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30-01-2017

DESIGN OF BRIDGES

PART I : INTRODUCTION

PART I : BASICS

Bridge Definition
Types of Bridge
Bridge Components & its Function
Types of Superstructure & its Suitability
Formulation of Carriageway
Vertical Clearances
Substructure
Foundation
Force Flow

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WHAT IS A BRIDGE?

Bridge is a structure which covers a gap to carry a free flow of transport.


Bridge is the most significant component of a transportation system in
case of communication over spacing/gaps for whatever reason such as :
o aquatic obstacles,
o valleys and gorges etc.
Bridge is KEY ELEMENT in a Transport System which carries the heaviest
responsibility
Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a natural or artificial
obstacle like
o A River,
o A Canal or
o Another Railway or Another Road

WHAT IS A BRIDGE?

Bridges are expensive. The typical cost per mile of a bridge is many times
that of the approach roads to the bridge.

If the Bridge Fails, the System Fails


The importance of a Bridge can be visualized by considering the comparison
between the two main components of a highway system i.e. a road and bridge itself.

EXAMPLE: A damage in a road makes a sort of inconvenience but it wont result in


stopping of traffic flow, but in a bridge damage/fails, traffic cant passed and is danger to
life also.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


(AASHTO)
Bridges = Any structure having an opening not less than 6100 mm (20ft) that forms
part of a highway or that is located over or under a highway

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TYPES OF BRIDGES

BY TRAFFIC THEY CARRY/


OBSTACLES THEY CROSS

TYPES OF ROAD BRIDGES

River Bridge
A bridge to fill the gap of road at river

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TYPES OF ROAD BRIDGES

Railway over Bridge


A road is passing over the railway track
Allows the uninterrupted passage of the
vehicular traffic

TYPES OF ROAD BRIDGES

Flyover
a high-level overpass that crosses over a highway interchange or
intersection
At the busy junction of roads, any of the road is elevated by a bridge

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TYPES OF ROAD BRIDGES

Railway Bridges
A bridges to carry
railway load to cross a
river, road, etc..

Delhi Metro

Las-Vegas-
Monorail

TYPES OF ROAD BRIDGES

Pedestrian Bridges
This is a structure that removes pedestrians from a vehicle roadway. This
creates a road junction where vehicles and pedestrians do not interact.

Foot over Bridge Sky Walk Sub Way


A bridge designed for A covered bridge of An underpass for
pedestrians to cross over considerable length say pedestrians and/or cyclists
the busy and wide @1km, for efficient beneath a road or railway,
roadways. dispersal of commuters allowing them to reach the
from congested area to other side in safety
strategic locations.

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BY THE TRAFFIC THEY CARRY

Aqueducts
a bridge that is constructed to convey
water over an obstacle, such as a valley
commonly used by Romans

BY THE TRAFFIC THEY CARRY

This is too !!!!!!!!!!!

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BRIDGE CATEGORY AS PER LENGTH

CULVERT : Length less than 6m


Minor Bridge : Length 6m to 60m
Major Bridge : Length more than 60m

Terminologies used in Bridges

Typical Elevation of Bridge

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Components of Bridge

Components of Bridges

Superstructures
Various Type of Bridge Superstructures
Solid slab type
Voided slab type
PSC Box
T beam Deck Slab Type

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INTRODUCTION
Development of Superstructures
Various shapes of the superstructure are being used : Solid Slab, Voided
Slab, Box Girder, Girder Slab.
One may choose the simplest one for particular need, which gives the
simplicity in construction, analysis & design and which gives good aesthetic
look.
However one may have to compromise to satisfy the project specific
requirement. (cost, construction speed, construction type..)

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BASIC TYPES OF SUPERSTRUCTURE

Solid Slab type


Superstructure

Voided Slab type


Superstructure

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Basic Types of Superstructure

Box Girder type


Superstructure

T Girder Deck Slab type


Superstructure

BASIC TYPES OF SUPERSTRUCTURE


SOLID SLAB :

Simple form of superstructure


Easy formwork, concreting and laying of reinforcement
Low unit cost of formwork, concrete & reinforcement.
Reliability and speed of construction
Slabs allows to reduce the depth of superstructure and provides a flat soffit
Limited to used up to span of 10m/ depth of 800-900mm
When thickness of slab exceeds, the cot of carrying additional weight tends to
outweigh its virtue of simplicity.

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BASIC TYPES OF SUPERSTRUCTURE


When slab thickness exceeds, its weight starts to become excessive
Basic principle to keep the bottom stress within permissible limits, one can
remove some of the concrete around the neutral axis and thus reducing the
weight of the slab.

BASIC TYPES OF SUPERSTRUCTURE

VOIDED SLAB :
Need of the greater depth for larger span shall be satisfied.
By introducing voids, the essential simplicity of the slab is sacrificed.
The cost of voids, including the measures taken to hold them steady during
concreting and to resist the up-thrust of the wet concrete, is as much as the
cost of concrete saved.
Also greater labour required
Unit cost of reinforcement/prestressing steel will be increased.
The principle benefits are greater deck efficiency and lower weight, leading to
economies in the r/f and savings in foundations.
Used up to prestressed span of 30/35m

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BASIC TYPES OF SUPERSTRUCTURE


When slab thickness exceeds, its weight starts to become excessive
Basic principle to keep the bottom stress within permissible limits, one can
remove some of the concrete around the neutral axis and thus reducing the
weight of the slab.

BASIC TYPES OF SUPER STRUCTURE


BOX GIRDER :
The logical conclusion of development of voided slab is box girder
Box girder is voided slab with rectangular voids
Bit slow, labour-intensive and risk prone construction procedure
Virtually impossible to cast in single pour
The bottom slab is cast first with a kicker for the webs
Webs are cast with top rough surface with projecting r/f in to top slab
Then top slab (deck) is cast.
As cross section is slim, the self wt. is reduced, due to close form shape higher
degree of stiffness can be achieved.
Very much suitable for long spans of 40-50m, having plan curvature.

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BASIC TYPES OF SUPER STRUCTURE


For medium range of span (15 to 35m) or for straight span, the lateral stiffness
due to bottom part of slab can be omitted.
The removal of soffit slab from box girder gives reduction in the self wt..

BASIC TYPES OF SUPER STRUCTURE

T BEAM DECK SLAB :

The removal of soffit slab of box girder results in the web to act as an
individual girder connected at top with deck slab.
Most suitable for pre cast construction and launching.
Girder can be pre cast and launched in position
Casting of in situ deck over these girders forms girder-slab type
superstructure.
Girder depth should be restricted to control slenderness or over toppling
during erection.

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Components of Bridges

SELECTION CRITERIA OF SUPERSTRUCTURE

1. Spans upto 10m. R.C.C. solid slab.


2. Spans - 10m to 20m R.C.C. Multi-girder slab system.
3. Spans - 20m.to 30m P.S.C. Girder/Box type superstructure.
4. Span - 30m to 40m P.S.C. Box girder / PSC T-Girder
5. Span above 40 to 50m PSC Box
6. Span above 50 Long span Bridges
i. Truss Bridges
ii. Suspension Bridges
iii. Cable stayed Bridges
iv. Bow String Girder type Bridges etc.

CARRIAGEWAY FORMATION

Road Bridges
The most common type of bridge, carry vehicular and
cargo traffic of various intensities.
Based on the traffic requirement, they may be of 4
Lanes,6 Lanes.,
May have footpaths for pedestrians if bridge crosses a
river.

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BASIC TYPES OF SUB STRUCTURE

Various Type of Substructures


Abutment
o Cantilever wall type RCC
o Gravity type PCC
o Counter fort type
o Spill through type
Piers
o Wall type
o Circular type
o Semi circular type
o Y-shape type
Wing wall / Return wall
o Cantilever wall type RCC and PCC
o Counter fort type
o Box type
o RE Wall
o Gabion Wall

BASIC TYPES OF SUB STRUCTURE

Cross Section of Pier with Pile Foundation Cross Section of counterfort


Abutment

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BASIC TYPES OF SUB STRUCTURE

Wall type Abutment

Counterfort type Abutment

BASIC TYPES OF SUB STRUCTURE

Circular Type Pier


Wall type Pier

Column Bent Pier

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Components of Bridges

Mechanically Stabilised Wall


(Reinforced Earth Wall)

BASIC TYPES OF SUB STRUCTURE


Shallow Foundations

1. Open foundations : Hard Strata is met at Shallow Depth


or depth of foundation is upto 5 to 6 m.

2. Raft foundations : Foundation Strata is weak having low


SBC

Deep Foundations

1. Pile Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow


depth and scour depth is considerable.

2. Well Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow


depth, scour depth is considerable
and foundation is in water (may be river,
sea).

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Components of Bridges

Railing:
Railing are provided for safety of pedestrian / vehicles passing over
the bridge as well as under the bridge in the case of Flyover.
Following are the commonly used Railing/Crash barrier.
o R.C.C. anti crash barrier
o Metallic anti crash barriers
o RCC Parapet
o Pipe railing

Crash Barrier Metalic Anti Crash RCC Parapet


Barrier

Components of Bridges

Safety Kerb:
Safety Kerb is a roadway kerb and it is occasionally used for
pedestrian traffic. The width of safety kerb is taken as 0.75m.

Safety Kerb
Footpath:
Footpath is generally provided on bridges in urban areas for safe
crossings of the pedestrians.
It may be either cast-in-situ or precast.
Width of the footpath is normally 1.5m.

Footpath

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TYPICAL SUPER STRUCTURE CROSS SECTION : Exercise - II

Draw a typical cross section of T Beam Deck Slab


type Super Structure for a River Bridge

Having : Footpath, Kerb, Crash Barrier and RCC


Parapet

TYPICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE COMPONENT

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REFERENCES

Design Codes

IRC : 5

IRC : 6

IRC : 112

IRC : 78

Reference Books

Essential of Bridge Engineering : D. Johnson Victor

Design of Bridges : N. Krishna Raju

Bridge Engineering : Ponnuswamy

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