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# CHAPTER 3

BASIC CONCEPTS
OF MASS AND ENERGY
BALANCES
Mass Balance
Variations of mass Total mass Total mass
contained whitin flow entering flow leaving
the control volume
= the system at
- the system at
at time t time t time t

mcv = mi - me
Where :
mcv : mass change
mi : inputs
me: outputs
Example : Mass Balance
Mass balance for a system with chemical reaction
A fuel oil is analyzed and is found to contain 87%
weight carbon, 11% hydrogen and 1.4% sulfur, with
the remainder being non-combustible (inert)
material.
The oil is burned with 20% excess air (based on
complete combustion of the carbon to CO2, the
hydrogen to H2O and the sulphur to SO2). The oil is
burned completely, but 5% of the carbon forms CO
Calculate the molar composition of the exhaust
gas leaving the burner.
Example : Mass Balance

NOTE :
INPUT RATE = Qs * Cs + Qw * Cw
OUTPUT RATE = Qm * Cm = (Qs + Qw) * Cw
DECAY RATE = KCV
INPUT RATE = OUTPUT RATE + DECAY RATE
Energy Balance for Closed Systems
Conservation of energy principle:

INPUT OUTPUT
Net energy Net energy
Time interval transfered across transfered across
variation of the the system the system
total energy in a
= boundary by heat
- boundary by work
system transfer into the done by the
system system
Total Energy Variation
KE + PE + U = Q W

Where :

## KE = Kinetic Energy change

PE = Gravitational Potential Energy change
U = Internal Energy change
Q = Heat
W = Work

## All parameter mentioned above, are in Joules, Btu or Calories.

Characteristics of Energy
Balance Calculations
W is the work transfered from the surroundings
to the system.
+ Q is the heat energy transfered into the system
from the surroundings.
Therefore :
+ W is the work done by the system released into
the surroundings
- Q is the heat energy transfered into the
surroundings from the system
Example : Energy Balance
A mixture of 1 kmol of gaseous methane and 2
kmol of oxygen initially at 25C and 1 atm
burns completely in a closed, rigid container.
Heat transfer occurs until the products are
cooled to 900K. Determine the amount of heat
transfer in kJ.
State 1 State 2

## 1 kmol CH4 (g) Products of

2 kmol O2 combustion
T1= 25C T2
P1= 1 atm P2
Example : Energy Balance

Assumptions :
1. The contents of the closed, rigid container are taken
as the system
2. Kinetic, potential energy effects and work = 0.
3. Combustion is complete
4. The reactants and products each form ideal gas
mixtures.
5. The initial and final states are equilibrium states
Example : Energy Balance
Example : Energy Balance