Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
1.1WELLBORE STABILITY…………………………………………………………..………………………………1
1.2IMPORTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY ..............................................................
RESULTING OF HOLE INSTABILITY………………………………………………………..........3 1.3
CHAPTER 2........................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION……………….……………………………………………………………………………5 2.1
SHALE INSTABILITY…………………………………………………………………………………..……6 2.2
SHALE PROPERTIES………………………………………………………………………………..……..7 2.3
MECHANICAL INSTABILITY……………………………………………………………………………8 2.4
CHEMICAL INSTABILITY………………………………………………………………………….……..9 2.5
CAPILLARY PRESSURE……………………………………………………………………………………....10
OSMOTIC PRESSURE…………………………………………………………………………………………11
PRESSURE DIFFUSION……………………………………………………………………………………….12
BOREHOLE FLUID INVASION INTO SHALE…………………………………………………………..13
SHALE/FLUID INTERACTION MECANISMS…………………..……………………………14 2.6
BOREHOLE INSTABILITY PREVENTION……………………………………………………15 2.7
CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

The chemical action is also balanced.stable After drilling.from 600 million to 1 billion dollars annually . and shear loads as the rock forming the core of the hole is removed.drilling fluid Under these conditions.dissolve into the drilling fluids Excessive rock stress can collapse the hole resulting in stuck pipe. begin to deform. Chemical reactions also occur with exposure to the . fracture. Cavings from failing formation makes hole cleaning more difficult . Chapter 1 1. the mechanical stresses in the formation are less than the strength of the rock. the rock surrounding the wellbore can become unstable. and cave into the wellbore or .1WELLBORE STABILITY Wellbore stability is the prevention of brittle failure or plastic deformation of the rock surrounding the wellbore due to mechanical stress or chemical imbalances .Prior to drilling . compression. Rocks under this balanced or near-balanced state are . the rock surrounding the wellbore undergoes changes in tension. Hole squeezing mobile formations produce tight hole problems and stuck pipe. or occurring at a rate relative to geologic time (millions of years).and increases mud and cementing costs Estimated cost to the drilling industry for hole stability problems range .

hole closure can cause stuck pipe and loss of the well- . this creates perturbation and redistribution of stresses around the well-bore that can lead to mechanical instabilities . support provided originally by the rock is replaced by hydraulic drilling fluid pressure.2IMPARTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY Well-bore stability analysis has been the subject of study and discussion for a long time. interactions between rock and drilling or completion fluids. In severe situations .of differential pressures as draw down occurs For the particular drilling case. The integrity of the well-bore plays an important role in many well operations during drilling. Problems involving well-bore stability occur principally through changes in the original stress state due to removal of rock. completion. Figure (1.1) : Wellbore stability problems 1. temperature changes.These instabilities can cause lost circulation or hole closure in the case of tensile or compressive failure respectively.These events lead to an increase of drilling costs The causes of instability have been classified into either mechanical or chemical effects. A significant amount of research has been focused on .bore . and production. or changes .

4 Poor cementing jobs .5 .4 (permeability Shale/fluid interactions . or reduced production Numerous factors cause the well-bore to become unstable after the :borehole is drilled. and physical .6 All contribute to increased costs.3 Difficulty running casing .2 Logging and interpretation difficults .1 Sidetrack .2 (Well trajectories (inclination and azimuth .5 Lost circulation . Poisson ratio.1 (Well types (vertical or directional .6 These factors can be classified as mechanical.3Resulting of hole instability Stuck pipe .or the entire well. these two aspects of instability. such as In-situ stress state conditions .chemical.Thermal effects .3 Rock properties (strength. the last one mainly oriented to . .instability in shales 1. modulus of elasticity.effects . the possibility of losing part of the hole .

salinity and .The stress-strength imbalance comes about as rock is removed from the hole. replaced with drilling fluid. density. The problems include hole collapse. poor hole cleaning.g. stress analysis. Drilling fluids can cause shale instability by altering pore pressure or effective stress-state and the shale strength through shale/fluid interaction. hole enlargement. plastic flow .The oil and gas industry still continues to fight borehole problems. shale becomes unstable when the effective state of the stress near the drilled hole exceeds the strength of the hole. pore pressure prediction. wettability. tight hole . in-situ stress calculations. These problems are mainly caused by the imbalance created between the rock stress and strength when a hole is drilled.2Shale instability The oil and gas industry sustains financial losses due to well-bore failure of over one billion dollars each year. A complicating factor that distinguishes shale from other rocks is its sensitivity to certain drilling constituents . and the drilled formations are exposed to drilling fluids . and shale/fluid chemical .ionic concentration).place over a period of time 2. lost circulation. mineralogy. Shale stability is affected by properties of both shale (e. stuck pipe. CHAPTER 2 2.1INTRODUCTION Shales make up over 75% of the drilled formations.fracturing.While drilling. and over70% of the borehole problems are related to shale instability . particularly water. Most of the drilling problems that drive up the drilling costs are related to wellbore stability. porosity) and of the drilling fluid contacting it (e.The existence and creation of fissures fractures and weak bedding planes can also destabilize shale as drilling fluid penetrates them. Shale stability is also a time-dependent problem in that changes in the stress-state and strength usually take .g. Well-bore instability is a complex problem that includes rock mechanics. well control.

trajectory and many other factors Well-bore instability is caused by a radical change in both the mechanical stress and the chemical and physical environments when a hole is drilled. well .1 Hole size reductions due to swelling of shales . mud weight.1): Mechanical wellbore instability . which results in repeat (2 (reaming. poor (directional control. Hole instability is seen .most often as sloughing and caving shale The mechanisms of well-bore instability in shales can be grouped into :(three categories. stuck drill pipe . exposing the formation to drilling mud. and poor cementing .2 Figure (2.Figure(2. (Bradley et al Fractures caused by tensile failure due to excessive well-bore (1 pressure.2 Hole enlargements resulting from compressive failure due to (3 excessively low well-bore pressure. reactions. balance between the stress and strength must be restored and maintained during drilling through control over drilling fluid composition.Figure(2.Figure(2. Borehole stability problem occurs when the rock stress exceeds rock strength. This causes lost circulation and often results in well control (problems experienced as a kick or an underground blowout . To prevent the problem. or in extreme conditions. which causes fill on trips.

2): Mechanical wellbore instability 2. and have in common the characteristics of extremely low permeability and a high proportion of clay minerals. The drilling cost attributed to shale-instability problems is reported to be in excess of one-half billion U.S dollars per year. borehole-fluid invasion into shale 2. shale strength environment) and chemical (shale/fluid interaction—capillary pressure. Shale types range from clay-rich gumbo (relatively weak) to shaly siltstone (highly cemented). and cause most wellbore-instability problems. ranging from washout to complete collapse of the hole. and.3shale properties Shales make up the majority of drilled formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks composed of clay.(pressure diffusion. The cause of shale instability is two- fold: mechanical (stress change vs. . in some cases. fine sand. silt. osmotic pressure. Figure (2.4Mechanical instability Mechanical rock instability can occur because the in-situ stress state of equilibrium has been disturbed after drilling. The mud in use with a .

This results in the development of capillary pressure.therefore. am . which alters shale mechanical strength as well as the shale pore pressure in the vicinity of the borehole walls. pcap ... is different from the activity in drilling mud... To prevent borehole fluids from entering the shale and stabilizing it. as...organic low-polar mud systems Osmotic pressure When the energy level or activity in shale pore fluid. If am is lower than as. it is suggested to increase Em and vice versa..5Chemical instability Chemical-induced shale instability is caused by the drilling-fluid/shale interaction.. the activities need to be equalized or. μc .(1 where σ is the interfacial tension. shale may become mechanically unstable 2. To prevent or reduce water movement across this semipermeable membrane that has certain efficiency.. or chemical potential. and r is the pore-throat radius.... the mud in the borehole contacts the native pore fluid in the shale through the pore-throat interface. The mechanisms that :contribute to this problem include Capillary pressure  Osmotic pressure  Pressure diffusion in the vicinity of the borehole walls  Borehole-fluid invasion into the shale when drilling overbalanced  Capillary pressure During drilling. Em.. which is expressed as (pcap =2. an increase in capillary pressure is required. certain density may not bring the altered stresses to the original state. which can be achieved with oil-based or other .. at least. ϴ is the contact angle between the two fluids. water movement can occur in either direction across a semipermeable membrane as a result of the development of osmotic pressure... pos ... . The mud activity can be reduced by adding electrolytes that can be brought about through the :use of mud systems such as .. their differentials minimized.

pressure. and the osmotic pressure. can be summarized as :follows Mechanical stress changes as the drilling fluid of certain density . To mitigate this problem. a positive differential pressure (the difference between the borehole-fluid pressure and the pore-fluid pressure) is always maintained. pos Borehole fluid invasion into shale In conventional drilling.1 . seawater  Saturated-salt/polymer  KCl/NaCl/polymer  Lime/gypsum  Pressure diffusion Pressure diffusion is a phenomenon of pressure change near the borehole walls that occurs over time. coming into play as drilling fluid contacts the shale formation.off micro fractures 2.6Shale/Fluid interaction mechanisms Analysis of the available experimental data (O’Brien-GoinsSimpson Associates and University of Texas. This pressure change is caused by the compression of the native pore fluid by the borehole-fluid . clearly shows that the shale strength and the pore pressure near the bore-hole are indeed affected by fluid/shale interaction. pwfl. borehole fluid is forced to flow into the formation (fluid-loss phenomenon). an increase of mud viscosity or. which may cause chemical interaction that can lead to shale instabilities. gilsonite is used to seal . Basic :results confirmed by this analysis can be summarized as follows Activity imbalance causes fluid flow into/or out of shale • Different drilling fluids and additives affect the amount of fluid flow in • or out of shale Differential pressure or overbalance causes fluid flow into shale • Fluid flow into shale results in swelling pressure • The moisture content affects shale strength.to sonic velocity The instability and shale/fluid interaction mechanisms. As a result. Moisture content relates • . Austin. in extreme cases. Shell and Amoco sponsored Projects).

PM Hydraulic (Advection).Fluid penetration into fissures and fractures and . However. because restoring the physical and chemical in-situ conditions of the rock is impossible. as large block of fractured shale fall .5 . ps.7 as drilling fluid compresses the pore fluid and diffuses a pressure front .3 . replaces shale in the hole.narrow pore throat interface Osmosis(and ionic diffusion) occurring between drilling fluid and .into the formation Fluid penetration in fractured shale and weak bedding planes can play .7Borehole-instability prevention Total prevention of borehole instability is unrealistic. caused by interaction of moisture .2 .6 . Mechanical stability problem caused by various factors is fairly well understood. as drilling fluid contacts native pore fluid at . and stability analysis tools are .4 shale native pore fluid (with different water activities/ ion concentrations) across a semi-permeable membrane (with certain membrane efficiency) due to osmotic pressure (or chemical potential).available Fractured shale .with clay-size charged particles Pressure diffusion and pressure changes near the wellbore(with time) . ph.weak bedding planes Capillary pressure. causing fluid transport under net hydraulic .into the hole 2. the drilling engineer can mitigate the problems of borehole :instabilities by adhering to good field practices. .pressure gradient because of the hydraulic gradient Swelling/Hydration pressure. These practices include Proper mud-weight selection and maintenance  Use of proper hydraulics to control the equivalent circulating  (density (ECD Proper hole-trajectory selection  Use of borehole fluid compatible with the formation being drilled  :Additional field practices that should be followed are Minimizing time spent in open hole  (Using offset-well data (use of the learning curve  .8 a dominant role in shale instability. Pc.

SPE-19941-MS.WELLBORE INSTABILITY:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES -3 .AMOCO-Wellbore-Stability-2 . Houston. M.Wellbore Stability in Shale -4 .R.A.doi. 27 February-2 March. circulating pressure.2118/19941-MS . and Addis. http://dx. 1990. Wellbore Stability Analysis: A Review of Current Methods -1 of Analysis and Their Field Application. M.Texas. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference.Monitoring trend changes (torque. drag.org/10. fill-in  (during tripping Collaborating and sharing information  References McLean. .

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