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OUTLINE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 WHAT IS DIABETES
3.0 CAUSES OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
3.0.1 OBESITY ND PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
3.0.2 INSULIN RESISTANCE
3.0.3 ABNORMAL GLUCOSE PRODUCTION BY THE LIVER
3.0.4 METABOLIC SYNDROME
3.0.5 CELL SIGNALING AND REGULATION
3.0.6 BETA CELL DYSFUNCTION

3.1 RISK FACTORS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

4.0 SYMPTOMS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES


4.1 DUE TO HIGH BLOOD SUGAR
4.2 OTHER SYMPTOMS

5.0 ORTHODOX TREATMENT


5.0.2 ORAL MEDICATION
5.0.2 SURGERY

5.1 LIMITATION OF ORTHODOX TREATMENT

6.0 ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT


6.1 THE USE OF Mormodica charantia (Balsam Pear) aND Basil ocinum (Scent
Leaf) as an alternative therapy for managing Type 2 Diabetes
6.2 ADVANTAGES
7.0 CONCLUSION
8.0 RECOMMENDATION
9.0 REFERENCES
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Over the years, the managing of diabetes has become an issue of great concern in Aba FUTA
SOUTH GATE AREA, AKURE. Diabetes mellitus popularly known as diabetes is a group of
metabolic diseases in which the patient has high blood glucose either because insulin production is
inadequate or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. There are three types
of diabetes ; Type 1 diabetes , Type 2 diabetes and pregnancy induced diabetes. Aba futa South gate is
located in the southern part of Akure Township. It is a settlement that was setup by some set of people
long ago. This paper focuses on the use of mormodica charantia ( Balsam pear) and Basil
ocinum( scent leaf) as an alternative therapy for managing Type 2 Diabetes in Aba, FUTA area, Akure
Ondo State.

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2.0 WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS (TYPE 2)
Diabetes type 2 is cause when their is insulin resistance. That is the insulin produced is not
enough or not working properly. The glucose is not entering the body cells properly which result to
building-up of glucose in the in the blood and the cell are not getting the glucose needed for energy and
growth. In the early stages of type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity is the main abnormality. As this
disease progresses, the production of insulin decreases. Central obesity with abdominal organs as being
major cause of diabetes type 2. In Nigeria, type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

3.0 CAUSES OF TYPE 2 DIABETES


Type 2 diabetesthe most common form of diabetesis caused by a combination of factors,
including insulin resistance, a condition in which the bodys muscle, fat, and liver cells do not use
insulin effectively. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body can no longer produce enough insulin to
compensate for the impaired ability to use insulin. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes may develop gradually
and can be subtle; some people with type 2 diabetes remain undiagnosed for years.

3.0.1 Obesity and Physical Inactivity


Physical inactivity and obesity are strongly associated with the development of type 2
diabetes. People who are genetically susceptible to type 2 diabetes are more vulnerable when these risk
factors are present.
An imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity can lead to obesity, which causes insulin
resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Central obesity, in which a person has excess
abdominal fat, is a major risk factor not only for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but also for heart
and blood vessel disease, also called cardiovascular disease (CVD). This excess belly fat produces
hormones and other substances that can cause harmful, chronic effects in the body such as damage to
blood vessels.

3.0.2 Insulin Resistance


Insulin resistance is a common condition in people who are overweight or obese, have excess
abdominal fat, and are not physically active. Muscle, fat, and liver cells stop responding properly to
insulin, forcing the pancreas to compensate by producing extra insulin. As long as beta cells are able to
produce enough insulin, blood glucose levels stay in the normal range. But when insulin production
falters because of beta cell dysfunction, glucose levels rise, leading to pre diabetes or diabetes.

3.0.3 Abnormal Glucose Production by the Liver


In some people with diabetes, an abnormal increase in glucose production by the liver also
contributes to high blood glucose levels. Normally, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon when
blood glucose and insulin levels are low. Glucagon stimulates the liver to produce glucose and release
it into the bloodstream. But when blood glucose and insulin levels are high after a meal, glucagon
levels drop, and the liver stores excess glucose for later, when it is needed. For reasons not completely
understood, in many people with diabetes, glucagon levels stay higher than needed.

3.0.4 Metabolic Syndrome


Metabolic syndrome, also called insulin resistance syndrome, refers to a group of conditions
common in people with insulin resistance, including
higher than normal blood glucose levels
increased waist size due to excess abdominal fat
high blood pressure
abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood
People with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD.

3.0.5 Cell Signaling and Regulation


Cells communicate through a complex network of molecular signaling pathways. For
example, on cell surfaces, insulin receptor molecules capture, or bind, insulin molecules circulating in
the bloodstream. This interaction between insulin and its receptor prompts the biochemical signals that

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enable the cells to absorb glucose from the blood and use it for energy.
Problems in cell signaling systems can set off a chain reaction that leads to diabetes or other diseases.

3.0.6 Beta Cell Dysfunction


Scientists think beta cell dysfunction is a key contributor to type 2 diabetes. Beta cell
impairment can cause inadequate or abnormal patterns of insulin release. Also, beta cells may be
damaged by high blood glucose itself, a condition called glucose toxicity.
Scientists have not determined the causes of beta cell dysfunction in most cases. Single gene defects
lead to specific forms of diabetes called maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The genes
involved regulate insulin production in the beta cells. Although these forms of diabetes are rare, they
provide clues as to how beta cell function may be affected by key regulatory factors.

3.1 RISK FACTORS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES


People who develop type 2 diabetes are more likely to have the following characteristics:
age 45 or older
overweight or obese
physically inactive
parent or sibling with diabetes
history of giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
history of gestational diabetes
high blood pressure140/90 or aboveor being treated for high blood pressure

4.0 SYMPTOMS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES


Type 2 diabetes can cause serious health complications. That's why is very important to know
how to spot type 2 diabetes symptoms. Even pre diabetes can increase the chance of heart disease, just
like type 1 or type 2 diabetes. It is advisable to talk to ones doctor about preventive measures one can
take now to reduce the chance of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

4.0.1 DUE TO HIGH BLOOD SUGAR


The symptoms of type 2 diabetes due to high blood sugar may include:
Increased thirst
Increased hunger (especially after eating)
Dry mouth
Frequent urination
Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)
Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)
Blurred vision
Headaches

4.0.2 OTHER SYMPTOMS


Type 2 diabetes is usually not diagnosed until health complications have occurred. Most often,
there are no diabetes symptoms or a very gradual development of the above symptoms of type 2
diabetes. In fact, about one out of every four people with type 2 diabetes don't know they have it.
Other symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include:
Slow-healing sores or cuts
Itching of the skin (usually around the vaginal or groin area)
Recent weight-gain or unexplained weight loss
Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet
Decreased vision
Impotency

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5.0 ORTHODOX TREATMENT OF DIABETES
Diabetes medications lower blood sugar level and there are a number of different types which
work in different ways. Diabetes medication cannot cure diabetes and most people will have to take it
for the rest of their lives.
The forms of orthodox treatment of treating diabetes type2 are: Oral medication and Surgery.

5.0.1 ORAL MEDICATION


This form of orthodox treatment involves the intake of drugs orally to manage type 2 diabetes.
Research has shown that type2 diabetes cannot be cured but can be managed. The consistent use of
these drugs make the body to effectively use insulin to regulate blood sugar level. Januvia oral, welchol
oral, byetta subcutaneous, lantus subcutaneous and so on are the oral drugs used in the treatment of
type 2 diabetes.

5.0.2 SURGERY
For many years, a variety of obesity surgery procedures applied to the stomach or intestine
have been used as a method of losing weight can help people manage their type2 diabetes. This surgery
also helps in improving blood sugar level and it can:
Change how the hormones in your gut work, which in turn affect how your
body makes insulin.
Increase the amount of bile acids that your body makes. These make your
body cells more sensitive to insulin.
Improve the way the cells use insulin, leading to lower blood sugar levels.

5.1 LIMITATION OF ORTHODOX TREATMENT


Type2 diabetes is a disease which has no permanent cure. For instance, surgical treatment can
lead to the risk of nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia. Another limitation of orthodox treatment is
the need for regular, long-term follow up consultation and monitoring.

6.0 ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT

6.1 THE USE OF Mormodica charantia (Balsam Pear) aND Basil ocinum
(Scent Leaf) as an alternative therapy for managing Type 2 Diabetes

6.2 ADVANTAGES

7.0 CONCLUSION

8.0 RECOMMENDATION

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9.0 REFERENCES

Strategies For Improving Diabetes Care In Nigeria. (2011). Diabetes mellitus, information book for
everyone.

National Institute Of Diabetes And Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). (n.d.). Causes Of Diabetes. Retrieved
July 10,2016, from http;//www.niddk.nih.gov/heaith-information/heaith-topics/Diabetes/causes-
diabetes/Pages/index.aspx

Web MD. (n.d.). Causes of type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved July 3, 2016, from
http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-2-diabetes-guide/diabetes-causes

Diabetes CO UK. (n.d.). Causes of type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved July 4, 2016, from
http://www.diabetes.co.uk/causes-of-type 2-diabetes.html

Hormone Health Network. (n.d.). What causes Diabetes?. Retrieved July 3, 2016, from
http://www.hormone.org/diseases-and-conditions/diabetes/what-causes-diabetes

Diabetes UK Charity Organization. (n.d.). Diabetes. Retrieved on July 4, 2016, from


http://www.diabetes.org.uk