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GSM Technology

Presented By:
Syeda Mahfuza Begum
Akhlaqur Rahman Rahi
JOURNEY OF GSM

The most popular 2G cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery.

Development background:
Developed by Groupe Spciale Mobile (founded 1982) which was an initiative of CEPT (Conference of European
Post and Telecommunication).
In 1989, ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) took the control of GSM and defined new
acronym Global System for Mobile Communications.

Commercial use has been started since 1991.


Future Of GSM
2nd Generation
GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate)
2.5 Generation ( Future of GSM)
HSCSD (High Speed ckt Switched data)
Data rate : 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8 kbps)
GPRS (General Packet Radio service)
Data rate: 14.4 - 115.2 Kbps
EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) IMT 2000
Data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max) capable systems
3 Generation
WCDMA(Wide band CDMA) UMTS/WCDMA
2 Mbps
Data rate : 0.348 2.0 Mbps
EDGE
384 kbps
GPRS
Functionality 115 kbps
& capacity Packet switched
HSCSD/14.4
57.6 kbps
Circuit switched
Circ. sw. data
<9.6 kbps

Speech

Time
NETWORK COMPONENTS: GSM ARCHITECTURE
Mobile
Terminal (MT)
Mobile Terminal (MT)
Mobile equipment for transmitting and receiving signals.
Base Transceiver Base Station Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) for storing necessary
System (BTS) Controller (BSC) permanent and temporary data.

Base Station (BS)


Base Station (BS)
Base Transceiver System (BTS) for
transmitting and receiving signals; and
PSTN manipulating signals such as encoding/decoding,
VLR HLR encrypting, multiplexing and modulating.
Base station Controller (BSC) for
assigning and managing resources,
EIR AuC
controlling handoff and power level, etc.
Mobile Switching Centre Other Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
(MSC) GSM
Manage communications, mobility, and billing
information.
Wireless Connection
P2P Wireless or optic fiber connection
Home Location Register (HLR): Central master database for users under the MSC.
Visitor location Register (VLR): Local database for the users currently under the domain of MSC.
Authentication Center (AuC): Authenticate mobile terminals and encrypt user data.
Equipment Identity Register (EIR): Register MTs and locked stolen or malfunctioning MTs.
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CALL DELIVERY: GSM OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES
1. Call Request
BS Call delivery Steps:
MT
10. Reply 1-2. Send call request from calling MT to MSC via BS.

2. Call Request
9. Reply
3. MSC determines the address of HLR of the called MT
7. Forward and sends location request message.
information 8. Send Request
to called MSC 4-5. HLR determines the serving VLR of the called MT
and sends route request message. VLR then sends
3. Location
Request MSC the message to the MSC serving the MT.

HLR
6. MSC allocates a TLDN to the MT and reply to
HLR with TLDN.
4. Route
Request 7. HLR forward information to the MSC of the
VLR calling MT.

8. Calling MSC requests a call set up to


HLR the called MSC through SS7
networks.

MSC
4. Route
5. Route Request
Request VLR
TLDN: Temporary local directory number.
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RADIO INTERFACE: GSM ARCHITECTURE
Most GSM Networks operate at 900 MHz and/or 1800MHz

900 MHz Frequency Band

Uplink

Downlink

890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz


Uplink Downlink

124 carriers 124 carriers


Each Carrier has 200KHz Frequency band

TDMA divides each RF channel (i.e., carrier) to 8


voice Channel
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 t8
For 1800 MHz:
Time-slots Uplink: 1710-1785 MHz
Time slot duration 577 s
Downlink: 1805-1880 MHz
GSM: TDMA FRAME

TDMA Frame:
Each frame contains 8 time slots. 25 MHZ: 890 to 915 MHz (UL) Frequency band
935 to 960 MHz (DL)
Channel data rate: 270.833 kbps
Frame duration: 4.615 mS

Two types of logical channels: Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 124 Channels


200kHz 200kHz 200kHz
Traffic channels
Signaling Channels for broadcasting,
common control, and dedicated control.

Time Time Time TRX/TS


Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 7

1800MHz Band : 1710-1785MHz(UL) TDMA Frame (4.616 ms)


1805-1880MHz(DL)
Total no. of Channel is 374.
57 bits 57 bits 8.25
3 tail 1 bit 26 bit TSC 1 bit 3 tail
bits
(interleaved sub block)
from a 20ms Voice frame
flag for error prediction flag
(interleaved sub block )
from another 20ms Voice bits
guard
bits
TS/bit stream
frame

148+8.25=156.25 bits
1TS=0.577ms
1bit=3.69ms
GSM: SITE
Green Field [GF] Site: Usually in Rural area

Roof top [RT] Site: Usually in urban area

These two above type of sites may have the following solutions

900MHz Site: for both coverage, capacity and quality requirement

Collocation with1800MHz BTS: for capacity and quality requirement

3rd cabinet with 1800MHz BTS: for capacity requirement

o IBS [In Building Solution]: For better coverage, capacity and quality.
CELL STRUCTURE: GSM ARCHITECTURE
Cell is a area covered by one BS.
GSM Network Areas
Public Land Mobile Network Depending on the sizes, there are four types of cells:
(one operators network)
Macro-cell: 5-35 km radius. For rural or suburban areas.
MSC/VLR Service Area
(Covered by one MSC) Micro-cell: 1-5 km radius. Used in town or urban areas.
Location Area
(one MSC covers several location
Pico-cell: radius <100 meters. For a campus area.
areas)
Umbrella-cell: Fill-up the gaps between two cells or
Cell
(Covered by one BS) cover shadow areas of a cell.

In building
Cell Representation communications Suburban
R R
Macro- Pico-cell
cell Urban Micro-cell

Cell radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain, and


Ideal cells Fictitious cells condition of propagation.
R = Radius of cell
HANDOVER (HO)

- Intra BSC Handover


- Inter BSC Handover (as illustrated)
- Inter MSC Handover

BSC
BSC
GSM SERVICES

GSM network Provides three types of services:

Tele Services: Normal voice calls.


Voice conversation
Emergency services

Bearer Services: data services.


Short message services (SMS) and advanced message handling services.

Supplementary Services:
Call forwarding and call barring,
Calling/connected line identification presentation and restriction
Malicious call identification
Multi-party services (i.e. tele-conferencing), etc.
GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
NETWORK LAYERED ARCHITECTURE

Why Layered Architecture?

Access Layer:
Type: Low capacity transmission Access
Capacity: E1 to 16E1
Technology: PDH
Media: Microwave (Free Space) Backbone

Backbone & Core Layer:


Type: High capacity transmission
Core
Capacity: STM-1 to STM-64
Technology: SDH
Media: Microwave (Free Space) & Optical Fiber
PDH & SDH TECHNOLOGY

PDH SDH
STM-1
North American
STM-4
European
STM-16
Japan
STM-64
Non Unified International
Unified International
Interface
Interface
PDH & SDH

PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

o There is no standard for speeds over 140Mbps o The SDH is based on global international
standard.
o Clocks are not synchronized centrally
o De-multiplexing is achieved by getting
o Stuffing bits are added to compensate difference
out the required byte from the digital
in clocks and resulting phase shift
stream.
o Bit interleaved multiplexing at higher levels
o Easier management of bandwidth.
o E1 signals can only be accessed by de-
o Optical & Microwave Transmission
multiplexing
interfaces.
o Mostly used for air interface
o Clock is synchronized with master clock

E1 = 8* 32 * 8000 = 2 048 000 bps or STM-1 = 9 x 270 x 8 x 8000


2.048 Mbps = 155.52 Mbps
ASYNCHRONOUS SYNCHRONOUS
SYNCHRONIZATION
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSPORT MODULE, STM-N
SDH is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. It is the international
equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network
N 270 columns

N9 N 261

1
RSOH
3
AU pointer
9 rows 5 Payload

MSOH

9
Frame Length 125 ms
SOH: Section Overhead MSOH: Multiplexer Section Overhead
Au: Administration Unit RSOH: Repeater Section Overhead
First GSM Call

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AkZn7jFd9Rc
TRAFFIC CONCEPT

Traffic Calculation Unit: Erlang: Is a unit of telecommunications traffic


E1: 2.048Mbps measurement. An erlang represent the continuous
use of one voice path.
In practice it is used to describe the total traffic
volume in one hour

Level Speed (Mbps) Capacity (No of E1)


STM-1 155Mbps 63

STM-4 622Mbps 252

STM-16 2.5Gbps 1008

STM-64 10Gbps 4032


CONVERSION OF VOICE INTO DIGITAL SIGNAL

Voice Channel BW: 4 KHz


Sampling rate = 8,000 samples/second
Sampling: 4 KHz x 2 = 8 KHz
Quantizing: Each sample is given a certain value which is 8 bits wide. the resulting signal rate will be:
Encoding: 8000bps x 8 = 64 kbps
E1 Level= 32 x 64 Kb/s = 2.048 Mb/s

Nyquist Theorem:
Sample rate=2xhighest
audible frequency (4KHz)
TRANSMISSION METHODS - AN OVERVIEW
Digital Analog Analog Digital
information information information information

1001101 1001101

A/D A/D

Time multiplexing Time demultiplexing

Line coding Decoding

Modulation Demodulation

Radio

Copper
Wavelength Wavelength
multiplexing
R demultiplexing
Fibre
FIBER OPTIC

Fiber Intersection Optical fiber


o High transmission quality.
o High transmission capacity.
o Long Implementation time.
MULTIPLEXING & DEMULTIPLEXING

MULTIPLEXING: Multiplexing is the process of putting all the signals into a


common channel in different ways and the component is called multiplexer

DELTIPLEXING: De-multiplexing is a process which separates out all the


multiplexed signals and component is called de-multiplexer
MULTIPLEXING
Frequency Division TDM:
Wavelength Division (for optical cables) A channel gets the whole spectrum for a
certain amount of time
Code Division Advantages:
Time Division only one carrier in the
PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) medium at any time
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) throughput high even
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
for many users
Disadvantages:
precise
synchronization
necessary
k1c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6
f

t
WDM

Web Length Division Multiplexing


CWDM: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DWDM: Dense Wave length Division Multiplexing

DWDM
DWDM networks with linear architecture used in P2P link, as a high bandwidth pipes between
two network element.
These system are integrated with optical amplifier and electronic regenerator

Wavelength band available for communication


o C band (1530nm - 1565nm, 35 nm)
o L band (1565nm - 1610nm, 45 nm)
WHY WDM?

Better utilization of fiber


Overcome fiber exhaust, lack of fiber availability
Easily integrated with existing equipment in the network
Wavelength leasing instead of Bandwidth leasing
CHAIN TOPOLOGY

This type of network is suitable for long distant


narrow transmission system like along roads.

Advantage:
o Low concentration of equipment at TX point.
o Frequency planning is easier.

Disadvantage:
o High capacity requires near TX end
o One link failure affects all sites after that link.
o Extended bandwidth
STAR TOPOLOGY

This type of topology is suitable small surrounded


network such as city urban area.

Advantage:
Independent link for BTS
One link failure do not affect many link.

Disadvantage:
Require Clear LOS
High concentration of equipment at TX point.
Difficult frequency planning.
Require large space for antennas mounting.
TREE TOPOLOGY

This type of topology is suitable for small


or medium surrounded network such as
city urban area.

Advantage:
Independent link for BTS
Short hop distance and so require small
antenna system.
Easy to find LOS
Frequency reuses is easier.

Disadvantage:
One link failure may affects many link
1+1 hop for protection
High concentration of equipment at TX
point.

1+1 protection may be implemented for


high capacity link.
RING TOPOLOGY

This type of topology is normally used in metropolitan area


where high availability of network is required.

Advantage:
Traffic can be rerouted easily if any link fails.
Easy to monitor from Management System.

Disadvantage:
Every site must be connected with its two neighbors sites.
High bandwidth required.
MUX equipment is required for digital cross connection.
PROTECTION SCHEMES

Fiber transmission network has following protection schemes:


Card protection
Path protection (SNCP)
Ring protection

RING SNCP
A
Node Node
01 02

E B

X X
D C
QUALITY OF SERVICE [QOS]

1. Accessibility E2E (%)


Success rate of attempted calls reaching to called party
2. Retain ability (%)
Percentage of on-going calls that are retained by our network until disconnected
intentionally by the subscribers. It is commonly expressed by Drop Call Rate
(DCR)
Drop call rate [DCR]
It is a measure of retainability. Lower drop rates signify better QoS
DCR= No. of Drop x 100%
No. of Attempt

Minute per Drop [MPD]


It is also a measure of retainability. Higher MPD signifies better QoS but it
requires higher investment.
MPD= Total Calling Minutes
Total No. of Drop

MOS: Mean Opinion Score (Used for speech quality), Scale 1-5, 1 means
worst, 5 means best
Thank You!