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# Lab: Reaction Rate Lab

## Date of lab report: May 11th, 2016

Abstract:
The purpose of conducting the Reaction Rate lab was to identify if the rate (s) of the Alka
Seltzer tablet producing bubbles would be manipulated by a temperature change, and if there is a
trend. To find if the rate was changed a series of experiments were conducted. A calorimeter was
filled with 150 mL of water that was heated to Twenty degrees Fahrenheit, one tablet of Alka
Seltzer was placed in the calorimeter containing the water. Once it reached the water, the tablet
began producing bubbles, the rate that the Alka Seltzer began and finished producing bubbles
was recorded in seconds (s). Four more trials were conducted using the same method; 150 mL of
water in a calorimeter and one tablet of Alka Seltzer, the only difference was that the temperature
was raised by 10 in each different trial. Using a stopwatch, the rate was recorded for each
trial; In trial it took 129.0 seconds for the Alka Seltzer to stop producing bubbles, in trial 2 it took
61.2 (s), trial 3 took 50.0 (s), trial 4 took 24.6 (s), and finally trial 5 took 23.7 (s). This
relationship is direct, because according to the Glencoe textbook as the independent variable
goes up, the dependent variable goes up as well.
Research Question:
Will one Alka Seltzer tablet form carbon dioxide bubbles faster if it is placed in water
heated to a higher temperature?
Variables:
Independent variable: The independent variable in this experiment is the temperature of
the water that the Alka Seltzer is placed in. In the Reaction Rate lab there were five trials.
Primarily, 150 mL of water at 20 .2 is poured into a styrofoam cup and one tablet of Alka
Seltzer is added. The rate that it takes the CO2 bubbles to stop forming is recorded in seconds.
Then, in trial 2 the temperature is then raised to 24.8 and again the rate of the bubbles was
documented. In trial 3 the temperature is elevated to 39.6 , and the process repeats. In trial
4 the water is heated to 60.8 , and in trial 5 the temperature is 80.6 , both times the
rate that the bubbles took to start and stop producing was listed on the data table.
Dependent variable: The raw data collected is the rate it took for the one tablet of Alka
1 tablet
Seltzer to stop producing bubbles. This is shown as Rate= time . The rate for the first trial

## 1 tablet 1 tablet 1 tablet

is Rate= Rate= Rate=
129.0 ( s ) . Trial 2 is calculated to be 24.8 ( s ) . Trial 3 is 39.6 ( s ) ,
1 tablet 1 tablet
and the rate of trial 4 is Rate= Finally, trial 5 is Rate=
60.8 ( s ) 80.6 ( s ) .

## Controlled variables chart:

Surface Area In this lab the surface area remained a
controlled variable because the same size
Alka Seltzer tablet was used, and the water
was measured to be 150mL every time.
Agitation The agitation was a controlled variable in this
lab because there was no agitation at all.
Concentration The concentration was also controlled
because it cannot be changed, the same sizes
of the water and Alka Seltzer were used,
leaving it to be a constant.
Temperature The temperature was controlled by being
raised by 10 every new trial, except for
the second and third trial.
Nature of Reactants The nature of the reactants was controlled
because the reactants remained the same in
each trial.
Catalyst No catalyst was used in the Reaction Rate lab,
causing it to remain a controlled variable.

Hypothesis:
As the independent variable (temperature) increases, the dependent variable (rate the
tablet will stop producing bubbles) will increase as well.

Theory:
According to the Glencoe textbook, the collision theory is the theory that particles such
as atoms and molecules will collide with each other after a certain amount of activation energy.
This relates to the lab because as the temperature of the water is raised, the particles begin to
move faster and therefore collide into each other more. This is portrayed in the lab because the
bubbles produce faster, and the rate goes down. Dissolution is the process by which a solute
dissolves a solvent, first the solute particles break apart due to energy (heat), this is commonly
known as dissociation. Once the particles are isolated, the solvent particles move in between the
ions, also known as solvation. Dissolution in the Reaction Rate lab is shown as the bubbles that
are produced once the tablet is placed in the water. In this experiment, once the Alka Seltzer
tablet (solute) is added to the water (solvent), the particles bonds break apart because of the heat
from the water, and become a part of the solution. The balanced equation for this reaction is
NaHCO3 + H2O Na + H2O + CO2. In this reaction Alka Seltzer reacts with the water to form
salt, water, and carbon dioxide. The reaction produces CO2 which can be seen in the form
bubbles, which were indicators of when to stop the time, because when the bubbles stop
producing, the reaction stops. The relationship between the temperature and the rate (time) in this
lab is direct, which according to the Glencoe textbook, is when the independent variable and
dependent variable both increase.
The procedure of this lab was specific to our experiment because certain aspects needed
to be controlled so that the results were precise. For instance, the water needed to be placed into
a Styrofoam cup because it insulated the heat, providing precise data. Also, all five trials were
completed one at a time because it allowed more attention to be focused on the reaction that was
in process.

Set-up:
A. Materials: Styrofoam
1. 200 mL beaker
2. Alka Seltzer tablet
3. Duct tape
Thermomet
4. Goggles
5. Hot plate
6. Plastic wrap Duct
7. Styrofoam cup
8. Thermal gloves
9. Thermometer
10. Water

B. Procedure: Water
1. Put on goggles to prevent hot water in eyes.
2. Pour 150 mL of water into 200mL beaker. Alka Seltzer
3. Place beaker onto hot plate. tablet
4. Use the thermometer to serve as a stirrer as water is heated, and record temperature.
5. Once the water is heated at desired temperature, use thermal gloves to take off of hot
plate.
6. Quickly pour into calorimeter.
7. Quickly and efficiently place 1 tablet of Alka Seltzer in heated water.
8. Start stopwatch. 200 mL
9. Close lid to calorimeter, to keep the reaction contained.
10. Watch closely, and make observations.
11. Once reaction stops producing CO2 bubbles, stop time.
12. Record data in a data table.
13. Take apart calorimeter.
14. Dump contents down the drain. Hot
15. Clean up area.
16. Repeat steps 1-15 four more times, because there are four more trials
Data:
Trial Temperature of water ( Rate of CO2 bubbles

(seconds)
1 20.2 129.0 seconds
2 24.8 61.2 seconds
3 39.6 50.0 seconds
4 60.8 24.6 seconds
5 80.6 23.7 seconds
Averages: 37.7 48.1 seconds

Calculations:
Sample calculation: Trial 1
1 tablet
Step 1) Rate=
time ( s )
1 tablet
In this step, the equation Rate= is used as a starting point to begin plugging numbers
time ( s )
in. One tablet of Alka Seltzer goes on the top of the equation, and the rate of the bubbles
measured in time goes on the bottom. The goal is to find the rate, in seconds.
1 tablet
Step 2) Rate=
129.0 ( s )

In step 2, 129.0 (s) is the time measured that it took for the bubbles to stop producing, this
number will go on the bottom of the equation.
129.0( s)

Step 3) 1
Rate=

The equation above are the numbers that will be divided. The top number will be divided by the
bottom number, and the number that is the produced will be the rate.

## Step 4) Rate = 0.00775tab/s

The number above is the rate at which the tablet will dissolve per second.

Results:
As a result of all the data, the Rate = 0.00775tab/s, this portrays that as the temperature of
the water increased, the Alka Seltzer tablet dissolved quicker.

Graph:
Relationship between Temperature and Time
0.05
f(x) = 0x - 0
0.04
R = 0.92
0.04
0.03
0.03
Rate (seconds) 0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Temperature (Celcius)

Data Analysis:
The graph displayed above indicates a direct relationship because as the temperature goes
up, the rate at which the bubbles produce goes up as well. A direct relationship is when one
2
variable goes up, and the other goes up as well. The R = 0.9199, this value demonstrates a
strong correlation because it is very close to 1. The closer the R2 value is to 1, means the
more accurate and accountable the lab was. The visual observations that correlate with the
quantitative data is that the higher the rate the more disruptive and violent the bubbles were. The
lower the temperature the bubbles were slower and more settled, also taking a longer time to
produce from start to finish. The hypothesis above states that as the temperature increases the
rate of the production of bubbles would increase as well. The data chart above proves this
hypothesis because the line of best fit increases as it moves right.

Conclusion:
Percent error calculation:
accepted valuemeasured value
Step 1) percent error= ( 100)
accepted value

10.9199
Step 2) pecent error= (100)
1
0.081
Step 3) percent error= (100)
1

## Source of error table:

Source of error Specific data effected Mitigation suggestion/systematic or
random
The first source of error is In the reaction rate lab, when There is no mitigation suggestion for
heat loss from transportation. the beaker filled of water is this source of error because it is
transported from the hot plate systematic. Systematic in this case
into the calorimeter it is means that every time the beaker of
inevitable that heat would be water is transferred from the hot
lost. If heat is lost it would plate to the calorimeter it is
specifically effect the rate at inevitable that heat will be lost.
which the Alka Seltzer tablet
would dissolve by decreasing.
Another source of error in the In trial 4, a beaker filled with There is no mitigation suggestion for
reaction rate lab is 150mL of water was heated this source of error. The independent
evaporation when the water is to 80.6 on a hot plate. variable (temperature) in this
boiling. experiment needed to be manipulated
Steam was visibly coming
at different temperatures so that the
from the water, which is a
dependent variable (rate of the
sign of evaporation. If the
bubbles) could be recorded.
water evaporated while in the
Therefore this source of error is
process of being heated, then
systematic because no matter how
some of the water volume
many times this experiment is
would have been lost. As a
conducted, the water will always
result, the rate at which the
bubbles are produced would evaporate at 80.6
have decreased.
The final source of error for In every single trial in the There is no mitigation suggestion for
this experiment is the reaction rate lab, a beaker this specific source of error, because
parallax. was filled up with 150mL of no matter how many times you read
water that was first measured the parallax, there is always room for
in a 200mL graduated error. The parallax is read by the
cylinder. If the parallax was human eye, and that cannot be exact.
wrong, it would decrease or There is no laboratory tool that can
increase (depending on the reads the parallax exactly, so every
parallax) the water level. As a single time it is attempted to be read
result, the rate at which the it is highly impossible that it will be
bubbles dissolve would be read exactly, making this source of
increased or decreased error systematic.
(according to the parallax).

Final restatement:
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the temperature of the water
would affect the rate at which the Alka Seltzer tablet dissolves. According to the graph, the
R2 value gathered was 0.919, which shows strong correlation to the number 1, which was
trying to be achieved. Through the research, it is concluded that the relationship between
temperature (independent variable) and time (dependent variable) is direct. In conclusion,
according to the data, when the temperature of the water is raised, the rate at which the CO2
bubbles are produced increases as well.
Works Cited