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ARTICLE 2

T-210 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-221 Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-222 Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-223 Backscatter Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-224 System of Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
T-225 Monitoring Density Limitations of Radiographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-226 Extent of Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-230 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-231 Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-232 Intensifying Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-233 Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-234 Facilities for Viewing of Radiographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-260 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-261 Source Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-262 Step Wedge Film and Densitometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
T-270 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
T-271 Radiographic Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
T-272 Radiation Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
T-273 Direction of Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
T-274 Geometric Unsharpness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
T-275 Location Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
T-276 IQI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
T-277 Use of IQI (Penetrameters) to Monitor Radiographic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
T-280 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T-281 Quality of Radiographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T-282 Radiographic Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T-283 IQI Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T-284 Excessive Backscatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T-285 Geometric Unsharpness Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T-286 Evaluation by Manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T-291 Radiographic Technique Documentation Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T-292 Radiograph Review Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Figure
T-275 Location Marker Sketches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Tables
T-233.1 Hole Type IQI Designation, Thickness, and Hole Diameters, in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
T-233.2 Wire IQI Designation and Wire Diameters, in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

19
T-276 IQI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Mandatory Appendices
Appendix I In-Motion Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-210 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-223 Backscatter Detection Symbol Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-260 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-263 Beam Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-270 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-274 Geometric and In-Motion Unsharpness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-275 Location Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
I-277 Placement and Number of Penetrameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
I-279 Repaired Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
I-280 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
I-285 Geometric and In-Motion Unsharpness Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix II Real-Time Radioscopic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-210 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-221 Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-230 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-231 Radioscopic Examination Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-235 Calibration Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-236 Calibrated Line Pair Test Pattern and Step Wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-237 Equivalent Performance Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-260 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-263 System Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II-264 Measurement With a Calibration Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-270 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-278 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-280 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-286 Factors Affecting System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-291 Radioscopic Technique Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
II-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Appendix III Digital Image Acquisition, Display, and Storage for Radiography and
Radioscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-210 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-221 Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-222 Original Image Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-230 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-231 Digital Image Examination Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-234 Viewing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-236 Calibrated Optical Line Pair Test Pattern and Optical Density Step Wedge . . . . . . 39
III-250 Image Acquisition and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-255 Area of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-258 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
III-260 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-263 System Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-280 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

20
III-286 Factors Affecting System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-287 System-Induced Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-291 Digital Imaging Technique Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
III-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Appendix IV Interpretation, Evaluation, and Disposition of Radiographic and
Radioscopic Examination Test Results Produced by the Digital Image
Acquisition and Display Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IV-210 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IV-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IV-221 Procedure Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IV-222 Original Image Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IV-230 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-231 Digital Image Examination Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-234 Viewing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-236 Calibrated Optical Line Pair Test Pattern and Optical Density Step Wedge . . . . . . 42
IV-250 Image Acquisition, Storage, and Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-255 Area of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-258 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-260 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-263 System Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-280 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-286 Factors Affecting System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-287 System-Induced Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-291 Digital Imaging Technique Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
IV-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Appendix V Glossary of Terms for Radiographic Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
V-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
V-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
V-230 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Appendix VI Digital Image Acquisition, Display, Interpretation, and Storage of Radiographs for
Nuclear Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-221 Supplemental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-222 Written Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-223 Personnel Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
VI-230 Equipment and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-231 System Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-232 System Spot Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-240 System Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-241 Spatial Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-242 Contrast Sensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-243 Dynamic Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-244 Spatial Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-250 Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-251 Spatial Resolution Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-252 Contrast Sensitivity Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-253 Dynamic Range Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

21

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VI-254 Spatial Linearity Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
VI-260 Demonstration of System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-261 Procedure Demonstration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-262 Processed Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-263 Changes in Essential Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-264 Frequency of Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-265 Changes in System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-270 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-271 System Performance Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-272 Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-273 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-280 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-281 Process Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-282 Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-283 Baseline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-291 Reporting Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VI-292 Archiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49.1
VI-A-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-221 Reference Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-230 Descriptions of Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-231 Reference Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-232 Spatial Resolution Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-240 Manufacturing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-241 Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
VI-A-242 Film Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
VI-A-243 Spatial Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
VI-A-244 Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
VI-A-245 Linearity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Appendix VII Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-220 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-224 System of Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-270 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-271 Radiographic Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-276 IQI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-280 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-282 Radiographic Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
VII-290 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
VII-293 Layout Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Figures
I-263 ........................................................................... 36
VI-A-1 Reference Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Nonmandatory Appendices
Appendix A Technique Sketches for Pipe or Tube Welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
A-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Single-Wall Radiographic Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Double-Wall Radiographic Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

A99 22

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Appendix B Equivalent IQI (Penetrameter) Sensitivity (EPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
B-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
B-220 Equivalence of Wire Penetrameters to Hole Penetrameters (1T, 2T, 4T ) . . . . . . . . . . 59
B-230 Equivalence Between Hole Penetrameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Appendix C Hole Type Penetrameter Placement Sketches for Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
C-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Appendix D Number of Penetrameters (Special Cases). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
D-210 Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Figures
C-210-1 Side and Top Views of Hole Type Penetrameter Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
C-210-2 Side and Top Views of Hole Type Penetrameter Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
C-210-3 Side and Top Views of Hole Type Penetrameter Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
C-210-4 Side and Top Views of Hole Type Penetrameter Placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
D-210-1 Complete Circumference Cylindrical Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
D-210-2 Section of Circumference 240 deg. or More Cylindrical Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
D-210-3 Section(s) of Circumference Less Than 240 deg. Cylindrical Component. . . . . . . . . . 68
D-210-4 Section(s) of Circumference Equal to or More Than 120 deg. and Less Than 240
deg. Cylindrical Component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
D-210-5 Complete Circumferential Welds Spherical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
D-210-6 Welds in Segments of Spherical Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
D-210-7 Plan View A-A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
D-210-8 Array of Objects in a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Table
B-220 Diameter of Wire IQI Corresponding to Hole Type
(1T, 2T, 4T ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

23
ARTICLE 2
RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION

T-210 SCOPE or technique radiographs shall be considered satisfactory


evidence of compliance with that procedure.
When this Article is specified by a referencing Code
Section, the radiographic method described in this Arti-
cle for examination of materials including castings and T-222 Surface Preparation
welds shall be used together with Article 1, General
Requirements. Definitions of terms used in this Article T-222.1 Materials Including Castings. Surfaces
are in Mandatory Appendix V of this Article. shall satisfy the requirements of the applicable materials
Certain product-specific, technique-specific, and ap- specification or referencing Code Section, with addi-
plication-specific requirements are also given in other tional conditioning, if necessary, by any suitable process
Mandatory Appendices of this Article, as listed in the to such a degree that the resulting radiographic image
table of contents. These additional requirements shall due to any surface irregularities cannot mask or be
also be complied with when an Appendix is applicable confused with the image of any discontinuity.
to the radiographic or radioscopic examination being T-222.2 Welds. The weld ripples or weld surface
conducted. irregularities on both the inside (where accessible) and
outside shall be removed by any suitable process to
such a degree that the resulting radiographic image
T-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS due to any surface irregularities cannot mask or be
T-221 Procedure Requirements confused with the image of any discontinuity.
The finished surface of all butt-welded joints may
T-221.1 Compliance Without a Written Radio- be flush with the base material or may have reasonably
graphic Procedure. When Article 2 is required by the uniform crowns, with reinforcement not to exceed that
referencing Code Section, the density and penetrameter specified in the referencing Code Section.
image requirements of this Article on production or
technique radiographs shall be considered a satisfactory
demonstration of compliance. T-223 Backscatter Radiation
T-221.2 Requirements and Compliance for a Writ- A lead symbol B, with minimum dimensions of
1 in. (13 mm) in height and 116 in. (1.6 mm) in
ten Radiographic Procedure. When required by the 2
referencing Code Section, a written procedure shall thickness, shall be attached to the back of each film
contain, as a minimum, the following technique vari- holder during each exposure to determine if backscatter
ables: radiation is exposing the film.
(a) material and thickness range
(b) isotope used or maximum X-ray voltage
T-224 System of Identification
(c) minimum source-to-object distance
(d) maximum distance from source side of object to A system shall be used to produce permanent identi-
the film fication on the radiograph traceable to the contract,
(e) maximum source size component, weld or weld seam, or part numbers, as
(f) film brand and designation appropriate. In addition, the Manufacturers symbol or
(g) screens used name and the date of the radiograph shall be plainly
Demonstration of the density and penetrameter image and permanently included on the radiograph. This identi-
requirements of the written procedure on production fication system does not necessarily require that the

25

ASME B&PVC sec5$$$u15 05-20-99 16:31:14 pd: sec5 Rev 14.04


T-224 1998 SECTION V T-261.1

information appear as radiographic images. In any case, TABLE T-233.1


this information shall not obscure the area of interest. HOLE TYPE IQI DESIGNATION, THICKNESS, AND
HOLE DIAMETERS, in.

Penetrameter Penetrameter 1T Hole 2T Hole 4T Hole


T-225 Monitoring Density Limitations of Designation Thickness Diameter Diameter Diameter
Radiographs
5 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.040
Either a densitometer or step wedge comparison film 7 0.0075 0.010 0.020 0.040
shall be used for judging film density. 10 0.010 0.010 0.020 0.040
12 0.0125 0.0125 0.025 0.050
15 0.015 0.015 0.030 0.060
17 0.0175 0.0175 0.035 0.070
T-226 Extent of Examination 20 0.020 0.020 0.040 0.080
25 0.025 0.025 0.050 0.100
The extent of radiographic examination shall be as 30 0.030 0.030 0.060 0.120
specified by the referencing Code Section. 35 0.035 0.035 0.070 0.140
40 0.040 0.040 0.080 0.160
45 0.045 0.045 0.090 0.180
50 0.050 0.050 0.100 0.200
60 0.060 0.060 0.120 0.240
T-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 80 0.080 0.080 0.160 0.320
100 0.100 0.100 0.200 0.400
T-231 Film
120 0.120 0.120 0.240 0.480
T-231.1 Selection. Film selection shall be in accord- 160 0.160 0.160 0.320 0.640
200 0.200 0.200 0.400 ...
ance with SE-1815, Standard Test Method for Film
Systems for Industrial Radiography. The film manufac-
turer shall determine the film system class for the
family of films manufactured and provide a classification
table. A typical Film Classification Table is as shown
in SE-1815, Table 1. Film system classes Special, I, wire number or the identity number may be omitted.
II, III, W-A, and W-B are permitted. ASME standard IQIs shall consist of those in Table
T-233.1 for hole type and those in Table T-233.2 for
Caution If any of the film processing parameters are changed
from those provided by the film manufacturer, the class may not be wire type.
valid, in which case the film manufacturer should be contacted for
further guidance.
T-234 Facilities for Viewing of Radiographs
T-231.2 Processing. Standard Guide for Controlling
the Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Processing, Viewing facilities shall provide subdued background
SE-999, or Part III of Standard Guide for Radiographic lighting of an intensity that will not cause troublesome
Testing SE-94 shall be used as a guide for pro- reflections, shadows, or glare on the radiograph. Equip-
cessing film. ment used to view radiographs for interpretation shall
provide a variable light source sufficient for the essential
penetrameter hole or designated wire to be visible for
T-232 Intensifying Screens the specified density range. The viewing conditions
shall be such that light from around the outer edge of
Except when restricted by the referencing Code Sec- the radiograph or coming through low-density portions
tion, intensifying screens may be used. of the radiograph does not interfere with interpretation.

T-260 CALIBRATION
98 T-233 Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Design
A99 T-261 Source Size
IQIs shall be either the hole type or the wire type.
Hole type IQIs shall be manufactured and identified T-261.1 Verification of Source Size. The equipment
in accordance with the requirements or alternates al- manufacturers or suppliers publications, such as techni-
lowed in SE-1025. Wire type IQIs shall be manufactured cal manuals, decay curves, or written statements docu-
and identified in accordance with the requirements or menting the actual or maximum source size or focal
alternates allowed in SE-747, except that the largest spot, shall be acceptable as source size verification.

26

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T-261.2 ARTICLE 2 RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION T-271.2

A99 T-261.2 Determination of Source Size. When manu- TABLE T-233.2


facturers or suppliers publications are not available, WIRE IQI DESIGNATION AND WIRE
source size may be determined as follows: DIAMETERS, in.
(a) X-Ray Machines. For X-ray machines operating at ASTM Wire
500 kV and less, the focal spot size may be determined Set Diameter
by the pinhole method,1 or in accordance with SE-1165, 0.0032
Standard Test Method for Measurement of Focal Spots of 0.004
0.005
Industrial X-Ray Tubes by Pinhole Imaging. A
0.0063
(b) Iridium-192 Sources. For Iridium-192, the source 0.008
size may be determined in accordance with SE-1114, 0.010
Standard Test Method for Determining the Focal Size 0.013
of Iridium-192 Industrial Radiographic Sources. 0.016
B 0.020
0.025
A99 T-262 Step Wedge Film and Densitometer 0.032
0.040
The densitometer shall be calibrated in accordance 0.050
with paragraph 6 of SE-1079, Calibration of Transmis- C 0.063
sion Densitometers, using a calibrated step wedge film 0.080
0.100
traceable to a national standard. The density of step 0.126
wedge comparison films and densitometer calibration 0.160
shall be verified by comparison with a calibrated step D 0.200
wedge film. 0.250
0.320

T-270 EXAMINATION
T-271 Radiographic Technique2 (b) Double-Wall Viewing. For materials and for welds
A single-wall exposure technique shall be used for in components 312 in. (89 mm) or less in nominal
radiography whenever practical. When it is not practical outside diameter, a technique may be used in which
to use a single-wall technique, a double-wall technique the radiation passes through two walls and the weld
shall be used. An adequate number of exposures shall (material) in both walls is viewed for acceptance on
be made to demonstrate that the required coverage has the same radiograph. For double-wall viewing, only a
been obtained. source side penetrameter shall be used. Care should
be exercised to ensure that the required geometric
T-271.1 Single-Wall Technique. In the single-wall unsharpness is not exceeded. If the geometric un-
technique, the radiation passes through only one wall sharpness requirement cannot be met, then single-wall
of the weld (material), which is viewed for acceptance viewing shall be used.
on the radiograph. (1) For welds, the radiation beam may be offset
T-271.2 Double-Wall Technique. When it is not from the plane of the weld at an angle sufficient to
practical to use a single-wall technique, one of the separate the images of the source side and film side
following double-wall techniques shall be used. portions of the weld so that there is no overlap of the
(a) Single-Wall Viewing. For materials and for welds in areas to be interpreted. When complete coverage is
components, a technique may be used in which the radia- required, a minimum of two exposures taken 90 deg.
tion passes through two walls and only the weld (material) to each other shall be made for each joint.
on the film side wall is viewed for acceptance on the radio- (2) As an alternative, the weld may be radio-
graph. When complete coverage is required for circumfer- graphed with the radiation beam positioned so that the
ential welds (materials), a minimum of three exposures images of both walls are superimposed. When complete
taken 120 deg. to each other shall be made. coverage is required, a minimum of three exposures
taken at either 60 deg. or 120 deg. to each other shall
be made for each joint.
1 Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Volume I, First Edition, pp. (3) Additional exposures shall be made if the
14.3214.33, Measuring Focal-Spot Size. Also, pp. 2021 of Radi-
ography in Modern Industry, Fourth Edition. required radiographic coverage cannot be obtained using
2 Sketches showing suggested source, film, and IQI placements for pipe the minimum number of exposures indicated in (b)(1)
or tube welds are illustrated in Article 2, Nonmandatory Appendix A. or (b)(2) above.

27

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T-272 1998 SECTION V T-275.2

T-272 Radiation Energy NOTE: Refer to Standard Guide for Radiographic Testing SE-94 for
a method of determining geometric unsharpness. Alternatively, a
T-272.1 X-Radiation. The radiographic technique nomograph as shown in Standard Guide for Radiographic Testing
SE-94 may be used.
shall demonstrate that the required radiographic sensitiv-
ity has been obtained.
T-275 Location Markers
T-272.2 Gamma Radiation. The recommended mini-
mum thickness for which radioactive isotopes may be Location markers (see Fig. T-275), which are to
used is as follows: appear as radiographic images on the film, shall be
placed on the part, not on the exposure holder /cassette.
Minimum Thickness1 Their locations shall be permanently marked on the
Material Iridium 192 Cobalt 60 surface of the part being radiographed when permitted,
Steel 0.75 in. 1.50 in. or on a map, in a manner permitting the area of interest
Copper or on a radiograph to be accurately traceable to its location
High Nickel 0.65 in. 1.30 in. on the part, for the required retention period of the
Aluminum 2.50 in. ... radiograph. Evidence shall also be provided on the
radiograph that the required coverage of the region
NOTE: being examined has been obtained. Location markers
(1) Overall radiographic sensitivity is primarily influenced by factors
shall be placed as follows.
such as:
(a) film selection T-275.1 Single-Wall Viewing
(b) intensifying screen selection
(a) Source Side Markers. Location markers shall be
(c) geometric unsharpness
(d) film density placed on the source side when radiographing the
following:
The maximum thickness for the use of radioactive (1) flat components or longitudinal joints in cylin-
isotopes is primarily dictated by exposure time; there- drical or conical components;
fore, upper limits are not shown. The minimum recom- (2) curved or spherical components whose concave
mended thickness limitation may be reduced when side is toward the source and when the source-to-
the radiographic techniques used demonstrate that the material distance is less than the inside radius of the
required radiographic sensitivity has been obtained. component;
(3) curved or spherical components whose convex
side is toward the source.
T-273 Direction of Radiation (b) Film Side Markers
(1) Location markers shall be placed on the film
The direction of the central beam of radiation should
side when radiographing either curved or spherical
be centered on the area of interest whenever practical.
components whose concave side is toward the source
and when the source-to-material distance is greater
T-274 Geometric Unsharpness than the inside radius.
(2) As an alternative to source side placement in
Geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall be T-275.1(a)(1), location markers may be placed on the
determined in accordance with: film side when the radiograph shows coverage beyond
the location markers to the extent demonstrated by Fig.
Ug p Fd /D T-275, sketch (e), and when this alternate is documented
in accordance with T-291.
(c) Either Side Markers. Location markers may be
where
placed on either the source side or film side when
Ugp geometric unsharpness
radiographing either curved or spherical components
Fp source size: the maximum projected dimension
whose concave side is toward the source and the
of the radiating source (or effective focal spot)
source-to-material distance equals the inside radius
in the plane perpendicular to the distance D
of the component.
from the weld or object being radiographed, in.
Dp distance from source of radiation to weld or T-275.2 Double-Wall Viewing. For double-wall
object being radiographed, in. viewing, at least one location marker shall be placed
dp distance from source side of weld or object be- adjacent to the weld (or on the material in the area
ing radiographed to the film, in. of interest) for each radiograph.

28

ASME B&PVC sec5$$$u15 05-20-99 16:31:14 pd: sec5 Rev 14.04


ARTICLE 2 RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Fig. T-275

FIG. T-275 LOCATION MARKER SKETCHES

29
T-275.3 1998 SECTION V T-277.1

TABLE T-276
IQI SELECTION

Penetrameter

Nominal Source Side Film Side


Single-Wall
Material Thickness Hole Type Essential Wire Hole Type Essential Wire
Range, in. Designation Hole Diameter, in. Designation Hole Diameter, in.

Up to 0.25, incl. 12 2T 0.008 10 2T 0.006


Over 0.25 through 0.375 15 2T 0.010 12 2T 0.008
Over 0.375 through 0.50 17 2T 0.013 15 2T 0.010
Over 0.50 through 0.75 20 2T 0.016 17 2T 0.013
Over 0.75 through 1.00 25 2T 0.020 20 2T 0.016
Over 1.00 through 1.50 30 2T 0.025 25 2T 0.020
Over 1.50 through 2.00 35 2T 0.032 30 2T 0.025
Over 2.00 through 2.50 40 2T 0.040 35 2T 0.032
Over 2.50 through 4.00 50 2T 0.050 40 2T 0.040
Over 4.00 through 6.00 60 2T 0.063 50 2T 0.050
Over 6.00 through 8.00 80 2T 0.100 60 2T 0.063
Over 8.00 through 10.00 100 2T 0.126 80 2T 0.100
Over 10.00 through 12.00 120 2T 0.160 100 2T 0.126
Over 12.00 through 16.00 160 2T 0.250 120 2T 0.160
Over 16.00 through 20.00 200 2T 0.320 160 2T 0.250

T-275.3 Mapping the Placement of Location Mark- not to exceed the maximum permitted by the referencing
ers. When inaccessibility or other limitations prevent Code Section. Backing rings or strips shall not be
the placement of markers as stipulated in T-275.1 and considered as part of the thickness in penetrameter
T-275.2, a dimensioned map of the actual marker selection. The actual measurement of the weld reinforce-
placement shall accompany the radiographs to show ment is not required.
that full coverage has been obtained. (b) Welds Without Reinforcements. The thickness on
which the penetrameter is based is the nominal single wall
thickness. Backing rings or strips shall not be considered
T-276 IQI Selection
as part of the weld thickness in penetrameter selection.
T-276.1 Material. IQIs shall be selected from either
the same alloy material group or grade as identified T-276.3 Welds Joining Dissimilar Materials or
in SE-1025 or from an alloy material group or grade Welds With Dissimilar Filler Metal. When the weld
with less radiation absorption than the material being metal is of an alloy group or grade which has a
radiographed. radiation attenuation that differs from the base material,
the penetrameter material selection shall be based on
T-276.2 Size. The designated hole penetrameter with the weld metal and be in accordance with T-276.1.
essential hole or designated wire diameter shall be as When the density limits of T-282.2 cannot be met with
specified in Table T-276. A smaller hole in a thicker one penetrameter, and the exceptional density area(s)
penetrameter or a larger hole in a thinner penetrameter is at the interface of the weld metal and the base
may be substituted for any section thickness listed in metal, the material selection for the additional penetram-
Table T-276, provided equivalent penetrameter sensitiv- eter(s) shall be based on the base material and be in
ity (EPS) is maintained and all other requirements for accordance with T-276.1.
radiography are met. Approximate equivalence between
hole and wire penetrameters is shown in Table B-220
of Article 2, Nonmandatory Appendix B, and may be
T-277 Use of IQI (Penetrameters) to
used to determine approximate equivalence between
Monitor Radiographic Examination
hole penetrameters.
(a) Welds With Reinforcements. The thickness on T-277.1 Placement of Penetrameters
which the penetrameter is based is the nominal single (a) Source Side Penetrameter(s). The penetrameter(s)
wall thickness plus the estimated weld reinforcement shall be placed on the source side of the part being

30
T-277.1 ARTICLE 2 RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION T-277.2

examined, except for the condition described in T- densities on the radiograph shall be considered as having
277.1(b). acceptable density.
When, due to part or weld configuration or size, it is not (b) Special Cases3
practical to place the penetrameter(s) on the part or weld, (1) For cylindrical components where the source
the penetrameter(s) may be placed on a separate block. Sep- is placed on the axis of the component for a single
arate blocks shall be made of the same or radiographically exposure, at least three penetrameters, spaced approxi-
similar materials (as defined in SE-1025) and may be used mately 120 deg. apart, are required under the following
to facilitate penetrameter positioning. There is no restric- conditions:
tion on the separate block thickness, provided the (a) When the complete circumference is radio-
penetrameter /area-of-interest density tolerance require- graphed using one or more film holders, or;
ments of T-282.2 are met. (b) When a section or sections of the circumfer-
(1) The penetrameter on the source side of the ence, where the length between the ends of the outermost
separate block shall be placed no closer to the film sections span 240 or more deg., is radiographed using
than the source side of the part being radiographed. one or more film holders. Additional film locations may
(2) The separate block shall be placed as close be required to obtain necessary penetrameter spacing.
as possible to the part being radiographed. (2) For cylindrical components where the source
(3) The block dimensions shall exceed the pene- is placed on the axis of the component for a single
trameter dimensions such that the outline of at least exposure, at least three penetrameters, with one placed
three sides of the penetrameter image shall be visible at each end of the span of the circumference radio-
on the radiograph. graphed and one in the approximate center of the span,
(b) Film Side Penetrameter(s). Where inaccessibility are required under the following conditions:
prevents hand placing the penetrameter(s) on the source (a) When a section of the circumference, the
side, the penetrameter(s) shall be placed on the film length of which is greater than 120 deg. and less than
side in contact with the part being examined. A lead 240 deg., is radiographed using just one film holder, or;
letter F shall be placed adjacent to or on the penetram- (b) When a section or sections of the circumfer-
eter(s), but shall not mask the essential hole where ence, where the length between the ends of the outermost
hole penetrameters are used. sections span less than 240 deg., is radiographed using
(c) Penetrameter Location for Welds Hole Pene- more than one film holder.
trameters. The penetrameter(s) may be placed adjacent (3) In (1) and (2) above, where sections of longitu-
to or on the weld. The identification number(s) and, dinal welds adjoining the circumferential weld are
when used, the lead letter F, shall not be in the area radiographed simultaneously with the circumferential
of interest, except when geometric configuration makes weld, an additional penetrameter shall be placed on
it impractical. each longitudinal weld at the end of the section most
(d) Penetrameter Location for Welds Wire Pene- remote from the junction with the circumferential weld
trameters. The penetrameter(s) shall be placed on the being radiographed.
weld so that the length of the wires is perpendicular (4) For spherical components where the source is
to the length of the weld. The identification numbers placed at the center of the component for a single
and, when used, the lead letter F, shall not be in exposure, at least three penetrameters, spaced approxi-
the area of interest, except when geometric configuration mately 120 deg. apart, are required under the following
makes it impractical. conditions:
(e) Penetrameter Location for Materials Other Than (a) When a complete circumference is radio-
Welds. The penetrameter(s) with the penetrameter identi- graphed using one or more film holders, or;
fication number(s), and, when used, the lead letter F, (b) When a section or sections of a circumfer-
may be placed in the area of interest. ence, where the length between the ends of the outermost
sections span 240 or more deg., is radiographed using
T-277.2 Number of Penetrameters. When one or one or more film holders. Additional film locations may
more film holders are used for an exposure, at least be required to obtain necessary penetrameter spacing.
one penetrameter image shall appear on each radiograph (5) For spherical components where the source is
except as outlined in (b) below. placed at the center of the component for a single
(a) Multiple Penetrameters. If the requirements of exposure, at least three penetrameters, with one placed at
T-282 are met by using more than one penetrameter, each end of the radiographed span of the circumference
one shall be representative of the lightest area of interest
and the other the darkest area of interest; the intervening 3 Refer to Nonmandatory Appendix D for additional guidance.

31
T-277.2 1998 SECTION V T-284

radiographed and one in the approximate center of the T-282 Radiographic Density
span, are required under the following conditions:
T-282.1 Density Limitations. The transmitted film
(a) When a section of a circumference, the
density through the radiographic image of the body of
length of which is greater than 120 deg. and less than
the appropriate hole penetrameter or adjacent to the
240 deg., is radiographed using just one film holder, or;
designated wire of a wire penetrameter and the area
(b) When a section or sections of a circumfer-
of interest shall be 1.8 minimum for single film viewing
ence, where the length between the ends of the outermost
for radiographs made with an X-ray source and 2.0
sections span less than 240 deg. is radiographed using
minimum for radiographs made with a gamma ray
more than one film holder.
source. For composite viewing of multiple film expo-
(6) In (4) and (5) above, where other welds are
sures, each film of the composite set shall have a
radiographed simultaneously with the circumferential
minimum density of 1.3. The maximum density shall be
weld, one additional penetrameter shall be placed on
4.0 for either single or composite viewing. A tolerance
each other weld.
of 0.05 in density is allowed for variations between
(7) When an array of components in a circle is
densitometer readings.
radiographed, at least one penetrameter shall show on
each component image. T-282.2 Density Variation
(8) In order to maintain the continuity of records (a) General. If the density of the radiograph anywhere
involving subsequent exposures, all radiographs exhib- through the area of interest varies by more than minus
iting penetrameters which qualify the techniques permit- 15% or plus 30% from the density through the body
ted in accordance with (1) through (6) above shall be of the hole penetrameter or adjacent to the designated
retained. wire of a wire penetrameter, within the mini-
mum /maximum allowable density ranges specified in
T-277.3 Shims Under Hole Penetrameters. For T-282.1, then an additional penetrameter shall be used
welds, a shim of material radiographically similar to for each exceptional area or areas and the radiograph
the weld metal shall be placed between the part and retaken. When calculating the allowable variation in
the penetrameter, if needed, so that the radiographic density, the calculation may be rounded to the nearest
density throughout the area of interest is no more than 0.1 within the range specified in T-282.1.
minus 15% from (lighter than) the radiographic density (b) With Shims. When shims are used the plus 30%
through the penetrameter. density restriction of (a) above may be exceeded,
The shim dimensions shall exceed the penetrameter provided the required penetrameter sensitivity is dis-
dimensions such that the outline of at least three sides played and the density limitations of T-282.1 are not
of the penetrameter image shall be visible in the exceeded.
radiograph.
T-283 IQI Sensitivity
Radiography shall be performed with a technique of
sufficient sensitivity to display the hole penetrameter
image and the specified hole, or the designated wire
T-280 EVALUATION of a wire penetrameter, which are essential indications
of the image quality of the radiograph. The radiographs
T-281 Quality of Radiographs
shall also display the identifying numbers and letters.
All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemi- If the required hole penetrameter image and specified
cal, or other blemishes to the extent that they do not hole, or designated wire, do not show on any film in
mask and are not confused with the image of any a multiple film technique, but do show in composite
discontinuity in the area of interest of the object being film viewing, interpretation shall be permitted only by
radiographed. Such blemishes include, but are not lim- composite film viewing.
ited to:
(a) fogging;
T-284 Excessive Backscatter
(b) processing defects such as streaks, watermarks,
or chemical stains; If a light image of the B, as described in T-223,
(c) scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirtiness, static appears on a darker background of the radiograph,
marks, smudges, or tears; protection from backscatter is insufficient and the radio-
(d) false indications due to defective screens. graph shall be considered unacceptable. A dark image

32
T-284 ARTICLE 2 RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION T-292

of the B on a lighter background is not cause for T-290 DOCUMENTATION


rejection.
T-291 Radiographic Technique 98
Documentation Details
The Manufacturer shall prepare and document the
radiographic technique details. As a minumum, the
T-285 Geometric Unsharpness Limitations following information shall be provided.
(a) identification, e.g., job/contract number and heat
When required by the referencing Code Section, number (if applicable)
geometric unsharpness of the radiograph shall not ex- (b) the dimensional map (if used) of marker place-
ceed the following: ment in accordance with T-275.3
(c) number of radiographs (exposures)
Material Ug (d) X-ray voltage or isotope type used
Thickness, in. Maximum, in. (e) X-ray machine focal spot size or isotope physical
Under 2 0.020 sources size
2 through 3 0.030 (f) base material type and thickness, weld thickness,
Over 3 through 4 0.040 weld reinforcement thickness, as applicable
Greater than 4 0.070 (g) minimum source-to-object distance
(h) maximum distance from source side of object to
NOTE: Material thickness is the thickness on which the penetrameter the film
is based. (i) film manufacturer and Manufacturers type/desig-
nation
(j) number of film in each film holder/cassette
(k) single- or double-wall exposure
(l) single- or double-wall viewing
98 T-286 Evaluation by Manufacturer
The Manufacturer shall be responsible for the review, T-292 Radiograph Review Form 98
interpretation, evaluation, and acceptance of the com- The Manufacturer shall prepare a radiograph review
pleted radiographs to assure compliance with the require- form. As a minimum, the following information shall
ments of Article 2 and the referencing Code Section. be provided.
As an aid to the review and evaluation, the radiographic (a) a listing of each radiograph location
technique documentation required by T-291 shall be (b) the information required in T-291, by inclusion
completed prior to the evaluation. The radiograph review or by reference
form required by T-292 shall be completed during the (c) evaluation and disposition of the material(s) or
evaluation. The radiographic technique details and the weld(s) examined
radiograph review form documentation shall accompany (d) identification (name) of the Manufacturers repre-
the radiographs. Acceptance shall be completed prior sentative who performed the final acceptance of the
to presentation of the radiographs and accompanying radiographs
documentation to the inspector. (e) date of Manufacturers evaluation

33
ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX I IN-MOTION ap slit width in diaphragm in direction of mo-


RADIOGRAPHY tion, in.
bp distance from source to the weld side of the
I-210 SCOPE diaphragm, in.
In-motion radiography is a technique of radiography cp distance from weld side of the diaphragm to the
where the object being radiographed and /or the source source side of the weld surface, in.
of radiation is in motion during the exposure. Fp source size, in.: the maximum projected dimen-
In-motion radiography may be performed on weld- sion of the radiating source (or focal spot) in
ments when the following modified provisions to those the plane perpendicular to the distance b + c
in Article 2 are satisfied. from the weld being radiographed

I-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS I-270 EXAMINATION

I-223 Backscatter Detection Symbol I-274 Geometric and In-Motion


Location Unsharpness

(a) For longitudinal welds the lead symbol B shall I-274.1 Geometric Unsharpness. Geometric un-
be attached to the back of each film cassette or at sharpness for an in-motion radiograph shall be deter-
approximately equal intervals not exceeding 36 in. apart, mined as specified in T-274.
whichever is smaller. I-274.2 In-Motion Unsharpness. In-motion un-
(b) For circumferential welds, the lead symbol B shall sharpness of the radiograph shall be determined in
be attached to the back of the film cassette in each quadrant accordance with:
or spaced no greater than 36 in., whichever is smaller.
wd
UM p
D
I-260 CALIBRATION
I-263 Beam Width where
UMp in-motion unsharpness
The beam width shall be controlled by a metal wp beam width at the source side of the weld mea-
diaphragm such as lead. The diaphragm for the energy sured in the direction of motion determined as
selected shall be at least 10 half value layers thick. specified in I-263, in.
The beam width as shown in Fig. I-263 shall be dp distance from source side of the weld being
determined in accordance with: radiographed to the film, in.
Dp distance from source of radiation to weld being
c (F + a) radiographed, in.
wp +a
b

I-275 Location Markers


where
wp beam width at the source side of the weld mea- Location markers shall be placed adjacent to the
sured in the direction of motion, in. weld at the extremity of each film cassette and

35
I-275 1998 SECTION V I-285

FIG. I-263

also at approximately equal intervals not exceeding is smaller. Wire penetrameters, when used, shall be
15 in. placed on the weld seam so that the length of the
wires is perpendicular to the length of the weld and
spaced as indicated above for hole penetrameters.
I-277 Placement and Number of
Penetrameters
I-279 Repaired Area
(a) For longitudinal welds, hole penetrameters shall
be placed adjacent to and on each side of the weld When radiography of a repaired area is required, the
seam, or on the weld seam at the beginning and end length of the film used shall be at least equal to the
of the weld seam, and thereafter at approximately equal length of the original location marker interval.
intervals not exceeding 36 in. (914 mm) or for each
film cassette. Wire penetrameters, when used, shall be
placed on the weld seam so that the length of the I-280 EVALUATION
wires is perpendicular to the length of the weld and
I-285 Geometric and In-Motion
spaced as indicated above for hole penetrameters.
Unsharpness Limitations
(b) For circumferential welds, hole penetrameters
shall be placed adjacent to and on each side of the Neither the geometric nor in-motion unsharpness of
weld seam or on the weld seam in each quadrant or the radiograph shall exceed the values specified in
spaced no greater than 36 in. (914 mm) apart, whichever T-285.

36
ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX II REAL-TIME II-235 Calibration Block


RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION The calibration block shall be made of the same
A99 II-210 SCOPE material type and product form as the test object. The
calibration block may be an actual test object or may
Real-time radioscopy provides immediate response be fabricated to simulate the test object with known
imaging with the capability to follow motion of the discontinuities.
inspected part. This includes radioscopy where the
motion of the test object must be limited (commonly
referred to as near real-time radioscopy). II-236 Calibrated Line Pair Test Pattern
Real-time radioscopy may be performed on materials and Step Wedge
including castings and weldments when the modified The line pair test pattern shall be used without an
provisions to Article 2 as indicated herein are satisfied. additional absorber to evaluate the system resolution.
SE-1255 shall be used in conjunction with this Appendix The step wedge shall be used to evaluate system contrast
as indicated by specific references in appropriate para- sensitivity.
graphs. SE-1416 provides additional information that The step wedge must be made of the same material
may be used for radioscopic examination of welds. as the test object with steps representing 100%, 99%,
98%, and 97% of both the thickest and the thinnest
II-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS material sections to be inspected. Additional step thick-
nesses are permissible.
This radioscopic methodology may be used for the
examination of ferrous or nonferrous materials and
weldments. II-237 Equivalent Performance Level
A system which exhibits a spatial resolution of 3 line
98 II-221 Procedure Requirements pairs per millimeter, a thin section contrast sensitivity of
3%, and a thick section contrast sensitivity of 2% has
A written procedure is required and shall contain as an equivalent performance level of 3% 2% 3
a minimum the following (see SE-1255, 5.2): lp /mm.
(a) material and thickness range
(b) equipment qualifications
(c) test object scan plan II-260 CALIBRATION
(d) radioscopic parameters
(e) image processing parameters System calibration shall be performed in the static
(f) image display parameters mode by satisfying the line pair test pattern resolution,
(g) image archiving step wedge contrast sensitivity, and calibration block
discontinuity detection necessary to meet the IQI re-
quirements of T-276.
II-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
II-231 Radioscopic Examination Record II-263 System Performance Measurement
The radioscopic examination data shall be recorded Real-time radioscopic system performance parameters
and stored on videotape, magnetic disk, or optical disk. shall be determined initially and monitored regularly

37

ASME B&PVC sec5$$$u25 04-26-99 15:24:02 pd: sec5 Rev 14.04


II-263 1998 SECTION V II-292

with the system in operation to assure consistent results. II-280 EVALUATION


The system performance shall be monitored at suffi-
II-286 Factors Affecting System Performance
ciently scheduled intervals to minimize the probability
of time-dependent performance variations. System per- The radioscopic examination system performance
formance tests require the use of the calibration block, quality is determined by the combined performance of
line pair test pattern, and the step wedge. the components specified in II-278. (See SE-1255, 6.1.)
System performance measurement techniques shall When using wire IQIs, the radioscopic examination
be standardized so that they may be readily duplicated system may exhibit asymmetrical sensitivity, therefore,
at the specified intervals. the wire diameter axis shall be oriented along the axis
of the least sensitivity of the system.

II-264 Measurement With a Calibration


Block II-290 DOCUMENTATION
The calibration block shall also be placed in the II-291 Radioscopic Technique Information
same position as the actual object and manipulated To aid in proper interpretation of the radioscopic
through the same range and speed of motions as will examination data, details of the technique used shall
be used for the actual object to demonstrate the systems accompany the data. As a minimum, the information
response in the dynamic mode. shall include the items specified in T-291 when applica-
ble, II-221, and the following:
(a) operator identification
(b) system performance test data
II-270 EXAMINATION
II-278 System Configuration
II-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer
The radioscopic examination system shall, as a mini-
mum, include the following: Prior to being presented to the Inspector for accept-
(a) radiation source ance, the examination data shall be interpreted by the
(b) manipulation system Manufacturer as complying with the referencing Code
(c) detection system Section. The Manufacturer shall record the interpretation
(d) information processing system and disposition of each weldment examined on a radio-
(e) image display system graphic interpretation review form accompanying the
(f) record archiving system radioscopic data.

38

ASME B&PVC sec5$$$u25 04-26-99 15:24:02 pd: sec5 Rev 14.04


ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX III DIGITAL IMAGE III-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


ACQUISITION, DISPLAY, III-231 Digital Image Examination Record
AND STORAGE FOR RADIOGRAPHY
AND RADIOSCOPY The digital image examination data shall be recorded
and stored on video tape, magnetic disk, or optical disk.
III-210 SCOPE
Digital image acquisition, display, and storage can III-234 Viewing Considerations
be applied to radiography and radioscopy. Once the
analog image is converted to digital format, the data The digital image shall be judged by visual compari-
can be displayed, processed, quantified, stored, retrieved, son to be equivalent to the image quality of the original
and converted back to the original analog format, for image at the time of digitization.
example, film or video presentation.
Digital imaging of all radiographic and radioscopic
examination test results shall be performed in accord- III-236 Calibrated Optical Line Pair Test
ance with the modified provisions to Article 2 as Pattern and Optical Density Step
indicated herein. Wedge
An optical line pair test pattern operating between
0.1 and 4.0 optical density shall be used to evaluate
the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system.
III-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The optical density step wedge shall be used to evaluate
III-221 Procedure Requirements system contrast sensitivity.

A written procedure is required and shall contain,


as a minimum, the following system performance param-
III-250 IMAGE ACQUISITION AND
eters:
STORAGE
(a) image digitizing parameters modulation trans-
fer function (MTF), line pair resolution, contrast sensi- III-255 Area of Interest
tivity, and dynamic range;
Any portion of the image data may be digitized and
(b) image display parameters format, contrast,
stored provided the information that is digitized and
and magnification;
stored includes the area of interest as defined by the
(c) image processing parameters that are used;
referencing Code Section.
(d) storage identification, data compression, and
media (including precautions to be taken to avoid
data loss); III-258 System Configuration
(e) analog output formats.
The system shall, as a minimum, include the fol-
lowing:
(a) digitizing system
III-222 Original Image Artifacts
(b) display system
Any artifacts that are identified in the original image (c) image processing system
shall be noted or annotated on the digital image. (d) image storage system

39
III-260 1998 SECTION V III-292

III-260 CALIBRATION confused with the image of any discontinuity in the


original analog image.
The system shall be calibrated for modulation transfer
function (MTF), dynamic range, and contrast sensitivity.
III-290 DOCUMENTATION
III-263 System Performance Measurement III-291 Digital Imaging Technique
System performance parameters (as noted in III-221) Information
shall be determined initially and monitored regularly To aid in proper interpretation of the digital examina-
with the system in operation to assure consistent results. tion data, details of the technique used shall accompany
The system performance shall be monitored at the the data. As a minimum, the information shall include
beginning and end of each shift to minimize the proba- items specified in T-291 and II-221 when applicable,
bility of time-dependent performance variations. III-221, III-222, and the following:
(a) operator identification
(b) system performance test data
III-280 EVALUATION
III-286 Factors Affecting System Performance III-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer
The quality of system performance is determined by Prior to being presented to the Inspector for accept-
the combined performance of the components specified ance, the digital examination data from a radiographic
in III-258. or radioscopic image shall have been interpreted by
the Manufacturer as complying with the referencing
Code Section.
III-287 System-Induced Artifacts
The digital examination data from a radiograph that
The digital images shall be free of system-induced has previously been accepted by the Inspector is not
artifacts in the area of interest that could mask or be required to be submitted to the Inspector for acceptance.

40
ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX IV INTERPRETATION, After the interpretation has been completed, the inter-
EVALUATION, AND DISPOSITION pretation data and the digital image, which shall include
OF RADIOGRAPHIC AND the unprocessed original full image and the digitally
RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION TEST processed image, shall be recorded and stored on video
tape, magnetic tape, or optical disk.
RESULTS PRODUCED BY THE
DIGITAL IMAGE ACQUISITION
AND DISPLAY PROCESS
IV-210 SCOPE
IV-221 Procedure Requirements
The digital image examination test results produced
in accordance with Article 2, Mandatory Appendix II, A written procedure is required and shall contain,
and Article 2, Mandatory Appendix III, may be interpre- as a minimum, the following system performance param-
ted and evaluated for final disposition in accordance eters:
with the additional provisions to Article 2 as indicated (a) image digitizing parameters modulation trans-
herein. fer function (MTF), line pair resolution, contrast sensi-
The digital information is obtained in series with tivity, dynamic range, and pixel size;
radiography and in parallel with radioscopy. This data (b) image display parameters monitor size includ-
collection process also provides for interpretation, evalu- ing display pixel size, luminosity, format, contrast, and
ation, and disposition of the examination test results. magnification;
(c) signal processing parameters including density
shift, contrast stretch, log transform, and any other
techniques that do not mathematically alter the original
IV-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS digital data, e.g., linear and area measurement, pixel
sizing, and value determination;
The digital image shall be interpreted while displayed
(d) storage identification, data compression, and
on a cathode ray tube (soft display). The interpretation
media (including precautions to be taken to avoid data
may include density and contrast adjustment, quantifica-
loss). The non-erasable optical media should be used
tion, and pixel measurement, including digital or optical
for archival applications. This is frequently called the
density values and linear or area measurement.
WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology. When
The interpretation of a digitized image is dependent
storage is accomplished on magnetic or erasable optical
upon the same subjective evaluation by a trained inter-
media, then procedures must be included that show
preter as the interpretation of a radiographic or radio-
trackable safeguards to prevent data tampering and
scopic image. Some of the significant parameters consid-
guarantee data integrity.
ered during interpretation include: area of interest, image
quality, IQI image, magnification, density, contrast,
discontinuity shape (rounded, linear, irregular), and
artifact identification.
The digital image interpretation of the radiographic
IV-222 Original Image Artifacts
and radioscopic examination test results shall be per-
formed in accordance with the modified provisions to Any artifacts that are identified shall be noted or
Article 2 as indicated herein. annotated on the digital image.

41
IV-230 1998 SECTION V IV-292

IV-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS The electrical performance of the hardware and the
quality of the digital image shall be measured and
IV-231 Digital Image Examination Record
recorded.
The digital image examination data shall be recorded
and stored on video tape, magnetic disk, or optical disk. IV-263 System Performance Measurement
System performance parameters (as noted in IV-221)
IV-234 Viewing Considerations shall be determined initially and monitored regularly
The digital image shall be evaluated using appropriate with the system in operation to assure consistent results.
monitor luminosity, display techniques, and room light- The system performance shall be monitored at the
ing to insure proper visualization of detail. beginning and end of each shift to minimize the proba-
bility of time-dependent performance variations.

IV-236 Calibrated Optical Line Pair Test


Pattern and Optical Density Step IV-280 EVALUATION
Wedge
IV-286 Factors Affecting System Performance
An optical line pair test pattern operating between
The quality of system performance is determined by
0.1 and 4.0 optical density shall be used to evaluate
the combined performance of the components specified
the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system.
in IV-258.
High spatial resolution with 14 line-pairs per millimeter
(lp /mm) translates to a pixel size of 0.035 mm (0.0014
in.). Lesser spatial resolution with 2 lp /mm can be IV-287 System-Induced Artifacts
accomplished with a pixel size of 0.3 mm (0.012 in.). The digital images shall be free of system-induced
The optical density step wedge shall be used to evaluate artifacts in the area of interest that could mask or be
system contrast sensitivity. Alternatively, a contrast confused with the image of any discontinuity.
sensitivity gage (step wedge block) in accordance with
SE-1647 may be used.
IV-290 DOCUMENTATION
IV-291 Digital Imaging Technique
IV-250 IMAGE ACQUISITION, STORAGE,
Information
AND INTERPRETATION
To aid in proper interpretation of the digital examina-
IV-255 Area of Interest
tion data, details of the technique used shall accompany
The evaluation of the digital image shall include all the data. As a minimum, the information shall include
areas of the image defined as the area of interest by items specified in T-291 and II-221 when applicable,
the referencing Code Section. III-221, III-222, IV-221, IV-222, and the following:
(a) operator identification
(b) system performance test data
IV-258 System Configuration (c) calibration test data
The system shall, as a minimum, include:
(a) digital image acquisition system IV-292 Evaluation by Manufacturer
(b) display system
(c) image processing system Prior to being presented to the Inspector for accept-
(d) image storage system ance, the digital examination data from a radiographic
or radioscopic image shall have been interpreted by
the Manufacturer as complying with the referencing
Code Section.
IV-260 CALIBRATION
The digitized examination data that has previously
The system shall be calibrated for modulation transfer been accepted by the Inspector is not required to be
function (MTF), dynamic range, and contrast sensitivity. submitted to the Inspector for acceptance.

42
ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX V GLOSSARY OF annotate to provide an explanatory note on the


TERMS FOR RADIOGRAPHIC digital image
EXAMINATION calibrated line pair test pattern see optical line
pair test pattern
V-210 SCOPE calibrated step wedge film a radiograph with
This Mandatory Appendix is used for the purpose discrete density steps which is traceable to a national
of establishing standard terms and definitions of terms standard
relating to radiographic examination. cathode ray tube (soft display) a device that
produces an image by exciting a fluorescent substance
with a magnetically guided beam
data compression a reduction in the size of a
A99 V-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS digital data set to a smaller data set
(a) The Standard Terminology for Nondestructive density shift a function that raises or lowers all
Examinations (ASTM E 1316) has been adopted by density /greyscale values equally such that contrast is
the Committee as SE-1316. maintained within the data set
(b) SE-1316 Section D provides the definitions of designated wire the specific wire that must be
terms listed in V-230(a). discernible in the radiographic image of a wire type
(c) For general terms, such as Indication, Flaw, image quality indicator
Discontinuity, Evaluation, etc., refer to Article 1, Man- diaphragm an aperture (opening) in a radiation
datory Appendix 1. opaque material that limits the useable beam size of
(d) Paragraph V-230(b) provides a list of terms and a radiation source
definitions that are Code specific. Paragraph V-230(c) digital of, or relating to, data in the form of
provides a list of terms and definitions that are specific numerical digits (e.g., binary)
to Section V, Article 2, Appendix VI. digitizing the act of converting an analog measure-
ment of a quantity to a digital value
display pixel size the length and width dimensions
of the smallest element of a displayed image
A99 V-230 REQUIREMENTS display system a system that can display an array
(a) The following SE-1316 terms are used in conjunc- of pixels on a screen (CRT)
tion with this Article: composite viewing, contrast sensi- dynamic range the range of operation of a device
tivity, contrast stretch, densitometer, density (film), digi- between its upper and lower limit; this range can be
tal image acquisition system, erasable optical medium, given as a ratio (e.g., 100:1) of the maximum signal
focal spot, intensifying screen, IQI sensitivity, line pair level capability to its noise level, the number of measur-
test pattern, location marker, luminosity, magnetic stor- able steps between the upper and lower limits, the
age medium, optical density, penetrameter sensitivity, number of bits needed to record this number of measur-
pixel, pixel size, screen, source, step wedge, step wedge able steps, or the maximum and minimum measurable
comparison film, system-induced artifacts, transmission values
densitometer, and transmitted film density. EPS equivalent penetrameter sensitivity
(b) The following Code terms are used in conjunction equivalent penetrameter sensitivity that thickness
with this Article. of hole type penetrameter (IQI), expressed as a percent-

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V-230 1998 SECTION V V-230

age of the part thickness, in which 2T hole would be radiographic examination a nondestructive method
visible under the same radiographic conditions for detecting discontinuities in materials and components
essential hole the specific hole that must be using penetrating radiation to produce an image on a
discernible in the radiographic image of a hole type recording medium
penetrameter (IQI) sensitivity the smallest discernible detail and /or
image processing system a system which uses contrast change (e.g., IQI hole or wire) in a radiographic
mathematical algorithms to manipulate digital image image
data shim a material, radiographically similar to the
image quality indicator object being radiographed, that is placed between a
hole type a rectangular plaque, made of material hole type IQI and the object in order to reduce the
radiographically similar to that of the object being
radiographic density through the image of the hole
radiographed, with small diameter holes (1T, 2T, and
type IQI
4T) used to check the image quality of the radiograph
source side that surface of the area of interest
wire type a set of small diameter wires, made
of material radiographically similar to that of the object being radiographed for evaluation nearest the source
being radiographed, used to check the image quality of radiation
of the radiograph WORM (write once read many) a term relating
image storage system a system that can store to a type of digital storage media where the data can
digital image data for future use be stored only once but accessed (nondestructively)
IQI image quality indicator many times
line pair resolution the number of line pairs per (c) The following Code terms are used in conjunction
unit distance that are detectable in an image with Article 2, Appendix VI:
log transform a function that applies a logarithmic contrast sensitivity the size of the smallest detect-
mapping to all density /greyscale values in an image; able change in optical density
this operation is often performed when the resulting dynamic range the extent of measurable optical
distribution is normal, or if the resulting relationship density obtained in a single scan
with another variable is linear image the digital representation of a target on
modulation transfer function (MTF) a measure of the reference film used to evaluate both the digitization
spatial resolution as a function of contrast; a plot of these and display aspects of a film digitization system
variables (spatial resolution and contrast) yields a curve reference film a single industrial radiographic film
representing the frequency response of the system
that encompasses the targets necessary for the evaluation
non-erasable optical media (optical disk) a storage
and quantification of the performance characteristics of
media that prevents the erasure or alteration of digital
a film digitization system
data after it is stored
optical density step wedge a radiographic image spatial linearity the accuracy to which a digitiza-
of a mechanical step wedge with precise thickness tion system reproduces the physical dimensions of
increments and may be used to correlate optical film information on the original film [both in the horizontal
density to the thickness of material, also known as a (along a single scan line) and vertical (from one scan
step tablet line to another) directions]
penetrameter see image quality indicator spatial resolution the size of the smallest detectable
quantification the act of determining or expressing element of the digitized image
a quantity (i.e., giving a numerical value to a measure- target a physical pattern on a reference film used
ment of something) to evaluate the performance of a film digitization system

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ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX VI DIGITAL IMAGE (b) physical size of the usable area of the image
ACQUISITION, DISPLAY, monitor;
INTERPRETATION, AND STORAGE (c) film size capacity of the scanning device;
OF RADIOGRAPHS FOR NUCLEAR (d) spot size(s) of the film scanning system;
(e) image display pixel size as defined by the vertical/
APPLICATIONS
horizontal resolution limits of the monitor;
VI-210 SCOPE (f) luminance of the video display; and
Digital imaging process and technology provide the (g) data storage medium.
ability to digitize and store the detailed information VI-222.2 Digitizing Technique
contained in the radiograph (analog image), thus elimi- (a) digitizer spot size (in microns) to be used (see
nating the need to maintain and store radiographs for VI-232);
permanent record. (b) loss-less data compression technique, if used;
(c) method of image capture verification;
(d) image processing operations;
(e) time period for system verification (see VI-264);
VI-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
(f) spatial resolution used (see VI-241);
VI-221 Supplemental Requirements (g) contrast sensitivity (density range obtained) (see
VI-242);
VI-221.1 Additional Information. Article 2, Manda-
(h) dynamic range used (see VI-243); and
tory Appendices III and IV, contain additional informa-
(i) spatial linearity of the system (see VI-244).
tion which shall be used to supplement the requirements
of this Appendix. These supplemental requirements
shall be documented in the written procedure required VI-223 Personnel Requirements
by this Appendix.
Personnel shall be qualified as follows:
VI-221.2 Reference Film. Supplement A contains (a) Level II and Level III Personnel. Level II and Level
requirements for the manufacture of the reference film. III personnel shall be qualified in the radiographic method
as required by Article 1. In addition, the employers written
practice shall describe the specific training and practical
VI-222 Written Procedure experience of Level II and Level III personnel involved
A written procedure is required. The written procedure in the application of the digital imaging process and the
shall be the responsibility of the owner of the radio- interpretation of results and acceptance of system perform-
graphs and shall be demonstrated to the satisfaction of ance. Training and experience shall be documented in the
the Authorized Nuclear Inspector (ANI). When other individuals certification records.
enforcement or regulatory agencies are involved, the (b) As a minimum, Level II and III individuals shall
agency approval is required by formal agreement. The have 40 hours of training and 1 month of practical
written procedure shall include, as a minimum, the experience in the digital imaging process technique.
following essential variables: (c) Other Personnel. Personnel with limited qualifi-
cations performing operations other than those required
VI-222.1 Digitizing System Description for the Level II or Level III shall be qualified in
(a) manufacturer and model no. of digitizing system; accordance with Article 1. Each individual shall have

47
VI-223 1998 SECTION V VI-254

specified training and practical experience in the opera- VI-244 Spatial Linearity
tions to be performed.
Spatial linearity shall be determined as described in
VI-254. The system shall return measured dimensions
with 3% of the actual dimensions on the reference film.
VI-230 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
VI-231 System Features
The following features shall be common to all digital VI-250 TECHNIQUE
image processing systems: The reference film described in Supplement A and
(a) noninterlaced image display format; Fig. VI-A-1 shall be used to determine the performance
(b) WORM write-once/read-many data storage; of the digitization system. The system settings shall
and be adjusted to optimize the display representation of
(c) fully reversible (loss-less) data compression (if the reference targets (images). The reference film and
data compression is used). all subsequent radiographs shall be scanned by the
digitization system using these optimized settings.
VI-232 System Spot Size
The spot size of the digitizing system shall be: VI-251 Spatial Resolution Evaluation
(a) 70 microns, or smaller for radiographs made with At least two of the converging line pair images (0
energies up to 1 MeV; or deg., 45 deg., and 90 deg. line pairs) shall be selected
(b) 100 microns or smaller for radiographs made near the opposite corners of the digitizing field and
with energies over 1 MeV. one image near the center of the digitized reference
film. The spatial resolution in each position and for
each orientation shall be recorded as the highest indi-
VI-240 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE cated spatial frequency (as determined by the reference
REQUIREMENTS lines provided) where all of the lighter lines are observed
System performance shall be determined using the to be separated by the darker lines. The system resolu-
digitized representation of the reference targets (images). tion shall be reported as the poorest spatial resolution
No adjustment shall be made to the digitizing system obtained from all of the resolution images evaluated.
which may affect system performance after recording
the reference targets. VI-252 Contrast Sensitivity Evaluation
Using the contrast sensitivity images and the digitized
VI-241 Spatial Resolution stepped density scale images to evaluate the detectability
Spatial resolution shall be determined as described of each density step (the observed density changes
in VI-251. The system shall be capable of resolving shall be indicative of the systems capability to discern
a pattern of 7 line pairs/millimeter (lp/mm) for systems 0.02 density differences), the detectability of each den-
digitizing with a spot size of 70 microns or less, or sity step and the difference in density between steps
5 line pairs/millimeter for spot sizes greater than 70 shall be evaluated.
microns.
VI-253 Dynamic Range Evaluation
VI-242 Contrast Sensitivity The dynamic range of the digitization system shall
Contrast sensitivity shall be determined as described be determined by finding the last visible density step
in VI-252. The system shall have a minimum contrast at both ends of the density strip. The dynamic range
sensitivity of 0.02 optical density. shall be measured to the nearest 0.50 optical density.

VI-243 Dynamic Range VI-254 Spatial Linearity Evaluation


Dynamic range shall be determined as described in The digitization system shall be set to read the inch
VI-253. The system shall have a minimum dynamic scale on the reference film. The measurement tool shall
range of 3.5 optical density. then be used to measure the scale in a vertical direction

48
VI-254 ARTICLE 2 MANDATORY APPENDIX VI-291

and horizontal direction. The actual dimension is divided VI-272 Artifacts A99
by the measured dimension to find the percentage of
Radiographs shall be visually examined for foreign
error in the horizontal and vertical directions.
material and artifacts (e.g., scratches or water spots)
in the area of interest. Foreign material not removed
and artifacts observed shall be documented.
VI-260 DEMONSTRATION OF SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE
VI-273 Calibration A99
VI-261 Procedure Demonstration
The calibration for a specific set of parameters (i.e.,
The written procedure described in VI-222 shall be film size, density range, and spatial resolution) shall
demonstrated to the ANI and, if requested, the regulatory be conducted by following VI-240 and Supplement A.
agency, as having the ability to acquire, display, and The results shall be documented.
reproduce the analog images from radiographs. Evidence
of the demonstration shall be recorded as required by
VI-291.
VI-280 EVALUATION A99

VI-281 Process Evaluation


VI-262 Processed Targets
The Level II or Level III Examiner described in VI-
The digitizing process and equipment shall acquire 223(a) shall be responsible for determining that the
and display the targets described in Supplement A. The digital imaging process is capable of reproducing the
digitally processed targets of the reference film shall original analog image. This digital image shall then
be used to verify the system performance. be transferred to the write-once-read-many (WORM)
optical disc.
VI-263 Changes in Essential Variables
Any change in the essential variables identified in VI-282 Interpretation
VI-222 and used to produce the results in VI-250 shall When interpretation of the radiograph is used for
be cause for reverification of the System Performance. acceptance, the requirements of Article 2, Mandatory
Appendix IV and the Referencing Code Section shall
VI-264 Frequency of Verification apply. If analog radiographs must be viewed in compos-
ite for acceptance, then both radiographs shall be digi-
The System Performance shall be initially verified tized. The digital image of the analog radiographs shall
in accordance with VI-262 at the beginning of each be interpreted singularly.
digitizing shift. Reverification in accordance with VI-
262 shall take place at the end of each shift or at the
end of 12 continuous hours, whichever is less, or at VI-283 Baseline
any time that malfunctioning is suspected. Digital images of previously accepted radiographs
may be used as a baseline for subsequent in-service
inspections.
VI-265 Changes in System Performance
Any evidence of change in the System Performance
specified in VI-240 shall invalidate the digital images VI-290 DOCUMENTATION
processed since the last successful verification and shall
be cause for reverification. VI-291 Reporting Requirements
The following shall be documented in a final report:
(a) spatial resolution (VI-241);
VI-270 EXAMINATION (b) contrast sensitivity (VI-242);
(c) frequency for system verification;
A99 VI-271 System Performance Requirements
(d) dynamic range (VI-243);
The digitizing system shall meet the requirements (e) Traceability technique from original component
specified in VI-240 before digitizing archival radio- to radiograph to displayed digital image, including
graphs. original radiographic report(s). (The original radio-

49

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VI-291 1998 SECTION V VI-292

graphic reader sheet may be digitized to fulfill this


requirement);
(f) condition of original radiographs (VI-281);
(g) procedure demonstration (VI-261);
(h) spatial linearity (VI-244);
(i) system performance parameters (VI-241); and
(j) personnel performing the digital imaging process
(VI-223).

VI-292 Archiving
When the final report and digitized information are
used to replace the analog radiograph as the permanent
record as required by the referencing Code Section,
all information pertaining to the original radiography
shall be documented in the final report and processed
as part of the digital record. A duplicate copy of the
WORM storage media is required if the radiographs
are to be destroyed.

49.1

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VI-A-210 1998 SECTION V VI-A-241

ARTICLE 2 VI-A-232.2 Parallel line pairs shall consist of parallel


MANDATORY APPENDIX VI line pairs in at least the vertical direction on the
SUPPLEMENT A reference film. It shall have a maximum resolution of
at least 20 lp/mm and a minimum resolution of no
VI-A-210 SCOPE less than 0.5 lp/mm. It shall have distinct resolutions
The reference film described in this supplement pro- of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, and 20 lp/
vides a set of targets suitable for evaluating and quantify- mm and have the corresponding reference marks. It
ing the performance characteristics of a radiographic shall be located near the middle of the reference film.
digitizing system. The reference film is suitable for VI-A-232.3 Contrast sensitivity targets shall consist
evaluating both the radiographic film digitization process of approximately 0.4 in. by 0.4 in. blocks centered in
and the electronic image reconstruction process. 1.6 in. by 1.6 in. (40 mm by 40 mm) blocks of a
The reference film shall be used to conduct perform- slightly lower density. Two series of these step blocks
ance demonstrations and evaluations of the digitizing shall be used with an optical density of approximately
system to verify the operating characteristics before 2.0 on a background of approximately 1.95, an optical
radiographs are digitized. The reference film provides density change of 0.05. The second block series will
for the evaluation of spatial resolution, contrast sensitiv- have an optical density of approximately 3.5 on a
ity, dynamic range, and spatial linearity. background of approximately 3.4, an optical density
change of 0.10. The relative density change is more
important than the absolute density. These images shall
be located near the edges and the center of the film
VI-A-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
so as to test the contrast sensitivity throughout the
VI-A-221 Reference Film scan path.
The reference film shall be specified in VI-A-230 VI-A-232.4 Stepped density targets shall consist of
and VI-A-240. a series of 0.4 in. by 0.4 in. (10 mm by 10 mm) steps
aligned in a row with densities ranging from 0.5 to
4.5 with no greater than 0.5 optical density steps. At
four places on the density strip (at approximately 1.0,
VI-A-230 DESCRIPTIONS OF TARGETS 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 optical densities), there shall be optical
VI-A-231 Reference Targets density changes of 0.02 which shall also be used to
test the contrast sensitivity. These stepped density targets
The illustration of the reference film and its targets shall be located near the edges of the film and near
is as shown in Fig. VI-A-1. the center so as to test the dynamic range throughout
the scan path.

VI-A-232 Spatial Resolution Targets VI-A-232.5 Measurement scale targets shall be lo-
cated in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The
The reference film shall contain spatial resolution measurement scale targets shall be in English and/or
targets as follows: metric divisions.
VI-A-232.1 Converging line pairs shall consist of 3
identical groups of no less than 6 converging line pairs
VI-A-240 MANUFACTURING
(6 light lines and 6 dark lines). The targets shall have
SPECIFICATIONS
a maximum resolution of no less than 20 line pairs
per millimeter (lp/mm) and a minimum resolution of Manufacturing specifications shall be minimum re-
no greater than 1 lp/mm. The 3 line pair groups shall quirements necessary for producing the reference film.
be oriented in the vertical, horizontal, and the last The reference film shall have a unique identification
group shall be 45 deg. from the previous two groups. which appears as an image when digitized.
The maximum resolution shall be oriented toward the
corners of the film. Reference marks shall be provided
VI-A-241 Material
to indicate spatial resolution at levels of no less than
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, and 20 lp/mm. The The reference film shall be a fine grain, industrial
spatial resolution targets shall be located in each corner type film. The film used will be of high quality so
of the needed film sizes. the required specifications in VI-A-230 are met.

50

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ARTICLE 2 MANDATORY APPENDIX Fig. VI-A-1

FIG. VI-A-1 REFERENCE FILM

51
VI-A-242 1998 SECTION V VI-A-245

VI-A-242 Film Size (a) The tolerance for the optical density changes
stated in VI-A-232.3 and VI-A-232.4 shall be 6 0.005.
The film size shall be sufficient to accommodate the
(b) The measured densities shall be within 6 0.15
largest area of interest to be digitized.
of the values stated in VI-A-232.3 and VI-A-232.4.
The actual densities shall be recorded and furnished
with the reference film.
VI-A-243 Spatial Resolution (c) Density requirements shall be in accordance with
The spatial resolution shall be a minimum of 20 ANSI IT-2.19.
lp/mm. (d) The background density, where there are no
images located, shall have a 3.0 optical density 6 0.5.

VI-A-244 Density VI-A-245 Linearity


The relative densities stated in VI-A-232.3 and VI- The measurement scale targets shall be accurately
A-232.4 shall be within 6 0.005 optical density. electronically produced to 6 0.05 in.

52
ARTICLE 2
MANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX VII RADIOGRAPHIC cal castings 312 in. or less in O.D. or when the shape
EXAMINATION OF METALLIC of a casting precludes single-wall viewing.
CASTINGS
VII-210 SCOPE
Metallic castings, due to their inherent complex con-
figurations, present examination conditions that are
unique to this product form. VII-276 IQI Selection
Radiographic examination may be performed on cast- VII-276.3 Additional IQI Selection Requirements.
ings when the modified provisions to Article 2, as The thickness on which the penetrameter is based is
indicated herein, are satisfied. the single-wall thickness.
(a) Casting Areas Prior to Finish Machining. The
penetrameter shall be based on a thickness which does
not exceed the finished thickness by more than 20%
or 14 in., whichever is greater. In no case shall a
penetrameter size be based on a thickness greater than
VII-220 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS the thickness being radiographed.
(b) Casting Areas That Will Remain in the As-Cast
VII-224 System of Identification Condition. The penetrameter shall be based on the
A system shall be used to produce permanent identi- thickness being radiographed.
fication on the radiograph traceable to the contract,
component, or part numbers, as appropriate. In addition,
each film of a casting being radiographed shall be
plainly and permanently identified with the name or
symbol of the Material Manufacturer, Certificate Holder,
or Subcontractor, job or heat number, date, and, if
applicable, repairs (R1, R2, etc.). This identification VII-280 EVALUATION
system does not necessarily require that the information
appear as radiographic images. In any case, this informa- VII-282 Radiographic Density
tion shall not obscure the area of interest. VII-282.1 Density Limitations. The transmitted film
density through the radiographic image of the body of
the appropriate hole penetrameter or adjacent to the
designated wire of a wire penetrameter and the area
of interest shall be 1.5 minimum for single film viewing.
For composite viewing of multiple film exposures, each
VII-270 EXAMINATION film of the composite set shall have a minimum density
of 1.0. The maximum density shall be 4.0 for either
VII-271 Radiographic Technique
single or composite viewing. A tolerance of 0.05 in
VII-271.2 Double-Wall Viewing Technique. A density is allowed for variations between densitometer
double-wall viewing technique may be used for cylindri- readings.

53
1998 SECTION V VII-293

VII-290 DOCUMENTATION
VII-293 Layout Details1
To assure that all castings are radiographed consist-
ently in the same manner, layout details shall be
provided. As a minimum, the layout details shall include:
(a) sketches of the casting, in as many views as
necessary, to show the approximate position of each
location marker; and
(b) source angles if not perpendicular to the film.

1 Sample layout and technique details are illustrated in SE-1030,


Appendix (Nonmandatory Information) X1, Fig. X1.1, Radiographic
Standard Shooting Sketch (RSS).

54
ARTICLE 2
NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX A TECHNIQUE
SKETCHES FOR
PIPE OR TUBE WELDS
A-210 SCOPE
The sketches in the Appendix illustrate techniques
used in the radiographic examination of pipe or tube
welds.
Other techniques may be used.

55
1998 SECTION V

56
ARTICLE 2 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

57
1998 SECTION V

58
ARTICLE 2
NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX B EQUIVALENT IQI


(PENETRAMETER)
SENSITIVITY (EPS)1
B-210 SCOPE
The table in this Appendix may be used to determine
approximate equivalence between penetrameters.

B-220 EQUIVALENCE OF WIRE


PENETRAMETERS TO HOLE
PENETRAMETERS (1T, 2T, 4T)
Equivalence of wire penetrameters to hole penetrame-
ters is shown in Table B-220.

B-230 EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN HOLE


PENETRAMETERS
Equivalence between hole penetrameters may be de-
termined from Table B-220 as follows. Assume that a
504T penetrameter is required. The corresponding wire
is 0.080 in. diameter. The 0.080 in. diameter wire is
also equivalent to 702T and 1001T hole penetrameters.
Therefore, 504T, 702T, and 1001T hole type pene-
trameters are equivalent.

1 SE-1025 Appendix (Nonmandatory Information), XI, Equivalent IQI


(Penetrameter) Sensitivity (EPS); and SE-747 Appendix (Nonmanda-
tory Information), XI, Calculating Other Equivalents.

59
Table B-220 1998 SECTION V

TABLE B-220
DIAMETER OF WIRE IQI CORRESPONDING
TO HOLE TYPE (1T, 2T, 4T)

Hole Diameter of Wire With EPS of Hole, in.


IQI
No. 1T 2T 4T
5 ... ... 0.006
6 ... 0.004 ...
8 0.0032 0.005 0.008
10 0.004 0.006 0.010
12 0.005 0.008 0.013
15 0.006 0.010 0.016
17 0.008 0.013 0.020
20 0.010 0.016 0.025
25 0.013 0.020 0.032
30 0.016 0.025 0.040
35 0.020 0.032 0.050
40 0.025 0.040 0.063
50 0.032 0.050 0.080
60 0.040 0.063 0.100
70 0.050 0.080 0.126
80 0.063 0.100 0.160
100 0.080 0.126 0.200
120 0.100 0.160 0.250
140 0.126 0.200 0.320
160 0.160 0.250 ...
200 0.200 0.320 ...
240 0.250 ... ...
280 0.320 ... ...

60
ARTICLE 2
NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX C HOLE TYPE


PENETRAMETER PLACEMENT
SKETCHES FOR WELDS
C-210 SCOPE
The figures in this Appendix demonstrate typical
penetrameter (hole type) placement for welds. These
sketches are tutorial to demonstrate suggested locations
of penetrameters and are not intended to cover all
configurations or applications of production radiography.
Other penetrameter locations may be used provided
they comply with the requirements of Article 2. Wire
penetrameters shall be placed in accordance with the
requirements of Article 2.

61
Fig. C-210-1 1998 SECTION V

FIG. C-210-1 SIDE AND TOP VIEWS OF HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER PLACEMENTS

62
ARTICLE 2 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX Fig. C-210-2

FIG. C-210-2 SIDE AND TOP VIEWS OF HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER PLACEMENTS

63
Fig. C-210-3 1998 SECTION V

FIG. C-210-3 SIDE AND TOP VIEWS OF HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER PLACEMENTS

64
ARTICLE 2 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX Fig. C-210-4

FIG. C-210-4 SIDE AND TOP VIEWS OF HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETER PLACEMENTS

65
ARTICLE 2
NONMANDATORY APPENDIX

APPENDIX D NUMBER OF
PENETRAMETERS (SPECIAL CASES)
D-210 SCOPE
The figures in this Appendix illustrate examples of
the number and placement of penetrameters which may
be used in the special cases described in T-277.2(b).
These figures are not intended to cover all configurations
or applications of production radiography.

67
Fig. D-210-1 1998 SECTION V Fig. D-210-4

98 FIG. D-210-1 COMPLETE CIRCUMFERENCE FIG. D-210-2 SECTION OF CIRCUMFERENCE 98


CYLINDRICAL COMPONENT 240 deg. OR MORE CYLINDRICAL COMPONENT
[T-277.2(b)(1)(a) & T-277.2(b)(3)] (EXAMPLE IS ALTERNATE INTERVALS)
[T-277.2(b)(1)(b) & T-277.2(b)(3)]

98 FIG. D-210-3 SECTION(S) OF CIRCUMFERENCE FIG. D-210-4 SECTION(S) OF CIRCUMFERENCE 98


LESS THAN 240 deg. CYLINDRICAL COMPONENT EQUAL TO OR MORE THAN 120 deg. AND LESS THAN
[T-277.2(b)(2)(b)] 240 deg. CYLINDRICAL COMPONENT
[T-277.2(b)(2)(b) OPTION]

68
Fig. D-210-5 ARTICLE 2 NONMANDATORY APPENDIX Fig. D-210-8

FIG. D-210-6 WELDS IN SEGMENTS OF SPHERICAL 98


COMPONENT
[T-277.2(b)(5) & T-277.2(b)(5)(b) & T-277.2(b)(6)]

98 FIG. D-210-5 COMPLETE CIRCUMFERENTIAL


WELDS SPHERICAL COMPONENT
[T-277.2(b)(4)(a) & T-277.2(b)(6)]

FIG. D-210-7 PLAN VIEW A-A FIG. D-210-8 ARRAY OF OBJECTS IN A CIRCLE
[T-277.2(b)(7)]

69