Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
1.1WELLBORE STABILITY…………………………………………………………..………………………………1
1.2IMPORTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY ..............................................................
RESULTING OF HOLE INSTABILITY………………………………………………………..........3 1.3
CHAPTER 2........................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION……………….……………………………………………………………………………5 2.1
SHALE INSTABILITY…………………………………………………………………………………..……6 2.2
SHALE PROPERTIES………………………………………………………………………………..……..7 2.3
MECHANICAL INSTABILITY……………………………………………………………………………8 2.4
CHEMICAL INSTABILITY………………………………………………………………………….……..9 2.5
CAPILLARY PRESSURE……………………………………………………………………………………....10
OSMOTIC PRESSURE…………………………………………………………………………………………11
PRESSURE DIFFUSION……………………………………………………………………………………….12
BOREHOLE FLUID INVASION INTO SHALE…………………………………………………………..13
SHALE/FLUID INTERACTION MECANISMS…………………..……………………………14 2.6
BOREHOLE INSTABILITY PREVENTION……………………………………………………15 2.7
CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

and cave into the wellbore or .Prior to drilling . and shear loads as the rock forming the core of the hole is removed. or occurring at a rate relative to geologic time (millions of years). compression.1WELLBORE STABILITY Wellbore stability is the prevention of brittle failure or plastic deformation of the rock surrounding the wellbore due to mechanical stress or chemical imbalances . Rocks under this balanced or near-balanced state are . Hole squeezing mobile formations produce tight hole problems and stuck pipe. Chapter 1 1. fracture.and increases mud and cementing costs Estimated cost to the drilling industry for hole stability problems range . Chemical reactions also occur with exposure to the .stable After drilling. the mechanical stresses in the formation are less than the strength of the rock. The chemical action is also balanced. the rock surrounding the wellbore undergoes changes in tension.from 600 million to 1 billion dollars annually . Cavings from failing formation makes hole cleaning more difficult . the rock surrounding the wellbore can become unstable.dissolve into the drilling fluids Excessive rock stress can collapse the hole resulting in stuck pipe. begin to deform.drilling fluid Under these conditions.

hole closure can cause stuck pipe and loss of the well- .of differential pressures as draw down occurs For the particular drilling case. Problems involving well-bore stability occur principally through changes in the original stress state due to removal of rock. completion. and production. Figure (1. this creates perturbation and redistribution of stresses around the well-bore that can lead to mechanical instabilities .1) : Wellbore stability problems 1. The integrity of the well-bore plays an important role in many well operations during drilling. interactions between rock and drilling or completion fluids.bore .2IMPARTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY Well-bore stability analysis has been the subject of study and discussion for a long time.These instabilities can cause lost circulation or hole closure in the case of tensile or compressive failure respectively.These events lead to an increase of drilling costs The causes of instability have been classified into either mechanical or chemical effects. In severe situations . temperature changes. support provided originally by the rock is replaced by hydraulic drilling fluid pressure. A significant amount of research has been focused on . or changes .

4 (permeability Shale/fluid interactions .5 . Poisson ratio.Thermal effects . . modulus of elasticity.chemical. such as In-situ stress state conditions .5 Lost circulation .6 All contribute to increased costs. these two aspects of instability.2 Logging and interpretation difficults .instability in shales 1.2 (Well trajectories (inclination and azimuth .3 Rock properties (strength.effects .3 Difficulty running casing .6 These factors can be classified as mechanical.1 Sidetrack . the possibility of losing part of the hole . and physical .3Resulting of hole instability Stuck pipe .or the entire well. the last one mainly oriented to . or reduced production Numerous factors cause the well-bore to become unstable after the :borehole is drilled.4 Poor cementing jobs .1 (Well types (vertical or directional .

hole enlargement. Shale stability is affected by properties of both shale (e. tight hole . lost circulation. and over70% of the borehole problems are related to shale instability . Well-bore instability is a complex problem that includes rock mechanics. porosity) and of the drilling fluid contacting it (e. well control. wettability. particularly water.The existence and creation of fissures fractures and weak bedding planes can also destabilize shale as drilling fluid penetrates them.1INTRODUCTION Shales make up over 75% of the drilled formations. replaced with drilling fluid. mineralogy. and shale/fluid chemical . Most of the drilling problems that drive up the drilling costs are related to wellbore stability. Drilling fluids can cause shale instability by altering pore pressure or effective stress-state and the shale strength through shale/fluid interaction.g. These problems are mainly caused by the imbalance created between the rock stress and strength when a hole is drilled. stress analysis.The oil and gas industry still continues to fight borehole problems. The problems include hole collapse. poor hole cleaning.place over a period of time 2. plastic flow . shale becomes unstable when the effective state of the stress near the drilled hole exceeds the strength of the hole. A complicating factor that distinguishes shale from other rocks is its sensitivity to certain drilling constituents . pore pressure prediction.2Shale instability The oil and gas industry sustains financial losses due to well-bore failure of over one billion dollars each year. in-situ stress calculations. density. and the drilled formations are exposed to drilling fluids .The stress-strength imbalance comes about as rock is removed from the hole. CHAPTER 2 2.ionic concentration).While drilling. Shale stability is also a time-dependent problem in that changes in the stress-state and strength usually take .fracturing. salinity and . stuck pipe.g.

2 Hole enlargements resulting from compressive failure due to (3 excessively low well-bore pressure. poor (directional control. stuck drill pipe . and poor cementing . (Bradley et al Fractures caused by tensile failure due to excessive well-bore (1 pressure. To prevent the problem.Figure(2. Hole instability is seen . which results in repeat (2 (reaming. which causes fill on trips. balance between the stress and strength must be restored and maintained during drilling through control over drilling fluid composition.2 Figure (2. reactions.1 Hole size reductions due to swelling of shales .1): Mechanical wellbore instability . exposing the formation to drilling mud. well .Figure(2. This causes lost circulation and often results in well control (problems experienced as a kick or an underground blowout .most often as sloughing and caving shale The mechanisms of well-bore instability in shales can be grouped into :(three categories.Figure(2. or in extreme conditions.trajectory and many other factors Well-bore instability is caused by a radical change in both the mechanical stress and the chemical and physical environments when a hole is drilled. mud weight. Borehole stability problem occurs when the rock stress exceeds rock strength.

3shale properties Shales make up the majority of drilled formations.S dollars per year.4Mechanical instability Mechanical rock instability can occur because the in-situ stress state of equilibrium has been disturbed after drilling. osmotic pressure. and. and cause most wellbore-instability problems. and have in common the characteristics of extremely low permeability and a high proportion of clay minerals. in some cases. Shale types range from clay-rich gumbo (relatively weak) to shaly siltstone (highly cemented).(pressure diffusion. fine sand. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks composed of clay. . Figure (2.2): Mechanical wellbore instability 2. silt. shale strength environment) and chemical (shale/fluid interaction—capillary pressure. ranging from washout to complete collapse of the hole. The cause of shale instability is two- fold: mechanical (stress change vs. borehole-fluid invasion into shale 2. The mud in use with a . The drilling cost attributed to shale-instability problems is reported to be in excess of one-half billion U.

(1 where σ is the interfacial tension. To prevent borehole fluids from entering the shale and stabilizing it.. or chemical potential.therefore. which is expressed as (pcap =2. and r is the pore-throat radius. pcap .... This results in the development of capillary pressure. water movement can occur in either direction across a semipermeable membrane as a result of the development of osmotic pressure. pos .. The mud activity can be reduced by adding electrolytes that can be brought about through the :use of mud systems such as . . certain density may not bring the altered stresses to the original state... is different from the activity in drilling mud. ϴ is the contact angle between the two fluids. it is suggested to increase Em and vice versa. at least. Em. shale may become mechanically unstable 2. as. which alters shale mechanical strength as well as the shale pore pressure in the vicinity of the borehole walls.... their differentials minimized. an increase in capillary pressure is required.. To prevent or reduce water movement across this semipermeable membrane that has certain efficiency. If am is lower than as.organic low-polar mud systems Osmotic pressure When the energy level or activity in shale pore fluid.5Chemical instability Chemical-induced shale instability is caused by the drilling-fluid/shale interaction.... am .. the activities need to be equalized or... the mud in the borehole contacts the native pore fluid in the shale through the pore-throat interface.. μc . which can be achieved with oil-based or other .. The mechanisms that :contribute to this problem include Capillary pressure  Osmotic pressure  Pressure diffusion in the vicinity of the borehole walls  Borehole-fluid invasion into the shale when drilling overbalanced  Capillary pressure During drilling.

This pressure change is caused by the compression of the native pore fluid by the borehole-fluid . coming into play as drilling fluid contacts the shale formation.to sonic velocity The instability and shale/fluid interaction mechanisms. seawater  Saturated-salt/polymer  KCl/NaCl/polymer  Lime/gypsum  Pressure diffusion Pressure diffusion is a phenomenon of pressure change near the borehole walls that occurs over time.6Shale/Fluid interaction mechanisms Analysis of the available experimental data (O’Brien-GoinsSimpson Associates and University of Texas.off micro fractures 2. pos Borehole fluid invasion into shale In conventional drilling. Basic :results confirmed by this analysis can be summarized as follows Activity imbalance causes fluid flow into/or out of shale • Different drilling fluids and additives affect the amount of fluid flow in • or out of shale Differential pressure or overbalance causes fluid flow into shale • Fluid flow into shale results in swelling pressure • The moisture content affects shale strength. borehole fluid is forced to flow into the formation (fluid-loss phenomenon). gilsonite is used to seal . can be summarized as :follows Mechanical stress changes as the drilling fluid of certain density .1 . a positive differential pressure (the difference between the borehole-fluid pressure and the pore-fluid pressure) is always maintained. in extreme cases. Austin. pwfl. Shell and Amoco sponsored Projects). an increase of mud viscosity or.pressure. which may cause chemical interaction that can lead to shale instabilities. Moisture content relates • . To mitigate this problem. clearly shows that the shale strength and the pore pressure near the bore-hole are indeed affected by fluid/shale interaction. and the osmotic pressure. As a result.

.5 .7 as drilling fluid compresses the pore fluid and diffuses a pressure front . Pc. because restoring the physical and chemical in-situ conditions of the rock is impossible. However. replaces shale in the hole.with clay-size charged particles Pressure diffusion and pressure changes near the wellbore(with time) .4 shale native pore fluid (with different water activities/ ion concentrations) across a semi-permeable membrane (with certain membrane efficiency) due to osmotic pressure (or chemical potential).6 .2 .pressure gradient because of the hydraulic gradient Swelling/Hydration pressure.Fluid penetration into fissures and fractures and . ps. and stability analysis tools are . as drilling fluid contacts native pore fluid at . ph. the drilling engineer can mitigate the problems of borehole :instabilities by adhering to good field practices.into the formation Fluid penetration in fractured shale and weak bedding planes can play . causing fluid transport under net hydraulic .into the hole 2. as large block of fractured shale fall . caused by interaction of moisture .available Fractured shale .weak bedding planes Capillary pressure. Mechanical stability problem caused by various factors is fairly well understood.narrow pore throat interface Osmosis(and ionic diffusion) occurring between drilling fluid and .8 a dominant role in shale instability.PM Hydraulic (Advection). These practices include Proper mud-weight selection and maintenance  Use of proper hydraulics to control the equivalent circulating  (density (ECD Proper hole-trajectory selection  Use of borehole fluid compatible with the formation being drilled  :Additional field practices that should be followed are Minimizing time spent in open hole  (Using offset-well data (use of the learning curve  .7Borehole-instability prevention Total prevention of borehole instability is unrealistic.3 .

Wellbore Stability Analysis: A Review of Current Methods -1 of Analysis and Their Field Application. and Addis.org/10.A. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference. M.Texas. M. 27 February-2 March. http://dx.R.WELLBORE INSTABILITY:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES -3 . 1990. drag. circulating pressure.Monitoring trend changes (torque. SPE-19941-MS. fill-in  (during tripping Collaborating and sharing information  References McLean.2118/19941-MS .Wellbore Stability in Shale -4 . Houston. .AMOCO-Wellbore-Stability-2 .doi.