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KERJA PRAKTEK - TL 141376

ANALYSIS OF 1 D STEADY STATE THERMAL


CONDUCTION ON LADLE REFRACTORIES WALL
IN PT. KRAKATAU STEEL

GREGGY PRAISVITO ROMADHONI


NRP 2713 100 099

ASAD JABBAR NURU


NRP 2713 100 128

Dosen Pembimbing
Dian Mughni Felicia, S.T, M.Sc

Pembimbing Lapangan
Hidayatul A, S.T
Vickry N, S.T
Widi S, S.T

JURUSAN TEKNIK MATERIAL DAN METALURGI


FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER
SURABAYA 2016

i1
KERJA PRAKTEK TL141376

ANALYSIS OF 1 D STEADY STATE THERMAL


CONDUCTION ON LADLE REFRACTORIES WALL
IN PT. KRAKATAU STEEL

GREGGY PRAISVITO ROMADHONI


NRP 2713 100 099

ASAD JABBAR NURU


NRP 2713 100 128

Dosen Pembimbing
Dian Mughni Felicia, S.T, M.Sc

Pembimbing Lapangan
Hidayatul A, S.T
Vickry N, S.T
Widi S, S.T

JURUSAN TEKNIK MATERIAL DAN METALURGI


FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER
SURABAYA 2016

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Teknik Material dan Metallurgi 2
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember
PREFACE

Alhamdulillahirobbil alamin, Praise is merely to the Almighty Allah SWT for the gracious mercy and
tremendous blessing that enables us to accomplish this Report of Practical Work. This report to documentation
for practical work in PT. Krakatau Steel.

We would to like to express our special appreciation to our advisor, Mrs Dian Mugni Felicia for the valuable
assistance and inspiration to the completion this report.

We would like to deep appreciate with our other advisor, Mr Hidayatul A. , Mr Vickry N. , Mr Arsy and Mr Widi
S. Thank you for support and assistance to finish our practical work.

We also would like to express our deep gratitude for the assistance, Mrs Yuyun Jumaliah as Coordinator Training
and Mr Beno Supriyadi as Head of Division.

In arranging this report, the writer truly get lots challenges and obstructions but with help of many individuals,
those obstructions could passed. Writer also realized there are still many mistakes in process of writing this
report. Thus, the writer says thank you to all individuals who helps in the process of writing this report.
Hopefully Allah replies all helps and bless you all. The writer realized that this report still imperfect in
arrangement and the content. Then the writer hope the criticism from the readers can help the writer in
perfecting the next report. Last but not the least, hopefully this report can helps the readers to gain more
knowledge about practical work and deep knowledge that related.

Cilegon,
August 15th 2016

Authors

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CONTENT

CONTENT...........................................................................................................
FIGURE LIST......................................................................................................
TABLE LIST.......................................................................................................
CHAPTER...........................................................................................................
INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................
I.1 BACKGROUND 10
I.2 Problems Identification 11
I.3 Problems Limitation and assumption 12
I.4 Objectives of Report 12
I.5 Benefits 12
CHAPTER II COMPANY PROFILE..................................................................
2. 1 A Brief History of The Company 14
2.2 Companys Vision, Mission and Culture 16
2.3 Company Plant Site 18
2.4 General Production Process at PT. Krakatau Steel 19
2.5. Units Production in PT. Krakatau Steel 21
2.6. Companys Board. 37
2.7. Employment System in PT Krakatau Steel 39
CHAPTER III LITERATURE BACKGROUND.................................................

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3.1 Transport Phenomena 42
3.2 Thermal Conduction 43
3.3 Convection 45
3.4 Thermal Radiation 46
3.5 Heat Transfer and Fouriers law 47
3.6 Steady State Condition 50
3.7 One- Dimensional Steady State Heat Transfer with No
Internal Generation 50
3.8 Heat Conduction of Cylindrical Wall 52
CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION AND CALCULATION........................................
4.1 Data Analysis 56
4.3 Discussion 84
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION..........................................
5.1. Conclusion 92
5.2. Suggestion 93
REFRENCES.......................................................................................................

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FIGURE L
Figure 2. 1.PT Krakatau Steel on Java Map.........................................................
Figure 2. 2 General Process Production in PT. Krakatau Steel
.............................................................................................................................
Figure 2. 3 Direct Reduction Plant Process Production........................................
Figure 2. 4 Billet Steel Plant Process Production.................................................
Figure 2. 5 Slab Steel Plant Process Production...................................................
Figure 2. 6 Hot Strip Mill Process Production.....................................................
Figure 2. 7 Cooling Rod Mill Process Production................................................
Figure 2. 8 Wire Rod Process Production............................................................
Figure 2. 9 PT Krakatau Steels Organization Structure.......................................
YY
Figure 3. 1. Kinds of Heat Transfer Mechanism...................48
Figure 3. 2 Conduction Phenomena on Rod Material...........49
Figure 3. 3. Heat distribution on Wall with No Internal Heat
Generation............................................................................51
Figure 3. 4 Heat Transfer with Internal Heat Generation, (a)
Heat Generated at Edge of Wall (b) Heat Generated at Centre
of Wall..................................................................................51
...................Figure 3. 5 Illustration Heat Transfer on Wall 1
..............................................................................................52
Figure 3. 6 Illustration Heat Transfer on Wall 2...................52
Figure 3. 7 Thermal Resistance Circuit Illustration on Hollow
Cylindrical Material..............................................................55
Figure 4. 8 Illustration of Temperature Distribution 187 mm
Mg-O Brock with no Additional Insulation..........................62
Figure 4. 9 Illustration of Case 187mm Mg-O Brick with 1
Additional Insulation............................................................64
Figure 4. 10 Temperature Distribution on 197 mm Mg-O brick
with 1 additional Insulation...................................................66

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Figure 4. 11 Illustration of Case 187mm Mg-O Brick with 2
Additional Insulation............................................................67
Figure 4. 12 Illustration of Temperature Distribution 187mm
Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional Insulation.............................69
Figure 4. 13 Illustration of Case 100mm Mg-O Brick with 2
Additional Insulation............................................................70
Figure 4. 14 Ilustration of 100 mm Mg-O brick wall with 2
additional insulation( after 100 heat cycles ).........................72
Figure 4. 15 Illustration of Case 187mm Alu 80 Brick with no
Additional Insulation............................................................73
Figure 4. 16. Illustration of Thermal Distribution on 187 mm
Alu 80 with no additional insulation.....................................74
Figure 4. 17 Illustration of Case 100mm Alu 80 Brick with no
Additional.............................................................................75
Figure 4. 18 Illustration Temperature Distribution on 100mm
Alu 80 with no Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat)..........77
Figure 4. 19. Illustration of Case 187mm Alu 80 Brick with 2
Additional Insulation............................................................78
Figure 4. 20 Illustration of Distribution Temperature 100mm
Alu 80 Brick with 2 Additional.............................................80
Figure 4. 21. Illustration of Case 100 mm Alu 80 Brick with 2
Additional Insulation............................................................81
Figure 4. 22. Illustration of Distribution Heat Transfer on
100mm Alu 80 Brick with 2 Additional Insulation...............82
Figure 4. 23 Q loss on Several Cases 1 - 4............................87
Figure 4. 24 Q loss on Several Cases 5 -8.............................89

TABLE LIST
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Table 4. 1 Conduction Thermal Resistance Calculation on 187
mm Mg-O with no Additional Insulation.............................................................
Table 4. 2 Convection Thermal Resistance Calculation and
Heat Loss on 187 mm Mg-O with no Additional Insulation................................
Table 4. 3 Temperature Distribution Calculation.................................................
Table 4. 4 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on 187
mm Mg-O brick with 1 additional insulation.......................................................
Table 4. 5 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance and
heat loss on 187mm Mg-O brick 1 additional insulation......................................
Table 4. 6 Calculation Temperature Distribution on 187 mm
Mg-O brick with 1 Additional Insulation...........................................................
Table 4. 7 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on
187mm Mg-O Brick with 2 additional insulation................................................
Table 4. 8 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance and
Heat Loss on 187 mm Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional
Insulation.............................................................................................................
Table 4. 9 Temperature Distribution Calculation on 187mm
Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional Insulation............................................................
Table 4. 10 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on
100mm Mg-O Brick Wall with 2 additional insulation (after
100 heat cycles)...................................................................................................
Table 4. 11 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance on
100mm Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100
heat cycle)............................................................................................................
Table 4. 12. Temperature Distribution 100mm Mg-O Brick
with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycle).............................................
Table 4. 13 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on
187 mm Alu 80 with no additional Insulation......................................................
Table 4. 14 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance on
187 mm Alu 80 with no Additional Insulation.....................................................

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Table 4. 15 Temperature Distribution on 187 mm Alu 80 with
no Additional Insulation.......................................................................................
Table 4. 16 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on
100 mm Alu 80 with no Additional Insulation (after 100 heat )
.............................................................................................................................
Table 4. 17 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance on
100 Alu 80 with no Additional Insulation (after 100 heat ).................................
Table 4. 18 Temperature Distribution on 100 mm Alu 80 with
no Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat).............................................................
Table 4. 19 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance , 187
mm Alu 80 with 2 Additional Insulation..............................................................
Table 4. 20 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance , 187
mm Alu 80 with 2 Additional Insulation..............................................................
Table 4. 21 Calculation Temperature Distribution on 187....................................
Table 4. 22. Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on
100 mm Alu 80 with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat
cycles)..................................................................................................................
Table 4. 23. Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance on
100mm Alu 80 with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat
cycles)..................................................................................................................
Table 4. 24 Temperature Distribution 100mm Alu 80 with 2
Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycles)......................................................
Table 4. 25 Details of Data case 1-4.....................................................................
Table 4. 26 Details Data of case 4-to 8.................................................................

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CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
I.1 BACKGROUND
In recent years, the advance manufacturing technology
always leads to increase efficiency in production, reduce
energy using, and increase productivity to meet costumers
demand. PT. Krakatau Steel is the largest steel company and
was the first integrated steel industry in Indonesia.

A Company always needs development and innovation


for maintaining its marketplace. One of important factor is
human resources. Educational Institutes are one of responsible
institution to produce competitive human resources. For
supporting competitive human resources, PT Krakatau Steel
always supports educational institutes to send their student to
get some experiences in PT Krakatau Steel. The program is
called industrial work practice.

PT Krakatau Steel as steel industry is perfect place for


studying because the writers are material and metallurgical
engineering students. There are lot of metallurgical
engineering sectors that related to steelmaking processes, such
as: extraction metallurgy, iron and steelmaking process,
momentum transfer, mass transfer, heat transfer, casting
process, melting process, and etc.

There are lot of problems in metallurgical engineering


that we found in PT Krakatau Steel, but one of topics that we
choose, heat transfer in ladle. Ladle is a reactor to prepare the
composition of molten steel, in ladle furnace the molten steel
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is prepared to be ready for casting process in continuous
casting machine. In ladle furnace to maintain the steel in
liquid phases, heat is given to molten steel. Huge amount of
heat is introduced to molten steel that leads as driving force
for heat transfer occurrence. If the heat is not insulated, it will
lead to damage ladle wall and accidents will happen such as
wall breakage, explosion, etc.

Refractories are materials used for insulating heat transfer


occurrence. It will reduce distribution of heat in ladle wall. If
heat in molten steel is reduced it will lead reduction in process
heat loss. If heat loss is reduced it will lead to production
efficiency.

There are several analysis must be conducted to measure


heat transfer in ladle furnace wall. In this report we are
focusing to analyse heat transfer in ladle wall. The method
that we use in this report is one dimension heat transfer
analysis, with several limitation such as steady state condition
and cylindrical ladle. This report purpose is to analyse, solve,
and compare heat transfer in several refractory materials that
will give best temperature distribution and least energy loss in
PT. Krakatau Steels ladle furnace refractories wall.

I.2 Problems Identification


According the problem mentioned above, there are
several problems as follows:

1. How to analyse steady state conduction in ladle


furnace wall on X-axis direction

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2. How is temperature distribution in refractories
insulating system

3. How to determine the best insulation system

4. What do we need to reduce heat loss in ladle furnace

I.3 Problems Limitation and assumption


There are limitation of problem in these cases

1. The assumption condition of heat transfer is in steady


state condition

2. The assumption of heat transfer only in X-axis


direction

3. The analysis only applies for PT. Krakatau Steel ladle


refractories wall

I.4 Objectives of Report


1. To analyse 1-dimension steady state conduction in
ladle furnace wall

2. To determine temperature distribution in insulating


system

3. To determine which one insulting system that give the


best result

4. To understand factors to reduce heat loss

I.5 Benefits
1. Understand heat transfer system and calculation in PT
Krakatau Steel ladle furnace

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2. Give a preview to choose best insulating system

3. Give a knowledge about process in PT Krakatau Steel


for university student

4. Strengthen relationship between PT. Krakatau Steel


and Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology

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CHAPTER II
COMPANY PROFILE

2. 1 A Brief History of The Company


PT. Krakatau Steel is the largest steel company and was
the first integrated steel industry in Indonesia. PT. Krakatau
Steel is a BUMN (Company owned by Government) that is
located in Cilegon, Banten. The company was established on
August 31, 1970 by the Indonesian Government Regulation
No. 35 of 1970. The idea of the establishment of the steel
industry is derived from the Prime Minister Ir. Juanda in
1956. However, this idea was built only in 1960 with the
signing of the construction contract between RI Steel Cilegon
with All Export Import Corporation (Tjazpromex Pert) of
Moscow with the contract number 080 dated June 7, 1960.

Previous effort to build a steel industry in the country has


actually started with making two join projects, namely Project
Lampung Iron and Steel Project Cilegon. Iron produced in
Lampung is melted together with scrap metal (scrap) in
Cilegon and steel produced in the further is processed into
iron concrete, metal profiles and wire. Unfortunately Iron
Project Lampung was terminated because the raw materials
come from local iron ore are not enough, while Steel Cilegon
project had been halted because of the rebellious action
G30S / PKI.

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On August 30, 1970 via PP 35 1970 Steel Cilegon Plant
turned into legal form Limited Liability Company (PT) named
PT. Krakatau Steel. On October 23, 1971 PT. Krakatau Steel
legal certificate is signed before a notary.

With the help of the British consultant, PT. Krakatau


Steel make a change of plans to cancel the installation of
steel-smelting furnace because the technology is not sufficient
enough. While the former Russian assistance projects is not
yet completed, PT. Krakatau Steel with assistance from
Pertamina in 1974 decided to expand production in order to
make the billet, even make steel sheet, slab and hot strip.

The technology for making iron in PT. Krakatau Steel


was chosen with direct reduction process HYL and EAF
(Electric Arc Furnace) was chosen for melting process with
import iron ore and scrap as the charging materials. Increasing
steel production capacity from beginning plan 100.000
ton/years is elevated to 500.000 ton/ years for billet steel,
1,500.000 ton/years for slab steel.

According projection of demand of steel in Indonesia


and negotiation with contractors from Germany, The plan of
long term development of PT. Krakatau Steel was planned
from 1975-1985. Development and improvement of PT.
Krakatau Steel is still on going until present day according to
those major plans. In 1983 HSM (Hot Strip Mill) plant was
constructed, 1985 for CRM (Cold Rolled Mill).

On November 10, 1990 first ground breaking for


expansion PT Krakatau Steel was held by Ir. Tungky
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Ariwibowo as president director of PT. Krakatau Steel. This
expansion project was planned for completed in 1993/1994.
There are several projects for expansion with the list: sponge
iron plant, DRI HYL-III, SSP, and HSM. The main purpose
for expansion and revitalization plant in PT. Krakatau Steel
are listed below:

1. Increasing production capacity from 1, 5 million


/years up to 2, 5 million ton/years.

2. Improve the product quality.

3. Diversity of steel products.

4. Production efficiency.

Second ground breaking for expansion project in the first


period of establishment PT. Krakatau Steel was held on
February18st 1983 which is included:

1. Expansion and Revitalization Hot Strip Mill


Plant (1,2 million 2 million ton/years).

2. Improve product quality of Hot Strip Mill Plant.

3. Expansion pellet port (increasing loading


capacity from 3 million ton/years to 6 million
ton/years ).

2.2 Companys Vision, Mission and Culture


2.2.1. Companys Vision

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PT Krakatau Steel has a vision as An integrated steel
company with competitive edges to grow continuously toward
a leading global enterprise

2.2.2. Companys Mission

PT Krakatau steel has main major mission to be a company


that Providing the best-quality steel products and related
services for the prosperity of the nation .

In other to accomplish that mission PT. Krakatau steel use


strict system quality control and always tries to improve the
quality of its product with commitment to always on time in
delivery service to PT. Krakatau Steels costumers.

Quality control system PT. Krakatau Steel has been


recognized by national board and international standard.
These acknowledgement is proved by ISO 9002, JIS, and SII.
Beside of its quality product, PT Krakatau steel has good
environment quality management which is proved by ISO
14001.

2.2.3. Companys Culture

PT. Krakatau Steel has cultures that listed below:

Competence

Reflects the ability of self-confidence and passion to improve


the knowledge, skills, expertise, and mental attitude for the
sake of continuous performance improvement.

Integrity
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Reflecting the high commitment to any agreements, rules and
regulations and laws that apply, through the loyalty profession
to defend the interests of the company.

Reliable

Reflecting preparedness, speed and responsiveness in


responding to the commitments and promises, with synergizes
the ability to improve customer satisfaction and trust.

Innovative

Reflecting the willingness and ability to create new ideas and


better implementation in improving the quality of the process
and the work above the standard

2.3 Company Plant Site


PT. Krakatau Steel is located about 110 KM from Jakarta
with a total area of 350 hectares. PT. Krakatau Steel is located
in Krakatau Industrial Estate, precisely on Industrial Road No.
5 PO BOX 14 Cilegon 42435. The head office of PT.
Krakatau Steel is located in Wisma Baja, and Gatot Subroto
Jakarta Kav, 54.

As for the plant site selection considerations are as follows:


a. Close to the sea to facilitate loading and unloading
process in the port.
b. Close to the marketing area.
c. The availability of wide area for plant site.
d. The water source is sufficient.

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e. The roads were adequate for transportation.
Based wind direction, PT. Krakatau Steel is limited by:
a. The North is bordered by Krakatau Industrial
Estate.
b. South direction is bordered by Raya Anyer Street.
c. West direction si bordered by Sunda straits.
d. East direction is bordered with Krakatau Industrial
Estate.
Meanwhile, the layout of the factory is well designed to
facilititate all production process, such as:
a. Facilitate transportation lines in plant to support the
production process.
b. Placing all supporting elements near the plant so
the production process can go smoothly.
c. Placing workshops near the plant to facilitate
equipment maintenance and reparation.
d. The road is designed to accommodate industrial
activity

Figure 2. 1.PT Krakatau Steel on Java Map.


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(source: Document PT. KS no 135643)

2.4 General Production Process at PT. Krakatau Steel


PT. Krakatau Steel has six production facilities that
makes this company to be the only integrated steel industry in
Indonesia. Six plant produce various types of steel products
from with different application.
The steel production process in PT. Krakatau Steel starts
from Sponge Iron Plant. This plant process iron ore into iron
pellets using water and natural gas. Iron is then processed
further in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) in the Steel Slab
Plant and Steel Billet Plant. In the EAF, sponge iron is mixed
with scrap iron, hot bricked iron and other additional material
to produce two types of steel called steel slab and billet.
In the next process slab steel will be sent to HSM Plant
(hot stripped mill). Slab is reheated subsequently in reheated
furnace and rolled in sequence roller to form final product
known as hot rolled coils. These products are widely used for
applications in ship construction, plumbing, building, general
construction, and others. Hot rolled coils can be processed
further through rolling process and chemical process in the
CRM (Cold Rolled Mill) Plant into a final product called cold
rolled coil. These products are generally used for applications
inside and outside the motor vehicle, cans, household
appliances, and so forth.
Meanwhile, billet steel will go to rolling process in wire
rod plant to produce steel wire rods, these products are widely
used for applications piano strings, nuts and bolts, steel wire,
spring, and others.

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Figure 2. 2 General Process Production in PT. Krakatau Steel

(source: Document PT. KS no 231578)

2.5. Units Production in PT. Krakatau Steel


PT. Krakatau Steel grows rapidly to become the first
integrated steel industry and the largest in Indonesia. There
are six units of an integrated production as follows

2.5.1. DRP (Direct Reduction Plant)


Sponge iron is the main raw material for making steel that
shape is round, sponge iron is made from raw materials called
iron ore or pellets. Sponge Iron factory is divided into three
plant namely: Sponge Iron Plant (Direct Reduction Iron Plant)
with newly designed HYL III technology.
As for the Sponge Iron Plant with HYL III technology has the
essential components of the following.
Reduction gas generation equipment.

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Reduction equipment.
CO2 absorber system.
Gas reduction system circuit and cooling system
circuit.
Material handling systems for raw materials or
pellets.
Material handling systems results (sponge iron).
Supporting equipment.
The order of the processes that occur are as listed below:
a. Charging
b. Cooling
c. Primary reduction (1000 )
d. Secondary reduction (1000 )
e. Discharging
Sponge iron plants apply technology that process natural
gas and iron ore to make direct reduction iron with HYL
technology from Mexico. These plant produce sponge iron
(Fe) from raw material iron ore pellets (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4),
using natural gas (CH4) and water (H2O). These plants use
natural gas processed by the reformer to form reduction gas
before it is reacted with iron ore.
Sponge iron produced by this plant have advantages over
other similar plants, these advantages is caused mainly due to
the low content of residual waste. High carbon content in DRI
plant causes process in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) to be
more efficient and steel-making process becomes more

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accurate. Those reasons also ensure the perfect quality
product of finished steel in PT. Krakatau Steel.

Figure 2. 3 Direct Reduction Plant Process Production

(source : Document PT. KS no 145378)

2.5.2. Billet Steel Plant


Billet Steel Plant began operating in 1979. The plant is
applying MAN GHH technology from Germany and has
production capacity around 600.000 tons /year.
The production facilities owned by the factory are listed
below:
1. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
EAF produces liquid steel from raw materials such as
sponge iron, scrap iron and lime to control phosphor and
Sulphur.
2. Ladle Furnace
The main activity in the ladle furnace are:
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lowering the oxygen content in steel by using
aluminium.
Homogenization temperature and chemical
composition by argon bubbling.
adding alloy to obtain the desired specifications.
3. Continuous Casting Machine (CCM)
Steel billet obtained from continuous casting process
using argon as protector gas which protection is
formed between the ladle and the tundish. The
resulting billet size dimensions 110x110mm,
120x120mm, 130x130mm and reaches a maximum
length of 12000 mm.
Billet plant produce steel bar with its main raw material
come from sponge, scrap, limestone, alloys (Al, FeMn, and
FeSi). This plant production capacity is around 600,000 tons /
year. Typical type billet produced has the following sizes:
- Cross-section: 120 mm x 120 mm and 130 mm x 130 mm
- Length: 9 meters and 12 meters
Billet plant has a 70 grade steel that were classified into
several groups, namely grade: low carbon, medium carbon
and high carbon. Billet is an intermediate product which can
be processed again into more specific product in next process.
The results of this billet production will be transferred to the
Wire Rod Mill (WRM) to be processed again into wire rod.

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Figure 2. 4 Billet Steel Plant Process Production

(source: Document PT. KS no 253785)

2.5.3. Slab Steel Plant


Steel Slab Plant is a plant to melt sponge iron and scrap
steel. SSP consist two plants that cast molten steel into slab
(sheet), the plants on SSP are listed below:
Slab Steel Plant I
Steel Slab Plant II
The production facilities owned by the two plants are listed
below:
1. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
EAF produces liquid steel from raw materials such as sponge
iron, scrap iron and limestone. Limestone is used to control
phosphor and sulphur.
2. Ladle Furnace
The main activity in the ladle furnace are:

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lowering the oxygen content in steel by using
aluminium.
Homogenization of temperature and chemical
composition by bubbling argon.
adding alloy to obtain the desired specifications.
3. RH-Vacuum Degassing
RH-degasser is required to meet the demand for high quality
steel products with very low carbon content.
4. Continuous Casting Machine (CCM)
Slab steel is obtained from continuous casting process. The
resulting size of the slab is around following data: 200 mm
thickness, 800-2080 mm width and 12000 mm maximum
length.
The plants use the same raw materials with Billet
Steel Plant. The resulting product has the following
sizes:
- Thickness: 200 mm
- Width: 880 mm up to 2080 mm
- Length: max. 12 meters
- Weight: max. 30 ton
The plant is equipped with 6 units Electric Arc
Furnace, while the production capacity of 1,800,000 tons of
steel slabs/year. Slab steel is usually used as raw material for
hot rolled steel.

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Figure 2. 5 Slab Steel Plant Process Production

(source: Document PT. KS no 253437)

2.5.4. Hot Strip Mill (HSM) Plant


HSM division consists of rolling mill which produces
coil, shearing line which produces plate, and SPM (Skin Pass
Mill) which produces plate. This plant began operating in
1983. The resulting products is:
- Thickness: 1.8 mm up to 25 mm
- Width: 650 mm up to 2080 mm
- Weight: max. 30 ton / sheet / plate / coil
HSM began operation in 1983 with implementing
SMS technology from Germany. The plant has a production
capacity of 2.4 million tons/year and is controlled
automatically by the computer system.
The production facilities at the plant are listed below:
Reheating Furnace

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For rolling process preparation, the slab put in reheating
furnace where the slab is heated to temperature of rolling
(1200-1250 C). Important parameters in this process are
heating temperature, and heating time. The temperature in
reheating furnace is automatically controlled by a computer.
Sizing Press
Sizing Press is used to reduce slab width up to 200 mm in
order to increase flexibiliy in production process.
Roughing Mill
Reverse Roughing Mill is used to reduce slab with a thickness
of 200 mm to transfer bar with 28-40mm of thickness. The
width of the transfer bar is controlled by a vertical roll edger.
Finishing Mill
Continuous rolling process in finishing mill is used to reduce
the transfer bar into the sheet steel (strip) with a final
thickness according consumers demand. In this stage strict
controls are carried out on parameters such as the thickness of
the steel, thickness deviation, width of sheet steel and the final
rolling temperature. Computers is used in this stage to
contribute the automatic control system.
Laminar Cooling
Process occurs with the purpose of obtaining a steel with good
quality in this stage. Laminar Cooling Water System is used
which is controlled by computer
Down Coiler
Steel is formed into a roll (coil) using two pieces down coiler
machine.
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Shearing Line
Hot rolled steel coils can be further processed into a slit
shape, trimmed or recoiled
Hot Skin Pass Mill
Small pressure is given along the steel to improve the physical
characteristics of the produced steel.
Hot Strip Mill (HSM) is part of the plants in PT
Krakatau Steel, HSM function is to make various kind of
sheet steel with different in thickness. By moving the slab
using the overhead crane, the slab steel will be cleaned with a
slab roller table and ready to be inserted into the reheating
furnace, using slab pusher.
Inside the furnace, the slab is heated to
approximately 1300 C. After the process finished the slab was
sent to stand roll to make slab with thickness 200 mm to
20-40 mm. In the finishing stand the slab is rolled again to get
the perfect size of thickness depending on consumer demand.

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Figure 2. 6 Hot Strip Mill Process Production

(source: Document PT KS. No 384024)

2.5.5. Cold Rolled Mill Plant


Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) uses steel in the form of sheet
as raw materials.The thickness of raw materials have been
previously reduced in Hot Strip Mill (HSM) by hot rolled
process. The results of the Hot Strip Mill (HSM) is reduced
back through the cooling process in Tandem Cold Mill, which
will reduce the steel up to 92% of the original thickness.
Before reducing process is carried out, the steel should be
cleaned first into a tank containing HCl after that the steel will
be heated up with BAF and CAL system, the results of the
steel is flattened by temper mill according to consumer
demand.
The plant is equipped with technology CLECIM from France.
The CRM has production capacity approximately 850.000
tons/year, this plant produces steel for automotive
applications, home appliances, cans, galvanized sheets, and so
on.
The Cold Rolling Mill (CRM) also has excellent facilities as
follows:
Cleaning (Continue Picking Line).
The earliest process in the steel mill is the cold sheet pickling
process. In the manufacturing cold reduced strip, oxides
produced during hot rolling process must be removed before
entering the cold reduction process. This is intended to
prevent unevenness and eliminate surface irregularities. The

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process of elimination oxides is done mechanically (using a
scale breaker) and also chemically (using HCl). Continuous
Pickling Line can also be used for oiling process for hot rolled
coils (pickled and oiled condition).
Tandem Cold Mill.
The purpose of the cold rolling process is to reduce the
thickness of the steel, obtain a smooth and solid surface
without further heating, and obtain mechanical properties that
can be controlled.
Electrolytic Cleaning Line.
Electrolytic Cleaning Line is a facility to remove lubricants
and iron fine from the surface of the strip.
Heating (annealing).
During the cold rolling process, grain structure of the rolled
product becomes damaged. With this changes, heating usually
is given at the rolled products to restore ductility and
formability.
Continuous Annealing Line
Continuous Annealing Line (CAL) is one of the key factors
that have important role in the advancement of cold rolled
steel production in the past years. CAL, through the process
of heating, soaking, cooling and over-aging, can produce
products ranging from deep-drawing sheet to high-tensile
sheet.
Temper Pass Mill.
Temper roll is used in the final process of cold rolled steel
production, the purpose of this process is to provide
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roughness on the surface, improve the flatness of the cold
rolled steel, cover damage to a certain degree, and provide
enough stress in an effort to suppress the yield point for
eliminating stretcher strains during the formation process.
Finishing (Recoiling Line, Slitting Line).
Cold rolled steel can be further processed into a
sheared, trimmed, or recoiled form.

Figure 2. 7 Cooling Rod Mill Process Production

(source : Document PT. KS no 326460)

2.5.6. Wire Rod Plant


Wire Rod Plant (WRP) is using billet as raw
materials. Wire rod plant began operation in 1975 with two
combined technology, Stelmor World Chester technology and
Danielly No Twist technology. The plant has a production
capacity of 450,000 tons/year. The plant also applies semi-
automatic machinery system controlled by a computer.

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Wire rod has a role as raw material for producing
bolts, welding wire, wire nails, steel cords, and so forth.
Before production, the billet must be prepared by doing the
weighing, and visual inspection. If billet is ready then it will
be put in a furnace to heat the billet until 1200 oC. If the
heating process finish, billet will be cooled with water, then
billet is ready to be rolled with plyer loop.
The main equipment in the Wire Rood Plant (WRP) is listed
below:
A furnace with a capacity of 60 tons / hour.
Two cooling conveyor.
Two machines to coordinate the order of rolled steel.
This plant has production facilities as listed below:
Reheating Furnace
For rolling preparation, billet will be inserted into the walking
beam type reheating furnace where the steel is heated to
rolling temperature (1200-1250o C). Important parameters in
this process are heating temperature, and heating time. The
raising temperature process is controlled automatically by the
computer system.

Pre-Roughing Mill
This unit function is to increase the flexibility of billet so it
will be ready in tandem roughing mill.
Roughing Mill

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Tandem Roughing Mill was used to reduce the dimensions of
165x165mm billet into a transfer bar with diameter of 18 mm.
Finishing Mill
Continuous rolling on Finishing Mill is used to reduce the
diameter wire rod according to customer demand by using
the no twist mill. In the production process, strict controls is
carried out on important parameters such as diameter of rod
and the final rolling temperature. Computers process in this
case contribute to control the production process.
Cooling Zone
The cooling process by using technology Stelmor is done to
get good-quality steel wire rods.
Down Coiler
With this facility, steel wire rod is shaped into rolls. The
production capacity reached 200,000 tons / year of wire rod.
The resulting wire diameter is 5.5 mm, 8mm, 10mm, and
12mm. The product specifications: 10,000 mm length, 900 kg
weight, 110 x 110 mm cross section. The wire rods in CRM
have several variety like:
Low carbon wire rod
Wire rod for welding electrodes

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Wire rod for cold heading
Figure 2. 8 Wire Rod Process Production

( source: Document PT. KS no 333729)

2.5.5. PT. Krakatau Steels Subsidiary

Besides the production units above, there are also


units that support the production of PT. Krakatau Steel. These
units is a subsidiary of PT. Krakatau Steel. The list is below:
1. PT. Krakatau Daya Listrik (KDL)
The company has a steam power plant with a capacity of 400
MW consisting of five turbine units and with each capacity of
80 MW. The company is supplying power to the plants in PT.
Krakatau Steel.
2. PT. Krakatau Bandar Samudra (KBS)
The company has a dock with a total length of 1,098 m and a
depth of 14 m. Cigading port managed by PT. KBS able to
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serve the loading and unloading ships with deadweight up to
70,000 DWT. This place is place for loading and unloading of
raw materials and sending products of PT. Krakatau Steel.
3. PT. Krakatau Tirta Industri (KTI)
The companys purpose is to meet the needs of industrial
process throughout the region PT. Krakatau Steel. The KTI
produced water approximately 2,000 liter / second of water.
4. PT. KHI Pipe Industries (PT. KHI)
The company produces steel pipes to supply oil, gas, water, or
building structures. At this time PT. KHI is able to produce
pipes with diameters of 4-80 inches with AKI specifications
up to SLX 70 grade.
5. PT. Krakatau Engineering (PT. KE)
PT. KE is involved in the engineering, procurement,
construction, project management, and predictive
management (MM PEC).
6. PT. Krakatau Wajatama (PT. KW)
PT. KW produces reinforcement steel for construction
purposes with capacity up to 150 tons/ year, PT KW also
produce medium sized steel profiles down (45,000 tons/year),
as well as wire nails (18,000 tons/year).
7. PT. Krakatau Information Technology (PT. KIT)
PT. KIT is supported by 131 professionals who are
experienced in the management and development systems,
networking, communication, and Value Added Network.
8. PT. Plates Timah Nusantara (PT. Latinusa)

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PT. Latinusa able to produce tin plate up to 130,000 tons/
year. PT. Latinusa has priority to meet domestic market
demand.
9. PT. Krakatau Industrial Estate Cilegon (PT. KIEC)
A Company that manage Krakataus industrial area and collect
renting costs in Krakatau steels industrial complex. The
company also provides the needs of the companies in it, such
as water, electricity, etc.
10. PT. Krakatau Medika (PT. KM)
A Company that manage hospital for employees of PT.
Krakatau Steel, employees of PT. Krakatau Steels subsidiary
, as well as general patient

2.6. Companys Board.


PT. Krakatau Steel is BUMN managed by the
minister of BUMN. PT. Krakatau Steel is organized by
president director that manage the company's assets,
production facilities and labour. President Director has his
own subordinate to manage the companies. The detail are
listed below.
1. Directorate of Production and TechnologyDirectorate of
production and technology is responsible for planning,
formulating and developing production policies. Directorate
of production is also operating production facilities,
infrastructure and coordinate the production activities in order
to obtain long term profits, Directorate of production and
technology is responsible to maintenance of PT. Krakatau
Steels production facilities.

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2. The Directorate of Human Resources and Business
Development
The Directorate of Human Resources and Business
Development responsible for planning, formulating and
developing policies on personnel, health, welfare, education
and vocational training. The directorate also responsible in
community relationship .The directorate is also responsible
for purchasing raw materials, supporting materials and
warehousing.
3. Directorate of Finance
The Directorate is responsible for planning, formulating and
developing policies in the field of finance.
4. Directorate of Marketing
The directorate is responsible for planning, formulating, and
developing policies in the field of marketing of its products.
5. Directorate of Logistics
The directorate is responsible for planning, formulating and
developing policies in the field of logistics, preparing the
infrastructure, supporting the main industrial estates and
infrastructure, regulating and administrating contract
agreements, managing supporting elements in production
activity, and conducting research on production technology.

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Figure 2. 9 PT Krakatau Steels Organization Structure

( source : Document PT. KS no 004161)

2.7. Employment System in PT Krakatau Steel

PT Krakatau Steel is operating for 24 hours, so the


employees can be divided into two types, shift employees and
Non-Shift. The detail time is listed below.

Non Shift Employees

Monday-Thursday: 8:00 to 16:30 with a break time


at 12:00 to 12:30
Friday: 8:00 to 17:00 o'clock with a break time at
12:00 to 13:00
For Shift employees is divided into three shifts, as follows.
Shift 1: At 06:00 to 14:00
Shift 2: At 14:00 to 22:00
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Shift 3: At 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.
In other to respect its employees, PT. Krakatau Steel provides
rewards and awards received by employees that are listed
below:
Employees get a gold pin logo of PT. Krakatau
Steel, if he/she has dedicated his/her life for 15 years.
Get 10 times of salary as final bonus if the
employees is going to retired.
For employees who show excellence performance
will be sent to national conferences or international
conferences

Stop or termination of working contract on PT. Krakatau Steel


occurs if:
Passed away or long illness.
The employee is making lot of trouble.
Resigned from company.
Retired.

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CHAPTER III
LITERATURE BACKGROUND

3.1 Transport Phenomena


In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study
of transport phenomena concerns the exchange
of mass, energy, and momentum between observed and
studied systems. While it draws from fields as diverse
as continuum mechanics and thermodynamics, it places a
heavy emphasis on the commonalities between the topics
covered. Mass, momentum, and heat transport all share a very
similar mathematical framework, and the parallels between
them are exploited in the study of transport phenomena to
draw deep mathematical connections that often provide very
useful tools in the analysis of one field that are directly
derived from the others.

While it draws its theoretical foundation from principles in a


number of fields, most of the fundamental transport theory is
a restatement of basic conservation laws.

The fundamental analyses in all three subfields of mass, heat,


and momentum transfer are often grounded in the simple
principle that the sum total of the quantities being studied
must be conserved by the system and its environment. Thus,
the different phenomena that lead to transport are each
considered individually with the knowledge that the sum of
their contributions must equal zero. This principle is useful for
calculating many relevant quantities. For example, in fluid
mechanics, a common use of transport analysis is to
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determine the velocity profile of a fluid flowing through a
rigid volume.

Transport phenomena are ubiquitous throughout the


engineering disciplines. Some of the most common examples
of transport analysis in engineering are seen in the fields of
process, chemical, biological, and mechanical engineering,
but the subject is a fundamental component of the curriculum
in all disciplines involved in any way with fluid
mechanics, heat transfer, and mass transfer. It is now
considered to be a part of the engineering discipline as much
as thermodynamics mechanics, and electromagnetism.

Transport phenomena encompass all agents of physical


change in the universe. Moreover, they are considered to be
fundamental building blocks which developed the universe,
and which is responsible for the success of all life on earth.
However, the scope here is limited to the relationship of
transport phenomena to artificial engineered systems.

3.2 Thermal Conduction


Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal
energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement
of electrons within a body. The microscopically colliding
objects, that include molecules, atoms, and electrons, transfer
disorganized microscopic kinetic and potential energy, jointly
known as internal energy. Conduction takes place in all phases
of matter, such as solids, liquids, gases and plasmas. The rate
at which energy is conducted as heat between two bodies is a
function of the temperature difference (temperature gradient)
between the two bodies and the properties of the conductive
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medium through which the heat is transferred. Thermal
conduction was originally called diffusion.

Heat spontaneously flows from a hotter to a colder body. For


example, heat is conducted from the hotplate of an electric
stove to the bottom of a saucepan in contact with it. In the
absence of an external driving energy source to the contrary,
within a body or between bodies, temperature differences
decay over time, and thermal equilibrium is approached,
temperature becoming more uniform.

In conduction, the heat flow is within and through the body


itself. In contrast, in heat transfer by thermal radiation, the
transfer is often between bodies, which may be separated
spatially. Also possible is transfer of heat by a combination of
conduction and thermal radiation. In convection, internal
energy is carried between bodies by a moving material carrier.
In solids, conduction is mediated by the combination of
vibrations and collisions of molecules, of propagation and
collisions of phonons, and of diffusion and collisions of free
electrons. In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the
collisions and diffusion of molecules during their random
motion. Photons in this context do not collide with one
another, and so heat transport by electromagnetic radiation is
conceptually distinct from heat conduction by microscopic
diffusion and collisions of material particles and phonons. But
the distinction is often not easily observed, unless the material
is semi-transparent.

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3.3 Convection
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply
as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another
by the movement of fluids. Convection is usually the
dominant form of heat transfer (convection) in liquids and
gases. Although often discussed as a distinct method of heat
transfer, convective heat transfer involves the combined
processes of conduction (heat diffusion) and advection (heat
transfer by bulk fluid flow).

Convection can be "forced" by movement of a fluid by means


other than buoyancy forces (for example, a water pump in an
automobile engine). Thermal expansion of fluids may also
force convection. In other cases, natural buoyancy forces
alone are entirely responsible for fluid motion when the fluid
is heated, and this process is called "natural convection". An
example is the draft in a chimney or around any fire. In
natural convection, an increase in temperature produces a
reduction in density, which in turn causes fluid motion due to
pressures and forces when fluids of different densities are
affected by gravity (or any g-force). For example, when water
is heated on a stove, hot water from the bottom of the pan
rises, displacing the colder denser liquid, which falls. After
heating has stopped, mixing and conduction from this natural
convection eventually result in a nearly homogeneous density,
and even temperature. Without the presence of gravity (or
conditions that cause a g-force of any type), natural
convection does not occur, and only forced-convection modes
operate. The convection heat transfer mode comprises one
mechanism. In addition to energy transfer due to specific
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molecular motion (diffusion), energy is transferred by bulk,
or macroscopic, motion of the fluid. This motion is associated
with the fact that, at any instant, large numbers of molecules
are moving collectively or as aggregates. Such motion, in the
presence of a temperature gradient, contributes to heat
transfer. Because the molecules in aggregate retain their
random motion, the total heat transfer is then due to the
superposition of energy transport by random motion of
the molecules and by the bulk motion of the fluid. It is
customary to use the term convection when referring to this
cumulative transport and the term advection when referring to
the transport due to bulk fluid motion.

3.4 Thermal Radiation


Thermal radiation is electromagnetic
radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged
particles in matter. All matter with a temperature greater
than absolute zero emits thermal radiation. When the
temperature of a body is greater than absolute zero, inter-
atomic collisions cause the kinetic energy of the atoms or
molecules to change. This results in charge-acceleration
and/or dipole oscillation which produces electromagnetic
radiation, and the wide spectrum of radiation reflects the wide
spectrum of energies and accelerations that occur even at a
single temperature.

Examples of thermal radiation include the visible


light and infrared light emitted by an incandescent light bulb,
the infrared radiation emitted by animals is detectable with
an infrared camera, and the cosmic microwave background

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radiation. Thermal radiation is different from thermal
convection and thermal conductiona person near a raging
bonfire feels radiant heating from the fire, even if the
surrounding air is very cold.

Sunlight is part of thermal radiation generated by the


hot plasma of the Sun. The Earth also emits thermal radiation,
but at a much lower intensity and different spectral
distribution (infrared rather than visible) because it is cooler.
The Earth's absorption of solar radiation, followed by its
outgoing thermal radiation are the two most important
processes that determine the temperature and climate of the
Earth.

If a radiation-emitting object meets the physical


characteristics of a black body in thermodynamic equilibrium,
the radiation is called blackbody radiation. Planck's
law describes the spectrum of blackbody radiation, which
depends only on the object's temperature. Wien's displacement
law determines the most likely frequency of the emitted
radiation, and the StefanBoltzmann law gives the radiant
intensity. Thermal radiation is one of the fundamental
mechanisms of heat transfer.

3.5 Heat Transfer and Fouriers law


Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit due to a spatial
temperature difference. Whenever a temperature difference
exists in a medium or between media, heat transfer must
occur. There are 3 mechanism of heat transfer; conduction,
convection, and thermal radiation. Conduction is heat transfer
when there is different temperature between a medium that
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will lead heat to move across that media. Convection is heat
transfer mechanism that occurs between a surface and moving
fluids. Thermal radiation is heat transfer mechanism that a
surface of finite temperature emits energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves. Hence, in the absence of an
intervening medium, there is net heat transfer by radiation
between two surfaces at different temperatures.

Figure 3. 1. Kinds of Heat Transfer Mechanism

(Source : Introduction to Heat transfer, Incropera, p:2)

The origins of heat transfer formula is not derived from


first principles, but from observing natural phenomena, in
picture bellow , there is a rod with well insulated on its lateral
surface, then heat is given on its edge , so there is a different
in temperature T1>T2. Heat is conducted and the physical
phenomena is noted . The amount of heat transferred is equal
with cross sectional area (A), different of end temperature
(T), and the amount of heat transferred will be lowered if x
is raising

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q x A . T / x (3.1)

Figure 3. 2 Conduction Phenomena on Rod Material

(Source : Introduction to Heat Transfer , Incropera, p : 68)

After that analysis, the wire rod is changed with different


materials, the amount heat transferred is changing, that means
different materials will result different amount of heat
transferred. The proportionality may be converted to an
equality by introducing a coefficient that is a measure of the
material behavior. The coefficient k (thermal conductivity
W/m.K) is added.

T
q x =kA (3.2)
x

q x convection=h A (T T s) (3.3)

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k =Thermal Conductivity ( mKW )
W
h=convection Constant ( )
m2 K

A=Cross sectional area ( m2 )

x=thickness of medium ( m )

3.6 Steady State Condition


Sometimes in calculation methods there is always
simplified methods to make the calculation can be solved. In
heat transfer cases, there is a method for calculating heat
transfer with several assumption, such as: steady state
conduction, heat transfer with no internal generation, one
dimension heat transfer, etc. Steady state condition is one
assumption that usually used. The conduction of heat
independent of time is called steady conduction, in other
words, the temperature will not change with increasing of
time.

3.7 One- Dimensional Steady State Heat Transfer with No


Internal Generation
One dimensional steady state conduction is a method to
calculate heat transfer only in one direction, in actual
condition heat always transfers to all direction. In this
discussion, we only consider heat transfer to x-axis direction.

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Sometimes there are cases which are included a wall
with internal energy generation. That wall products heat so the
heat distribution will change across the wall, in the case of
ladle refractories, determining refractories with no internal
heat generation is must, look figure (3.3).

Figure 3. 3. Heat distribution on Wall with No Internal Heat Generation

(Source : Fundamentals Heat and Mass transfer , Theodore, p :113)

Figure 3. 4 Heat Transfer with Internal Heat Generation, (a) Heat Generated
at Edge of Wall (b) Heat Generated at Centre of Wall

(Source : Fundamentals Heat and Mass transfer, Theodore, p : 144)


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From figure 3.3 and 3.4 ,the temperature distribution is
independent of X- axis, and figure 3.4 the temperature
distribution is independent of X-axis. The depentdent of X-
axis is caused by heat generated by wall at the centre of wall
or its edge.

3.8 Heat Conduction of Cylindrical Wall


There are lot of materials with different shape such as;
planar, spherical, cylindrical, etc. If the objectives to know
about heat transfer phenomena, first consider the shape of
materials, because different shape of materials will contribute
to different cross sectional area, thus will give different heat
transfer result. In the application of ladle refining, the ladle is
close enough in cylindrical shape. First consider the derived
solution to solve 1-D steady state heat transfer equation on
cylindrical shape. Look the figure (3.5) and (3.6)

A B

X meter Y meter
Figure 3. 5
Illustration Heat
Transfer Resistance A Resistance on Wall 1

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A B

Figure 3. 6 Illustration Heat Transfer on Wall 2

From the figure above, there are two different


materials with different thermal conductivity (K =W/m.K) ,
with different in length , recall Fouriers law about conduction
, and related it with electrical resistance ohms law, the
formula can derived new formula for simplified calculation.

E ( voltage )
I(electrical current) = R (electrical Resistance)

(3.4)

Recall Fouriers law from (3.1) equation and match it with


(3.4) equation.

T
q x =kA
x

T
qx=
x
kA

If making a new constant refer as R( thermal resistance) ,

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x
R= (3.5)
kA

Substitute the new equation R to Fouriers law, that will make

T
qx= (3.6)
R

The new equation is close enough with electrical ohm


equation.

E ( voltage )
I = R (electrical Resistance) ,

themal Resistance
R
T (temperaturedifferent )
q x=

So the wall A and B according the derived equation will have


different equations. Now related the thermal resistance
equation with cylindrical shape of ladle and Fouriers law.

T k ( 2 rL ) T
q x =kA = (3.7)
r r

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The equation for cylindrical steady state is below, from this
equation the Fouriers law is derivated twice that will result in
thermal resistance equation for hollow cylindrical shape
materia

r2

Rconduction=
ln ()
r1 (3.8)
2 Lk

1
Rconvection = (3.9)
hconv 2 rL

To understand the equation look figure 3.7 about thermal


resistance in hollow cylinder.

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Figure 3. 7 Thermal Resistance Circuit Illustration on Hollow Cylindrical
Material.

(Source : Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer , Theodore, P : 165)

CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION AND CALCULATION

4.1 Data Analysis


In this section there will be calculated several model of
insulation in PT Krakatau Steels Refractory Ladle.

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1. 187 mm first lining with no additional insulation

Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal


generation
Radius inside ladle = 1498 mm
Length of ladle = 3700mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Thermal conductivity Mg-O brick (K) = 21 W/mK ,
Thermal conductivity Permanent Lining (K) = 0.4422 W/mk
Thermal conductivity Steel (K) = 44.79 W/mk
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of transition in liquid steel to Mg-o brick
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of transition in Steel layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 31.09
Assumption emissivity = 0.5, wind rate 0 m/s
R1 = 1498 mm, R2 =1685 mm R3 =1765mm R4= 1800 mm

Figure 4.1 Illustration of Case 187 Mg-O Brick with no Additional


Insulation

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The objective is to calculate temperature distribution between
each layer and the amount of heat loss in system.

First step in measuring that case is to calculate the thermal


resistance between materials in every parts.

r2

Rconduction=
ln ()
r1
2 Lk

1
Rconvection=
hconv 2 rL

A. Thermal resistance between liquid steel to Mg-O 187


mm brick ( convection )

1
Rconvection=
hconv 2 r inside L

R liquid steel to Mg-O brick =


1
W
9999 x 2 x 3.14 x 1498 x 103 meterx 3.7 meter
m2 K

6
R liquid Steel to Mg-O brick = 2.89 x 10

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B. Thermal resistance between steel to outside
(convection)

1
Rconvection=
hconv 2 r outside L
R steel to outside =
1
W
31.09 x 2 x 3.14 x 1800 x 103 meterx 3.7 meter
m2 K

R steel to outside = 7.73 x 104

C. Thermal resistance at Mg-0 187 mm brick


(conduction)

r2

Rconduction=
ln ()
r1
2 Lk

R Mg-O 187 mm brick =

(1498 mm+187 mm)


ln ( (1498 mm) )
2 x 3.14 x 3.7 meter x 21 W /mK

4
R Mg-O 186 mm brick = 2.4 x 10

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D. Thermal resistance at 80 mm permanent lining 1 ,
(Conduction)

r3

Rconduction =
ln ()
r2
2 Lk

R Permanent lining 1 =

mm+187 mm+80 mm)


ln ( (1498(1498 mm+187 mm) )
2 x 3.14 x 3.7 meter x 0. 7422W / mK

4
R Permanent Lining 1 = 2.68 x 10

E. Thermal resistance at 35 mm steel , (Conduction)

r4

Rconduction =
ln
( )
r3
2 Lk

(1498 mm+187 mm+ 80 mm)


R steel =
ln
(
(1498 mm+187 mm+ 35 mm) )
2 x 3.14 x 3.7 meter x 44.79W / mK

R steel = 1.88 x 105

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After all thermal resistance is found, measure total thermal
resistance in the system, which is

convection liquid steel


convection steel
R total=R MgO brick + R conduction MgO + Rconduction permanent lining 1 +

R total=2.89 x 106 +2.89 x 106 +2.68 x 104 +1.88 x 105 +7.73 x


R total=0.0037

In the second step, calculate the amount of transferred heat to


the wall, the concept of this point is like electrical current
concept where :

q total = q convection liquid steel to mg-o = q convection


steel to outside air = q conduction Mg-o = q conduction
permanent lining 1 = q conduction steel = and so on

Recall Fouriers law about heat conduction

T
q x =kA (4.1)
x

Then we modify the Fouriers law to become

T
qx= (4.2)
R

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T insideToutside 160035
q total= = =419970 watt=419.7 kWatt
R total 0,0037

Now the amount of heat loss in the ladle wall approximately


419.7 kWatt

In 3rd step calculate the temperature distribution in ladle wall

A. Temperature between liquid steel and 187 mm Mg-O


brick

T (liquid steelMgO brick )


q total=q liquid steelMgO brick=
R convectionliquid steel

1600T MgO near liquid steel


419970 watt = 2.89 x 106

T MgO near liquid steel=1598.7 Celsius

B. Temperature 187 mm Mg-O brick outside , near with


permanent lining

T (MgO near liquid SteelMgO outside )


q total=q conduction MgO brick=
R MgO brick

1598.7T MgO outside


419970 watt = 4
2.4 x 10

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T MgO outside=1497.5 Celsius

C. Temperature 80 mm permanent lining 1 outside

T (MgO outside permanet lining 1


q total=q conduction pemanent lining=
R permanent lining 1

1497,5T permanent lining 1outside


419970 watt = 4
2.68 x 10
T permanent lining1 outside =367.9Celcius

D. Temperature steel outside

T ( permanet lining1 outsidesteel outside )


q total=q conductionsteel=
R conductionsteel

367,9steel outside
419970 watt = 1.88 x 105
T steel outside=360.04 Celsius

After that calculation , make a figure of temperature


distribution in ladle. The tables are included.

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Figure 4. 8 Illustration of Temperature Distribution 187 mm Mg-O Brock
with no Additional Insulation

Table 4. 1 Conduction Thermal Resistance Calculation on 187 mm Mg-O


with no Additional Insulation

Table 4. 2 Convection Thermal Resistance Calculation and Heat Loss on


187 mm Mg-O with no Additional Insulation

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Table 4. 3 Temperature Distribution Calculation

2. 187 mm Mg-O with one additional insulation

Assumption: 1-D steady state conduction with no internal


generation
Radius Inside Ladle = 1493 mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Length of Ladle = 3700 mm
Thermal conductivity Mg-O brick (K) = 21 W/mK
(with insulation 187 mm)
Thermal conductivity Permanent Lining (K) = 0.7 W/mk
Thermal conductivity of Insulation 1 = 0.0318 W/mk
Thermal conductivity Steel (K) = 48.34 W/mk
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of transition in liquid steel to Mg-o brick
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
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Constant of transition in steel layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 22.08
Assumption emissivity = 0.9 , wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 9 Illustration of Case 187mm Mg-O Brick with 1 Additional


Insulation

The Calculation is the same as before ,the tables are


Table 4. 4 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on 187 mm Mg-O
brick with 1 additional insulation

Table 4. 5 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance and heat loss on


187mm Mg-O brick 1 additional insulation

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Table 4. 6 Calculation Temperature Distribution on 187 mm Mg-O brick
with 1 Additional Insulation

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Figure 4. 10 Temperature Distribution on 197 mm Mg-O brick with 1
additional Insulation

3. 187 mm Mg-o with two additional insulation

Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal


generation
Radius inside ladle = 1488 mm
Length of ladle = 3700 mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Thermal conductivity Mg-O brick (K) = 21 W/mK
( with insulation 187 mm)
Thermal conductivity permanent lining (K) = 0.7 W/mk
Thermal conductivity of Insulation 1 (K) = 0.1992
W/mk
Thermal conductivity of Insulation 2 (K) = 0.0306
W/mK
Thermal conductivity Steel (K) = 48.72 W
T inside liquid Steel =1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of Transition in liquid steel to Mg-o Brick (h =
W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of Transition in Steel layer to ambient condition (h
= W/m2K) =21.28
Assumption emissivity = 0.9, wind rate 0 m/s

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Figure 4. 11 Illustration of Case 187mm Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional
Insulation

The Calculation is the same as before , the tables are listed

Table 4. 7 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on 187mm Mg-O


Brick with 2 additional insulation

Table 4. 8 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance and Heat Loss on


187 mm Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional Insulation

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Table 4. 9 Temperature Distribution Calculation on 187mm Mg-O Brick
with 2 Additional Insulation

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Figure 4. 12 Illustration of Temperature Distribution 187mm Mg-O Brick
with 2 Additional Insulation

4. 100 mm Mg-O with two additional insulation ( after


100 heat)

Assumption: 1-D steady state conduction with no


internal generation
Radius Inside Ladle = 1575 mm
Length of Ladle = 3700 mm
Radius Outside = 1800 mm
Thermal Conductivity Mg-O brick (K) = 21 W/mK
(100 mm insulated)
Thermal Conductivity Permanent Lining (K)
= 0. 7 W/mk
Thermal Conductivity of Insulation 1 (K)
= 0.2014 W/mk
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Thermal Conductivity of Insulation 2 (K)
= 0.0308 W/mK
Thermal Conductivity Steel (K)
= 48.65 W/mk
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of Transition in liquid steel to Mg-o Brick
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of Transition in Steel layer to ambient
condition (h = W/m2K) = 21.28
Assumption emissivity = 0.9, wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 13 Illustration of Case 100mm Mg-O Brick with 2 Additional


Insulation

The Calculation is the same. The tables are listed

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Table 4. 10 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on 100mm Mg-O
Brick Wall with 2 additional insulation (after 100 heat cycles)

Table 4. 11 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance on 100mm Mg-O


Brick with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycle)

Table 4. 12. Temperature Distribution 100mm Mg-O Brick with 2


Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycle)

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Figure 4. 14 Ilustration of 100 mm Mg-O brick wall with 2 additional
insulation( after 100 heat cycles )

For case 5 to 8, there will be new calculation with different


refractories materials.

5 .187 mm Alu 80 with no additional Insulation


Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal
generation
Radius Inside ladle : 1509 mm Length of ladle : 3700 mm
Radius outside : 1800 mm
Thermal conductivity Alu 80 (K) = 2.3 W/mK
( 187 mm insulated)
Thermal conductivity Alu 70 (K) = 2 W/mK
Thermal conductivity Brick class 26 = 0.3225 W/mk
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
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T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of transition in liquid steel to Alu 80
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of transition in brick layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 18.45
Assumption emissivity = 0.5, wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 15 Illustration of Case 187mm Alu 80 Brick with no Additional


Insulation

Table 4. 13 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on 187 mm Alu 80


with no additional Insulation

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Table 4. 14 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance on 187 mm Alu 80
with no Additional Insulation.

Table 4. 15 Temperature Distribution on 187 mm Alu 80 with no Additional


Insulation

Figure 4. 16. Illustration of Thermal Distribution on 187 mm Alu 80 with no


additional insulation
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6 .100 mm Alu 80 with no additional Insulation ( After 100
heat cycle production )
Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal
generation
Radius inside ladle = 1596 mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Length of ladle = 3700 mm
Thermal conductivity Alu 80 (K) = 2,3 W/mK
( 100 mm insulated )
Thermal conductivity Alu 70 (K) = 2 W/mk
Thermal conductivity Brick class 26 = 0.3424 W/m
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of transition in liquid steel to Alu 80
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of transition in brick layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 20.17
Assumption emissivity = 0.5, wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 17 Illustration of Case 100mm Alu 80 Brick with no Additional

Table 4. 16 Calculation Conduction Thermal Resistance on 100 mm Alu 80


with no Additional Insulation (after 100 heat )

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Table 4. 17 Calculation Convection Thermal Resistance on 100 Alu 80 with
no Additional Insulation (after 100 heat )

Table 4. 18 Temperature Distribution on 100 mm Alu 80 with no Additional


Insulation ( after 100 heat)

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Figure 4. 18 Illustration Temperature Distribution on 100mm Alu 80 with
no Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat)

7.187 mm Alu 80 with two additional Insulation


Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal
generation
Radius Inside Ladle = 1498 mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Length of ladle = 3700 mm
Thermal Conductivity Alu 80 (K) = 2.3 W/mK
( 187mm insulated)
Thermal Conductivity Alu 70 (K) = 2 W/mk
Thermal Conductivity Brick class 26 = 0.39 W/mk
Thermal Conductivity Insulator 1 = 0.165 W/mk
Thermal Conductivity Insulator 2 = 0.029 W/mK
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of Transition in liquid steel to Alu 80
(h = W/m2K) = 9999

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Constant of Transition in brick layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 14.95
Assumption emissivity = 0.5, wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 19. Illustration of Case 187mm Alu 80 Brick with 2 Additional


Insulation

Table 4. 19 Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance , 187 mm Alu 80


with 2 Additional Insulation

Table 4. 20 Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance , 187 mm Alu 80


with 2 Additional Insulation

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Table 4. 21 Calculation Temperature Distribution on 187

Figure 4. 20 Illustration of Distribution Temperature 100mm Alu 80 Brick


with 2 Additional

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8 .100 mm Alu 80 after 100 cycles of heat with two
additional Insulation
Assumption : 1-D steady state conduction with no internal
generation
Radius Inside Ladle = 1509 mm
Radius outside = 1800 mm
Length of ladle = 3700 mm
Thermal conductivity Alu 80 (K) = 2.3 W/mK
Thermal conductivity Alu 70 (K) = 2 W/mk
Thermal conductivity Brick class 26 = 0.4198 W/mk
Thermal conductivity Insulator 1 = 0.183 W/mK
Thermal conductivity Insulator 2 = 0.0305 W/ mk
T inside liquid Steel = 1600 Celsius
T outside room = 35 Celsius
Constant of transition in liquid steel to Alu 80
(h = W/m2K) = 9999
Constant of transition in brick layer to ambient condition
(h = W/m2K) = 15,91
Assumption emissivity = 0.5 , wind rate 0 m/s

Figure 4. 21. Illustration of Case 100 mm Alu 80 Brick with 2 Additional


Insulation

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Table 4. 22. Calculation Thermal Conduction Resistance on 100 mm Alu 80
with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycles)

Table 4. 23. Calculation Thermal Convection Resistance on 100mm Alu 80


with 2 Additional Insulation ( after 100 heat cycles)

Table 4. 24 Temperature Distribution 100mm Alu 80 with 2 Additional


Insulation ( after 100 heat cycles)

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Figure 4. 22. Illustration of Distribution Heat Transfer on 100mm Alu 80
Brick with 2 Additional Insulation

9. Comparison of Heat loss in Ladle Refractories and Upper


Ladle ( Direct Radiation Section)

In the calculation here, The comparison only in by analyzing


the principles formula and both convection effect is neglected

The Formula for conduction with Fourier law is :

T TinsideToutside
q x =kA = (4.3)
x x

kA
Constant 1= (4.4)
x

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q x =Constan 1(TinsideToutside ) (4.5)

The Formula for Radiation is


4 4
q rad = (Tinsid e Toutsid e ) (4.6)

Constant 2 = 0< <1 (4.7)

Constant 3=5,67 x 108 xconstanta 2 (4.8)

8
where is bowmans constant = 5,67 x 10

qrad=5,67 x 108 Constant 2 ( Tinsid e 4 Toutsid e 4 )

Assuming T inside is temperature of molten steel = 1600 C, T


outside is ambient = 35 C

We can compare the relationship

Q conduction = Constant 1 (1600-35)

Q conduction = 1565x Constant 1

Where

Q radiation = 5,67 x 108 xConstant 2 ( 16004 354 )

Q radiation = 371589 x Constant 2

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4.3 Discussion
4.3.1. Mg-O lining Brick

In this section will be discussed the heat transfer from


number 1 to 4 which is heat transfer on Mg-O brick. look
table 4.25.

Table 4. 25 Details of Data case 1-4.

Note :

1, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Mg-O brick, Temp B =


Temperature Mg-O outside region , Temp C = Temperature
permanent lining 1 outside region , Temp D = Temperature
steel outside region

2, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Mg-O brick, Temp B =


Temperature Mg-O outside region , Temp C = Temperature
permanent lining 1 outside region , Temp D = Temperature
insulation 1 outside region , Temp E = Temperature steel
region

3, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Mg-O brick, Temp B =


Temperature Mg-O outside region , Temp C = Temperature
permanent lining 1 outside region , Temp D = Temperature
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insulation 1 outside region , Temp E = Temperature insulation
2 outside region , Temp F = Temperature steel outside region

4, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Mg-O brick, Temp B =


Temperature Mg-O outside region , Temp C = Temperature
permanent lining 1 outside region , Temp D = Temperature
insulation 1 outside region , Temp E = Temperature insulation
2 outside region , Temp F = Temperature steel outside region

At case number one, there are several refractories


which are 187 Mg-O working line, 80 mm permanent lining,
and 35 mm steel on the outside. In case number one, the
thermal distribution has huge temperature difference from
temperature B = 1497.50 C to temperature C (permanent
lining 1) =367.90 C. This huge temperature drop is caused by
difference in thermal conductivity of materials, where in B the
material is Mg-O brick with thermal conductivity = 21 W/m.K
, while in C the material is permanent lining with thermal
conductivity = 0.7422 W/m.k The higher number of thermal
conductivity shows the materials good as conductor, in other
hand , if thermal conductivity is not significant , that means
the material is good as insulator. In case number one, Mg-O
brick is less isolator than permanent lining 1 ,thus make
permanent lining 1 has huge temperature drop in its lining.

In case number two, The previous case number one is added


by insulator materials which has 0.0318 W/mK thermal
conductivity number. The insulator 1 has very low number of
thermal conductivity , making the insulator 1 ideal as isolator
material. Adding insulator to the system makes huge

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temperature drop between permanent lining 1 and insulator 1
from 996.2 Celsius to 250,2 Celsius.

In case number three, The previous case is added by two


insulator to Mg-O brick 187 insulation lining. The first
additional insulator is insulator 1 and the second additional
insulator is insulator number 2 which has 0,0308 W/mk
thermal conductivity number. The effect of second additional
lining has the same effect with case number two, but with
adding second insulation will give less number in final
temperature, in case number 2 the final temperature of steel is
246.8 Celsius while in case number 3 is 234.5 Celsius.

In case number four , the effect of weariness is shown on


Mn-O brick lining after 100 cycles of heat. The thickness of
187 mm Mg-O with two additional insulation will be reduced
to 100 mm Mg-O. Now comparing the effect of thickness on
temperature distribution is observed. According to Fouriers
law , the thickness of materials will effect to the amount of
heat conducted. The thickness of materials have inverse effect
on thermal conduction so thin materials will increase thermal
conduction, This phenomena associate with ladle furnace
wall cases, conducted heat on 100 mm Mg-O brick is higher
than 187 mm Mg-O brick, resulting higher end temperature at
100 mm Mg-O brick. ( T end 100 mm = 238 C , T end 187
mm = 234,5 C).

From case number 1 to 4, the heat loss is variative , case


number one has a heat loss approximately 419970 watt or
419kWatt, for case number two has a heat lose 194375 watt or
194 kWatt. For case number tree has a heat loss 176505 watt
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or 176kWatt. For case number four has a heat loss 179526
watt or 179kWatt. From case number one with other cases ,it
can gain percent reduction of heat loss if the refractories is

using additional insulator. Case number two (187 mm with


one additional insulation) has 53,7% heat loss reduction, case
number tree (187 mm with 2 insulation) has 57,9% heat loss
reduction, case number four ( after 100 heat cycles with 2
insulation) has 57,25% heat loss reduction. From this
discussion. it can be concluded that case number 3( 187 mm
Mg-O brick with two additional insulation) is the best choice
for reducing heat loss on ladle refractories.

Figure 4. 23 Q loss on Several Cases 1 - 4

4.3.2. Alu 80 First Lining Cases

In this discussion will present different way to compare


Mg-O brick cases , look the table bellow.

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Table 4. 26 Details Data of case 4-to 8

5, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Alu -80, Temp B =


Temperature Alu 80 outside region , Temp C = Temperature
Alu 70 outside region , Temp D = Temperature brick class 26
outside region

6, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Alu -80, Temp B =


Temperature Alu 80 outside region , Temp C = Temperature
Alu 70 outside region , Temp D = Temperature brick class 26
outside region

7, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Alu -80, Temp B =


Temperature Alu 80 outside region , Temp C = Temperature
Alu 70 outside region , Temp D = Temperature brick classss
26 outside region , Temp E = Temperature isolator 1 outside ,
Temp F = Temperature isolator 2 outside

8, Temp A = temperature of hot metal-Alu -80, Temp B =


Temperature Alu 80 outside region , Temp C = Temperature
Alu 70 outside region , Temp D = Temperature brick class 26
outside region , Temp E = Temperature isolator 1 outside ,
Temp F = Temperature isolator 2 outside

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Figure 4. 24 Q loss on Several Cases 5 -8

On this discussion is comparing 187 first lining Alu -80 with


no additional lining , with 100 mm alu 80 after 100 heat
cycles, 187 mm Alu-80 with two additional insulation , and
100mm Alu -80 with two additional insulation after 100 heat
cycles.

On cases number five and six, there are lining refractories,


which are alu-80 wall, alu-70 wall, and brick class 26 wall.
The difference between those two cases is on case number six
the refractories have been already used for 100 heat cycles, so
the thickness of first lining will be reduce to 100 mm Alu 80.
On figure number 4.24 shown that after 100 heat cycles the
heat loss on the wall is increasing from 100% to 122,4%, this
situation is caused by degradation of Alu-80 wall thickness
that make conducted heat in case number six (100 mm Alu-
80) increasing. According Fouriers law about heat
conduction , the thickness of materials is in inverse condition
with heat conduction on wall , resulting the amount of heat
loss in thin materials is increasing.

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On cases number seven and eight ,there are two new
insulation Alu-80, resulting heat loss up to 39 - 40% from
case number five ( Alu-80 first lining , with no additional
insulation). On case number seven , the new lining is in good
condition so the fist lining thickness still 187mm, in other
hand, on case number eight , the new lining has already used
for 100 heat cycles so the first lining thickness reduced to
100mm

From the discussion it can be concluded that with two


additional insulation will reduce the heat loss from the system
of Ladle furnace.

4.3. Heat Loss on Refractories Wall and Upper Zone of


Ladle Compilation

At data analysis in section 4.1 calculation no 9 , it has


already tried to compare the formula of heat conduction and
heat radiation, at that analysis , the data only compare the
driving force factor without including another constants, and
convection effect at both side is ignored. Driving force is the
reason of natural phenomena, for example, in electrical
current case, The main reason electrical current happened is
voltage differences between two point, If voltage number is
big, more current will flow. In heat transfer case, The driving
force is temperature differences between two point. If two
point has huge temperature differences , the transferred heat
will be huge in number, if two point has less temperature

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differences then less heat will be transferred. Look equation
bellow.

T
q x =kA (4.9)
x

q rad = (T 4s T 4 ) (4.10)

At those formulas qx is transferred heat in conduction, q rad is


transferred heat by radiation of some surfaces. The driving
force in radiation has raised to the power of four, that will
make huge number of driving force.

Relating this formula with ladle refractory case, assuming that


liquid steel has temperature 1600 C and 35 C Temperature
outside. Heat transfer in upper zone will have more of driving
force than in the ladle refractories wall.

Q conduction = 1565x Constant 1

Q radiation = 371589 x Constant 2

One of the best solutions to reduce radiation effects is


reducing temperature differences between two surfaces.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1. Conclusion
1. From Mg-O brick ( case 1-4) adding new insulation system
will reduce end shell temperature and reduce heat loss to
outside system, Mg-O brick with two additional insulation is
the best solution to reduce heat loss and decrease end shell
temperature. The two additional insulation has low number
thermal conductivity that make it as good insulator materials

2. From Alu-80 ( case 5-8) , adding two new insulation system


will give good insulating system at ladle furnace. The
thickness of lining will change the thermal distribution on
refractory system, The thickness of refractories with 100
heat cycle has been reduced from 187 mm to 100 mm. That
reason will make heat loss in old refractories is higher than a
new one

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3. Factors that need to be considered in determining insulating
system :

A. Thermal conductivity of materials (K = W/mK), Higher


number of K will give bad insulation , Lower number of K
will give good isolation

B. Thickness of refractories insulation , If refractory is thin ,


that will increase heat transfer in the wall (adding heat loss to
the system),

C. Ladle dimension, If ladle is big, the heat loss will be


higher than small one

Simplifying those factors in Fouriers law application,


where K = thermal conduction, r is radius from centre of ladle
to specific refractories wall , L is length of ladle new equation
is gained

T k ( 2 rL ) T
q x =kA = (5.1)
r r

4. Heat radiation in upper ladle zone has huge driving force


because of huge temperature differences between liquid steel
and surrounding temperature

5.2. Suggestion
To make ladle furnace in PT. Krakatau Steel works
efficiently, these are few suggestion.

1. To choose the best insulating system in ladle


refractories.
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2. To minimize the wearness effect on first lining
refractories.

3. To reduce the effect of radiation on ladle upper zone.

REFRENCES

Aapandove, Birdstewart. 2002. Transport Phenomena 2nd.


Amsterdam : Holland Press
Aroon Shenoy, Mikhail Sheremet, Ioan Pop.
2016. Convective Flow and Heat Transfer from Wavy
Surfaces. Forida : CRC Press
Bergman, Theodore. 2011. Introduction To Heat Transfer.
California : John Wley & Sons Inc
Dieter,Hans. 1998. Heat and Mass Transfer. Berlin : Springer
Geerdes, Maarten; Hisko Toxopeus; Cor Van Der Vliet. 2009.
Modern Blast Furnace Ironmaking an introduction.
Netherlands : IOS Pers BV.

Lienhard, John. 2011 .A Heat Transfer Textbook. USA :


Phlogiston Press

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Mills, KC et all, 2004. The Peformance and Properties of
Mold Flux.United Kingdom: Imperial Collage
London

S. Blundell. 2006. Concepts in Thermal Physics. England :


Oxford University Press.

Sachikanta Pradhan. Diffusion Mass Transfer In Fluid


Systems. Delhi : RIP Publication

Siegel, John R. Howell, Robert. 2001. Thermal radiation heat


transfer. New York: Taylor & Francis Inc

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