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AASHTO No.: T19/T19M

Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation C29/C29M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of

original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A

superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1.1 This test method covers the determination of bulk Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate

density (unit weight) of aggregate in a compacted or loose C138/C138M Test Method for Density (Unit Weight),

condition, and calculated voids between particles in fine, Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete

coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same determination. C670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statements

This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 125 for Test Methods for Construction Materials

mm [5 in.] in nominal maximum size. C702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Test-

ing Size

NOTE 1Unit weight is the traditional terminology used to describe the D75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates

property determined by this test method, which is weight per unit volume

D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

(more correctly, mass per unit volume or density).

E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test

1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units Sieves

are to be regarded separately as standard, as appropriate for a 2.2 AASHTO Standard:

specification with which this test method is used. An exception T19/T19M Method of Test for Unit Weight and Voids in

is with regard to sieve sizes and nominal size of aggregate, in Aggregate3

which the SI values are the standard as stated in Specification

E11. Within the text, inch-pound units are shown in brackets. 3. Terminology

The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; 3.1 DefinitionsDefinitions are in accordance with Termi-

therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. nology C125 unless otherwise indicated.

Combining values from the two systems may result in non- 3.1.1 bulk density, nof aggregate, the mass of a unit

conformance with the standard. volume of bulk aggregate material, in which the volume

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the includes the volume of the individual particles and the volume

safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the of the voids between the particles. Expressed in kg/m3 [lb/ft3].

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- 3.1.2 unit weight, nweight (mass) per unit volume. (Dep-

priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- recated term usedpreferred term bulk density.)

bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. 3.1.2.1 DiscussionWeight is equal to the mass of the body

multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. Weight may be

2. Referenced Documents

expressed in absolute units (newtons, poundals) or in gravita-

2.1 ASTM Standards:2 tional units (kgf, lbf), for example: on the surface of the earth,

C125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Ag- a body with a mass of 1 kg has a weight of 1 kgf (approxi-

gregates mately 9.81 N), or a body with a mass of 1 lb has a weight of

C127 Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific 1 lbf (approximately 4.45 N or 32.2 poundals). Since weight is

Gravity), and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate equal to mass times the acceleration due to gravity, the weight

of a body will vary with the location where the weight is

1

This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on determined, while the mass of the body remains constant. On

Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee the surface of the earth, the force of gravity imparts to a body

C09.20 on Normal Weight Aggregates. that is free to fall an acceleration of approximately 9.81

Current edition approved Dec. 1, 2009. Published January 2010. Originally

approved in 1920. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as C29/C29M 07. DOI:

m/s2 [32.2 ft/s2]. D123

10.1520/C0029_C0029M-09.

2

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or

3

contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Available from American Association of State Highway and Transportation

Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on Officials (AASHTO), 444 N. Capitol St., NW, Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001,

the ASTM website. http://www.transportation.org.

Copyright. (C) ASTM International. 100 Barr Harbour Dr., PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959, United States

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C29/C29M 09

3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: TABLE 2 Requirements for Measures

3.2.1 voids, nin unit volume of aggregate, the space Thickness of Metal, min

between particles in an aggregate mass not occupied by solid Capacity of Measure Upper 38 mm

mineral matter. Bottom or 112 in. Remainder of wall

of wallA

3.2.1.1 DiscussionVoids within particles, either perme-

able or impermeable, are not included in voids as determined Less than 11 L 5.0 mm 2.5 mm 2.5 mm

11 to 42 L, incl 5.0 mm 5.0 mm 3.0 mm

by this test method. over 42 to 80 L, incl 10.0 mm 6.4 mm 3.8 mm

over 80 to 133 L, incl 13.0 mm 7.6 mm 5.0 mm

4. Significance and Use Less than 0.4 ft3 0.20 in. 0.10 in. 0.10 in.

0.4 ft3 to 1.5 ft3, incl 0.20 in. 0.20 in. 0.12 in.

4.1 This test method is often used to determine bulk density over 1.5 to 2.8 ft3, incl 0.40 in. 0.25 in. 0.15 in.

values that are necessary for use for many methods of selecting over 2.8 to 4.0 ft3, incl 0.50 in. 0.30 in. 0.20 in.

proportions for concrete mixtures. A

The added thickness in the upper portion of the wall may be obtained by

4.2 The bulk density also may be used for determining placing a reinforcing band around the top of the measure.

ments. However, the relationship between degree of compac- NOTE 2The top rim is satisfactorily plane if a 0.25-mm [0.01-in.]

tion of aggregates in a hauling unit or stockpile and that feeler gage cannot be inserted between the rim and a piece of 6-mm

achieved in this test method is unknown. Further, aggregates in [14-in.] or thicker plate glass laid over the measure. The top and bottom

are satisfactorily parallel if the slope between pieces of plate glass in

hauling units and stockpiles usually contain absorbed and

contact with the top and bottom does not exceed 0.87 % in any direction.

surface moisture (the latter affecting bulking), while this test

method determines the bulk density on a dry basis. 5.3.1 If the measure is to also be used for testing for bulk

4.3 A procedure is included for computing the percentage of density of freshly-mixed concrete according to Test Method

voids between the aggregate particles based on the bulk density C138/C138M, the measure shall be made of steel or other

determined by this test method. suitable metal not readily subject to attack by cement paste.

Reactive materials, such as aluminum alloys are permitted,

5. Apparatus where as a consequence of an initial reaction, a surface film is

5.1 BalanceA balance or scale accurate within 0.1 % of formed which protects the metal against further corrosion.

the test load at any point within the range of use, graduated to 5.3.2 Measures larger than nominal 28 L [1 ft3] capacity

at least 0.05 kg [0.1 lb]. The range of use shall be considered shall be made of steel for rigidity, or the minimum thicknesses

to extend from the mass of the measure empty to the mass of of metal listed in Table 2 shall be suitably increased.

the measure plus its contents at 1920 kg/m3 [120 lb/ft3]. 5.4 Shovel or ScoopA shovel or scoop of convenient size

5.2 Tamping RodA round, straight steel rod, 16 mm [58 for filling the measure with aggregate.

in.] in diameter and approximately 600 mm [24 in.] in length, 5.5 Calibration Equipment:

having the tamping end, or both ends, rounded to a hemispheri- 5.5.1 Plate GlassA piece of plate glass, at least 6 mm [14

cal tip, the diameter of which is 16 mm [58 in.]. in.] thick and at least 25 mm [1 in.] larger than the diameter of

5.3 MeasureA cylindrical metal measure, preferably pro- the measure to be calibrated.

vided with handles. It shall be watertight, with the top and 5.5.2 GreaseA supply of water-pump, chassis, or similar

bottom true and even, and sufficiently rigid to retain its form grease.

under rough usage. The measure shall have a height approxi- 5.5.3 ThermometerA thermometer having a range of at

mately equal to the diameter, but in no case shall the height be least 10 to 32 C [50 to 90 F] and that is readable to at least

less than 80 % nor more than 150 % of the diameter. The 0.5 C [1 F].

capacity of the measure shall conform to the limits in Table 1 5.5.4 BalanceA balance as described in 5.1.

for the aggregate size to be tested. The thickness of metal in the

6. Sampling

measure shall be as described in Table 2. The top rim shall be

smooth and plane within 0.25 mm [0.01 in.] and shall be 6.1 Obtain the sample in accordance with Practice D75, and

parallel to the bottom within 0.5 (See Note 2). The interior reduce to test sample size in accordance with Practice C702.

wall of the measure shall be a smooth and continuous surface.

7. Test Sample

7.1 The size of the sample shall be approximately 125 to

TABLE 1 Capacity of Measures

200 % of the quantity required to fill the measure, and shall be

Nominal Maximum

Size of Aggregate

Capacity of MeasureA handled in a manner to avoid segregation. Dry the aggregate

sample to essentially constant mass, preferably in an oven at

mm in. m3[L] ft3

110 6 5 C [230 6 9 F].

12.5 12 0.0028[2.8]

1 10

13

8. Calibration of Measure

37.5 112 0.014 [14]

12

100 4 0.070 [70] 212

125 5 0.100 [100] 312

whenever there is reason to question the accuracy of the

A

calibration.

The indicated size of measure shall be used to test aggregates of a nominal

maximum size equal to or smaller than that listed. The actual volume of the 8.2 Determine the mass of the plate glass and measure the

measure shall be at least 95 % of the nominal volume listed. nearest 0.05 kg [0.1 lb].

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C29/C29M 09

8.3 Place a thin layer of grease on the rim of the measure to 10.3 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents,

prevent leakage of water from the measure. and the mass of the measure alone, and record the values to the

8.4 Fill the measure with water that is at room temperature nearest 0.05 kg [0.1 lb].

and cover with the plate glass in such a way as to eliminate

bubbles and excess water. Remove any water that may have 11. Jigging Procedure

overflowed onto the measure or plate glass. 11.1 Fill the measure in three approximately equal layers as

8.5 Determine the mass of the water, plate glass, and described in 10.1, compacting each layer by placing the

measure to the nearest 0.05 kg [0.1 lb]. measure on a firm base, such as a cement-concrete floor,

8.6 Measure the temperature of the water to the nearest raising the opposite sides alternately about 50 mm [2 in.], and

0.5 C [1 F] and determine its density from Table 3, allowing the measure to drop in such a manner as to hit with a

interpolating if necessary. sharp, slapping blow. The aggregate particles, by this proce-

8.7 Calculate the volume, V, of the measure. Alternatively, dure, will arrange themselves in a densely compacted condi-

calculate the factor, F, for the measure. tion. Compact each layer by dropping the measure 50 times in

NOTE 3For the calculation of bulk density, the volume of the measure the manner described, 25 times on each side. Level the surface

in SI units should be expressed in cubic metres, or the factor as 1/m3. of the aggregate with the fingers or a straightedge in such a way

However, for convenience the size of the measure may be expressed in that any slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse

litres. aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the surface

below the top of the measure.

9. Selection of Procedure 11.2 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents,

9.1 The shoveling procedure for loose bulk density shall be and the mass of the measure alone, and record the values to the

used only when specifically stipulated. Otherwise, the compact nearest 0.05 kg [0.1 lb].

bulk density shall be determined by the rodding procedure for

aggregates having a nominal maximum size of 37.5 mm 12. Shoveling Procedure

[112 in.] or less, or by the jigging procedure for aggregates 12.1 Fill the measure to overflowing by means of a shovel

having a nominal maximum size greater than 37.5 mm [112 in.] or scoop, discharging the aggregate from a height not to exceed

and not exceeding 125 mm [5 in.]. 50 mm [2 in.] above the top of the measure. Exercise care to

prevent, so far as possible, segregation of the particle sizes of

10. Rodding Procedure which the sample is composed. Level the surface of the

10.1 Fill the measure one-third full and level the surface aggregate with the fingers or a straightedge in such a way that

with the fingers. Rod the layer of aggregate with 25 strokes of any slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse

the tamping rod evenly distributed over the surface. Fill the aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the surface

measure two-thirds full and again level and rod as above. below the top of the measure.

Finally, fill the measure to overflowing and rod again in the 12.2 Determine the mass of the measure plus its contents,

manner previously mentioned. Level the surface of the aggre- and the mass of the measure alone, and record the values to the

gate with the fingers or a straightedge in such a way that any nearest 0.05 kg [0.1 lb].

slight projections of the larger pieces of the coarse aggregate

approximately balance the larger voids in the surface below the 13. Calculation

top of the measure. 13.1 Bulk DensityCalculate the bulk density for the rod-

10.2 In rodding the first layer, do not allow the rod to strike ding, jigging, or shoveling procedure as follows:

the bottom of the measure forcibly. In rodding the second and M 5 ~G 2 T!/V (1)

third layers, use vigorous effort, but not more force than to

cause the tamping rod to penetrate to the previous layer of or

aggregate. M 5 ~G 2 T! 3 F (2)

NOTE 4In rodding the larger sizes of coarse aggregate, it may not be where:

possible to penetrate the layer being consolidated, especially with angular M = bulk density of the aggregate, kg/m3 [lb/ft3],

aggregates. The intent of the procedure will be accomplished if vigorous G = mass of the aggregate plus the measure, kg [lb],

effort is used.

T = mass of the measure, kg [lb],

V = volume of the measure, m3 [ft3], and

F = factor for measure, m3 [ft3].

TABLE 3 Density of Water 13.1.1 The bulk density determined by this test method is

Temperature for aggregate in an oven-dry condition. If the bulk density in

kg/m3 lb/ft3

C F terms of saturated-surface-dry (SSD) condition is desired, use

15.6 60 999.01 62.366 the exact procedure in this test method, and then calculate the

18.3 65 998.54 62.336 SSD bulk density using the following formula:

21.1 70 997.97 62.301

23.0 73.4 997.54 62.274 Mssd 5 M[1 1 ~A/100!# (3)

23.9 75 997.32 62.261

26.7 80 996.59 62.216 where:

29.4 85 995.83 62.166

MSSD = bulk density in SSD condition, kg/m3 [lb/ft3], and

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C29/C29M 09

A = % absorption, determined in accordance with Test 15.2 Coarse Aggregate (bulk density):

Method C127 or Test Method C128. 15.2.1 Single-Operator PrecisionThe single-operator

13.2 Void ContentCalculate the void content in the aggre- standard deviation has been found to be 14 kg/m3 [0.88 lb/ft3]

gate using the bulk density determined by either the rodding, (1s). Therefore, results of two properly conducted tests by the

jigging, or shoveling procedure, as follows: same operator on similar material should not differ by more

than 40 kg/m3 [2.5 lb/ft3] (d2s).

% Voids 5 100[~S 3 W! 2 M]/~S 3 W! (4)

15.2.2 Multilaboratory PrecisionThe multilaboratory

where: standard deviation has been found to be 30 kg/m3 [1.87 lb/ft3]

M = bulk density of the aggregate, kg/m3 [lb/ft3], (1s). Therefore, results of two properly conducted tests from

S = bulk specific gravity (dry basis) as determined in two different laboratories on similar material should not differ

accordance with Test Method C127 or Test Method by more than 85 kg/m3 [5.3 lb/ft3] (d2s).

C128, and 15.2.3 These numbers represent, respectively, the (1s) and

W = density of water, 998 kg/m3 [62.3 lb/ft3]. (d2s) limits as described in Practice C670. The precision

13.3 Volume of MeasureCalculate the volume of a mea- estimates were obtained from the analysis of AMRL profi-

sure as follows: ciency sample data for bulk density by rodding of normal

V 5 ~W 2 M!/D (5) weight aggregates having a nominal maximum aggregate size

of 25.0 mm [1 in.], and using a 14-L [12-ft3] measure.

F 5 D/~W 2 M! (6) 15.3 Fine Aggregate (bulk density):

15.3.1 Single-Operator PrecisionThe single-operator

where: standard deviation has been found to be 14 kg/m3 [0.88 lb/ft3]

V = volume of the measure, m3 [ft3] (1s). Therefore, results of two properly conducted tests by the

W = mass of the water, plate glass, and measure, kg [lb] same operator on similar material should not differ by more

M = mass of the plate glass and measure, kg [lb] than 40 kg/m3 [2.5 lb/ft3] (d2s).

D = density of the water for the measured temperature, 15.3.2 Multilaboratory PrecisionThe multilaboratory

kg/m3 [lb/ft3], and standard deviation has been found to be 44 kg/m3 [2.76 lb/ft3]

F = factor for the measure, 1/m3 [1/ft3] (1s). Therefore, results of two properly conducted tests from

14. Report two different laboratories on similar material should not differ

by more than 125 kg/m3 [7.8 lb/ft3] (d2s).

14.1 Report the results for the bulk density to the nearest 10

15.3.3 These numbers represent, respectively, the (1s) and

kg/m3 [1 lb/ft3] as follows:

(d2s) limits as described in Practice C670. The precision

14.1.1 Bulk density by rodding, or

estimates were obtained from the analysis of AMRL profi-

14.1.2 Bulk density by jigging, or

ciency sample data for loose bulk density from laboratories

14.1.3 Loose bulk density.

using a 2.8-L [110-ft3] measure.

14.2 Report the results for the void content to the nearest

15.4 No precision data on void content are available.

1 % as follows:

However, as the void content in aggregate is calculated from

14.2.1 Voids in aggregate compacted by rodding, %, or

bulk density and bulk specific gravity, the precision of the

14.2.2 Voids in aggregate compacted by jigging, %, or

voids content reflects the precision of these measured param-

14.2.3 Voids in loose aggregate, %.

eters given in 15.2 and 15.3 of this test method and in Test

15. Precision and Bias Methods C127 and C128.

15.1 The following estimates of precision for this test 15.5 BiasThe procedure in this test method for measuring

method are based on results from the AASHTO Materials bulk density and void content has no bias because the values

Reference Laboratory (AMRL) Proficiency Sample Program, for bulk density and void content can be defined only in terms

with testing conducted using this test method and AASHTO of a test method.

Method T 19/T19M. There are no significant differences be-

tween the two test methods. The data are based on the analyses 16. Keywords

of more than 100 paired test results from 40 to 100 laborato- 16.1 aggregates; bulk density; coarse aggregate; density;

ries. fine aggregate; unit weight; voids in aggregates

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C29/C29M 09

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

Committee C09 has identified the location of selected changes to this test method since the last issue,

C29/C29M 07, that may impact the use of this test method. (Approved December 1, 2009)

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned

in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk

of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and

if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards

and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the

responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should

make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,

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