Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
1.1WELLBORE STABILITY…………………………………………………………..………………………………1
1.2IMPORTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY ..............................................................
RESULTING OF HOLE INSTABILITY………………………………………………………..........3 1.3
CHAPTER 2........................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION……………….……………………………………………………………………………5 2.1
SHALE INSTABILITY…………………………………………………………………………………..……6 2.2
SHALE PROPERTIES………………………………………………………………………………..……..7 2.3
MECHANICAL INSTABILITY……………………………………………………………………………8 2.4
CHEMICAL INSTABILITY………………………………………………………………………….……..9 2.5
CAPILLARY PRESSURE……………………………………………………………………………………....10
OSMOTIC PRESSURE…………………………………………………………………………………………11
PRESSURE DIFFUSION……………………………………………………………………………………….12
BOREHOLE FLUID INVASION INTO SHALE…………………………………………………………..13
SHALE/FLUID INTERACTION MECANISMS…………………..……………………………14 2.6
BOREHOLE INSTABILITY PREVENTION……………………………………………………15 2.7
CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

The chemical action is also balanced. the rock surrounding the wellbore can become unstable. Chemical reactions also occur with exposure to the . Cavings from failing formation makes hole cleaning more difficult . and cave into the wellbore or .and increases mud and cementing costs Estimated cost to the drilling industry for hole stability problems range . Rocks under this balanced or near-balanced state are . and shear loads as the rock forming the core of the hole is removed. the mechanical stresses in the formation are less than the strength of the rock. fracture.dissolve into the drilling fluids Excessive rock stress can collapse the hole resulting in stuck pipe.stable After drilling.1WELLBORE STABILITY Wellbore stability is the prevention of brittle failure or plastic deformation of the rock surrounding the wellbore due to mechanical stress or chemical imbalances . Hole squeezing mobile formations produce tight hole problems and stuck pipe. begin to deform. or occurring at a rate relative to geologic time (millions of years).from 600 million to 1 billion dollars annually .Prior to drilling .drilling fluid Under these conditions. compression. Chapter 1 1. the rock surrounding the wellbore undergoes changes in tension.

These events lead to an increase of drilling costs The causes of instability have been classified into either mechanical or chemical effects. The integrity of the well-bore plays an important role in many well operations during drilling. temperature changes.of differential pressures as draw down occurs For the particular drilling case. Figure (1. support provided originally by the rock is replaced by hydraulic drilling fluid pressure. In severe situations .hole closure can cause stuck pipe and loss of the well- . completion. or changes .bore .2IMPARTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY Well-bore stability analysis has been the subject of study and discussion for a long time. interactions between rock and drilling or completion fluids. A significant amount of research has been focused on . this creates perturbation and redistribution of stresses around the well-bore that can lead to mechanical instabilities .1) : Wellbore stability problems 1. and production.These instabilities can cause lost circulation or hole closure in the case of tensile or compressive failure respectively. Problems involving well-bore stability occur principally through changes in the original stress state due to removal of rock.

such as In-situ stress state conditions . and physical .5 .Thermal effects .1 (Well types (vertical or directional .or the entire well. modulus of elasticity.6 All contribute to increased costs. these two aspects of instability. the last one mainly oriented to .6 These factors can be classified as mechanical. or reduced production Numerous factors cause the well-bore to become unstable after the :borehole is drilled. the possibility of losing part of the hole . Poisson ratio.5 Lost circulation . .4 Poor cementing jobs .effects .instability in shales 1.1 Sidetrack .3 Difficulty running casing .3Resulting of hole instability Stuck pipe .3 Rock properties (strength.2 (Well trajectories (inclination and azimuth .4 (permeability Shale/fluid interactions .chemical.2 Logging and interpretation difficults .

shale becomes unstable when the effective state of the stress near the drilled hole exceeds the strength of the hole.The existence and creation of fissures fractures and weak bedding planes can also destabilize shale as drilling fluid penetrates them. particularly water. Shale stability is affected by properties of both shale (e.ionic concentration). pore pressure prediction.place over a period of time 2. wettability. density.g. stress analysis. CHAPTER 2 2. Drilling fluids can cause shale instability by altering pore pressure or effective stress-state and the shale strength through shale/fluid interaction. The problems include hole collapse. Well-bore instability is a complex problem that includes rock mechanics.fracturing. and the drilled formations are exposed to drilling fluids . A complicating factor that distinguishes shale from other rocks is its sensitivity to certain drilling constituents . Most of the drilling problems that drive up the drilling costs are related to wellbore stability. and shale/fluid chemical . mineralogy.While drilling. and over70% of the borehole problems are related to shale instability . hole enlargement.The stress-strength imbalance comes about as rock is removed from the hole. Shale stability is also a time-dependent problem in that changes in the stress-state and strength usually take .g. porosity) and of the drilling fluid contacting it (e.2Shale instability The oil and gas industry sustains financial losses due to well-bore failure of over one billion dollars each year. well control.The oil and gas industry still continues to fight borehole problems. replaced with drilling fluid. plastic flow . These problems are mainly caused by the imbalance created between the rock stress and strength when a hole is drilled. poor hole cleaning. tight hole . stuck pipe. in-situ stress calculations.1INTRODUCTION Shales make up over 75% of the drilled formations. salinity and . lost circulation.

poor (directional control. which results in repeat (2 (reaming. or in extreme conditions. stuck drill pipe . balance between the stress and strength must be restored and maintained during drilling through control over drilling fluid composition.1): Mechanical wellbore instability .trajectory and many other factors Well-bore instability is caused by a radical change in both the mechanical stress and the chemical and physical environments when a hole is drilled.most often as sloughing and caving shale The mechanisms of well-bore instability in shales can be grouped into :(three categories. which causes fill on trips. Borehole stability problem occurs when the rock stress exceeds rock strength. Hole instability is seen .Figure(2.Figure(2. reactions. mud weight. and poor cementing .2 Figure (2.2 Hole enlargements resulting from compressive failure due to (3 excessively low well-bore pressure. well . (Bradley et al Fractures caused by tensile failure due to excessive well-bore (1 pressure. To prevent the problem. This causes lost circulation and often results in well control (problems experienced as a kick or an underground blowout .Figure(2.1 Hole size reductions due to swelling of shales . exposing the formation to drilling mud.

ranging from washout to complete collapse of the hole. The cause of shale instability is two- fold: mechanical (stress change vs. and have in common the characteristics of extremely low permeability and a high proportion of clay minerals.(pressure diffusion. and cause most wellbore-instability problems. Shale types range from clay-rich gumbo (relatively weak) to shaly siltstone (highly cemented). The mud in use with a .S dollars per year. fine sand. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks composed of clay. osmotic pressure. borehole-fluid invasion into shale 2.2): Mechanical wellbore instability 2. The drilling cost attributed to shale-instability problems is reported to be in excess of one-half billion U.4Mechanical instability Mechanical rock instability can occur because the in-situ stress state of equilibrium has been disturbed after drilling.3shale properties Shales make up the majority of drilled formations. shale strength environment) and chemical (shale/fluid interaction—capillary pressure. silt. and. . in some cases. Figure (2.

pcap . the activities need to be equalized or. To prevent or reduce water movement across this semipermeable membrane that has certain efficiency. it is suggested to increase Em and vice versa. The mechanisms that :contribute to this problem include Capillary pressure  Osmotic pressure  Pressure diffusion in the vicinity of the borehole walls  Borehole-fluid invasion into the shale when drilling overbalanced  Capillary pressure During drilling. their differentials minimized. am .. is different from the activity in drilling mud.. an increase in capillary pressure is required.. pos . water movement can occur in either direction across a semipermeable membrane as a result of the development of osmotic pressure. at least. This results in the development of capillary pressure.organic low-polar mud systems Osmotic pressure When the energy level or activity in shale pore fluid.therefore.. μc . and r is the pore-throat radius. Em..5Chemical instability Chemical-induced shale instability is caused by the drilling-fluid/shale interaction. If am is lower than as.. certain density may not bring the altered stresses to the original state... To prevent borehole fluids from entering the shale and stabilizing it... or chemical potential. The mud activity can be reduced by adding electrolytes that can be brought about through the :use of mud systems such as . which alters shale mechanical strength as well as the shale pore pressure in the vicinity of the borehole walls.(1 where σ is the interfacial tension. as.. which can be achieved with oil-based or other . ϴ is the contact angle between the two fluids. .. which is expressed as (pcap =2.... the mud in the borehole contacts the native pore fluid in the shale through the pore-throat interface.. shale may become mechanically unstable 2....

a positive differential pressure (the difference between the borehole-fluid pressure and the pore-fluid pressure) is always maintained.to sonic velocity The instability and shale/fluid interaction mechanisms.pressure.off micro fractures 2. Austin. borehole fluid is forced to flow into the formation (fluid-loss phenomenon). Basic :results confirmed by this analysis can be summarized as follows Activity imbalance causes fluid flow into/or out of shale • Different drilling fluids and additives affect the amount of fluid flow in • or out of shale Differential pressure or overbalance causes fluid flow into shale • Fluid flow into shale results in swelling pressure • The moisture content affects shale strength. This pressure change is caused by the compression of the native pore fluid by the borehole-fluid . Shell and Amoco sponsored Projects). pwfl. which may cause chemical interaction that can lead to shale instabilities. an increase of mud viscosity or. and the osmotic pressure. coming into play as drilling fluid contacts the shale formation. To mitigate this problem. in extreme cases.1 . clearly shows that the shale strength and the pore pressure near the bore-hole are indeed affected by fluid/shale interaction. can be summarized as :follows Mechanical stress changes as the drilling fluid of certain density . Moisture content relates • . seawater  Saturated-salt/polymer  KCl/NaCl/polymer  Lime/gypsum  Pressure diffusion Pressure diffusion is a phenomenon of pressure change near the borehole walls that occurs over time. As a result. pos Borehole fluid invasion into shale In conventional drilling. gilsonite is used to seal .6Shale/Fluid interaction mechanisms Analysis of the available experimental data (O’Brien-GoinsSimpson Associates and University of Texas.

ph. These practices include Proper mud-weight selection and maintenance  Use of proper hydraulics to control the equivalent circulating  (density (ECD Proper hole-trajectory selection  Use of borehole fluid compatible with the formation being drilled  :Additional field practices that should be followed are Minimizing time spent in open hole  (Using offset-well data (use of the learning curve  .7 as drilling fluid compresses the pore fluid and diffuses a pressure front .into the formation Fluid penetration in fractured shale and weak bedding planes can play .7Borehole-instability prevention Total prevention of borehole instability is unrealistic.4 shale native pore fluid (with different water activities/ ion concentrations) across a semi-permeable membrane (with certain membrane efficiency) due to osmotic pressure (or chemical potential).pressure gradient because of the hydraulic gradient Swelling/Hydration pressure. and stability analysis tools are .8 a dominant role in shale instability. Pc.with clay-size charged particles Pressure diffusion and pressure changes near the wellbore(with time) .narrow pore throat interface Osmosis(and ionic diffusion) occurring between drilling fluid and . the drilling engineer can mitigate the problems of borehole :instabilities by adhering to good field practices. caused by interaction of moisture .available Fractured shale . However. . causing fluid transport under net hydraulic .6 .into the hole 2. as large block of fractured shale fall .2 . as drilling fluid contacts native pore fluid at .PM Hydraulic (Advection). Mechanical stability problem caused by various factors is fairly well understood. because restoring the physical and chemical in-situ conditions of the rock is impossible.weak bedding planes Capillary pressure.5 .3 . ps.Fluid penetration into fissures and fractures and . replaces shale in the hole.

WELLBORE INSTABILITY:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES -3 . Houston. http://dx.A. SPE-19941-MS. 1990. and Addis. 27 February-2 March. drag. circulating pressure.org/10. fill-in  (during tripping Collaborating and sharing information  References McLean. M. Wellbore Stability Analysis: A Review of Current Methods -1 of Analysis and Their Field Application.AMOCO-Wellbore-Stability-2 .Texas. M.Wellbore Stability in Shale -4 .doi.2118/19941-MS .R.Monitoring trend changes (torque. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference. .