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Chapter 1 : NUMBER BASES

A) Numbers in Bases Two, Eight and Five


1. The numbers we use daily are in base ten. The ten digits used in numbers
in based ten are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
2. Numbers in base two are numbers that use two digits only. The digits are 0
and 1. Example: 1011012.
3. Numbers in base eight are numbers that use eight digits only. The eight
digits used in numbers in based ten are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
Example: 6758.
4. Numbers in base five are numbers that use five digits only. The five digits
used in numbers in based five are 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. Example: 1345.
(B) Value of a Digit of a Number in Base 2, 8 and 5

1. The following tables show the place values of the digits of a number
(a) In base 2
Place 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1
value

(b) In base 8
Place 84 = 4096 83 = 512 82 = 64 81 = 8 80 = 1
value

(c) In base 5
Place 54 = 625 53 = 125 52 = 25 51 = 5 50 = 1
value

2.
Value of a digit = The digit Place value of the digit
Example 1:
State the value of the underlined digit in each of the following numbers.
(a) 10111012 (b) 36518 (c) 32415
Solution:
(a)
Place 26 = 64 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1
value
Number 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

The value of the underlined digit 1


= 1 26
= 1 64
= 64
(b)
Place 83 = 512 82 = 64 81 = 8 80 = 1
value
Number 3 6 5 1
The value of the underlined digit 6
= 6 82
= 6 64
= 384

1
(c)
Place 53 = 125 52 = 25 51 = 5 50 = 1
value
Number 3 2 4 1

The value of the underlined digit 3


= 3 53
= 3 125
= 375

(C) Writing a Number in Base 2, 8, or 5 in Expanded Notation

1. A number written in expanded notation refers to the sum of the value of


the digits that make up the number.
Example 2:
Write each of the following in expanded notation.
(a) 1110112 (b) 4758 (c) 24135
Solution:
(a)
Place value 25 = 32 24 = 16 23 = 8 22 = 4 21 = 2 20 = 1
Number 1 1 1 0 1 1

1110112 = 1 25 + 1 24 + 1 23 + 0 22 + 1 21 + 1 20
(b)
Place value 82 = 64 81 = 8 80 = 1
Number 4 7 5
4758 = 4 82 + 7 81 + 5 80
(c)
Place value 53 = 125 52 = 25 51 = 5 50 = 1
Number 2 4 1 3

24135 = 2 53 + 4 52 + 1 51 + 3 50
(D) Converting Numbers in Base Two, Eight and Five to Base Ten and Vice Versa
1. Steps to convert numbers in base 2, 8 and 5 to base 10 are as follows.
(a) write the number in expanded notation.
(b) simplify the expanded notation into a single number.

Example 1:
Convert each of the following numbers to a number in base 10.
(a) 101012 (b) 14238 (c) 3245

Solution:
(a) 101012 = 1 24 + 0 23 + 1 22 + 0 21 + 1 20 = 2110
(b) 14238 = 1 83 + 4 82 + 2 81 + 3 80 = 78710
(c) 3245 = 3 52 + 2 51 + 4 50 = 8910

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Calculator Computation
1. Set the calculator to the BASE mode by pressing:
[MODE] [MODE] [3 (BASE)]

2. Set the calculator to the desired number system by pressing:


[BIN] for base 2
[DEC] for base 10
[OCT] for base 8

Key in the following:


(a)
[BIN] 10101 [=] [ DEC ]
The screen display is: [21]
Therefore 101012 = 2110

(b)
[OCT] 1423 [=] [ DEC ]
The screen display is: [787]
Therefore 14238 = 78710

2. Steps to convert a number in base 10 to a number in base 2, 8 and 5 are as follows.


(a) perform repeated division until the quotient is zero.
(b) write the number in new base by referring to the remainders from bottomto the top.

Example 2:
Convert 6110 to a number in
(a) Base two (b) base eight (c) base five

Solution:

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Calculator Computation

1. Set the calculator to the BASE mode by pressing:

[MODE] [MODE] [3 (BASE)]

2. Set the calculator to the desired number system by pressing:

[BIN] for base 2

[DEC] for base 10

[OCT] for base 8

Key in the following:

(a)

[DEC] 61 [=] [ BIN ]

The screen display is: [1111012]

Therefore 6110 = 1111012

(b)

[DEC] 61 [=] [ OCT ]

The screen display is: [75]

Therefore 6110 = 758

(E) Converting from One Base to Another

1. The following steps are used to convert a number from one base to another base.
(a) convert the number to a number in base 10 by using expended notation.
(b) use repeated division to convert the number in base 10 to the respective bases.

Example 1:
Convert
(a) 1101012 to a number in base 5
(b) 435 to a number in base 2
(c) 3138 to a number in base 5
(d) 4225 to a number in base 8
(e) 1001112 to a number in base 8
(f) 1578 to a number in base 2

Solution:
(a) 1101012
= 1 25 + 1 24 + 0 23 + 1 22 + 0 21 + 1 20
= 5310 (Convert from base 2 to base 10)

(b) 435
= 4 51 + 3 50
= 2310 (Convert from base 5 to base 10)

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(c) 3138
= 3 82 + 1 81 + 3 80
= 20310 (Convert from base 8 to base 10)

(d) 4225
= 4 52 + 2 51 + 2 50
= 11210 (Convert from base 5 to base 10)

(e) 1001112
= 1 25 + 0 24 + 0 23 + 1 22 + 1 21 + 1 20
= 3910 (Convert from base 2 to base 10)

(f) 1578
= 1 82 + 5 81 + 7 80
= 11110 (Convert from base 8 to base 10)

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Calculator Computation

1. Set the calculator to the BASE mode by pressing:


[MODE] [MODE] [3 (BASE)]

2. Set the calculator to the desired number system by pressing:


[BIN] for base 2
[DEC] for base 10
[OCT] for base 8

Key in the following [For (e) and (f) only]:


(e)
[ BIN ] 100111 [ = ] [ OCT ]
The screen display is: [478]
Therefore 1001112 = 478

(f)
[ OCT ] 157 [ = ] [ BIN ]
The screen display is: [1101111]
Therefore 1578 = 11011112

(F) Addition and Subtraction of Two Numbers in Base Two


1. In the addition of two numbers in base two, the following rules applied:

02 + 02 = 02
02 + 12 = 12
12 + 02 = 12
12 + 12 = 102
12 + 12 + 12 = 102 + 12 = 112

2. In the subtraction of two numbers in base two, the following rules applied:

02 02 = 02
12 02 = 12
12 12 = 02
102 12 = 12

Example 2:
Find the value of each of the following:
(a) 11012 + 1102
(b) 110012 + 101002
(c) 110112 11012
(d) 10002 1012

Solution:
(a)

6
(b)

(c)

(d)

Calculator Computation
You may obtain the answer directly from a scientific calculator by pressing:
[MODE] [MODE] [3 (BASE)]
Key in the following:
(a)
[ BIN ] 1101 [ + ] 110 [ = ]
The screen display is: [ 10011 ]
(b)
[ BIN ] 11001 [ + ] 11100 [ = ]
The screen display is: [ 110101 ]
(c)
[ BIN ] 11011 [ ] 1101 [ = ]
The screen display is: [ 1110 ]
(d)
[ BIN ] 1000 [ ] 101 [ = ]
The screen display is: [ 11 ]

Question 1:

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Express 2058 as a number of base five.

Solution:
2058 = 2 82 + 0 81 + 5 80 = 13310

Question 2:
State the value of the digit 6 in the number 16238, in base ten.

Solution:
Identify the place value of each digit in the number first.

1 6 2 3
Place Value 83 82 81 80

Value of the digit 6


= 6 82
= 384

Question 3:
Given 3 53 + 4 52 + 5p = 34205, find the value of p.
Solution:
34205 = 3 53 + 4 52 + 2 51 + 0 50
34205 = 3 53 + 4 52 + 5p + 0

5p = 2 51
5p = 10
p=2
Question 4:

8
Convert 4 84 + 2 82 + 4 to a number in base eight.

Solution:
84 83 82 81 80
4 0 2 0 48

Answer = 402048

Question 5:
What is the value of the digit 3, in base ten, in the number 4315 5?

Solution:
Identify the place value of each digit in the number first.

4 3 1 5
Place Value 53 52 51 50

Value of the digit 3


= 3 52
= 75

Question 6:
Express 5(52 + 2) as a number in base 5.

Solution:
Step 1: Expand 5(52 + 2) first.
Step 2: write 5(52 + 2) in expanded notation for base 5.
5(52 + 2)
= 53 + 2 5
= 1 53 + 0 52 + 2 51 + 0 50
= 10205

53 52 51 50
1 0 2 05

Question 7:

9
1101102 111012 =

Solution:

Alternatively, use a scientific calculator to get the answer directly.

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