Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1
1.1WELLBORE STABILITY…………………………………………………………..………………………………1
1.2IMPORTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY ..............................................................
RESULTING OF HOLE INSTABILITY………………………………………………………..........3 1.3
CHAPTER 2........................................................................................ 4
INTRODUCTION……………….……………………………………………………………………………5 2.1
SHALE INSTABILITY…………………………………………………………………………………..……6 2.2
SHALE PROPERTIES………………………………………………………………………………..……..7 2.3
MECHANICAL INSTABILITY……………………………………………………………………………8 2.4
CHEMICAL INSTABILITY………………………………………………………………………….……..9 2.5
CAPILLARY PRESSURE……………………………………………………………………………………....10
OSMOTIC PRESSURE…………………………………………………………………………………………11
PRESSURE DIFFUSION……………………………………………………………………………………….12
BOREHOLE FLUID INVASION INTO SHALE…………………………………………………………..13
SHALE/FLUID INTERACTION MECANISMS…………………..……………………………14 2.6
BOREHOLE INSTABILITY PREVENTION……………………………………………………15 2.7
CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………….16

Chemical reactions also occur with exposure to the . or occurring at a rate relative to geologic time (millions of years).drilling fluid Under these conditions.1WELLBORE STABILITY Wellbore stability is the prevention of brittle failure or plastic deformation of the rock surrounding the wellbore due to mechanical stress or chemical imbalances . Hole squeezing mobile formations produce tight hole problems and stuck pipe. the mechanical stresses in the formation are less than the strength of the rock. Chapter 1 1.from 600 million to 1 billion dollars annually . The chemical action is also balanced.and increases mud and cementing costs Estimated cost to the drilling industry for hole stability problems range . compression. fracture. Cavings from failing formation makes hole cleaning more difficult . begin to deform.Prior to drilling . and shear loads as the rock forming the core of the hole is removed. the rock surrounding the wellbore can become unstable. Rocks under this balanced or near-balanced state are .dissolve into the drilling fluids Excessive rock stress can collapse the hole resulting in stuck pipe.stable After drilling. and cave into the wellbore or . the rock surrounding the wellbore undergoes changes in tension.

These instabilities can cause lost circulation or hole closure in the case of tensile or compressive failure respectively. this creates perturbation and redistribution of stresses around the well-bore that can lead to mechanical instabilities . Figure (1.hole closure can cause stuck pipe and loss of the well- .These events lead to an increase of drilling costs The causes of instability have been classified into either mechanical or chemical effects. support provided originally by the rock is replaced by hydraulic drilling fluid pressure. and production.2IMPARTANCE OF WELLBORE STABILITY Well-bore stability analysis has been the subject of study and discussion for a long time. In severe situations .1) : Wellbore stability problems 1.of differential pressures as draw down occurs For the particular drilling case. completion. The integrity of the well-bore plays an important role in many well operations during drilling.bore . A significant amount of research has been focused on . interactions between rock and drilling or completion fluids. or changes . Problems involving well-bore stability occur principally through changes in the original stress state due to removal of rock. temperature changes.

the possibility of losing part of the hole . such as In-situ stress state conditions .4 (permeability Shale/fluid interactions . the last one mainly oriented to .3 Difficulty running casing .5 .4 Poor cementing jobs .1 (Well types (vertical or directional .2 (Well trajectories (inclination and azimuth . these two aspects of instability. modulus of elasticity.chemical.5 Lost circulation .1 Sidetrack .instability in shales 1. Poisson ratio. .3Resulting of hole instability Stuck pipe .6 All contribute to increased costs.3 Rock properties (strength.6 These factors can be classified as mechanical. or reduced production Numerous factors cause the well-bore to become unstable after the :borehole is drilled.effects . and physical .2 Logging and interpretation difficults .or the entire well.Thermal effects .

plastic flow .place over a period of time 2. mineralogy. Most of the drilling problems that drive up the drilling costs are related to wellbore stability. lost circulation. wettability. poor hole cleaning. tight hole . A complicating factor that distinguishes shale from other rocks is its sensitivity to certain drilling constituents . pore pressure prediction.2Shale instability The oil and gas industry sustains financial losses due to well-bore failure of over one billion dollars each year. in-situ stress calculations.fracturing.ionic concentration). The problems include hole collapse. replaced with drilling fluid. These problems are mainly caused by the imbalance created between the rock stress and strength when a hole is drilled. and shale/fluid chemical .The stress-strength imbalance comes about as rock is removed from the hole.1INTRODUCTION Shales make up over 75% of the drilled formations. Shale stability is also a time-dependent problem in that changes in the stress-state and strength usually take .The oil and gas industry still continues to fight borehole problems.g. and over70% of the borehole problems are related to shale instability . stuck pipe. hole enlargement. particularly water. salinity and . shale becomes unstable when the effective state of the stress near the drilled hole exceeds the strength of the hole.While drilling.g. Well-bore instability is a complex problem that includes rock mechanics. Shale stability is affected by properties of both shale (e. density. Drilling fluids can cause shale instability by altering pore pressure or effective stress-state and the shale strength through shale/fluid interaction.The existence and creation of fissures fractures and weak bedding planes can also destabilize shale as drilling fluid penetrates them. porosity) and of the drilling fluid contacting it (e. stress analysis. well control. and the drilled formations are exposed to drilling fluids . CHAPTER 2 2.

Figure(2.1): Mechanical wellbore instability . well . balance between the stress and strength must be restored and maintained during drilling through control over drilling fluid composition.most often as sloughing and caving shale The mechanisms of well-bore instability in shales can be grouped into :(three categories. mud weight. poor (directional control. (Bradley et al Fractures caused by tensile failure due to excessive well-bore (1 pressure. stuck drill pipe . To prevent the problem. which causes fill on trips. reactions. or in extreme conditions.2 Hole enlargements resulting from compressive failure due to (3 excessively low well-bore pressure. Hole instability is seen .trajectory and many other factors Well-bore instability is caused by a radical change in both the mechanical stress and the chemical and physical environments when a hole is drilled. and poor cementing .2 Figure (2.Figure(2. This causes lost circulation and often results in well control (problems experienced as a kick or an underground blowout .1 Hole size reductions due to swelling of shales .Figure(2. Borehole stability problem occurs when the rock stress exceeds rock strength. which results in repeat (2 (reaming. exposing the formation to drilling mud.

silt.(pressure diffusion. Figure (2. The cause of shale instability is two- fold: mechanical (stress change vs.4Mechanical instability Mechanical rock instability can occur because the in-situ stress state of equilibrium has been disturbed after drilling. .S dollars per year. osmotic pressure. and have in common the characteristics of extremely low permeability and a high proportion of clay minerals. Shale types range from clay-rich gumbo (relatively weak) to shaly siltstone (highly cemented). fine sand. in some cases. borehole-fluid invasion into shale 2.3shale properties Shales make up the majority of drilled formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks composed of clay.2): Mechanical wellbore instability 2. The mud in use with a . The drilling cost attributed to shale-instability problems is reported to be in excess of one-half billion U. ranging from washout to complete collapse of the hole. shale strength environment) and chemical (shale/fluid interaction—capillary pressure. and cause most wellbore-instability problems. and.

the activities need to be equalized or. certain density may not bring the altered stresses to the original state... The mud activity can be reduced by adding electrolytes that can be brought about through the :use of mud systems such as . an increase in capillary pressure is required. is different from the activity in drilling mud.. which is expressed as (pcap =2. The mechanisms that :contribute to this problem include Capillary pressure  Osmotic pressure  Pressure diffusion in the vicinity of the borehole walls  Borehole-fluid invasion into the shale when drilling overbalanced  Capillary pressure During drilling.. and r is the pore-throat radius. To prevent or reduce water movement across this semipermeable membrane that has certain efficiency. as.therefore. ϴ is the contact angle between the two fluids.... μc . the mud in the borehole contacts the native pore fluid in the shale through the pore-throat interface.. This results in the development of capillary pressure.. which can be achieved with oil-based or other .5Chemical instability Chemical-induced shale instability is caused by the drilling-fluid/shale interaction.. If am is lower than as. at least..organic low-polar mud systems Osmotic pressure When the energy level or activity in shale pore fluid... To prevent borehole fluids from entering the shale and stabilizing it. which alters shale mechanical strength as well as the shale pore pressure in the vicinity of the borehole walls. it is suggested to increase Em and vice versa..... shale may become mechanically unstable 2. their differentials minimized... or chemical potential. pcap . Em. . pos .(1 where σ is the interfacial tension. am . water movement can occur in either direction across a semipermeable membrane as a result of the development of osmotic pressure.

seawater  Saturated-salt/polymer  KCl/NaCl/polymer  Lime/gypsum  Pressure diffusion Pressure diffusion is a phenomenon of pressure change near the borehole walls that occurs over time. As a result. To mitigate this problem. coming into play as drilling fluid contacts the shale formation.to sonic velocity The instability and shale/fluid interaction mechanisms. Basic :results confirmed by this analysis can be summarized as follows Activity imbalance causes fluid flow into/or out of shale • Different drilling fluids and additives affect the amount of fluid flow in • or out of shale Differential pressure or overbalance causes fluid flow into shale • Fluid flow into shale results in swelling pressure • The moisture content affects shale strength. gilsonite is used to seal .1 . pwfl. which may cause chemical interaction that can lead to shale instabilities. an increase of mud viscosity or. in extreme cases.6Shale/Fluid interaction mechanisms Analysis of the available experimental data (O’Brien-GoinsSimpson Associates and University of Texas. borehole fluid is forced to flow into the formation (fluid-loss phenomenon). can be summarized as :follows Mechanical stress changes as the drilling fluid of certain density .pressure. and the osmotic pressure. pos Borehole fluid invasion into shale In conventional drilling. Austin. clearly shows that the shale strength and the pore pressure near the bore-hole are indeed affected by fluid/shale interaction.off micro fractures 2. a positive differential pressure (the difference between the borehole-fluid pressure and the pore-fluid pressure) is always maintained. This pressure change is caused by the compression of the native pore fluid by the borehole-fluid . Shell and Amoco sponsored Projects). Moisture content relates • .

into the hole 2.4 shale native pore fluid (with different water activities/ ion concentrations) across a semi-permeable membrane (with certain membrane efficiency) due to osmotic pressure (or chemical potential).with clay-size charged particles Pressure diffusion and pressure changes near the wellbore(with time) . ph.into the formation Fluid penetration in fractured shale and weak bedding planes can play . Mechanical stability problem caused by various factors is fairly well understood.5 .7Borehole-instability prevention Total prevention of borehole instability is unrealistic.3 . because restoring the physical and chemical in-situ conditions of the rock is impossible. However.Fluid penetration into fissures and fractures and .2 . ps. causing fluid transport under net hydraulic .PM Hydraulic (Advection). replaces shale in the hole.weak bedding planes Capillary pressure.6 . These practices include Proper mud-weight selection and maintenance  Use of proper hydraulics to control the equivalent circulating  (density (ECD Proper hole-trajectory selection  Use of borehole fluid compatible with the formation being drilled  :Additional field practices that should be followed are Minimizing time spent in open hole  (Using offset-well data (use of the learning curve  . and stability analysis tools are . the drilling engineer can mitigate the problems of borehole :instabilities by adhering to good field practices. as large block of fractured shale fall . .available Fractured shale . as drilling fluid contacts native pore fluid at . caused by interaction of moisture .narrow pore throat interface Osmosis(and ionic diffusion) occurring between drilling fluid and .pressure gradient because of the hydraulic gradient Swelling/Hydration pressure.7 as drilling fluid compresses the pore fluid and diffuses a pressure front .8 a dominant role in shale instability. Pc.

Wellbore Stability Analysis: A Review of Current Methods -1 of Analysis and Their Field Application. M. Houston.A.2118/19941-MS . 1990.AMOCO-Wellbore-Stability-2 . fill-in  (during tripping Collaborating and sharing information  References McLean. M. 27 February-2 March.WELLBORE INSTABILITY:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES -3 .R. SPE-19941-MS. circulating pressure. http://dx.Wellbore Stability in Shale -4 . and Addis.Texas. . drag.org/10.doi. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference.Monitoring trend changes (torque.

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