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Volume 1

WATER TREATMENT MATHEMATICS


METHODS AND CALCULATION EXAMPLES

Modular Section 4 - Excerpt


Dosage Calculations
Evaluation Sample

SKILL DEVELOPMENT SERIES FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS

Copyright 2009 Yale Engineering LLC and Sparrow Technical Services LLC
Section 4 - Dosage Equations

lbs/gal = pounds per gallon


Chemical feed in pounds per day = MGD x feed rate, mg/l x 100 % x 8.34 lbs/MG GPD = gallons per day % purity
of chemical mg/l gpm = gallons per minute
C = Concentration
V = Volume
ml = milliliters
Chemical feed in gallons per day = MGD x feed rate, mg/l x 100 % x 8.34 lbs/MG
L = liters
purity of chemical, % x chemical weight, lbs/gal mg/l
L/gal = liters per gallon
min/day = minutes per day
ml/min = milliliters per minute
Pounds of Chemical Fed = Treated Volume, MG x feed rate, mg/l x 100 % x 8.34 lbs/MG gal = gallons
purity of chemical, % mg/l lbs = pounds
% = percent
SG = specific gravity
Feed mg/l* = Dose, lbs/day x % purity = Volume, gal x % purity x Dose, lbs/gal ppm = parts per million
MGD x 8.34 lbs/MG x 100% MG x 8.34 lbs/MG x 100 % MGD = million gallons per day
MG = million gallons
mg/l mg/l

* Dosage ppm = Dosage mg/l


Chemical Feed Pump Setting, % stroke = Desired Flow (100%)
Maximum Flow

Chemical Feed Pump Setting, ml/min = Flow, MGD x Dose, mg/l x 3.785 l/gal x 1,000,000, gal/MG
Chemical, mg/ml x 24 hr/day x 60 min/hr

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Section 4: Chemical Dosages

Now that we understand solutions, it is necessary to be able to determine how much of the solution or chemical
must be added to a volume or flow of water to provide treatment at the required level. Dosage equations required
knowledge of the concentration of the solution and the volume to be treated. As a result, intermediate calculation
steps may be required to calculate information required by dosage formulas. Therefore, your previous work on
volumes and solutions may come into play.

Dry chemical dosage or feed rate

Dry Chemical
Dose lbs/day
Chemical feed in pounds per day = MGD x 8.34 lbs/MG x feed rate, mg/l x 100%
mg/l x % purity of chemical
Feed in mg/l Purity %

Note that units given in a problem narrative (e.g. ppm, gpm) must be Flow in MGD
converted to the units in the equation.

The amount of chemical that is used each day or other period of time is dependent on the volume of water that is
treated, the feed rate and the purity of the chemical. In the equation above, the calculation of total chemical used is
for a day based on a given flow in million gallons per day. The rate at which chemical is fed into the system is
expressed in mg/l. The purity of the chemical expressed as percent is also used to adjust for the percentage of
actual chemical in the feed. The equation must be multiplied by 100% to convert percentage to a decimal. The
conversion factor 8.34 lbs/MG is used to convert the answer to the correct terms of lbs/day.
mg/l

Copyright 2009 Yale Engineering LLC and Sparrow Technical Services LLC 3
Equation
Chemical Dosage or Feed lbs/day) = Flow, MGD x Dose , mg/l x 8.34 lbs/MG
purity in decimal form mg/l
(granular dry chemical )

Data/Unit Conversions/Calculations
Typical Problem Statement

800 gpm 3 mg/l dosage 30% purity

Water flow through a basin is 800 gpm. A


chemical of 30% purity is to be added to the flow 800 gal/min x 1440 min/day = 1,152,000 gal/day 30 % 100 % = 0.30
at a dosage of 3 mg/l. What is the chemical feed
rate required in lbs per day? 1,152,000 gal/day = 1.152 MGD
1,000,000 gal/MG

1.152 MGD 3 mg/l dosage 0.30 purity

Pictorial

Dry Chemical
Chem. Feed (lbs/day) = 1.152 MG/day x 3 mg/l x 8.34 lbs/MG
0.30 mg/l
3 mg/l
dosage

Flow = 800 gpm Dosage = 96.08 lbs/day

1 hr = 60 minutes
1 day = 1440 minutes

Chemical feed in lbs/day? Copyright 2009 Yale Engineering LLC and Sparrow Technical Services LLC 4
Chemical Feed Pump Settings

Chemical feed pumps are often used to apply the required chemical dosage. As a result, the operator must adjust
the feed settings on the feed pump to dose the chemical at the required rate. A sample calculation to determine the
feed pump settings is indicated below.

Chemical Feed Pump Setting ml/min = Flow MGD x Dose mg/l x 3.785 l/gal x 1,000,000 gal/MG
Chemical mg/ml x 24 hr/day x 60 min/hr

Chemical
Feed Pump
Other adjustments may be necessary depending on the type
of chemical feed pump used. For example, once the feed Liquid Chemical
Feed
rate is determined, the operator would need to determine
what percentage of the feeders stroke range must be used
to feed at the desired rate. The equation below would be Chem. Dosage mg/l
used for that purpose. For example ,if the feed pumps mg/ml
maximum output was 100 ml/min and the desired rate was
60 ml/min, a stroke of 60% would be indicated.
Flow MGD

Chemical Feed Pump Setting, % stroke = Desired Flow x 100%


Maximum Flow

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Equation

Chemical Feed Pump Setting, ml/min = Flow, MGD x Dose, mg/l x 3.785 l/gal x 1,000,000 gal/MG
Chemical, mg/ml x 24 hr/day x 60 min/hr

Data/Unit Conversions/Calculations
Typical Problem Statement
Flow = .9 MGD 0.5 liters/hr max. 3.0 mg/l dosage 10% purity
A water treatment process requires a chemical
dosage of 3.0 mg/l . The chemical has purity of 10 % 100% = 0.10
10% and the flow to be treated is 0.9 MGD. What 5 liters/hr 1000 ml/l = 83.3 ml/min = max
is the required chemical feed pump setting in 60 min/hr .10 = 100,000 mg/l
ml/min? What is the % stroke setting on the 1000 ml/l
chemical feed pump if the maximum feed rate of
the pump is 5 liters/hr.? = 100 mg/ml

0.9 MGD 3.0 mg/l dosage 10 mg/ml

Pictorial
chemical
feed pump

Liquid Chemical Chem. Feed , ml/min = 0.9 MG/day x 3.0 mg/l x 3.785 l/gal x 1,000,000 gal/MG
Feed max = 6.0 100 mg/ml x 24 hr/day x 60 min/hr
liters/hour

Dosage =
Chem. 3.0 mg/l Chemical Feed = 70.96 ml/min
10%
purity

mg/ml =? Flow = 0.9 MGD


% stroke = 70.96 l/min x 100 % Stroke = 85%
83.3 l/min
Feed, ml/min) = ? Stroke , % = ?
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