
Secondary data is collected through the document provided by the HR department
such as policy decisions, reports regarding suggestion scheme etc. books from various authors
of HRD, magazines, journals and annual reports of the company, feedback reports file of
training department, brochures and company personal manual.

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Sampling unit:
Sampling unit for the study is executives, senior executives, and graduates and
diploma holders, workers of Coromandel Agro Products & Oils Ltd, Chirala.

Sampling size:
The sample size consists of 20 respondents.

Research Design:
Research as the systematic investigation into and the study of materials and
sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusion.
A research design involves the completes process of planning and operation of the
research.
A research design is an instrument, which helps in achieving scientific accuracy of the
study under consideration.
How many observations should be made one of each unit in the study?

Sampling technique:
Sampling can be broadly classified into probability sampling and non probability
sampling. But the study is conducted by non-random convenient sampling techniques for the
purpose of assuring the sample size.

Convenience sampling:
The type of sampling depends upon the convenience of the researcher.
Random sampling:
The type of sampling can be choosing on the basis of random.
Quantitative analysis:
The data is collected through questionnaire regarding the purpose of approval and
positive and negative aspects of existing system were analyzed quantitatively and
qualitatively and interpretations were summarized.

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Statistical Tools Used:


The design tool used to analyze the data is percentage method.

Percentage Method:
The method is very simple to analyze the data. The sample size may be large. To
analyze such large size of data, we change into percentages. To change that the formula is,

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

There were no significant limitations while conducting the survey but

Duration of the project study was very limited which is not sufficient for detailed
study; hence time is the limiting factor.

There were many constraints in studying a government enterprise although the


personnel in Capol are very cooperative and helpful but they are bound by their own
rules & regulations.

The reports presented by the firm, which form a basis for analysis, may be core
limitation to the study.

Many of the respondents were not interested to express their views.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
The AGRO INDUSTRIES broadly means industries manufacturing inputs for
agriculture or the industries processing agricultural output. Agencies supporting agriculture
by designing and manufacturing inputs are termed as AGRO INDUSTRIES and those
supported by agriculture production are termed as agro based industries. Modern agro
industries manufacturing process chemicals and supply agriculture inputs like distribution of
fertilizers and seeds have been taken over by the co-operative banks for a quite long time now.
The various agro industrial corporations in the state section to supply agricultural machinery,
cash credit and hire purchase system.
According to planning commission any enterprise produces and supply chemical
inputs to agriculture (fertilizers, insecticides). Due to rapid change in technology, the output
of agriculture, agro industries and agro-based industries have also place not only in outputs of
and textile industries but also place not in only in outputs of cotton and textile industries but
also the whole range of plantations like tea, coffee, groundnut and jute.
Generally most of the industries use agriculture output as basic raw material. But the
concepts of agro industries left out of account industrial product. It is confined to those
industries that are engaged in processing the agriculture product, either for consumption or for
the use of the industry. They include in the 1 st instance agro industries provide the essential
input and in the 2nd phase, agro based industries function as an outlet for agricultural output.
The purpose of helping these industries is to from agro based industries. They have
their impact on the receipts of the former; agro industries also serve as a means for providing
better employment opportunities. The purpose of establishing agro industries co-operation is
not only to equip the former, with modern implements but also to train him in the operations
of machines for the state of mechanization and nationalization agricultcher.
VEGETABLES OILS IN INDIA
India is one of the leading oilseed producing countries in the world and it produces the
commercial qualities of a wider variety of oil seeds than any other country. With the
exception of palm. Palm kernel, olive, soybean, sunflower and seeds crushing industry. The
main oil seeds produced in India area groundnut, rape, mustard, linseed, castor, cotton seed
and copra. In addition to these oil nearing seeds like never seed, sunflower seed, tobacco seed
and poppy seed which are produced comparatively in smaller quantities and many other seeds

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such as those f malware, need and Karaj are obtained from here which grow widely in various
parts of country. In India vegetable oils are of two types, edible and non-edible.
Some edible oils like groundnut and coconut oils have industrial applications in
cosmetics. By virtue of nutrition confront, edible oils have great demand. They also help to
make food more attractive and tasteful. Bread, fish and chips fried with vegetable oils are
tastier than boiled fish and potatoes. Fatty acids in edible function are a vehicle in the body to
carry vitamins. Oil cakes are an important source of animal nutrition food. They can also be
processed into edible flavor rich in proteins.
BACKGROUND
Oil season - November to October.
India - one of worlds leading producers of oil seeds (9.3%) and oil.
Technology Mission on oilseeds set up in 1996.
Oilseeds have support price mechanisms.
India - second largest importer of edible oils (2 million MT).

MAJOR PLAYERS

Edible Oils Vanaspathi

National Dairy Development Board (Anand) Hindustan Lever (Mumbai)

ITC Agro-Tech (Secunderabad) Wipro (Bangaloe)

Marico Industries (Mumbai) Rasoi (Calcutta)

Ah,ed Mills (Mumbai) Avi Industries (Mumbai)

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
Highly fragmented industry
Over 600 oil extraction units, 166 vanaspathi manufacturing units 10 edible oil units
and 8 vanaspathi units have national reach
Over 50% of the units sick or under utilized due to surplus capacity
Idle capacities among these units due to shortage in feedstock supply
Major oil brands Sundrop, Dhara, Saffola, Sweekar, Postman

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Vanaspathi brands Dalda Rath

TRENDS IN OUTPUT

Market Size:

Edible oils and vanaspathi markets 9.6 million MT

Oils market growing at 8.7% CAGR

Vanaspathi market stagnating at around 1 million MT

CAPACITIES

Installed Capacity and Production

Vanaspathi Edible Oils


Capacity 2,720,000 30,368,000
Productions 990,534 6,250,000
Utilization 36% 21%

Installed capacities and Production in MT per year

Key Inputs, Technology

Inputs

Vanaspathi Minor (solvent extracted) edible oils Sunflower oil, Soybean oil, Ricebran oil.

Edible Oils Oilseeds such as Groundnut, Sesame, Mustard, Sunflower and oil cakes and
bran

Raw materials comprises 70% of the production cost Oilseeds the largest cash crop Poor
productivity 873 Kg/ hectare (global average of 2000 kg/ hectare). Though oilseeds have
14.5% share in gross cropped area, only 25% of it is under assured irrigation.

Technology: Refining technology freely available indigenously

Characteristics

Oils : primarily a commodity market price sensitive


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Effective distribution chain through a complex network of C & F agents,


wholesalers / stockists & retailers (kirana shops, supermarkets).

Oil sold in bulk (tin, HDPE containers) to institutions; In retails packs


(PET bottles, cans, jars, pouches) to small customers

Seasonal demand for oils & vanaspathi September to November (peak


season)

Regulation : Under the Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order, 1998, edible
oils cannot be sold loose but can be sold only in packed form

Oil consumption North is largest market, followed by South, West & East
Zones

Imports and Prices

Oils and vanaspathi substitutes can be freely imported under OGL

Import duties : 15% basic + 10% surcharge (Oil); 40% basic (Oilseeds)

Large scale imports of oils and vanaspathi substitutes primarily to check


price rise and meet supply shortages.

Imports during 1998-1999 2.38 million MT

Estimated imports for 1999-2000 : 3 million MT

Prices of edible oils : RBD Palmolein Rs.23,500/MT (Wholesale, ex- Mumbai)


World market : $420/MT (Rs. 18,060/MT) c.i.f. July99

Prices of vanaspathi : Rs. 647/15 kg (wholesale, ex-Calcutta) 0 May99 usage.

Oil and vanaspathi used as cooking media (in households, hotels, restaurants,
canteens, institutions)

Vanaspathi used as an industrial input for making bakery products &


confectionery

FUTURE

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Macroeconomic factors : Population growth, per capita income, purchasing


power, oilseeds crop

Influence of branded products health message

Growing preference for convenience foods

Raw material sourcing : focus on improving yields, getting better quality


oilseeds, ensuring regular supplies through symbiotic relationship with
farmer

Key success factors:

Branding essential for success (Vanaspathi Dalda, Oils Sundrop)

Better distribution network to improve reach

Efficiency in operation to become price competent and withstand overseas


competition

Proposed Future trading in edible oils will help curtail price volatility and lend
knowledge based assistance to farmers of eliminate unofficial markets

In the next five years, the market forFuture

- edible oils will grow by 8% to 12.65 million MT

- vanaspathi will grow to 1.5 million MT

Free imports, low import duties and slump in global prices lead to dumping

Domestic industries of edible oils and vanaspathi affected low realization and
idle capacities in oil and vanaspathi industries

Business- Production slippages have also forced imports.

Concerns Excessive (cheap) imports of oilseeds led to un remunerative prices, locally

Hence, farmers have shifted to other cash crops

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This industry is a high volume, medium growth sector characterized by excess / idle
capacities owing to in efficient operations. Imports have been influencing prospects, leading
to domestic industry crisis.

EDIBLE ECONOMY
Oils and facts are considered essential food items for a balanced diet. The per capital
consumption of edible oils in India is 5.5 kg to 30 kg per annum. The government has been
importing edible oils aboard. The edible oil imports during 1989-90 were 6lakhs tones as
against estimated 10lakhs because of foreign exchange constraints. This refused a raise in the
edible oil prices. In 1989-90 internal supply 57 and 59lakhs tones. Thus deficit may be 10 to
12lakhs tones.
The solvent extracted oil, de-oiled meal flow order was promulgated in March, 1967
under the essential commodity act 1955, production of solvent, extracted oils, increased from
3-4lakhs tones in the year 1981 to about 6.87lakhs tones by august, 1989. Certain fiscal
incentives are also provided with a view to increased production.

SELF SUFFINCY IN EDIBLE OILS


During the last 20 years, the country has been facing problem of shortage and rise in
prices of edible oils, their situation is to the hardy progress in the production of nine major
oilseeds such as groundnut, mustard, and sea same, sunflower, and sunflower. Soybean, Niger,
linseed and carter seed.
The table below shows the production of these shows the production of these oil seeds in
India year-wise 85% of India oil seed production is form rain fed areas and hence there are
wide fluctuations in production due to the monsoon and introductions in progress. The
evaluation and introduction of high yielding, hybrid varieties are poor compared to the strides
made in wheat, rice and cotton. Owing to these factors, the yield per hectare is very low.
The present shortage and its hiked prices are because of cotton seed oil the average of
about 10lakhs tones of edible oils valued of Rs.600 to Rs.800crores are being imported
annually. The company acts a considerably food quantity for processing, since the cotton
quality is good during the seasons

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COTTON SEED

In our country India more than 70% of the total population were depend on
agriculture. So, there is a much demand for an Agro products Most of the people were depend
on cotton also.

For this interest the Indian industrial development of cotton seed processing was first
at Navasri, Surat (DT), Rajastan, second at Punjab and third at Hyderabad (A.P) in 1937 by
Sri. Govindram Sakseria (125 tones/day)

After this heavy production India now occupies the fourth place among the cotton
seed production countries in the world.

Many of the people depend on this cotton seed agriculture. It is a seasonal crop. The
rate of these cotton/cotton seeds was depending up on the various factors relating to the
farmer. That is price of seed, rate of fertilizers and rain etc. This is history of the cottonseed.
Now there is a heavy demand for this cottonseed.

Cotton seed is the major processing seed in OIL INDUSTRY. Cotton seed is a by
product of cotton and is a valuable source of edible oil. Proteins, fatty acids, cake hulls and
linters all of rich have industries and other applications cotton seed is grown in all tropical and
subtropical ones situated between the 40 degree north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude.
India is probably the oldest cotton producing and traditionally been consumed directly as
cattle feed. The producing and traditionally been consumed directly as cattle feed. The
production of cotton seed in India was confined to the main Asiatic species.
1. Gossypium arboretum
2. Gossey herbaccum.

Cotton seeds are distinguished depending upon the localities.


1. American seeds (gossypuim hirsutun)
2. Egyptian seeds
3. Seeds from Izmir
4. Indian seeds
The Indian industrial development of cotton seed processing was first at nallsari sutra
(DT), Rajasthan, second in Punjab and third at Hyderabad, andrapradesh (1973) by Sri

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Govind saxena. India now occupies the fourth place among the cotton seed producing
countries in the world. Another development on modern lines in the country was setting up of
pilot plants at oil technological research laboratory Hyderabad (AP).
The whole seed contains 15-20% oil and kernel about 30-38% the free that cotton
stands in the fields after coning to maturity. Hence quality of oil varies from place to place
and season to season and low when the seed is exposed to wet weather in the fields or handled
or stored with high moisture. Crude cotton seed oil has better condition stability due to the
presence of pigment named gossypol. But due to the toxic nature, it has to be separated from
the oil.
HISTORY OF COTTON SEED OIL:
Cotton seed is the major processing seed in CAPOL. Cotton seed is ab product of
cotton and is a valuable source of edible oil. Proteins, fatty acids, cake hull I am inters all of
rich have industries and other applications cotton seed is grown in a tropical and subtropical
ones situated between the 40 degree north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude. India is
probably the oldest cotton producing country in the world. In India greater part of the
cottonseed producing and traditionally been consumed directly.
Exports of cotton seed oil and cakes are canalized through the all India cotton seed
crushers association. De-corticated cotton seed extraction expellers, a by product of scientific
procuring have no market in India and have to have exported. The portion content in the
tasted meal is high and has sizeable demand for use in animal feed. The government of India
has announced special incentives for export of this product, which will earn considerable
foreign exchange for the country. With the latter development in the processing technology, a
virtually gossypol free deflected cotton seed lour, containing about 70% protein suitable for
human consumption can also be produced from the cotton seed.

The company Coromandel Agro product and Oils Limited has manufactured the
edible oil from sources of cottonseed. Basic raw material is cottonseed, which is procured in
and around Prakasam and Guntur Districts. Cotton seed generally consisting of oil contents
roughly 15 to 17 percent. This is one of the essential man consumer items.
The refined cotton seed oil has several advantages other than edible oils. It contains
more advantage over other edible oils. It contains a large percentage of Poly Unsaturated

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Fatty Acids (PUFA) which maintain cholesterol in the blood at a healthy level. The below
table reveals the facts.

COOKING MEDIUM LIGNOKIC ACID


GHEE NIL
VANASAPATHI 1.9
COCONUT OIL 2.5
BETER 3.6
MJUATRAD OR RAPE SEED OIL 18.6
GROUND NUT OIL 26
TIL OIL 37.7
COTTON SEED OIL 47.7

Future cotton seed cooking oil has a long span of life due to the presence of vitamin E. Cotton
oil consumed in frying, is comparatively much less as its does not stick to fried food, unlike
Manu other cooking media.
The company has started commercial production from 25-04-1997. The refined
oil marketed as under the brand name CAPOL

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COMPANY PROFILE
INTRODUCTION

The Coramandal Agro Products and Oil Limited was incorporated on 12 th December,
1975, as a joint The study is conducted in 35 days only.nature with Andhra Pradesh
Industrial Development Corporation Limited. The factory is located at Jandrapet
village, Chirala, Prakasam District. The area measurement of CAPOL is 23.68 acres.
Where the raw material and infrastructural facilities like power, water, transport,
infrastructure facilities, construction materials, skilled personnel and labour facilities
are available abundantly for oil processing operations. The plants have been installed
by M/s Servo Tech Engineers (PVT) Limited in 1976. The Company was started its
commercial production in April 1977 i.e. in a record time of 10 months from the tie of
foundation stone was laid. The Company is mainly processing of cottonseed on
scientific basis. The manpower of CAPOL is 500.
History of Cotton Seed

In our country more than 70% of the total population was dependent on the
agriculture. So, there is a much demand for an Agro product. Most of the people were
dependent on cotton.
For this interest the Indian Industrial Development of cottonseed processing
was first at Navasri, Surat (Dist) Rajasthan, second at Punjab and
third at Hyderabad (AP) in 1973 by Sri Govindram Sakseria (125 tonnes/day). After
this heavy production, India now occupies the fourth place among the cotton seed
production countries in the world.
Many of the people depend on this cotton seed agriculture. It is a seasonal crop.
The rate of these cotton/cotton seeds were depending upon the various factors relating
to the farmer. That is price of seed, rate of fertilizers and rain etc. This is history of
the cottonseed, now there is a heavy demand for this cottonseed because lots of
products were made with cotton or cottonseed.

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The word Agro Industries broadly means industries manufacturing inputs for
agriculture or the industries processing agricultural inputs. Agencies supporting
agriculture by designing and manufacturing inputs are termed as Agro Industries and
those supporting by agricultural products are termed as Agro based industries.
Modern Agro industries manufacture chemicals and supply agricultural input either on
each basis or realize the value in installments.
According to Planning Commission Any enterprise producing and supplying
chemicals inputs to agriculture is an Agro based industry. Due to rapid changes in
technology. The output of agriculture. Agro industries and Agro based industries has
increased in the same manner. We found the improvement not only in output of cotton
and titles, but also in the whole range of plantations like tea, coffee, groundnuts, cash
nut and course juts.
Generally most of the industries use agriculture output as basic raw materials.
But this concept defers in case of Agro industries. It is conformed to those industries
that are engaged in processing the agriculture product.

Since Agro industries directly influence the cost structure of forming Agro
based industries. They have their impact on the receipts of the farmer Agro industries
also serve as a mean for providing better employment opportunities to the labour
during off-season. The purpose of establishing Agro industries co-operation is not
only to equip former with modern implements, but also to train them in the operation
of machines, which in the early state of mechanization and nationalization of
agriculture.
BACKGROUND
India one of worlds leading producers of oil seeds (9.3%) and oil.
Technology Mission on oilseeds set up in1996
Oilseeds have support price mechanisms
India second largest importer of edible oils (2 million MT)

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Oil season November to October


FEATURES

Characteristics:

Oils: primarily a commodity market price sensitive.

Effective distribution chain through a complex network of C&F agents,


wholesalers/stockiest & retailers (kirana shops, supermarkets).

Oil sold in bulk (tin, HDPE containers) to institutions; In retails packs ( PET
bottles, cans, jars, pouches) to small customers seasonal demand for oils
September to November (peak season)

Regulation: under the Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation ) Order, 1998, edible
oils cannot be sold loose but can be sold only in packed form oil consumption
North is largest market, followed by South, West & East Zones.

Imports and Prices

Oils can be freely imported under OGL.

Import duties : 15% basic + 10% surcharge(Oil); 40% basic (Oilseeds)

Large scale imports of oils primarily to check price rise and meet supply
shortages.

Imports during 2009-2010 4.08 million MT

Prices of edible oils : RBD Palmolein Rs.25,584/ MT (Wholesale, ex-Mumbai)


World market Rs.841.00/MT c.i.f. April, 2010

Future:

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Macroeconomic factors : Population growth, per capita income, purchasing


power, oilseeds crop.

Influence of branded products health message

Growing preference for convenience foods

Raw material sourcing : focus on improving yields, getting better quality


oilseeds, ensuring regular supplies through symbiotic relationship with
farmer.

Key success factors

Branding essential for success (Vanaspathi Dalda, Oils Sundrop)

Better distribution network to improve reach.

Efficiency in operation to become price competent and withstand overseas


competition.

Proposed Future trading in edible oils will help curtail price volatility and lend
knowledge based assistance to formers of eliminate unofficial markets.

Free imports, low import duties and slump in global prices lead to dumping

Domestic industries of edible oils low realization and idle capacities in oil
industries Business Production slippages have also forced imports Concern
Excessive (cheap) imports of oilseeds Led to un-remunerative prices, locally
Hence, farmers have shifted to other cash crops, increasing health awareness
impact of oils usage in individuals cholesterol levels.

This industry is a high volume medium growth sector characterized by excess/

idle capacities owing to in efficient operation. Imports have been influencing

prospects, leading to domestic industry crises.

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CAPOL is an oil producing industry at Jandrapet near Chirala. It has acquired


much importance at Prakasam District in Andrha Pradesh. This is because of
extensive cultivation of cotton by the farmers. Cottonseed is remove from the cotton
and it would be sold to the company for manufacturing of various by products like
cottonseed hulls, soap stock, animal feed, lint etc. Further, the products of CAPOL
like de-oiled cake are also exported to Japan, Thailand, Malaysia, Germany,
Switzerland etc. Therefore, the study on marketing mix of the CAPOL has assumed a
greater significance in recent times.

The success of any organization depends mainly of three functions of the


management namely production, finance and marketing. Selling has predominant
importance in marketing procedure.

Cottonseed crushing industry is one of the Agro based industries. Cottonseed


is used in the manufacturing of edible oils, cakes, liner, hulls and oil. India is the third
largest edible oil based economy in the world after United States of America and
China. India accounts 9.7% to the global oil seed production. The main production of
this industry is edible oil.

Most of the people habitat to use groundnut oil for cooking purpose. To meet
the competition CAPOL is manufacturing cottonseed oil at a lower price than
groundnut oil. This itself underlines the importance of marketing activities of
CAPOL, Chirala.

CAPOL has been located in Jandrapet village at Chirala and are measuring
across 23.68 acres. The plot has acquired from the Government of Andhra Pradesh on
the basis of 9 years lease. The sight is favorably located in respect of all facilities.

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This is registered in 12th December, 1975 and commencement of business was


started from 5th January, 1976. This CAPOL has made a joint venture with APIDC and
signed on 1st February, 1976, CAPOL got the license in 13 th August, 1975 and it is
transferred to 13th February, 1976.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

The CAPOL is organized by a Board of Directors. Under the Board of Directors


there is a Chairman. The Chairman controls the Managing Directors. There is a
General Manager under the control of the Managing Directors.

The General Manager organizes the overall activities of the company. He has
under his direct control of Accounts Officer and the Purchasing Officer. Besides he
has also under him a Commercial Officer, packing section incharge and Personnel
Officer and Security Officer. Under the Finance Manager, there are three officers.
They are Junior Accounts Officer, Internal Audit In-charge and Administrative Officer.
The Production Manager is in-charge of the C.S.P. Plant in-charge oil mill,
solvent extraction plant in-charge, refinery in-charge and lab in-charge. Plant
Engineers functions are to rectify mechanical defects to make machinery run smoothly
and maintain co-operation of the production activities.

The Personal Officers are responsible of organization recruitment of personnel


functions and ensure the disciplined working of the employees. The Security Officers
are in-charge of watch and time keeping departments.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
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MANAGING DIRECTOR

GENERAL MANAGER

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COMPANY PROFILE Of
CORAMANDAL AGRO PRODUCTS AND OILS LIMITED

Board of Directors : Sri Y.Venkata Rao, Chairman


PRODUCTION PERSONNEL Sri Maddi Lakshmaiah
ACCOUNTS PURCHASIN COMMERCIA
MANAGER MANAGER Sri Maddi Ramesh G OFFICER
OFFICER L OFFICER
Sri V.V.S.Ravi
Sri Maddi Venkateswara Rao, Managing Director.

General Manager and :


Secretary : Sri K.Satyanarayana

Personnel Manager : Sri S.Suresh Babu

Finance Manager : Sri A.Krishna

Commercial Officer : Sri V.H.Gupta

Production Manager : Sri D.V. Narayana

Bankers : Canara Bank, Chirala 523 155.

Auditors : M/s A. Ramachandra Rao & co., (C.A.),


3-6-369A/11 floor, Street No.1
Himayat Nagar, Hyderabad 500 029

Registered Office : 12-B, Skylark Apartment,


Basheerbagh,
Hyderabad 500 029

Factory and : Jandrapet (post)


Administrative office Chirala- 523 165, A.P

Man Power : 500

Established : 1975

Area : 23.68 Acres

Product : Cottonseed Oil

CHART OF MARKETING ORGANISATIONAL CHART OF CAPOL


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GENERAL MANAGER

COMMERCIAL OFFICER

MATERIAL OFFICER MATERIAL OFFICER MATERIAL OFFICER

CLERKS

ASSISTANTS CLERKS

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OBJECTIVES OF THE CAPOL

Following are the objectives of the Company :-

To acquire, promote establish and carry on business of manufacture oils from

cottonseed. Castor linseed, sunflower, Rice bran and other type of edible an non

crushing solvent extraction, chemical or any other process and to utilize, sell the oils

and cakes to be produced or acquired for edible purpose of in any type or processing

i.e. ordinary crushing solvent extraction, chemical or any other and to utilize sell the

oils cakes to be produced or acquired for edible purpose or in any industry in the

manufactured of nutrition tools, soaps, cattle fed, manure, fatty acids, perfumes,

chemical or any other and to utilize sell the oils cakes to be produced or acquired for

edible purpose or in any industry in the manufactured of nutrition tools, soaps, cattle

fed manure, fatty acids, perfumes, chemical and other products in which such oils,

cakes are utilized.

To erect, take on lease or otherwise acquire establish plantation and other lands, or free

hold, leasehold, or the other tenure and in particular lands producing or likely to

produce, cotton seeds and other seeds and also grants concession claims, licenses and

authorities of any description over any such lands.

To carry on in India or every where in any part of the world the business of spinning,

weaving of manufacturing or dealing in cotton or other fibrous substances, the

preparations, dyeing or coloring or any of substances, the preparations, the pressing of

sand otherwise dealing with cotton seed and extraction of oil and other such products.
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There fourth refining and treating of such products and subjects them to further

processor of manufacture.

To act as stockiest, a commission agent, representatives or agents, selling and

purchasing agents, distracters, brokers of edible oils.

ANCILLARY OBJECTS OF THE COMPANY

To manufacture and deal in all kinds of plant machinery apparatus tools


utensils, materials and things necessary or convenient for carrying on any of the main
objects of the company.

To buy, sell, manufacture, plant, prepare, treat, alter, exchange, hire, let on
hire, import, export dispose and or deal in all kinds of articles and things which may be
required for the purpose of any of the business which the company is expressly or by
implication authorized by this memorandum at carry on.

To establish, appoint, regulate and discontinue offices, agents,


representatives, distributors or retailers in all such places as the company may from
time to time determine for carrying out all or any of the companys objects and to acts
agents for the other.

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PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY

1) Cottonseed Oil
2) Cottonseed Cake
3) Cottonseed Linters
4) Cottonseed Hulls
5) Acid Oil (Soap stock)
6) Soap stock
7) Animal feed
8) Groundnut Oil
9) Groundnut Cake
10)Rice Bran Oil
11)De-oil Bran
12)Till Oil
13)Sunflower oil
14)Till Cake
15)Polmolein Oil
16)Rapseed Oil
17)Topicta chips
18)Tobacco seeds
19)Tobacco seed Cake
20)Turmeric Powder
21)Chilies Powder
22) Dhania Powder

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AWARDS OF THE CAPOL

The following awards are received for best performance in various circles:-
CAPOL was awarded prize for the best stall in 1978.
In 1978 CAPOL received prize as best exports in C.S. Extractions and Cake
from Union Minister, Government of India
In 1979, the company was given best safety award by Prasaksm District Mills
Association.
In 1981-82, award was given for largest exports to de-oiled cake in India from
all India cotton seed Crushers Association.
In 1983- 1984, the company was awarded as certificate of merit highest exports
of De-oiled cake in India.
In 1984-1985 CAPOL got best production award and Sharma Shakthi
award from Government of Andhra Pradesh.
Export award of AICOSCA for second largest exporter of cotton seed expeller
extraction from south zone.
The CAPOL company was awarded Best Management Commendation
Certificate from the former Chief Minister Dr. M. Channa Reddy, on First May,
1990.
In 1992- 1993, the company received for All India Cotton seed Crushers
Association for being the Third Highest Exporter and Second Domestic Seller
of Cotton seed extraction.
Highest Exporter and 3rd highest domestic seller of cottonseed extractions for
the year 1993 94.
Company received Gold Udyog Patra Award for its best quality and
productivity through Sri Pranab Mukharjee, Honble Union Commerce
Minister in the year 1993 and on this occasion Honble President of India Dr.
Sankar Dayal Sharma has felicitated our Managing Director.

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Third highest domestic seller of cottonseed extractions for the year 1994 95.
Karmika Ratna award was given by Government of Andhra Pradesh for
achieving higher production with low investment in 1995.
Second highest domestic seller of cottonseed extractions for the year 1995
96.
Second highest domestic seller of cottonseed extractions for the year 1997
98.
Third highest domestic seller of cottonseed extractions for the year 1999
2000.
Second highest exporter of cotton linters for the year 2000-01
Third highest exporter of cotton linters and Second highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2001-02
Second highest exporter of cotton linters and Third highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2002-03
Third highest exporter of cotton linters for the year 2003-04
Third highest exporter of cotton linters and Third highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2005-06
Second highest exporter of cotton linters and Second highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2005-06
Highest exporter of cotton linters and Second Highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2006-07
Second highest exporter of cotton linters and Third highest domestic seller of
cotton seed extractions for the year 2007-08

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

1. How long are you working in this job?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %


Above 5 years 4 20
1 to 3 years 10 50
Below 1 year 6 30
Total 20 100

12
10
10

8
6
6
4
4

0
Above 5 years 1 to 3 years Below 1 year
No of Respondents

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 4 respondents are working from above 5 years
Comprises 20% of the total sampling, 10 respondents are working from 1 to 3 years between
them comprises 50% of the total samples, 6 respondents are working from below 1 year
comprises 30% of the total sample

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2. Why did you joined in this job?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %


Career purpose 3 15
Financial Purpose 17 85
Goodwill of the company 0 0
Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
17

0
Career purpose Financial Purpose Goodwill of the company

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 3 respondents are joined for career purpose
comprises 15% of the sample, 17 respondents are joined for the financial purpose comprises
85% of the samples. No respondents of the goodwill of the company

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3. Are you satisfied with this job?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Satisfied 19 95

Not Satisfied 1 5

Total 20 100

No of Respondents
19

Satisfied Financial Purpose

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 19 respondents are satisfied with this job
comprises 95% of the sample, 1 respondent is not satisfied with this job comprises 5% of the
samples.

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4. Why did you to satisfy?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

About Salary 10 50

About working conditions 7 35

About management 3 15

Total 20 100

No of Respondents

10

About Salary About working conditions About management

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 10 respondents are about salary satisfy the
respondents comprise 50% of the samples. 7 respondents are satisfy about working conditions
comprises 35% of the samples. 3 respondents are satisfy about management comprises 15%
of the total samples
.

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5. How many hours are you working per week?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Above 42 hours 11 55

35 hours 5 25

Below 30 hours 4 20

Total 20 100

12

10

0
Above 42 hours 35 hours Below 30 hours
No. of Respondents

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 11 respondents are above 42 hours working per
a week comprises 55% of the total samples, 5 respondents are 35 hours working per a week

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comprises 25% of the samples. 4 respondents are Below 30 hours working per week
comprises 20% of the total samples

6. Have you ever suffered from stress by management?

No. of Respondents Percentage %


Particulars
Yes 1 5

Some times 9 45

No 10 50

Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
12
10
10 9
8
No. of Respondents
6
4
2 1
0
Yes Some times No

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 1 respondent is suffered from stress by
management, comprises 5% of the samples, 9 respondents are sometimes suffered from stress

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by the management, comprises 45% of the samples, 10 respondents are not suffered from
stress by management, comprises 50% of the total samples.

7. How is the stress going to effects you?

Particulars No of Respondents Percentage %

Physically 0 0

Mentally 9 45

Both 0 0

No 11 55

Total 20 100

12

10

6
11
9
4

0 0 0
Physically Mentally Both No
No. of Respondents

Interpretation:

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From the above table it is evident that no respondent of the stress going to affect you
by physically, 9 respondents are stress by mentally comprises 45% of the samples, no
respondents of the stress going to affect you by both, 11 respondents are no stress going to
affect you comprises 55% of the total samples.

8. Are you able to put your efforts and skills completely?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

satisfied 15 75

Not satisfied 5 25

Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
15

Yes No

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 15 respondents are put their skills and efforts,
comprises 75% of the total sample. 5 respondents are not put their skills and efforts for this,
comprising 25% the total sampling.

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9. Are the skills identified and encouraged by the management?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

satisfied 20 100

dissatisfied 0 0

Total 20 100

25

20
20

15

10

0
Yes No
0
No. of Respondents

Interpretation:

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From the above table it is evident that 20 respondents are satisfied with management
encouragement comprises with 100% of the samples, no respondents is not satisfied with their
management encouragement.

10.Did you feel that your over whelmed by responsibilities at work?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Satisfied 20 100

Not Satisfied 0 0

Total 20 100

25

20
20

15

10

0
Yes No
0
No. of Respondents

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Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 20 respondents are satisfied with relationship
with their superiors comprises with 100% of the samples, no respondents is not satisfied with
their superior relationship.

11. Are you satisfied with the leaves given by the organization?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Satisfied 14 70

Not satisfied 6 30

Total 20 100

16
14
14

12

10

8
6
6

0
Yes No
No. of Respondents

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Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 14 respondents are satisfied with leaves
comprises with 70% of the samples, 6 respondents are not satisfied with leaves.

12. How did you feel about your organization?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %


Excellent 6 30
Very good 8 40
Good 6 30
Poor 0 0
Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
9
8
8
7
6 6
6
No. of Respondents
5
4
3
2
1
0
Excellent Very good good 0
Poor

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Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 6 respondents are felt excellent about
organization comprises with 30% of the samples, 8 respondents are felt very good about
organization comprises with 40% of the samples, 6 respondents are felt good about
organization comprises with 30% of the samples, no respondents are felt poor about the
organization.

13. How is your relationship with your superiors?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Satisfied 20 100

Not satisfied 0 0

Total 20 100

No. of Respondents

20

Satisfied Not satisfied


0

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Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 20 respondents are satisfied with relationship
with their superiors comprises with 100% of the samples, no respondents is not satisfied with
their superior relationship.

14. Do you think any changes to be done for your job satisfaction?

Particulars No of Respondents Percentage %

Yes 14 70

No 6 30

Total 20 100

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No. of Respondents

14

Yes No

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 14 respondents are thinking changes for job
satisfaction with comprises with 70% of the samples, 6 respondents didnt think about
changes for job satisfaction comprises with 30% of the samples.

15. Are you fully satisfied with the job security?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %


Highly Satisfied 3 15
Satisfied 14 70
Partially satisfied 0 0
Not satisfied 3 15
Total 20 100

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14

No. of Respondents

3 3

Highly Satisfied Satisfied Partially0satisfied Not satisfied

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 3 respondents are highly satisfied with job
security comprises with 15% of the samples, 14 respondents are satisfied with job security
comprises with 70% of the samples, no respondents are satisfied with job security, 3
respondent is not satisfied with job security comprises with 15% of the samples

16. Are you fully satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by this company?

Particulars No of Respondents Percentage %

Highly Satisfied 3 15

Satisfied 16 80

Partially satisfied 0 0

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Not satisfied 1 5

Total 20 100

18
16
16
14
12
10
8
6
4 3
2 1
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Partially0satisfied Not satisfied
No. of Respondents

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 3 respondents are highly satisfied with welfare
facilities provided by the company comprises with 15% of the samples, 16 respondents are
satisfied with welfare facilities comprises with 80% of the samples, no respondents are
satisfied with welfare facilities, 1 respondent is not satisfied with welfare facilities comprises
with 5% of the samples

17. Are you satisfied with the training programs?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

Yes 17 85

No 3 15

Total 20 100

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18 17
16
14
12
10
8
6
4 3
2
0
Yes No
No. of Respondents

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 17 respondents are satisfied with training
programs comprises with 85% of the samples, 3 respondents are not satisfied with training
programs comprises with 15% of the samples.

18. Are you satisfied with the present incentives?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %

satisfied 19 95

Not Satisfied 1 5

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Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
19

Yes No

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 19 respondents are satisfied with present
incentives comprises with 95% of the samples, 1 respondent is not satisfied with present
incentives comprises with 5% of the samples.

19. Are you satisfied with the medical facilities?

Particulars No. of Respondents Percentage %


Yes 18 90
No 2 10

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Total 20 100

No. of Respondents
20 18
18
16
14
12 No. of Respondents
10
8
6
4 2
2
0
Yes No

Interpretation:
From the above table it is evident that 18 respondents are satisfied with medical
facilities comprises with 90% of the samples, 2 respondents are not satisfied with medical
respondents comprises with 10% of the samples

20. Are you satisfied with the safety measures taken by the company?

S.No Options No. of respondents Percentage %


1 Highly satisfied 12 55
2 Satisfied 5 30
3 Neutral 2 10

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4 Not satisfied 1 5
Total 20 100

14
12
12

10

6 5

4
2
2 1

0
Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Not satisfied

Interpretation;

From the above table we can depict that the 39% of workers are high satisfied
about the safety measures taken by the company Coromandel Agro Products & Oils Ltd.
And 37% of the people are satisfied with the safety measures. Some workers are not
willing express their opinions. But 8% of the workers are not satisfied with the safety
measures.

FINDINGS

The researcher observed that employees are satisfied with facilities provided in Capol.

The Welfare activities like transportation, housing and medical facilities are provided to
the employees to their satisfaction level.

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Recreational activities are not maintained properly.

Company wages should not paid in time to workers.

Medical bills, claims should not be cleared by workers.

Loans for homes, children education and LIC are not provided to the all employees.

Many of the employees had expressed that medical activities should not be extended to
the retired employees and to their wives.

Welfare committees are not formed as per employees choice and Welfare committees are
not consulting the employees to take the suggestions.

Offices and workshops not properly maintaining.

Safety Shoes, helmets, safety equipments are not provided in time for the labour.

SUGGESTIONS

Employees are just satisfied with welfare activities; they suggested that the organization
have to improve a lot.

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The Welfare activities like transportation, housing and medical up to the satisfaction of
the employees so there is no need to improve.

Recreational activities are needed to improve.

Wages should pay in time.

Medical bills, claims should be cleared immediately.

Loans, Housing Loans, Education loans should be provided to the all employees.

Medical activities should be extended to the retired employees and to their wives.

Welfare committees should be reformed by consulting the employees at their interest.

Offices and workshops should be maintained is needed.

Safety equipment should be given to the employees in proper time.

CONCLUSION

The study is about job satisfaction for employees which made attempt to evaluate the
level of satisfaction among the employees in the organization study include employees among
various departments interviewed 100 employees the research adopted descriptive research for

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the strongly. The study was also designed to examine the variable that influencing employees
job satisfaction the research knows from the respondent feeling views opinions for the
questions provided.

The conclusions about various welfare measures at Coromandel Agro Products & Oils
Ltd, Chirala is drawn after analyzing and interpreting the data collected through interviewing
the workers by questionnaire method and observation. Although majorities of workers are
very much satisfied with the welfare measures provided in the company, there are also some
of the employees who are not contended with the measures. An effort must be made by the
management in order to look into the problems of such employees and fill up the gap for the
employs betterment.

The organization follows all the rules and regulations of government and recruits
efficient persons so that the work can go smoothly. The facilities for the employees are very
good and employee welfare satisfaction is necessary in all the projects in India and Foreign.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:

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K. Ashwathappa, Human Resources and Personnel Management,


Tata Mc Grew- Hill Publishing Company limited, New Delhi, 2nd Edition, 2002.
P. Subba Rao, Personnel and Human Resource Management,
Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, 3rd Edition, 2005.
Prasad L.M Human Resource Management, Sultan Chand and sons,
New Delhi, 2003.
Rao T.V, Reading in Human Resource Development, Oxford & IBH
Publishing Co. Pvt.Ltd, New Delhi, 7th Edition, page no: 87-106, 1991.
Stephen P. Robbins, Personnel Management, Prentice Hall Of India,
New Delhi, 3rd Edition, 1998.
Finally, Books which are relating to Capol.

E-References:

www.mlgroup.com/capol.html
www.wikipedia.org
www.google.com

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QUESTIONNAIRE

NAME : AGE :
INCOME: DEPARTMENT:
1) How long are you working in this job?
a) Above 5 years
b) 1 to 3 years
c) Below 1 year

2) Why did you joined in this job?


a) Career purpose
b) Financial purpose
c) Good will of the company

3) Are you satisfied with this job?


a) Satisfied
b) Not satisfied

4) Why did you to satisfy?


a) About salary
b) About working conditions
c) About management

5) How many hours are you working per week?


a) About 42 hours
b) About 35 hours
c) About 30 hours

6) Have you ever suffered from stress by management?


a) Yes
b) Sometimes

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c) No

7) How is the stress going to effects you?


a) Physically
b) Mentally
c) Both

8) Are you able to put your efforts and skills completely?


a) Yes
b) No

9) Are the skills identified and encouraged by the management?


a) Yes
b) No

10) Did you feel that your over whelmed by responsibilities at wortk?
A) Yes
B) No

11) Are you satisfied with the leaves given by the organization?
a) Yes
b) No
12) How did you feel about your organization?
a) Excellent
b) Very good
c) Good
d) Poor

13) How is your relationship with your superiors?


a) Satisfied
b) Not satisfied

14) Do you think any changes to be done for your job satisfaction?
a) Yes

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b) No

15) Are you fully satisfied with the job security?


a) Lightly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Partially satisfied
d) Not satisfied

16) Are you fully satisfied with the welfare facilities provided by the company?
a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Partially satisfied
d) Less satisfied

17) Are you satisfied with the training programs?


a) Yes
b) No

18) Are you satisfied with the present incentives?


a) Yes
b) No
19) Are you satisfied with the medical facilities?
a) Yes
b) No

20) Are you satisfied with the safety measures taken by the company?
a) Highly satisfied
b) Satisfied
c) Neutral (not interested)
d) Dissatisfied

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