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UDC 656.212.5(23.01):004.942
E. B. DEMCHENKO1*
1*
Dep. Stations and Junctions, Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named
after Academician V. Lazaryan, Lazaryan St., 2, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, 49010, tel. +38 (097) 799 16 75,
email eugene_demchenko@mail.ru, ORCID 0000000314116744
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does not allow determining with sufficient accu can be realized in terms of grip, and then by the
racy the rational cut braking mode and calculating following intermediate characteristics until reach
the sorting process quality coefficients. ing the automatic (external) characteristics [12].
Specific movement resistance force wr is de
Purpose termined as
The purpose of this work is to develop a com wr = w0 + w0 + wew + wsc + wg + wst , (1)
plex simulation model of train breakingup process
at humps that will allow elaboration of the method where wr locomotive basic specific motion re
for resource saving controlling of train pushing and
sistance; wr car basic specific motion resistance;
breakingup, aimed at high quality of sorting proc
ess with minimum energy consumption for its im wew additional specific resistance due to envi
plementation ronment and wind; wsc additional specific resis
tance due to switches and curves; wg additional
Methodology
specific resistance due to track gradient; wst ad
To achieve the set purpose, the train humping
ditional specific resistance due to starting.
model was developed and combined with the exist
The locomotive basic specific motion resis
ing cut rolling model [4], resulting in the complex
simulation model of train breakingup process. tance wr and additional specific resistance due to
In the developed model the train pushed to the starting wst are determined by method [16]. The
hump is assumed as a set of cuts with certain pa car basic specific motion resistance wr is calcu
rameters (number of cars, their type, length, mass lated as a weighted average of the cut basic spe
and basic specific movement resistance) and as cific motion resistance and is adjusted after further
nonextendible flexible rod with uniform longwise cut breakingup; herewith the value wri for each
weight. This train model allows the best considera
tion of its movement conditions when transferring car is included in the train model structure. Addi
from one profile element to another and after fur tional motion resistance values due to environment
ther cut breakingup. and wind wew , points and curves w pc are calcu
To solve the problem of pushing and breaking lated by the method [15].
up modelling it is sufficient to consider the con Additional specific resistance due to track gra
trolled forward movement of a shunting train, so dient wg is taken numerically equal to the average
during its simulation process it is necessary to take
gradient i , where the shunting train is located;
into account only external forces that coincide with
while for pushing simulation in the longitudinal
the movement direction or are opposite to it. Ac
profile model the gradient value i on the rise is
cordingly, the following forces were taken into
positive ( i > 0 ) and on the descent negative
account: Ft tangent locomotive power; Wr
( i < 0 ). Average gradient i , where there is a train,
train motion resistance force; Bb locomotive when its first axis is at the point S j , is determined
braking force. In the shunting train motion equa
by the difference in marks of the first h( S j ) and
tion the relevant specific forces are considered ft ,
wr , bb ; the total force ftl depends on the hump the last h( S j lt ) train axles:
locomotive operation mode and equals ftl = f t wr h( S j ) h( S j lt )
in traction mode, ftl = wr in rundown mode and i( S j ) = , (2)
lt
ftl = wr bb in idling mode.
The work [3] developed the method of calculat where lt shunting train length, m.
ing the forces acting on the shunting train during Due to the fact that in the breakingup process
pushing and breakingup. Thus, the tangent loco at hump the train automatic brakes do not as a rule
motive power ft in the model is determined by actuate its velocity is reduced only by shunting
partial (intermediate) traction characteristics that locomotive braking force, the specific value of
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which bb is calculated by the following formula specified condition. Thus, in moments of controller
[16]: position switching the tangent power ft can
change stepwise. The braking power bb during
bb = 1000 d df , (3)
train deceleration also changes unevenly. The mo
where d design braking factor; df brake pad tion resistance in curves is a step function, the dis
continuities of which occur at curved track section
friction design factor.
enter and exit points by shunting train. In addition,
The values d and df are determined by the at the time of the next cut uncoupling at HA the
method [7] based on the number of locomotive train parameters are changed. Therefore, the model
axles and in case of brake actuation in the train assumed that within the integration step t the
on the number of car axles, where the automatic shunting train motion mode remains constant; to
brakes are actuated, as well. It should be noted that this end there is chosen sufficiently small step t
the braking force bb from the brake position valve ( t =1 sec ).Controller position is not changed
switch moment gradually increases to its maximum within the traction mode t ; while at the end of
value. In addition, the shunting train braking mod the step the train velocity is analysed and if neces
elling should take into account the time required sary the locomotive operation mode is adjusted and
for the drivers reaction. In this regard, the design the simulation is repeated.
braking factor d in (3) is considered as the brak Similarly, the braking force bb at each step t
ing duration function tbr , the value of which is ac is taken constant and if the train velocity at the end
cepted in accordance with [7]. of the step became below the mark, then, depend
The peculiarity of the train breakingup process ing on motion conditions, the transition to traction
modelling is the change of its settings at cut uncou or idling mode is performed.
pling. In this regard, during the train movement simu Besides, within the integration step t both
lation one must control the possible next cut uncou ends of shunting train must not go beyond the be
pling at every step t . After recording the cut uncou ginning or the end of the curve. If at some step this
pling the model performs the appropriate train length condition is not met, then this step is divided into
and weight reduction; herewith it changes the coordi separate parts with a certain length S1 , S2 ,,
nate of its first axis S j and recalculates the basic spe Sn Herewith, at the modelling steps 1 (n 1)
cific resistance wr . This, in turn, causes corresponding the train is moved using the firstorder differential
changes in the hump locomotive operation mode equation V = f ( S ,V ) with independent variable
aimed at maintaining the set breakingup velocity v0 . S:
Train motion in the model is described by second dV g ftl
order differential equation S = f (t , S , S ) in which V = = , V >0 (5)
dS 1 + V
the independent variable is the time t :
At the last step n the train motion is simulated
d 2S g with the help of equation (4) by the time
S = 2 = ftl 103 , (4)
dt 1 + t ' = t t * that remained till the end of the ini
tial step. The same algorithm is used for train mo
where g 1+ accelerated gravity force with tion simulation when the next cut is brokenup
consideration of rotating mass inertia. from it at HA.
The motion equation (4) allows performing To ensure the continuity of functions i ( S ) and
joint modelling of train breakingup and cut rolling
ftl (V ) the model uses the method of spline ap
down processes.
It is known that equation (4) has a unique solu proximation of track longitudinal profile [5] and
tion if his right part f ( S ,V ) is continuous and dif locomotive traction characteristics. Integration of
differential motion equations (4) and (5) are per
ferentiated. However, the nature of force change
formed by the RungeKutta fourthorder method
ftl in this equation does not always meet the [1].
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by train weight reduction at the end of the break duration of pushing and breakingup operations
ingup process, resulting in inflated intensity of and the dynamics of engineer controller switch
acceleration even at the first controller positions. during their performance; cut uncoupling time at
In order to verify the model adequacy the ex the HA; hump locomotive fuel consumption (using
perimental studies of sorting process at the BISR system). In addition, the data were ob
Nizhnedneprovsk station even system were per tained on the design of plan and longitudinal pro
formed. Herewith for each breakingup train the file of receiving yard tracks and the hump of the
following items were recorded: cut parameters; the station even system.
The above data combined with the developed Checking by the specified criterion is per
model allowed simulation of 17 real train break formed as follows. It is assumed that R( Z i ) is the
ingup processes. rank Z i in the range from the smallest to the larg
In accordance with the existing methods of sta
tistical analysis [18], the adequacy of the devel est values of differences Z1 , Z 2 , , Z n , where
oped train breakingup model is proved by homo the value Z i is the difference of experimental
geneity of sampled data derived from experimental
studies and simulation. research data xi and simulation yi ( Z i = xi yi ).
The experimental research and simulation re We define the counter variables Q ( Z i ) as:
sulted in two fuel consumption random variable
samples; wherein the above samples are depend 1, where Z i > 0,
Q( Z i ) = (9)
ent. To test the hypothesis of homogeneity of these 0, where Z i < 0.
samples Wilcoxon T criterion [20] was used.
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Statistics of T criterion is as follows: tions; while the existing method of traction calcu
n
lations needs adapting to the shunting work condi
T + = R ( Z j )Q( Z j ) . (10) tions.
i =1 3. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions for
train breakingup should be determined based on
When fulfilling the null hypothesis the statistics
the amount of mechanical work performed by lo
of n observations comotive traction. This approach in contrast to ex
n(n + 1) isting methods allows determination of impact of
T+ breakingup velocity, as well as of hump and train
T ++ = 4 (11)
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) design parameters, on the amount of fuel consump
tion.
24 4. To ensure the specified humping mode the
has asymptotic standard normal distribution with model uses the hump locomotive control algorithm
expectation 0 and variance 1. Thus, the decision that provides smooth train acceleration and its fur
rule at the 5% significance level is as follows: if ther motion at the velocity close to the set one. At
 T ++ 1,96 , then the dependent samples homoge the final breakingup stage when the train length
does not exceed 10 cars, the train motion velocity
neity hypothesis by Wilcoxon criterion is accepted,
fluctuations are increasing sufficiently. These fluc
otherwise is rejected.
tuations are caused by train weight reduction at the
According to the check the T criterion statis
end of the breakingup process, resulting in in
tics made: T + = 67 ; T ++ = 0, 46 . Thus, the con flated intensity of acceleration even at the first con
ducted statistical analysis of experimental results troller positions
and simulation demonstrates the adequacy of the 5. The statistical analysis of experimental
designed model train breakingup process at hump. studies and simulation results, using Wilcoxon
T criterion, proved adequacy of the developed
Originality and practical value model of train breakingup at the hump.
The simulation model of train breakingup pro 6. The developed train breakingup model al
cess at the humps, which in contrast to the existing lows a comprehensive assessment of the sorting
models allows reproducing complexly all the ele process quality that is needed to determine a ra
ments of this process in detail and evaluate accu tional processing mode of sorting complex. For
rately its quality, was improved. this purpose, it is appropriate to include the model
The developed simulation model can be used as into the decision support system of dispatching
a decision support system to identify effective op station staff.
eration modes of sorting complexes.
LIST OF REFERENCE LINKS
Conclusions 1. , . . 
/
1. The fact was established that the initial ve
. . // ..
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different from the set breakingup velocity v0 . At /
the same time the cut initial velocity value signifi . . // i i
cantly affects the regulating conditions of their ve i .
locity during rolling down from the hump. There . : . . . . : 
, 1999. . 38. . 3542.
fore, the breakingup modelling should consider
3. , . . 
the train pushing and cut rolling operations as in /
terrelated processes that need joint simulation. . . , . . // 
2. Detailed modelling of the shunting train : . .
movement and the hump locomotive operation . . .  . . .
mode is possible by performing traction calcula
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. . . , 2012. . . . . , 2009. .
. 4. . 1319. 18. . 916.
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doi: 10.15802/stp2015/57003 E. B. Demchenko, 2015
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Prof. T. V. Butko, D. Sc. Tech. (Ukraine); Prof. V. I. Bobrovskyi, D. Sc. Tech. (Ukraine) recommended
this article to be published
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