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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Mind mapping is an easy way to place information to brain and take

information out from brain, mind mapping also referred to as

webbing or thinking maps is a valuable strategy for students

to use to support and improve reading comprehension.

Coined Ausubel (2002). Mind mapping helps students to

structure and order their thinking by creating a visual

representation of concepts and their understanding. The

advantages use Mind Mapping are: help the student as its

more easily converted into a draft, then the student can see

the relationship between ideas and encourages them to group

certain ideas together as they proceed.

The concept of mind mapping is based on Ausubels

meaningful learning theory and derived from advance

organizer concept in Ausubels theory. According to Ausubel

(2002), the meaningful learning occurs when the learner can

organize the information and link the prior knowledge to the

new one in cognitive structure. Cognitive structure contains a

set of organized principles, concepts and information that a

person has already learned and fields of inquiry are organized

like pyramid with the most general ideas forming the apex,

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and more particular ideas and specific details subsumed

under them. The most inclusive ideas-those located at the top

of the pyramid-are the prominent and most enduring

elements in the hierarchy. They process a longer life span in

memory than do particular facts or specific details, which fall

at the base of the pyramid. Cognitive structure emphasizes

the Horners cognitive structure in the acquisition of new

information. Present experience is always fitted into what the

learner already knows. A cognitive structure that is clear and

well organized facilitates the learning and retention of new

information.
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Reading is very important for academic achievement and

an important as well as necessary skill to function

successfully to improves a students vocabulary, leads to

more highly-developed language skills. Reading requires more

understanding. To understand, the reader should have a

variety of capacities. These include cognitive ability,

motivation, and various types of knowledge base are called in

every act of reading comprehension depends on the use of

text and specific activities are involved.

Reading, which belongs to receptive skill, can be defined

as a process whereby one looks at and understands what has

been written (Williams, 1999: 2). It means that, when

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someone reads, he looks at something written and tries to get

the meaning to understand it. Reading can also be described

as a mental or cognitive process which involves a reader in

trying to follow and respond to a message from a writer, who

is in distant space and time (Davies, 1995: 1). It means that

reading activity connects the reader and the writer although

they are in different time and place; for example reading an

ancient book, a reading personal letter and a magazine.

The reason for teaching reading the students because it

belongs to the basic language skills in english, just as

important as speaking, listening, and writing. Besides,

reading is closely related with other subjects. Most of the

materials given by the teacher (in English or other subjects)

are presented in written form, for example in handbook,

handout, et cetera. It means that to understand the

materials, the students must have the ability to look at and

get the meaning of written text, that is called reading skill.

Because of that, reading is very important to be taught to the

students.

Based on information from an English teacher, Miss Lipi Harnaini, as

an english teacher says, the students' reading comprehension of SMP N 18

was still low, it is seen from the results of the principal replay showed there

were 16 students from 31 students who did not meet the KKM is 65 and

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otherwise not completed. Based on the observations of researchers in the

learning process When they read a long text, they were not

interested because they often did not understanding the

meaning of the word used in the text. It was difficult for them

to understand the content of the Text, however, they were

reluctant to bring the dictionary. They just waited until the

teacher explained it for them or asked them about the difficult word,

besides, there were some problems that came from the teacher.

Furthermore, based on the researcher experienced when teaching

practice, the researcher find in the class, some students were

sometimes seemed to lean over their head on the table and

talk each other. They just paid attention to the teacher when

they did exercises but if the time given to do it was too long,

they began to be noisy again.

Actually, the strategy of teacher in explaining the material is clear but

she was too fixated on the textbook. They usually used conventional methods

and exercises in the handbook. So, the students feel that learning english was

boring. All those factors influence the student to have low motivation in

learning English, especially in reading.

Those whose first language is not English need

techniques for better learning, longer information saving and

the stored information in the new situations. Teachers also

look for teaching techniques which activate students in the

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language learning process and increase their success. Among

effective factors these strategies are a lot, but we just focus

on prior knowledge and knowledge structure in improving

English reading comprehension of eight language of junior

high school students and investigate the effect of concept

map as a teaching strategy on English reading

comprehension. The receaarcher is interested in doing the

research The Title :The Comparative Of Using Mind Mapping Class

and non Mind Mapping Class On The Reading Comprehension

Achievement at Eight Grade Students of SMPN 18 Bengkulu.

1.2 Identification of problem

Based on the background as described above, several

research problem in this study can be identification as follows

1. Students' reading comprehension of SMP N 18 was still low.


2. In reading ability there are many students who have

problem expecially when the students read a long text,

which were not interesting because they do not

understand the meaning of the words used in the text.

It was difficult for them to understand the content of

the text, and the students feel that learning English was

boring.

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3. There are many strategies in learning and teaching

reading comprehension. The researcher will use Mind

Mapping strategy to improve student reading

achievement

1.3 Research Problem

Based on the background of study above, the problem of the study is as

follows: What is the comparative of using mind mapping class and non

mind mapping class on the reading comprehension achievement at Eight

Grade Students of SMPN 18 Bengkulu?

1.4 The Objective of the Study

The objective of this research is to investigate the

comparative between mind mapping class and non mind mapping

class on the reading comprehension achievement at conducted at Eight

Grade Students of SMPN 18 Bengkulu

1.5 Hypothesis

In order to answer the research questions, the following hypothesis is

proposed, the null hypothesis (ho), and the alternative one (h1). If the null is

rejected, the alternative one will be accepted.

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Ha = there is a significant different between students who were taught

using mapping strategy and who were not.

1.6 Limitation of The Research

In this research, the researcher will focus on (1) using

mind mapping strategy on the reading comprehension

achievement, and the population will focus at (2) the second

years of SMP N 18 Kota Bengkulu

The classes involved in this research will be utilized two

classes such as VIII A and VIII B of eight grade which are available

SMP N 18 Kota Bengkulu. The two classes will be selected randomly

and also designed as an experimental class and as a control class.

1.7 The significant of the study

The significant of this research as follows:


1. To give an additional knowledge or information to the

teacher to improve English teaching especially reading.


2. To give students ability in reading foreign language

text.
3. Finally, it also hope that results of this study can give

English teacher a new strategy that can useful to guide

the students.

1.8 Definition of the key term

1. Reading comprehension is the capability of reader in

understanding a written text means extracting the

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required information from it is efficiently as possible within

mind mapping .
2. Mind Mapping strategy is used in reading comprehension

to find information for understanding written text means

in the reading text.


3. Non mind mapping strategy is one of the teachers

strategies without using mind mapping in teaching on

reading comprehension

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 DefinitionofComparative

According to Oxford English Dictionary, the meaning of

comparative is connected with studying things to find out how

similar or different they are. Comparative is the form of an

adjective or adverb that expresses a greater amount, quality,

size, and comparison is an act of comparing. The word

compare means to consider people or things in order to find

ways in which they are similar standard of size, they can be

compared which somebody or something (Hornby, 1995).

According Sudijono (2007) comparative research is a research

to find out similarities or differences of things, work procedure,

or ideas.

2.2 Reading comprehension

There are so many theories about the meaning and

significance of reading. Some one says that reading is a

process conducted by the readers to obtain the messages

conveyed through the medium of the author - the written

language. In terms of the linguistic, reading a reader to go

back and re-encoding.

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Reading is one of the four English skills that the student

must master. Reading is a complex cognitive process of

decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning

(reading comprehension). It is means of language acquisition,

of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like

all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and

the reader which is shaped by the readers prior knowledge,

experiences, attitude, and language community which is

culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires

continuous practice, development, and refinement.


According to Tarcy Humali (2011), reading certainly

different from speaking in daily life - today. The pressure of

reading more, leads in how someone reads the links between

the word - written word with the meaning of spoken language.

Reading comprehension can be understood as the

process through which the recognized words are transformed

into a meaningful idea (Hoover & Gough, 1990). It is a

complex process that requires the activation of numerous

cognitive skills (Kintsch, 1998).

Comprehension is the reason for reading; it

encompasses the learning, growing, and evolution of ideas

that occur as one reads. The goal of reading. The

understanding of reading that includes both decoding and

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comprehension forms the foundation of this study. If a reader

can both decode and comprehend the printed word, she/he

has attained a skill in reading that offers the most personal

fulfillment and future success (Human Resources and Social

Development Canada, 2003b). As such, reading which

involves both proficient decoding and skilful comprehension is

the ultimate goal of reading instruction.

Based on the whole explanations above it can be

concluded that reading comprehension is a process of getting

an idea about something for instance information, new,

knowledge. Then, reading understands a written text means

extracting the required information from it is efficiently as

possible.

According to the curriculum, which is taught in class of eight Grade

at SMPN-18 Bengkulu, standard of competence in this study is to understand

the meaning of texts and write short essays simple functional form of

descriptive and short recount relating to the environment.

2.3 The Purpose of Reading Comprehension

People read depend on situation or purposes. Reading is

an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain

information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to

critique a writers ideas or writing style.

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Reading purposes to obtain knowledge, or to receive

the experience, insight, or imagination of other. According to

Mounton de Gruyter (2006), he say that the many purposes

of reading that can be commonly identified, shares the time

cognitive processes and knowledge resources. This purpose

may be the most dominant reasons how we use cognitive

processes and knowledge processes to find new information

from newspaper or headlines that we read.


There have been many experts proposing the purpose

of reading. Grabe (2009) point up seven purposes for

reading : (1) Reading to search for simple information, (2)

Reading to skin quickly, (3) Reading to learn from the text, (4)

Reading to integrate information, (5) Reading to write, (6)

Reading to critique texts, and (7) Reading to comprehend the

text generally. Reading purposes also to connect the idea on

the page to what you already know. If you dont know

anything about a subject, then pouring word of text into your

mind is like pouring water into your hand.


Based on definition of the purposes above, it can be

concluded that readers read the written texts to get the

information or facts related to their needs. Pleasure is the

highest reason to be considered in choosing what texts

people will read.

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2.4 Mapping strategy

Mind mapping is a visual frameworks such as figures,

diagrams, or charts used to present structural knowledge

spatially with the intention of empowering comprehension

and learning. Mind mapping is effective in terms of helping

communicate information because they can clarify complex

concepts into simple, meaningful displays so that learners

can develop a holistic understanding of the content to be

learnt. Teachers may use mind mapping technique at

different stages of instruction for example during instruction

to prepare students to approach new information and clarify

complex ideas, or after instruction to assess and reinforce

learning and instruction.

Mind Mapping is a strategy that encourages learners to

visually record learning. They are visual representation and

usually are not right or wrong, but teachers can use them

to make judgements about a students level of understanding

of the issues and connections. Mind mapping begin with a key

concept which is placed in the centre of a page, butchers

paper or blackboard. Students identify key words and write

them around the concept and then progressively move to less

directly related words. Once the words are all written up,

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students can construct links between different ideas to make

connections and establish cause and affect relationships etc.

According to Kaplan (2004), Mind Mapping is to the 21st

Century what linear note-taking was to the Industrial Age.

Linear note-taking primarily uses words, numbers, letters

lines and lists. These are dominantly left-brain skills. In Mind

Mapping, all of these essential skills are used plus the right

brain skills including colour, image, spatial arrangement, and

visual rhythm. Mind Mapping is a combination these left and

right skills, producing a synergetic effect that multiplies the

brains learning and thinking power. The Mind Mapping is

thus a whole-brain thinking tool, rather than a half-wit

thinking tool.

Kaplan (2004) suggests to use the following foundation

structures for Mind Mapping:

1. Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least

3 colors.
2. Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout

your Mind Map.


3. Select key words and print using upper or lower case

letters.
4. Each word/image must be alone and sitting on its own line.
5. The lines must be connected, starting from the central

image. The central lines are thicker, organic and fl owing,

becoming thinner as they radiate out from the centre.

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6. Make the lines the same length as the word/image.
7. Use colors your own code throughout the Mind Mapping.
8. Develop your own personal style of Mind Mapping.
9. Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Mapping.
10. Keep the Mind Map clear by using radial hierarchy,

numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches.

2.5 How to use the mind mapping strategy

A Mind Mapping technique is a technique using a

diagram to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other information

connected to and arranged radially around a central key word

or idea. The Mind Mapping concept was popularized widely by

Grabe (2009).

It is based on the theory of Radiant Thinking each bit

of information entering your brain (sensation, memory,

thought) can be represented as central sphere which radiates

tens, hundreds, thousands, millions of hooks, each of which

represents an association and each association has its own

infinite arrays of links and connections (Grabe, 2009). Grabe,

further argue that humans brain already contains maps of

information, which has an ability to make patterns using data

it already possesses and ability to process vast amount of

information using radiant instead of linear structures.

Using mind map means employing or functioning our

brain naturally in receiving, processing information, and

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enhancing memory, concentration, and creativity. Now, it has

been widely used as a learning technique in various

disciplines to generate, structure, visualize, and classify

ideas.

Therefore, important to train students to take notes or

learn using a mind mapping technique. Through mind

mapping they will be able to take notes the important points,

classify or summarize them, and link relationships among the

points. If it is practiced continually in teaching and learning

reading, it can improve students ability in comprehending

texts quickly and comprehensively. Mind Mapping avoids

students from just copying the information from the text,

improves their creativity in expressing ideas, makes them get

used to summarizing as needed in reading academic

textbooks. Having just the key words rather than sentences in

the mind mapping notes will make learning more internalized

and more creative; therefore, the learning will be more

effective, meaningful and well-organized.

To be able to produce comprehensive and meaningful

mind mapping, the students should be trained continuously to

do step by step procedures. Here are the suggested steps in

using a Mind Mapping technique:

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1. In the center of the page, write the title of the

passage/article.

2. On the first layer, write the key words of

subdivisions/subheadings which show parallel ideas.

3. On the next layer, write the key words on each subheading.

4. Draw lines to see the relationship among the ideas.

2.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of Mind Mapping Strategy

In addition, the benefits and disadvantages there are also

the advantages of learning the mind map. The strengths are

as follows:
1. Easy to see the whole picture
2. Helps the brain to: organize, remember, compare and

make connections.
3. Easy addition of new information.
4. Reassessment could be faster.
5. Each map is unique.

Of course, in addition to the many benefits that can be

obtained from the learning mind map. But the weaknesses the

rule is certainly there. The weaknesses in mind mapping are

as follows;

1. Wasting time using to write the words that have no

connection with the memory.


2. Wasting time to re-read the words that are not necessary.
3. Wasting time to search keywords reminder.
4. Relations keywords reminder interrupted by separating the

words.
5. Keywords reminders separated by distance.

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2.7 Teaching reading comprehension by using mind

mapping

Teaching is a process of transferring knowledge.

Teaching reading is not only teaching to read, but more than

it. Comprehending the text is one of the readings goals.

Teaching reading can be main as facilitate students

performance this in comprehending texts, and provide

students with many opportunities in practicing can encourage

in a number of comprehension enhancing the best known of

which are reciprocal teaching, cooperative


During teaching reading process we must pay attention

about the principles of teaching reading. The principles can

be standard to limit teachers when they teach reading.

According to Julian Bamford (2002) The principles of teaching

reading are stated below:

a. The reading material is easy.

b. A variety of reading material on a wide range of topics

must be available.

c. Learners choose what they want to read.

d. Learners read as much as possible.

e. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure,

information and general understanding.

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f. Reading is its own reward.

g. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.

h. Reading is individual and silent.

i. Teachers orient and guide their students.

j. The teacher is a role model of a reader.

Teaching reading need more than only read text. According

to the definitions about reading and reading comprehension,

we have three points based on the explanation above, they

are:
a. The reader who is doing the comprehending
b. The text that is to be comprehended
c. The activity in which comprehension is a part of daily

lesson plans

According to oxford (1990) there are six components of

reading strategies that are importan and easy for learning. By

learning these strategies, learners will be more motivated in

their reading comprehension. The reading strategies are

namely predicting, skimming, scanning,inferring, guessing the

meaning of unfamiliar words, and self-monitoring.

1. Prediction

Prediction refers to the technique of using the

readers prior knowledge to guess the meaning orthe

message of the text from the topics, pictures, key words, or

the constructions. It is one of the most effective factors

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that motivates students to read and understand the

meaning of the context (Oxford, 1990).

2. Skimming

Skimming refers to the technique of reading

passages quickly in order to get its gist. In skimming,

readers do not look for specific information but only for

general information (Nikki, 2010).

3. Scanning

Scanning is quite similar to skimming in that both of

them require a quick glance of a text. The difference is that

in skimming, readers try to get the general or main

information of the text but in scanning, the readers would

like to obtain specific information. In scanning technique,

readers are looking to find particular information the

answer to his/her questions. So, readers need to move their

eyes quickly across the passages for particular words or

phrases (Nikki, 2010).

4. Inferring

Inferring refers to activities of reading between the

lines which means that readers need to know how to get

the message from the words and sentences in a text. So,

inferring is defined as the interaction between words in a

sentence or phrases or between sentences or phrases

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(Mansouren, 2012). There are seven types of inferring

activities:

a. Knowing what a pronoun in a sentence refers back to.


b. Making assumption about the next sentence and

guessing the content of the next passage.


c. Predicting the definition of new words in the text.
d. Making hypothesis across the text about the behaviours

of a character in different locations


e. To be familiar with the connections of words and how

they will be used in a specific text.


f. Knowing the relationships as written at various times in

contexts.
g. While reading a text fill gaps related to background

knowledge (if any).


5. Guessing the meaning of new words

Guessing the meaning of new words helps readers to

read and understand text quickly because difficult words

usually create problems for students and are obstacles in

reading comprehension (Smith, 1994). Furthermore, the

best way to find the meaning of new words is to draw

inferences from the context rather than using a dictionary

(Smith, 1994).

6. Self-monitoring

This strategy is one of the most important factors

that allows readers to regulate their reading. Awareness of

using this strategy helps learners to solve their problems in

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reading. Kern (1989) found that proficient readers used

self-monitoring combined with other strategies in their

reading comprehension.

2.8 Curriculum

There is a swift of curriculum from School-Based

Curriculum (SBC) into 2013 Curriculum. However, the

implementation of the 2013 Curriculum has not done yet by

every school in Indonesia. The government has chosen

several schools to implement this curriculum. SMP 18

Bengkulu has not yet implemented this curriculum in the

first semester of the academic year of 2015/2016. It still uses

the School-Based Curriculum.

The School-Based Curriculum arranged how the teacher

teaches reading in school. Although the development of the

School Based Curriculum is taken references on the Content

Standard and the Graduate Competence Standard, a teacher

can develop the teaching method and techniques in the

English teaching and learning process based on the syllabus.

However, there are several important components in this

curriculum that need to be considered when a teacher

develops their syllabus. They are the standard of competence

and the basic competence. The teachers determined the

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materials, the learning activities, the evaluation, the time

allocation, and the source of learning which were adjusted

with the standard of competence and the basic competence.

Based on the standard of competence and basic

competence, the areas of reading for the Junior High School

include the ability in understanding written texts to reach the

functional literacy and the ability in understanding many

kinds of short functional texts and genres such as procedure,

descriptive, recount, report and narrative. The following table

shows the expected reading competence of the first semester

of the eighth grade students in the junior high school:

Table 1. The Standard of Competence and the Basic


Competence of Reading for the Junior High
School Standard of CompetenceBasic
Competence
Standard of Competence Basic Competence
5. Understanding meaning in 5.1. Reading aloud functional written text
functional written text as well as and simple and sort essay in the form
simple and short essay in the of descriptive and recount with
forms of descriptive and acceptably speech, stress and
recount to be able to interact in intonation to be able to interact in
daily contexts daily contexts
5.2. Responding to meaning in simple and
short functional written text
accurately, fluently, and acceptably
to be able to interact in daily
contexts,
5.3. Responding to meaning and
rhetorical steps in simple short essay
accurately, fluently, and acceptably
to be able to interact in daily context
in the forms of written descriptive,
and recount.

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Before an English teacher teach students, it is important

for them to design a syllabus and a lesson plan. The syllabus

contains the subject, the standard of competence and the

basic competence, materials, activities, indicators,

assessment, time allocation and source. The syllabus is

developed based on the Standard of Content and the

Graduate Competence Standard and guide of composing

School-Based Curriculum. Then, the syllabus spells out how

the lesson plan is designed to direct students to achieve the

basic competence. In lesson plan, there are several

components that have to be included. They are the subject,

the standard of components, the basic competence, the

indicators of the teaching and learning objectives, the

objectives, the materials, the time allocation, the method, the

activities, the assessments and the source.

Besides considering the standard of competence and the

basic competence in designing the lesson, it is also important

for an English teacher to consider other factors related to the

teaching learning process. The first factor is the students. The

English teacher should design a lesson that meets with

students need, wants and necessity. He also should consider

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the students proficiency level and students characteristics.

The teacher should also consider the teaching and learning

situation. It includes the classroom situation, the facilities,

etc.

The other factor that a teacher should consider in

designing a lesson is the teaching methods. Nowadays, the

students are required to develop their communicative

competence. This competence will give them competence in

dealing with other people in the real world. That is why, it is

important for teachers to use the current language teaching

approach that is the Communicative Language Teaching

approach. Because the School-Based Curriculum contains

different kinds of texts that an English teacher should teach

to the students, it is also important for the teacher to use the

Text-Based Instruction. This approach gives suggestion for a

teacher how to teach different kinds of the text. The teacher

can use several phase in order to make students can

comprehend the text and respond to it. Meanwhile, the use of

the Multiple Intelligences-based techniques can be used by

teacher to expand their repertoire of teaching strategies

especially in teaching reading comprehension. The lesson

that is based on the Communicative Language Teaching

approach and the Text-Based Instruction can be enriched

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with various kinds of activities which are offered by

every intelligence. Besides, this technique can appreciate

students differences in acquiring new knowledge.

In conclusion, the teaching reading at the Junior High

School should be based on the syllabus and the lesson plan

that has been designed by teacher with some consideration.

They are the standard of competence, the basic competence,

the students profile (which include their needs and

characteristics), the teaching and learning situation and the

teaching methods. The elaboration of the Communicative

Language Teaching approach, the Text-Based Instruction and

the Multiple Intelligences-based technique can be used to

help an English teacher in their teaching and learning process

so that students can develop their ability especially reading

comprehension ability.

2.9 Previous studies

Some researcher had done study of students Mapping.

in this research, researcher wants to know investigate whether Mapping

strategy by second class of SMP N 18 Kota Bengkulu have an effect to their

reading comprehension. Basically, there are some researcher about teaching

with Mapping strategy.

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Many studies have attempted to incorporate the use of mind mapping

techniques to improve learners reading comprehension ability at different

levels ranging from elementary to high school.

First, Leonardopar (2009) on English study program STKIP Santu

Paulus Ruteng, Flores, NTT.K in research improving students reading

comprehension of expository text through the Mind Mapping strategy results

showed that the results indicate that the mind mapping strategy has been

successful in improving student reading skills. it result showed the average of

score was 79.69. it mean that, the mind mapping strategy is helping students

in expository reading comprehension in english, especially in find a topic,

main idea and supporting ideas of a text, and a very effective strategy to solve

the problem Mind Mapping reading comprehension their English text.

Sulistyo, Teguh (2009/2010), University Malang in research at

Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of the Students of Kanjuruhan

University through Question Answer Relationship (MIND MAPPING)

Strategy reported that this strategy improved the students participation. The

students participation was 87.18% (equal to very good) in Cycle 1 and

87.42% (equal to very good) in Cycle 2. The findings of the research that

were conducted in two cycles showed that mind mapping strategy was worthy

to improve the students reading skills, especially critical and scanning skills,

and activate students to participate in the teaching-learning.

Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton (2004), in strategy

Maps report that The strategy map allows managers to align

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investments in people, technology and organization capital

for the greatest impact. By paying close attention to

improving internal processes such as operations, customer

relationships, innovation and culture - and making proper

investments in intangible assets - human capital, information

capital, and organization capital management can implement

a structured plan to achieve strategic success.

This research is also similar with them research, but in research,

researcher want to investigate The Comparative of using mind mapping class

and non mind mapping class on the reading comprehension achievement at

Eight Grade Students of SMPN 18 Bengkulu.

Moreover, the differences between this research with

these two previous research are at the research method. The

correlation will be the research method of this research,

whereas in the earlier study using PTK.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Design

This study is a quasi experimental research. According

to Dummies (2006) the prefix quasi means, in essence,

sort of. So a quasi-experiment is a sort of experiment.

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Specifically, a quasi-experiment is a study that includes a

manipulated independent variable but lacks important

controls (e.g., random assignment), or a study that lacks a

manipulated independent variable but includes important

controls. So a quasi-experiment has some features of a well

conducted experiment but not others.

In quasi experimental research, there were two

variables used, they were independent and dependent. Here,

the researcher used mind mapping strategy as independent

variable, in order to improve the students reading

comprehension achievement, as a dependent variable.

Two groups are used, they were experimental group

with the treatment given by the researcher ( mind mapping

strategy ), in order to see the effect on the students writing

achievement, and control group still in conventional

method. But, before giving the treatment, a pre test for each

group was given by the researcher in order to see the level of

students qualifications. After the treatment, a post test was

given to both group in order to know the students reading

comprehension achievement.

Experimental group YI XI

Y2

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Control group YI X0

Y2

Note : YI : pre-test

Y2 : Post-test

XI : Treatment

X0 : No treatment Jacobs et al

(2010:305)

However, XI means the treatment of mind mapping

strategy for experimental group that was applied to

improve the students reading comprehension

achievement. The second Eight Grade Students of SMPN 18

Bengkulu in the control group only received pretest and

posttest.

3.2 Variable

Variable is a thing that become the object of research Arikunto

(2002:9). In this study have two variable, there are independent and

dependent variables. Independent variable is a free variable that systematical

with manipulated and variable dependent is a bound variable that depend on

independent variable, Darmadi ( 2011:21). In the research independent

variable is mapping strategy and dependent variable Reading Comprehension.

1. Mapping strategy (X) is a visual frameworks such as figures,

diagrams, or charts used to present structural knowledge

30
spatially with the intention of empowering comprehension

and learning
2. Reading Comprehension (Y) is the capability of reader in

understanding a written text means extracting the

required information from it is efficiently as possible within

mind mapping .

3.3 Population

Populations are all of subject in the research. According Arikunto (2002)

say that population is the whole set of measurements or counts about which

we want to draw a conclusion. Besides, according to According to

encyclopedia in Arikunto (2002), state that, a population is a set (or

collection) of all elements possessing or more attributes of interest. ,

according to Darmadi (2011) population is all of well defined class of people,

events or objects.

In this study, the population this research in the second years student of

SMPN 18 Kota Bengkulu consisted of two clasess from VIII A, VIII B.

Which have 75 students in academic year 2016/ 2017.

3.4 Sample

The second year student of SMPN 18 Kota Bengkulu will be selected

through purposive sampling and will be divided in to mapping

class and non mind mapping class. The purposive sampling

31
was used because of the official limitations and preventing

the problems that it may make for official educational plan.

In this study, have two classes that will take as the

sample. The first class (VIII B) as non mind mapping class will

teach by a conventional teaching and the second class (VIII A)

as mind mapping and will give treatment. Then, sample will

get by using technique random sampling through traditional

ways.

3.5 Instrument

The instrument in this research will use reading test (see

apendix 4). Where the text will take from text book reading to

second class of SMP. The aim of the test to measure students

reading comprehension.

In this test, the research will use reading tests in the form

of question. Then the student will ask to answer multiple

choises based on the text. Then, the total numbers of the item

are twenty five for multiple choices. For each question on

multiple choice have four options, there are (A, B, C, D).

3.6 Validity and Reliability of the test

In designed the reading texts as the instrument of this

study, the writer had measured the readability of the reading

by using Flesch Kincaid formula. It was used to find out

32
whether the reading texts were determine to the reading

comprehension level of the sample. The researcher also found

their reliability by trying it out at another school which had

similar characteristics with the sample. The data from the try

out were analyzed by using alpha Cronbach. The validity and

reliability of the instrument are very important to measure

instrument. On order, to measure he index of the difficulty,

the researcher applied this following formula ( carvantes,

1988:12)

TRR
IDIF=
N

Where:

TRR : Total Responses

N : Number of examine

Then, the numerical values translated into this descriptive

value:

IDIF

.86-1.00 very easy

.71-.85 easy

33
.40-.70 desirable

.15-.39 difficult

.01-.14 very difficult

In validity of the instrument of the test, it can be seen by

the difficulties of the test. On the other hand, the test is not

too easy and the test is not too difficult. The standard level

of difficulty is 0.30 and 0.70, Arikunto (2009). It

means that the items are accepted if the level of difficulty is

between 0.30-0.70 and rejected if the level of difficulty is

below 0.30 (too difficult) and over 0.70 (too easy).

3.7 Techniques of collecting data

The data will be collected by test. The test will be given to the students

of class two classes, one class as using mind mapping and one class as non

using mind mapping. Where is test that give to know the similarity of the basic

achievement between using mind mapping and non using mind mapping.

Test that will give to know the result of the research whether there are

differences for both classes.

3.7 Data Analysis

34
The data analysis for the post test scores will computed using the t-test.

Whereas to know compared the average scores of reading comprehension of

the control and the experimental group. This research will analyze by using

the T-test formulation Sugiyono (2009).

x 1x 2
t=

s 12 s 2 2
+ 2r 1
n1 n2
s
( )( )
n1
s2
n2

where ,

x 1=mean score ofsample I

x 2=mean score of sample II

S 1=standard deviationof sample I

S 2=standard deviationof sample II

2
s 1 =varians of sample I

2
s 2 =varians of sample II

r= point biseral correlation

3.8. The Procedure In Teaching Reading Comprehension By Using Mind

Mapping and Non Mind Mapping

1. The Stage of Teaching Comprehension By Using Mind Mapping


The researcher will teach reading comprehension using main

mapping strategy where each meeting took time allocation about 2 X 40

35
minutes. This kind of teaching will be done for sixteen meeting. The stages

are as follow:
a. Pre-activities ( 15 minutes )
The teachers prepared the students for the subject matter and

identify their prior knowledge.


1. Choosing the text
The teacher worked to identify the text and typing the title

of the text on the board.


2. Determining the structure of the technique.
The teacher should know what the teachers are going to do

in using mind mapping. There are some steps as follows:


a. The teacher will introduce the lesson to learn.
b. The teacher will introduce mind mapping to them and tells how

it works.

c. The teacher will give some topics.


d. The teacher will tell them to discuss and the topic into the mind

mapping.
e. The teacher will ask them to create mind mapping after they

discuss the topic that chosen by them.


f. The teacher will give the control so that the students are not out

from the topic.


g. The teacher will ask them to create the writing first by the step

of mind mapping.
h. The teacher will ask them to create their writing in context of

mind mapping, for the first they only create one paragraph.
i. The teacher will monitor and giving necessary help as they

have discussion.
j. The teacher will asking them to present their result in front of

class. They must do some thinking about the actual

presentation of the material.

36
k. The teacher will monitor and give necessary as they work.
3. Brainstorming
The teacher will ask students to discuss with one another

and retrieve their previous knowledge about the subject. Then, the

teacher will ask them what they know about the text. The teacher

will argu the students to answer the questions and brainstorm them

by asking some questions related to the text.


b. While-activities (50 minutes)
1. Reading and discussion the text
a. Each student will be provided a blank paper without lines and

colorful markers graffiti.


b. The teacher will Determine the main topic the subject matter to

be covered.
c. Writing the main topic in the middle of the paper then encircled

coloring as attractive as possible.


d. Make the pointer around the circle as a subtopic, dyeing with

different colors as well as using one keyword for each line.


e. From every line of subtopic pointer made lines like tree

branches to make additional information and write down key

words in every branch of important words from a summary of

the material using a capital letter.


f. Make a picture or symbol on the side of the text or text that is

customized with text content, sends underlined words and bold.


g. New information can continue to be supplemented by adding

additional branches are creative and imaginative.


h. The activity can be done individually or in groups.
2. Discussing the text
a. Students are required to read back a glimpse of material that

the teacher has been described at the beginning of the learning

activities.

37
b. The teacher will give question and answer material for learning

outline.
c. Students are divided into several groups (4-5 people per group).
d. Each group will analyze the material and discuss to make mind

maps (mind mapping) subject matter.


e. Students will be mentored, motivated and supervised teacher

during discussion groups to create mind mapping in subject

matter.
f. Each group will be asked to present the results of their

discussion is mind mapping for the response, input from other

groups and teachers.


g. Students and teachers will equate the perception of the results

presentation and discussion of all groups.


h. Teacher will review learning activities and material back that

has been implemented in an outline with the help of mind

mapping material.
i. Students will be given reinforcement and motivation to be

more creative in creating mind mapping material on further

learning.
c. Post-test activities ( 15 minutes )
Teacher carefully will observe students works

independently on mind mapping strategy and given the follow up

to the students by giving them homework.


2. The Stage of Teaching Comprehension By non Using Mind

Mapping
In the in this class, the students will be given tests but receive

no treatments at all (Best and Khan , 1993 : 53). The researcher will

not teach in the in this class. This kind of teaching will be done for

sixteen meeting. The stages are as follow:

38
a. Pre-activities ( 15 minutes )
The teachers prepared the students for the subject matter and

identify their prior knowledge.


1. Choosing the text
The teacher worked to identify the text and typing the

title of the text on the board.


2. Determining the structure of the technique.
The teacher should know what the teachers are going to

do in using mind mapping. There are some steps as follows:


a. The teacher will introduce the lesson to learn.
b. The teacher will give some topics.
c. The teacher will monitor and giving necessary help as they

have discussion.
d. The teacher will asking them to present their result in front

of class. They must do some thinking about the actual

presentation of the material.


e. The teacher will monitor and give necessary as they work.
3. Brainstorming
The teacher will ask students to discuss with one

another and retrieve their previous knowledge about the

subject. Then, the teacher will ask them what they know about

the text. The teacher will argu the students to answer the

questions and brainstorm them by asking some questions

related to the text.


b. While-activities (50 minutes)
1. Reading and discussion the text
a. Each student will be provided a blank paper without lines

and colorful markers graffiti.


b. The teacher will Determine the main topic the subject

matter to be covered.
c. Writing the main topic in the middle of the paper then

encircled coloring as attractive as possible.

39
d. Make the pointer around the circle as a subtopic, dyeing

with different colors as well as using one keyword for each

line.
e. From every line of subtopic pointer made lines like tree

branches to make additional information and write down

key words in every branch of important words from a

summary of the material using a capital letter.


f. Make a picture or symbol on the side of the text or text that

is customized with text content, sends underlined words

and use bold.


g. New information can continue to be supplemented by

adding additional branches are creative and imaginative.


h. The activity can be done individually or in groups.
3. Discussing the text
j. Students are required to read back a glimpse of material

that the teacher has been described at the beginning of the

learning activities.
k. The teacher will give question and answer material for

learning outline.
l. Students are divided into several groups (4-5 people per

group).
m. Each group will analyze the material and discuss
c. Post-test activities ( 15 minutes )
Teacher carefully will observe students works

independently and given the follow up to the students by giving

them homework.

40