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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sysconle

Joaqun Carrasco a , Alfonso Baos a, , Arjan van der Schaft b

a

Dep. Informtica y Sistemas, University of Murcia, 30071 Murcia, Spain

b

Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Article history: The stability of reset control systems has been mainly studied for the feedback interconnection of reset

Received 2 April 2009 compensators with linear time-invariant systems. This work gives a stability analysis of reset compen-

Received in revised form sators in feedback interconnection with passive nonlinear systems. The results are based on the passivity

24 July 2009

approach to L2 -stability for feedback systems with exogenous inputs, and the fact that a reset compen-

Accepted 27 October 2009

Available online 17 November 2009

sator will be passive if its base compensator is passive. Several examples of full and partial reset compen-

sations are analyzed, and a detailed case study of an in-line pH control system is given.

Keywords:

2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hybrid systems

Stability of hybrid systems

Impulsive systems

Reset control systems

Passive systems

a certain transfer matrix H , referred to as the H -condition.

Reset control system design was initiated fifty years ago with Reset control systems can be also regarded as a special case of

the work of Clegg [1], who introduced a nonlinear integral feedback hybrid systems, or as systems with impulsive motion. From this

controller based on a reset action of the integrator, the so-called perspective, the recent work [6] addressed the stability problem

Clegg integrator. The reset action amounts to setting the integrator of these types of systems with the goal of analyzing the stability of

output equal to zero whenever its input is zero. In this way a faster switching between LTI controllers. Furthermore, the H -condition

system response without excessive overshoot may be expected, has been relaxed in [7] to obtain a less restrictive Lyapunov

thus possibly overcoming a basic limitation of the standard linear stability condition. The papers [8,9] derive conditions based on the

integral feedback. This has spurred the development of several reset times that can be used both for stable and unstable linear

other nonlinear compensators, all based on describing function systems.

analysis. Furthermore, in a series of papers by Horowitz and co- Regarding the L2 -stability of reset systems with inputs, a num-

workers [2,3] reset control systems have been advanced by in- ber of papers have appeared that give results for particular cases

troducing the first-order reset element (FORE). of reset compensators and/or inputs. The work [7] approaches the

One of the main drawbacks of reset compensators is that the problem for compensators in which its output has the same sign

stability of the feedback system is not always guaranteed by as its input, and the zero reference case is considered. In addition,

the stability of the underlying linear time-invariant (LTI) system in [10] L2 -stability conditions for the case of nonzero references

without reset action. In fact it is well known, and easily illustrated, are given. The conservatism given by H -condition is improved for

that the reset action can destabilize a stable LTI feedback system. these kinds of systems.

Recently, the problem for linear reset control systems has been On the other hand, dissipative systems theory was developed

successfully addressed in [4,5] for general reset compensators, in [11], where the concept of a passive system, originating from

allowing full or partial state reset. As a result stability of the reset electric circuit theory and mechanical systems, was extended to

abstract systems. A main theorem in this context is the fact that

the feedback interconnection of two passive nonlinear systems is

I This work has been supported in part by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacin again a passive system. Passivity techniques have been shown to

(Gobierno de Espaa) under project DPI2007-66455-C02-01.

be a powerful tool for nonlinear control, see e.g. [12]. Dissipative

Corresponding author. systems theory has been developed for hybrid systems in [13],

E-mail addresses: jcarrasco@um.es (J. Carrasco), abanos@um.es (A. Baos), where notions such as supply rate have been extended to the

A.J.van.der.Schaft@math.rug.nl (A. van der Schaft). hybrid case. We also refer to [1417] for work on passivity of

0167-6911/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.sysconle.2009.10.009

J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824 19

continuous fashion; otherwise, when the resetting law is applied,

the system undergoes a jump. We will throughout consider reset

compensators R that consist of an LTI compensator (the so-called

base linear compensator) together with a reset action, given by the

following impulsive differential equation (IDE):

x r = Ar xr + Br e,

e 6= 0

R : x+ = A xr , e=0 (3)

ur = C x + D e

r r r

with diagonal elements equal to zero for the state components to

be reset, and equal to one for the rest of the compensator states, n

Fig. 1. Reset controller R applied to a LTI plant. is defined as the dimension of the reset subspace, and n is defined

as the dimension of the non-reset subspace (n + n = nr ). When

hybrid systems. In spite of the fact that a single-input single-output A = 0, R will be referred to as full reset compensator; otherwise, it

approach to passive systems theory will not be sufficient for more will be referred to as partial reset compensator.

general hybrid systems, this paper will show how several passivity The first equation in (3) describes the continuous compensator

properties can be obtained for reset compensators. In [13], this dynamics at the non-reset time instants, while the second equation

kind of impulsive systems are referred to as input-dependent gives the reset operation as a jump of the compensator state at the

impulsive dynamical systems. reset instants. Note that reset time instants occur when the com-

The goals of this work are: (a) to obtain stability conditions that pensator input is zero. The base compensator is simply obtained

are applicable to feedback interconnections of linear compensators by omitting the reset actions in (3), and thus has the transfer func-

with reset action and nonlinear plants; (b) to find passive reset tion Rbl (s) = Cr (sI Ar )1 Br + Dr . Henceforth, whenever a transfer

compensators that can be used in passive control techniques. function is used to describe a reset compensator, this means that its

Passivity conditions for stability will be developed, which are easily base linear compensator has this transfer function. Furthermore,

r or xr (t ) for the value xr (t + ) with

checked on the linear compensator without reset action. we will use the notations x+ +

The structure of the work is the following. In Section 2, a de- 0+ .

scription of the problem setup is given and some basic results about Impulsive systems such as (3) are a special case of hybrid

passivity theory are recalled. Section 3 gives the main results about systems, for which it is well that phenomena like Zeno behavior

the passivity properties of reset compensator, which are used to and beating may occur [13]. To avoid these phenomena, we will

show L2 -stability with respect to reference and perturbation in- assume throughout this paper that the solutions to (3) are time

puts. In Section 4, an application to an industrial nonlinear plant is regularized (see for example [7] and the references therein), which

developed. means that the reset law is switched off for a time interval of length

1m > 0 after each reset time. Thus formally speaking we consider

2. Preliminaries and problem setup the following reset system

This work approaches the stability problem of reset control 1 = 1, x r = Ar xr + Br e, e 6= 0 or 1 < 1m

systems with inputs using general passivity theory. We consider R : 1+ = 0, x+ = A xr , e = 0 and 1 1m (4)

u = C x + D er

the feedback system given by Fig. 1, where w and d are the r r r

reference and disturbance inputs, respectively. R is a single-input

single-output (SISO) reset compensator to be defined later on, and with zero initial conditions: 1(0) = 0, xr (0) = 0. As a conse-

P is a single-input single-output (SISO) plant. The set L2 consists of quence of time regularization there will exist for any input e only

R

all measurable functions f () : R+ R such that 0 |f (t )|2 dt < a finite number of reset times on any finite time interval, hence ex-

, being the L2 -norm k k : L2 R+ defined by kf k = cluding Zeno behavior. Furthermore, on the infinite time interval

R 12 [t0 , ) there will exists a countable set {t1 , t2 , . . . , tk , . . .} where

0

|f (t )|2 dt

. tk+1 tk 1m for all k = 1, 2, . . ., and in addition the constant

The feedback interconnection in system (Fig. 1) is given simply 1m does not depend on the input e.

by In contrast to the works [7] and [18], where the reset action is

e(t ) = w(t ) y(t ), u(t ) = v(t ) + d(t ). (1) active when input and output have a different sign, the original

definition of reset according to [1,3,2,5] has been used here.

The feedback system of Fig. 1 is called L2 -stable (with respect Note that the definition of Clegg integrator proposed in [18] is

to inputs w and d) if for every input signals w L2 and d L2 equivalent to the original in [1] in the case of zero initial condition.

the outputs u L2 and y L2 . In addition, it is finite-gain stable In addition, although the definition given in [18] has advantages in

if there exists a positive constant > 0 such that kyk2 + kuk2 some particular cases, it cannot be applied to partial reset systems.

(kwk2 + kdk2 ). This is the main reason why the original definition has been used

The plant P is represented by the state-space model in this work.

A system H : L2,e L2,e , with input u and output y = Hu is

x p = f (xp , u),

uR

P : (2) said to be passive if there exists a constant 0 such that

y = g (xp , u), yR

Z T

where np is the dimension of the state xp , f : Rnp R Rnp u> (t )y(t )dt , T 0, u L2 . (5)

is locally Lipschitz, g : Rnp R R is continuous, f (0, 0) = 0

0, and g (0, 0) = 0. In addition, following the framework given If there are constants 0 and 0 such that

in [13], the dynamics of the reset compensator is described by

Z T Z T Z T

three elements: (a) a continuous-time dynamical equation, (b)

a difference equation, and (c) a reset law. During time intervals u> (t )y(t )dt + u> (t )u(t )dt + y> (t )y(t )dt ,(6)

0 0 0

20 J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824

for all functions u, and all T 0, then the system is input strictly 3.1. Full reset compensators

passive (ISP) if > 0, output strictly passive (OSP) if > 0, and

very strictly passive (VSP) if > 0 and > 0. In particular, for an In spite of the fact that passivity theory (as an inputoutput

LTI system with transfer function H (s) = C (sI A)1 B + D, with theory) is not appropriate in general for hybrid systems, it can be

A Hurwitz and the pair (A, B) controllable it holds that [19] successfully used for full reset compensators given by (4). This is

due to the fact that the reset compensator looses all its memory

1. The system is passive if and only if Re[H (j)] 0 for all . at every reset time, i.e., the base compensator is restarted with

2. The system is ISP if and only if there is a > 0 such that zero initial condition. Therefore, a state-space description is not

Re[H (j)] > 0 for all . necessary because the reset compensator just depends on the

3. The system is OSP if and only if there is an such that input since the last reset time. This is the key point in the next

Re[H (j)] |H (j)|2 for all . proposition.

Note that these three properties are checkable in a Nyquist

Proposition 1. A full reset compensator R (given by (4) with A = 0)

diagram: if H (j) is in the closed right half plane then the system

is passive, ISP, OSP, or VSP if the base compensator is passive, ISP, OSP,

is passive, if H (j) is in Re[H (j)] > 0 the system is ISP and if

or VSP, respectively.

H (j) is inside the circle with center in s = 21 , and radius r = 21

then the system is OSP. Proof. The result is proved for the VSP case, the rest of the cases

When the system is in state-space representation, the passivity follow similar arguments. If the base compensator is VSP, then

of the inputoutput maps as before is replaced by the following there exist > 0 and > 0 such that (6) is satisfied for all T 0

notions from dissipative systems theory. Consider the system H : and for all u L2 . Since, by time regularization, in every finite time

L2,e L2,e , given by interval there are a finite number of resets instants {0 < t1 , t2 , . . .}

with 0 < t1 < t2 < , then there exists a finite integer k such

x = f (x, u), that for every T (tk , tk+1 ], the integration interval [0, T ] can be

uR

H : (7)

y = g (x, u), yR divided into a finite number of subintervals

Z T Z t1 i=k1

X Z ti+1

where f and g have the same properties as in (2). H is said to u> (t )y(t )dt = u> (t )y(t )dt + u> (t )y(t )dt

be dissipative with respect to a supply rate w(u, y) if there exists 0 0 i =1 ti

a storage function V (x) 0 such that the following dissipation Z T

inequality holds

+ u> (t )y(t )dt . (9)

Z T tk

V (x(T )) V (x(0)) + w(u(t ), y(t ))dt ; In addition, since the base system is time-invariant and VSP by

0

assumption, it is true that

u, x(0), T 0. (8)

Z t1 Z t1 Z t1

Following [12], the relationship between dissipative and pas- u> (t )y(t )dt u> (t )u(t )dt + y> (t )y(t )dt , (10)

sive systems is given by the choice of a particular supply rate: 0 0 0

Z ti+1 Z ti+1

1. The system H is passive if it is dissipative with respect to supply

u> (t )y(t )dt u> (t )u(t )dt

rate wp = u> y. ti ti

2. The system H is input strictly passive (ISP) if it is dissipative

Z ti+1

with respect to supply rate wi = u> y u> u, for some > 0. + y> (t )y(t )dt (11)

ti

3. The system H is output strictly passive (OSP) if it is dissipative

with respect to supply rate wo = u> y y> y, for some > 0. and

4. The system H is very strictly passive (VSP) if it is dissipative with Z T Z T Z T

respect to supply rate wv = u> y u> u y> y, for some > 0 u (t )y(t )dt

>

u (t )u(t )dt +

>

y> (t )y(t )dt (12)

and > 0. tk tk tk

From (5) and (8) it is clear that in the definition of a passive for any u L2 , and for i = 1, 2, . . . , k 1. In (10)(12), = 0

inputoutput map is related to the value of the storage function at has been taken due to the system has null initial conditions at ti+

the initial state by = V (x(0)). for all i = 1, 2, . . . , k. In addition, the integral limits ti+ can be

An important result is the Passivity Theorem [12]: the feedback taken as ti by integral properties. Then, after direct substitution of

interconnection of Fig. 1 is finite-gain stable if (10)(11)(12) in (9) we directly conclude that

R + P > 0 T T T

Z Z Z

u> (t )y(t )dt u> (t )u(t )dt + y> (t )y(t )dt . (13)

P + R > 0 0 0 0

where R and R , and P and P are such that they satisfy (6) for the Thus, the reset compensator is a VSP system with the same con-

systems R and P, respectively. stants (= 0), and as its LTI base compensator.

Remark 1.1. Note that formulation of passivity, ISP, OSP and VSP

3. Main results

given in [12] (Section 2.2 and 3.1) is completely general, and

thus does not involve any assumption regarding the continuity

The main goal of this work will be to analyze the passivity

of system trajectories of the reset system R as given by (4). In

properties of reset compensators as described by (4). Firstly,

particular, the state trajectories may be discontinuous at the reset

conditions on the reset compensators are derived for them to be

instants, and application of passivity definitions and the passivity

(strictly) passive systems. We have split the treatment of full reset

theorem can be directly applied to reset systems in order to get

and partial reset compensators into separate sections. Finally, the inputoutput stability properties.

passivity theorem will be used to show stability properties of the

feedback system given in Fig. 1. Notice that we allow for nonlinear Remark 1.2. Note that in the proof of Proposition 1, linearity of

plants as described by (2) as far as they are passive. the base compensator has been used simply to state that it has null

J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824 21

initial conditions at ti+ for all i = 1, 2, . . .. Thus, Proposition 1 holds system has to be taken into consideration. As a result, the com-

for any full reset compensator, not necessarily linear, as long as pensator state has to be included in the formulation and the result

= 0 or, using the dissipativity framework to be used in next Sec- of Proposition 1 is not applicable. Dissipative systems theory leads

tion, the storage function of the compensator satisfies V (0) = 0. to a solution of this problem due to the fact that the dissipativity

Some examples of reset compensators are analyzed in the property holds for every initial condition.

following. Proposition 2. A partial reset compensator R (given by (4) with A =

diag (In , 0n )) is passive, ISP, OSP, or VSP if its base compensator is

3.1.1. The first-order reset element (FORE) dissipative with respect to supply rate wp , wi , wo , or wv , respectively,

A typical reset compensator is the first-order reset element and with a storage function V (x) that satisfies

(FORE) introduced in [2,3]. The transfer function of its base

compensator is V (A x) V (x) (21)

nr

k for every x R .

FORE (s) = (14)

s+b Proof. Again the case VSP is considered, the rest of the cases follow

where it will be assumed that k, b > 0. The real part of its fre- similar arguments. Since, by assumption, the base compensator is

quency response is given by dissipative with respect to the storage function V and the supply

rate wv = u> y u> u y> y for some > 0 and > 0, the

kb

Re[FORE (j)] = (15) following inequality is satisfied

b2 + 2 Z T

and thus, applying Proposition 1, it is directly obtained that V (x(T )) V (x(0)) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt ,

FORE is passive since Re[FORE (j)] > 0 for all , 0

FORE is OSP, since for = bk it is satisfied that: u L2,e , x(0) Rnr , T 0. (22)

b For a given input u(t ), by time regularization there is a finite

Re[FORE (j)] = |FORE (j)|2 . (16)

k number of reset times ti , i = 1, 2, . . . , k in the interval [0,T], being

T (tk , tk+1 ]. Thus, it is satisfied that

3.1.2. A reset lag compensator (reset-PI) Z T

In order to obtain VSP reset compensators, it is necessary that V (x(T )) V (x(tk+ )) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt (23)

its base compensator has the same number of poles and zeros. A tk

possible choice is a base lag compensator since in the interval [tk+ , T ] the reset compensator equals its

1 + Ts base compensator with initial condition x(tk+ ). Applying a similar

PI (s) = k (17)

1 + Ts argument it is true that

where (1, ). Its frequency response real part is given by Z ti

V (x(ti )) V (x(ti+

1 )) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt (24)

1 + (T ) 2

Re[PI (j)] = k , (18) ti1

1 + ( T )2 for i = 2, . . . , k, and also

then it is easy to check that Re[PI (j)] > min(1, k ), and finally Z ti

V (x(t1 )) V (x(0)) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt . (25)

1 + (T ) 2

|PI (j)|2 = k2 . (19) 0

1 + ( T ) 2

Then, applying condition (21) at the reset time instants one obtains

Applying Proposition 1 it is now obtained that V (x(ti+ )) = V (A x(ti )) V (x(ti )), i = 1, . . . , k. Using this fact

Reset-PI is passive due to Re[PI (j)] > 0 for all w , and (23)(25), the final result is

Reset-PI is ISP with = min(1, k ), Z tk

Reset-PI is OSP with = k . V (x(T )) V (x(tk+1 )) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt

tk1

Z T

3.1.3. A reset-PID compensator

+ wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt

As example of higher-order reset element, consider as base a tk

PID compensator with the transfer function: Z T

1 + Ti s 1 + Td s = V (x(tk+1 )) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt

PID(s) = kp (20) tk1

1 + Ti s 1 + Td s Z T

where 0 Td < Ti , 1 < , and 0 < 1. This base V (x(tk+2 )) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt

compensator is VSP, hence the full reset compensator based on it, tk2

referred to as reset-PID, is VSP. Several other cases are possible

... (26)

for particular combination of parameters, a particular study of the

Nyquist plot is necessary in each case. from which it is concluded that the reset compensator satisfies

Z T

3.2. Partial reset compensators 0 V (x(T )) V (x(0)) + wv (u(t ), y(t ))dt . (27)

0

In the partial reset compensator case, that is the case in which

As a result it is true that

only some of the compensator states are reset, dissipativity theory Z T Z T Z T

needs to be used (in contrast with the full reset case). Note that

u> (t )y(t )dt + u> (t )u(t )dt + y> (t )y(t )dt ,

after each reset action, partial reset results in a possibly nonzero

0 0 0

initial condition for the compensator state in comparison (as op-

(28)

posed to full reset, which produces a zero initial condition). Thus,

for every initial condition after reset, a different inputoutput where = V (x(0)), and thus the reset compensator is VSP.

22 J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824

tion of (21) can be given as follows for a convex storage function V.

Note that if V is convex then V satisfies (21) for all x Rnr if and

only if Vx (A x) ker A [20]. In the linear case (quadratic V ) and

A being given as the projection on the first vector component this

is equivalent to the decoupled quadratic function V given by:

Fig. 2. Reset choice in PIIR (s).

Q11 0

V (x) = x> x (29)

0 Q22

where Q11 and Q22 are positive definite matrices with dimension

Q11 Rn n and Q22 Rnh n . Itiis clear that V satisfies (21),

0 0

since V (A x) V (x) = x> 0 Q22

x 0, x Rnr .

space representation (A, B, C , D) to be SPR is that

QA A> Q QB C >

>0 (30)

B> Q C D + D>

for some Q > 0. In addition, the system (A, B, C , D) is dissipative

with respect to the storage function V (x) = x> Qx [19].hNote that i

Q11 0

if the LMI (30) is satisfied for a block diagonal Q = 0 Q22

with the structure given by (29), then Proposition 2 can be applied

and as a result the partial reset compensator with base system

(A, B, C , D) will be VSP.

Some examples of passive partial reset compensators are given Fig. 3. Nyquist plot of PIIR (s).

in the following.

passivity theorem given in Section 2. Both the full reset and the

3.2.1. Partial reset-PIIR compensator partial reset cases will be considered.

Consider the high-order reset elements with base compensator

PIIR defined as Proposition 3. The reset feedback control system of the Fig. 1, with

R being a full reset compensator with base compensator Rbl , is finite-

1 + 1 Ti s 1 + 2 Tr s gain stable if some of the following conditions are satisfied

PIIR (s) = k (31)

1 + Ti s 1 + Tr s Rbl is ISP and P is ISP.

where 1 (0, 1) and 2 (0, 1). Now, the transfer function Rbl is OSP and P is OSP

is not enough to define the reset compensator because, with the Rbl is VSP and P is passive.

same Ti , Tr , 1 , and 2 , an infinite amount of reset compensators Rbl is passive and P is VSP.

can be defined. Thus, a space state description has to be given. In In contrast to the full reset case, for the partial reset compen-

particular, consider the base compensator sator case a state-space description is necessary. In this case, as it

1 + 2s 1 + 0.012s was shown in Proposition 2, a condition on the storage function

PIIR (s) = (32) has to be added.

1 + 3s 1+s

given by the block diagram of Fig. 2, where the left block gives the Proposition 4. The reset feedback control system of the Fig. 1, with R

state x1 = u1 to be reset. being a partial reset compensator with base linear compensator Rbl , is

Then, the compensator is represented in state-space form as finite-gain L2 stable if some of the following conditions are satisfied

0.333 0.247 0.003 Rbl is dissipative with respect to the supply rate wi and a storage

Ar = Br = function V that satisfies (21), and P is ISP.

0 1 1

Rbl is dissipative with respect to the supply rate wo and a storage

Cr = 0.444 0.658 Dr = 0.008

(33) function that satisfies (21), and P is OSP.

1

0

Rbl is dissipative with respect to the supply rate wv and a storage

A = . function that satisfies (21) and P is passive.

0 0

Rbl is dissipative with respect to the supply rate wp and a storage

Note that by simply checking the Nyquist plot of the system function holds (21) and P is VSP.

(Ar , Br , Cr , Dr ) it is straightforward to show that it is SPR (Fig. 3).

Note that if G is OSP (with parameters G = 0 and G > 0 as

In addition, a decoupled storage function has been found which

given by (6)), then G is finite L2 gain stable with gain 1 (see for

satisfies (29). It is given by G

example theorem 2.2.14 in [12]). Let us apply this to Propositions 3

1.20

0 and 4, for example in the last case where P is VSP (with parameters

V (x) = x >

x. (34)

0 8.94 P and P in (6)), and Rbl is passive (and thus R = R = 0). Then,

As a result, application of Proposition 2 (see Remark 2.2) guaran- after simple manipulations we get that the closed-loop system

tees that the partial reset PIIR compensator is VSP. (with inputs w , d, and outputs u, y) is finite L2 -gain stable with gain

less than or equal to min{1 , } = max{ 1 , 1 }. The other cases of

P P P P

3.3. L2 -stability of the reset control system Propositions 3 and 4 are similar. As a result, the gain of the reset

control system is less than or equal to the gain of the base control

In this section, L2 -stability will be studied for the feedback system (while the precise computation of the gain of the closed-

system of Fig. 1, by directly using Propositions 1 and 2, and the loop gain should be performed by other means).

J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824 23

this Section. Consider a process stream (with flow rate F ) of distiller

water which is mixed with a titrating stream (with flow rate u)

of a strong acid in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) [21],

with the following considerations (Fig. 4): (a) the mixture is perfect

and instantaneous, (b) the pH sensor is placed very near to the acid

injection, and (c) the flow rate of the titrating stream is negligible

with respect to the flow rate of process stream, i.e., F + u ' F .

Under these restrictions, the process can be modelled as a linear

plant in cascade with a nonlinear passive memoryless system Fig. 6. Simulation of the pH process with a partial reset compensator.

(Fig. 5).

The tank will be considered as the part of the pipe where acid

A numerical example is developed for the following data: V =

is injected. Due to the conservation of charge, the sum of the 0.1 l, F = 5 102 l/s, Wa = 1 mol/l, uss = 0.5 104 l/s. The linear

concentration of the charges (W ) is taken as state of the linear plant from (38)

subsystem, i.e., W = [H + ] [OH ]. The dynamics of the CSTR

is given by: 20

L(s) = (40)

2s + 1

= F (W Wdw ) + uWa

VW (35)

and the static nonlinearity is given by

where V is the volume of the tank, F is the flow rate of process !!

stream, u is the flow rate of the titrating stream and Wa is the x+ x2 + 4 1014

concentration of charge in the titrating stream. In particular, for

(x) = 3 log10 . (41)

2

distilled water Wdw = 0, but also a stream process of strong base

(Wb < 0) can be studied if Wb Wa . Furthermore, the output A reset-PIIR compensator has been also designed for tracking

of the linear system equals the state, yL = W . The relationship some pH references, consisting in deviations from the equilibrium

between this concentration and the pH is given by point. By using Proposition 4, finite-gain L2 -stability of the feed-

back system can be directly guaranteed since reset-PIIR is VSP. A

!

W+ W 2 + 4 1014 simulation of the control system is shown in Fig. 6, where in addi-

pH (W ) = log . (36) tion an important characteristic of reset compensation is clearly

2

shown: the possibility of obtaining very fast responses without

Taking an operation point, with a flow rate constant uss , an equi- overshoot, overcoming fundamental limits of LTI compensation.

librium point of (35) is obtained as FWss + uss Wa = 0. Therefore,

Wss = uFss Wa . Working with increments with respect to the equi- 5. Conclusions

librium point, 1W = W Wss , the new dynamics is given by:

In this work, a passivity approach has been used in order to

V 1W = F 1W + 1uWa (37) guarantee the stability of a feedback interconnection between a

reset compensator and a passive plant, including passive nonlinear

where 1u = u uss .

plants. At the same time, passivity conditions on the reset compen-

The nonlinear memoryless function is defined by 1pH =

sators have been found in order to be used in passive control tech-

pH (Wss ) pH (W ). The system was inverted in order that an

niques. In the case of full reset compensators, it has been shown

increment in the input results in an increment in the output. that passivity of the base compensator is sufficient, whereas in the

Finally, the model is recasted as the block interconnection of Fig. 5, case of partial reset compensation, an extra condition is needed:

where L is a LTI system given by: the storage function must be non-increasing at the reset instants.

Some examples of passive reset compensators have been given,

x = ax + bu,

L: (38) and in addition an in-line pH control problem has been solved and

y = x,

checked via simulation.

F Wa

where a = V

and b = V

. The static nonlinearity is given

References

(x) = pH (Wss ) pH (x) (39)

[1] J.C. Clegg, A nonlinear integrator for servomechanisms, Transactions A.I.E.E.,

from which it follows that x(x) > 0 for all x 6= 0. It can be easily Part II 77 (1958) 4142.

[2] I.M. Horowitz, Rosenbaum, Nonlinear design for cost of feedback reduction

shown (see for example [22] or [19]) that the system of Fig. 5 with in systems with large parameter uncertainty, International Journal of Control

L and given by (38)(39) is passive. 24 (6) (1975) 9771001.

24 J. Carrasco et al. / Systems & Control Letters 59 (2010) 1824

[3] K.R. Krishman, I.M. Horowitz, Synthesis of a nonlinear feedback system with [13] W.M. Haddad, V. Chellaboina, S.G. Nersesov, Impulsive and Hybrid Dynamical

significant plant-ignorance for prescribed system tolerances, International Systems: Stability, Dissipativity, and Control, in: Princeton Series in Applied

Journal of Control 19 (4) (1974) 689706. Mathematics, 2006.

[4] O. Beker, Analysis of reset control systems, Ph.D. Thesis, University of [14] M. Zefran, F. Bullo, M. Stein, A notion of passivity for hybrid systems, in:

Massachusetts Amherst, 2001. Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando,

[5] O. Beker, C.V. Hollot, Y. Chait, H. Han, Fundamental properties of reset control FL, USA, 2001.

systems, Automatica 40 (2004) 905915. [15] M.K. Camlibel, W.P.M.H. Heemels, J.M. Schumacher, On linear passive com-

[6] J.P. Hespanha, A.S. Morse, Switching between stabilizing controllers, Auto- plementary systems, European Journal of Control 8 (3) (2002) 220237.

matica 38 (11) (2002) 19051917. [16] A. Pogromski, M. Jirstrand, P. Spangeus, On stability and passivity of a class of

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July 25, 2007, pp. 30743079. (4) (2008) 10041009.

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