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FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

DATE Conducted:
29/1/2017
Submitted: 5/1/2017

LAB GRO 4L (3) COVER


UP
SHEET
LEVE 1
Lab Title: CONSTANT HEAD
L
TEST
Leader: 1 / 2 / 3 / 4/5
TEST 3
Group Member Name: Student
NO.
ID:
1. Wan Muhammad Aiman 2015811
bin Wan Hashim 9588
2.
NO Ahmad Aiman TO
ELEMENTS Ashraf bin
ASSESS 2015890 LEVEL OF OPENNESS
Mohd Fariza 044 0 1 2 3
3. Zairi Azizi bin
INDIVIDUAL Kamarudin
IN-LAB 2015861
ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT 454
1 Nabilah
4. PUNCTUALITIY
binti Md Zin / /
2015857 / / / /
/ /
402
2 Nur
5. DISCIPLINE
Amirah (DRESS CODE,SAFETY
Syakirah binti 2015887 / / / / / /
SHOES,SAFETY REGULATIONS) / /
M. Omar 716
3 KNOWLEDGE ON OPEN ENDED / / / / / /
LABORATORY / /
4 / / / / / / / / /
LEADERSHIP SKILL / / /
5 / / / / / /
COMMUNICATION / /
REPORT ASSESSMENT
6 INTRODUCTION
7 BASIC CONCEPTS
8 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES/
METHODS
9 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
OF DATA
10 DISCUSSION OF RESULT
11 CONCLUSION

PREPARED FOR: MADAM NUR AIN BINTI MAT


YUSOF
Note:
1. Only the group members attending the lab session are qualified for lab report marks (Group leader is
responsible to cancel out the name(s) of the absentee Or 0 mark will be given to the leader)
2. You are required to use the same lab cover for ALL lab reports and MUST fill-in all particulars clearly
and correctly. Incorrect/unfilled particulars will cause your marks to be deducted OR the lab report will
not be examined.
3. Lab report will not be examined for late submission.
4. The use of hand phones is strictly prohibited during lab session.
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

CONTENT PAGE STUDENTS NAME


NO
1. Title Nabilah
2. Introduction Nabilah
3. Objective Ahmad Aiman Ashraf
4. Theoretical Background Zairi Azizi
5. Problem Statement Amirah Syakirah
6. Apparatus Wan Muhammad Aiman
7. Procedure Amirah Syakirah & Ahmad Aiman Ashraf
8. Result & Analysis Nabilah & Amirah
9. Discussion Wan Muhmmad Aiman & Zairi Azizi
10. Conclusion Wan Muhammad Aiman & Ahmad Aiman
Ashraf
11. References Nabilah
12. Appendix Zairi Azizi

TITLE : CONSTANT HEAD TEST

1.1 Introduction

Level 1 laboratory activity refers to condition where the problem and ways & means are
guided and given to the students. However the answers to the assignment are left to the
students to solve using the group creativity and innovativeness. It is hoped that the
activity will slowly introduce and inculcate independent learning amongst students and
prepare them for a much harder task of open-ended laboratory activities.

In this laboratory session, students will be introduced on how to determine the coefficient
of permeability of soils using constant head test.

1.2 Objectives

To determine the coefficient of permeability of soils.


FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

1.3 Learning Outcomes

At the end of the laboratory activities, students would be able to:

1 Conduct the constant head test to determine the coefficient of permeability of soil
sample.
2 Analyse data correctly and present in typical format
3 Work in a group to produce technical report.

1.4 Theoretical Background

A material is said to be permeable if it contains continuous voids. Permeability is a


property of permeable material that permits flow of liquids through the voids. The flows
of liquid through soil either by laminar or turbulent depending on permeability of soil and
the head causing flow.

Darcy (1856) demonstrated experimentally that for laminar flow conditions in a saturated
soil, the rate of flow or discharge per unit time is proportional to the hydraulic gradient.

q = k.i.A

Where; q = discharge per unit time

k = Darcys coefficient of permeability

i = hydraulic gradient

A = total cross-sectional area of soil mass, perpendicular

to the direction of flow

The coefficient of permeability (or simply permeability) of soil can be determined in


laboratory using permeameter under constant head or variable head. Under constant head
if Q is total quantity of flow (cm3) in time interval t (second) through cross sectional area
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

of specimen A (cm2) and L (cm) is length of specimen, H (cm) height of water in the tube,
h (cm) is the headloss measurement, thus the coefficient of permeability (k) is given by:

QL
k= Aht cm/sec

2.0 Problem Statement

Permeability is a measure of how easy water can flow through a soil volume and is
considered to be one of the most important geotechnical parameters. Having knowledge on
soil permeability will help engineers in their design selections. As a group, you are
required to investigate the permeability coefficient of a given soil sample. The group must
carry out the test following the procedures outline and subsequently analyse the data and
present it in a proper technical format.

3.1 Apparatus

Permeameter complete with accessories


de-aired water
balance
mixing pan
graduated measuring cylinder
meter scale
stop watch
beaker

3.2 Procedures
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

1. The mould was cleaned and grease was applied on inside of the mould. Its weight was
recorded.
2. Prepare sample:
a) The sample was trimmed to the size of mould from undisturbed lump of soil
collected from the site. This sample was fit into the mould. Wax was applied around
periphery of the sample moulded to prevent leakage or;
b) Statically prepared the compacted remolded specimen of desired density and water
content or;
c) Dynamically prepared compacted remolded specimen of desired density and water
content.
3. The excess soil was trimmed off. Filter paper was placed on top of soil specimen and
perforated base plate was fixed to it.
4. The assembly was turned upside down and compaction plate or end plug and collar was
removed, as the case may be, top perforated plate was placed on the top of soil
specimen, sealing gasket and fix top cap were inserted properly.
5. The sample was saturated and vacuum dessicators facility was used if available.
6. The specimen (mould) was taken out when saturation is complete.
7. The mould was placed in the bottom tank.
8. The bottom tank was filled with water up to its outlet.
9. The outlet tube of constant head tank was connected to the inlet nozzle of the
permeameter. All air bubbles were removed from the system.
10. The hydraulic head was adjusted. The head was recorded.
11. The stop watch was started and at the same time a beaker was put under the out let of
the bottom tank.
12. The test was runned for some convenient time interval. The time was recorded.
13. The quantity of water collected during that time was measured and recorded.
14. The test was repeated two times more under the same head and for the same time
interval.

H1
H2
H3

L2
L3
L1
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

3.3 Data Acquisition

QL
The coefficient of permeability of soils, k = Aht

Data Sheet:
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY OF SOIL


(Constant Head Test)
SOIL SAMPLE DATA
Diameter of sample, D cm 10
2
Cross-sectional area of sample, A cm 78.54
Length of sample, L1 cm 10
Length of sample, L2 cm 20
Length of sample, L3 cm 30

HEIGHT OF WATER IN TUBES AT STEADY STATE


Height of water in tube 1, H1 cm 57
Height of water in tube 2, H2 cm 51
Height of water in tube 2, H3 cm 47

Quantity of Time taken, Headloss, Headloss, Headloss, Coefficient of Permeability, k (cm/sec)


water, t h1 h2 h3
k1 k2 k3 Average
Q (cm3) (sec) (cm) (cm) (cm)
250 65 6 4 10 0.082 0.245 0.147 0.158
250 63 6 4 10 0.084 0.253 0.152 0.163
250 64 6 4 10 0.083 0.249 0.150 0.161
Overall average coefficient of permeability of soil sample, k cm/sec 0.482

3.4 Calculation
2
D
Area of sample = 4
2
(10)
= 4
2
= 78.540 cm
QL
k= Aht

1)

(250)(10)
k1 =
(78.54)(6)(65)
= 0.082 cm/sec
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

(250)(10)
k2 =
(78.54)( 4)(65)
= 0.245 cm/sec

( 250)(10)
k3 =
(78.54)(10)(65)

= 0.147 cm/sec

0.082+ 0.245+ 0.147


Average coefficient of permeability = 3

= 0.158 cm/sec

2)

(250)(10)
k1 =
(78.54)(6)(63)
= 0.084 cm/sec

(250)(10)
k2 =
(78.54)( 4)(63)
= 0.253 cm/sec

( 250)(10)
k3 =
(78.54)(10)(63)

= 0.152 cm/sec

0.084+0.253+0.152
Average coefficient of permeability = 3

= 0.163 cm/sec

3)
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

(250)(10)
k1 =
(78.54)(6)(64)
= 0.083 cm/sec

(250)(10)
k2 =
(78.54)( 4)(64)
= 0.249 cm/sec

(250)( 10)
k3 =
(78.54)(10)(64)

= 0.150 cm/sec

0.083+ 0.249+0.150
Average coefficient of permeability = 3

= 0.161 cm/sec

Overall average coefficient of permeability of soil sample,k

k = k 1 +k 2+ k 3

= 0.158 + 0.163 + 0.161

= 0.482 cm/sec
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

4.1 Discussion

QL
From this experiment, we can obtain the value of permeability, k by using formula
Aht

. the value of permeability we obtain from calculation is 0.482cm/s. This magnitude of permeability
is low by refer to table below.

Magnitude of
Range
permeability
High k> 101 cm/sec

Medium k 103 cm/sec

Low k< 101 cm/sec

This is because the porosity of sand is high where water can flows through the soil with less
resistance. It can drain water easily but hardly can retain any water. The permeability is also affected
by pore size. The greater pore size of soil the more permeability than the soil with smallersize. From
value k we obtain, we can know that this types of soil is not suitable for drainage.

4.2 Conclusion

As a conclusion, the time we get is much faster. This is because the permeability of sand soil
absorbs the water is low. This sand soil has a large molecular space. Therefore, water
diffusion rate is low.there are a few factors affecting this. The factors are effective air void
content, effective void size and drain down.

While we doing this experiment, there are some errors occurs. First error is human
error. . In this experiment human errors that could have occurred include the incorrect booking of
result. This is a common error within laboratory experiments. The person reading values of the scale
may have read the values incorrectly and therefore cause error within our collected result. To
minimise these errors we used two people booking the results, so if one person conducted an error the
other person should have the correct readings.
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

5.1 References

http://www.geotechdata.info/geotest/constant-head-permeability-test.html
http://faculty.fullerton.edu/btiwari/geotech_Lab/mainpage_files/other/Permeability.pdf
Lab manual ECG 303, UiTM Pahang.
FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
ECG 303 (BASIC SOIL MECHANICS)

5.2 Appendix

Figure 1: The apparatus used during the constant head experiment.

Figure 2: A close-up for the apparatus used in the laboratory.