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# Feedback and Control System

## 1. Laplace A transformation that transforms linear differential equations

transformation into algebraic expressions. The transformation is especially useful
for modeling, analyzing, and designing control systems as well as
solving linear differential equations.
2. Actuating signal The signal that drives the controller
3. Closed-loop system A system that monitors its output and corrects for disturbances.
It is characterized by feedback paths from the output.
4. Controller The subsystem that generates the input to the plant or process.
5. Disturbance/Noise An unwanted signal that corrupts the input or output of a plant
or process.
6. Error The difference between the input and the output of a system.
7. Feedback A path through which a signal flows back to a previous signal in
the forward path in order to be added or subtracted.
8. Plant or process The subsystem whose output is being controlled by the system.
9. Residue The constants in the numerators of the terms in a partial-fraction
expansion.
10. Evans developed a graphical technique to plot the roots of a
characteristic equation of a feedback system
11. Minorsky It was his theoretical development applied to the automatic
steering of ships that led to what we call today proportional-plus-
integral-plus-derivative (PID), or three-mode, controllers
12. James Watt Invented the flyball speed governor to control the speed of steam
engines

PART II.

10pts

## [ t+t 2 ] u ( t1 ) =[ ( t 1+ 1 )+ ( t1+1 )2 ] u(t1)

[ ( t1 ) +1+ ( t1 )2+ ( 2 ( t1 ) ) +1 ] u(t 1)

[ ( t1 )2+ 3 ( t 1 ) +2 ] u(t1)

## L [ ( t1 )2 u(t 1)+ 3 (t1 ) u(t1)+2u (t1) ]

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

2 es 3 es 2 es s 2 3 2 es
F s= 3 + 2 +
( )
s s s
=e 3
+ 2 + = 3 (2 s 2+3 s+2)
s s s s ( )

2 2 t
Find L aplace of f ( t )=t e cos ( 3 t)

10pts

(3 t)
s
cos =
( ) 2
s +9
L

2 d2 F (s )
t 2 f ( t )=(1 )
d s2
L

2
t f ( t )=(1 )
2
d
2
( s s+ 9 ) ; u=s ; du=1; v=s +9 ; dv=2 s
2
2
2
ds
L

vduudv [ ( s +9 ) ( 1 ) ][ ( s )( 2 s ) ] s2 +9
2
2
F ' ( s )= 2
= 2
= 2 2
; u=s 2 +9 ; du=2 s ; v =( s 2+ 9 ) ; dv=2 ( s2 +9 ) (2 s)
v 2
( s +9 ) ( s +9 )

(s2 +9 ) 2
[( s2 +9 ) ][]

2 s ( s 2+ 9 )
2
vduudv ( s 2 +9 ) (2 s ) (s 2 +9)2 ( s2 +9 ) (2 s)
F ' ' ( s )= = =
v2 4
( s 2+ 9 )
Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

## '' 2 s [s2 9+2 s 218 ] 3

2 s 54 s
F ( s) = 3
= 3
( s2 +9 ) ( s 2 +9 )

t
3
2 s 54 s
e2t ( 2 cos ( 3 t))= 3
; s (s +2)
( s2 + 9 )
L

t
3
2t 2 ( s +2 ) 54 ( s+ 2 )
e ( 2 cos ( 3 t))= 3
( ( s +2 )2 +9 )
L

6pts

## f ( t )=5 u ( 12 t )= 1a F ( as )=5 ( 11 )( 21s )= 5s

2

1
a=
2

1
F( s)=
s

F ( as )= ( 1s )= 21s
( 12 )

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

Solution:

s
[ 2 V ( s )s v ( 0 ) v ' (0)]
d2 v (t )
L[ ]=
dt2

d v (t )
L[ ]=[s V ( s ) v (0)]
dt

L [ v ( t ) ] =V ( s)

s
3s
[ 2 V ( s )s v ( 0 ) v '(0)]+2 [s V ( s )v (0)]+10V (s)= ; but :v ( 0)=1, v ' (0)=2
s 2+ 4

s

3s
+2[s V ( s )1]+10 V (s )=
s 2+ 4

s

3s
+2 s V ( s ) 2+ 10V ( s)= 2
s +4

s
3s
[ 2+2 s+10]V ( s )= +s
s 2 +4

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

s
3
s +7 s
[ 2+2 s+10]V ( s )= 2
s +4

s
s
[ 2+ 4][ 2+ 2 s+10]

s 3 +7 s
V ( s )=

s
s
s
s
( 2+2 s +10)
Cs+D
( 2+4)+

As+B
( 2+4 )( 2+2 s+10)=

s3 +7 s
V ( s )=

s
s
s
s
( 2+ 2 s+10)
Cs+ D
( 2+ 4)+

s
s
( 2+ 2 s+10)
( 2+ 4)
As+ B
( 2+4 )( 2+2 s+10)=

s 3+7 s
V ( s )=

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

s
( 2+2 s+ 10)
s
( 2+4)
( Cs+D )
( As+B ) +
s 3+7 s=

s
s
s
s
( 2+4 )
( 2+ 4)+ D
( 2+2 s+ 10)+Cs
( 2+2 s +10)+ B
s3 +7 s=As

s 3 :1=A +C ; 1C=A

## s : 7=10 A+2 B+4 C ; 7=10 ( 1C ) +2 B+ 4 C ;3=2 B6 C eq .2

constant :0=10 B+ 4 D eq .3

B C k
1 2 2
2 6 3
10 0 0

6 17 15 9
B= ; C= ; D= ; A=
13 26 13 26

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

s
s
( 2+2 s +10)
Cs+ D
( 2+4 )+

As+ B
V ( s) =

s
s
( 2+2 s +10)
17 15
s
26 13
( 2+4 )+

9 6
s+
26 13
V ( s )=

s
s
( 2+ 2 s+10)
17
s15
2
( 2+4 )+

9
s +6
2

1
V ( s )=
13

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

s
s
s
s
( 2+2 s+10)
15
( 2+2 s+10)

[ ]
17
s
2
( 2+4)+

6
( 2+ 4)+

9
s
2

1
V ( s )=
13

s
s
( 2+4 )+
17
[ s
2 ( s+ 1 )2 + 9 ][

15
( s +1 )2+ 9 ]
3( 2)
( 2+4 )+

9
s
2

1
V ( s )=
13

s
s
( 2+4 )+
[
17 ( s+1)1
2 ( s+1 )2+9 ][

15
( s+1 )2 +9 ]
3 (2)
( 2+ 4)+
9
s
2

1
V ( s )=
13

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

s
s
( 2+4 )+
[
17 ( s+ 1)
2

1
2 ( s+1 ) +9 ( s+1 ) +92

15
][
( s+ 1 )2+ 9 ]
3(2)
( 2+4)+
9
s
2

1
V ( s )=
13

s
s

( 2+4 )+
17
2 [( ( s+1 )
2
( s+1 ) +9 )(
1
) ] [(
2
3
( s+1 ) +9 3

5 ( 3)
( s+ 1 )2+ 9 )]
3(2)
( 2+4)+

9s
2
1
V ( s) =
13
1
L

(3 t)
t
e sin
9
2
cos ( 2 t )+3 sin ( 2 t )+
17 t
2 [
( e cos (3 t)) 1 [5 et sin (3 t)]
3 ]
1
v ( t )=
13

v ( t )= [
1 9
13 2
17 17
cos ( 2t ) +3 sin (2 t )+ et cos ( 3 t ) et sin(3 t)[ 5 et sin ( 3 t) ]
2 6 ]

v ( t )= [
1 9
13 2
17 47
cos ( 2t ) +3 sin (2 t )+ et cos ( 3 t ) et sin(3 t )
2 6 ]

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

Solution:

d x (t )
L[ ]=[s X ( s )x (0)]
dt

t
X ( s)
L x dt =
0 s

X ( s) 4
2 [ s X ( s ) x ( 0 ) ] +5 X ( s ) +3 ( )
s
+ = 2
4
s s +16
; x ( 0 )=1

X(s) 4
2 [ s X ( s ) 1 ]+5 X ( s ) +3 ( )s
+ = 2
4
s s +16

[ 2 s+5+
3
s ] 4
X ( s )2+ = 2
4
s s +16

[ ]
2
2 s + 5 s+ 3 ( ) 4 4
X s= 2 +2
s s +16 s

[ ]
2
2 s + 5 s+ 3 ( ) 4 2 s4
s
X s= 2
s +16
+
s ( )
2

[ ]
2
2 s + 5 s+ 3 4 s +( 2 s4)(s +16)
X ( s) = 2
s (s + 16)s

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

3 2

[ ]
2
2 s + 5 s+ 3 4 s +( 2 s +32 s4 s 64 )
X ( s) = 2
s (s +16) s

3 2

[ s
X s=]
2 s 2+ 5 s+ 3 ( ) (2 s 4 s +36 s64)
(s 2+ 16)s

)[ ]
s ( 2 s 34 s 2+ 36 s64 )
X ( s )=
(2
2 s +5 s +3 ( s 2 +16 ) s

X ( s )=
[ ( 2 s34 s2 +36 s64 )
2 2
(2 s +5 s +3) ( s +16 ) ]
( 2 s 34 s 2 +36 s64 )
X ( s )=
( s+1 ) (2 s +3) ( s 2+16 )

## ( 2 s 34 s 2 +36 s64 ) A B Cs+ D

X ( s )= = + + 2
2
( s+1 ) (2 s +3) ( s +16 ) ( s+ 1 ) 2 s+ 3 s +16

Take A :

( 2 s3 4 s2 +36 s64 ) A
2
=
( s+ 1 ) (2 s+3) ( s +16 ) s+1 )
(

( 2 s3 4 s2 +36 s64 )
= A s 1
(2 s+ 3) ( s2 +16 )

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

106
=A
17 s 1

Take B :

( 2 s3 4 s2 +36 s64 ) B
=
( s+ 1 ) (2 s+3) ( s +16 ) 2 s +3
2

( 2 s3 4 s2 +36 s64 )
=B 3
( s +1 ) ( s 2+ 16 ) s
2

1070
=B
73

## ( 2 s 34 s 2+ 36 s64 )= A ( 2 s +3 ) ( s 2 +16 ) + B ( s +1 ) ( s 2+16 ) +Cs ( s +1 )( 2 s+3 ) + D ( s +1 ) (2 s +3)

s 3 : 2=2 A +B+ 2C

116
=C
1241

s 2 :4=3 A +B+ 5C +2 D

320
=D
1241

A B Cs+D
X ( s )= + + 2
( s +1 ) 2 s +3 s +16

Engr. DJ AMORA
Feedback and Control System
Quiz 1 Laplace Transform

## 106 1070 116 320

s+
17 73 1241 1241
X ( s )= + +
( s+1 ) 2 s +3 2
s +16

[ ] [( ) ]
106 1070 1 116 320
s+
17 73 2 1241 1241
X ( s )= + +
( s +1 ) 2 s+3 1 2
s +16
2

[ ][ ]
106 1070 116 320
s
17 146 1241 1241
X ( s )= + 2 + 2
( s +1 ) 3 s +16 s +16
s+
2

4
2
s +16
80

1241
)]
1
L X ( s) =
106
[ ( )] [
1
17 ( s +1 )
+
1070 1
146
s+
3
2

116

( )] [
s
1241 s2 +16
+
( )]

80
sin ( 4 t)
1241
]
][ ][
3
x ( t )= [ 106 t 1070
17
e +
146
e 2
t

116
1241 ]
cos ( 4 t ) +

Engr. DJ AMORA