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IPv6address
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

AnInternetProtocolVersion6address(IPv6address)isa
numericallabelthatisusedtoidentifyanetworkinterfaceofa
computerorothernetworknodeparticipatinginanIPv6computer
network.

AnIPaddressservesthepurposeofuniquelyidentifyinganindividual
networkinterfaceofahost,locatingitonthenetwork,andthus
permittingtheroutingofIPpacketsbetweenhosts.Forrouting,IP
addressesarepresentinfieldsofthepacketheaderwheretheyindicate
sourceanddestinationofthepacket.
DecompositionofanIPv6addressintoitsbinary
IPv6isthesuccessortothefirstaddressinginfrastructureofthe
form.
Internet,InternetProtocolversion4(IPv4).IncontrasttoIPv4,which
definedanIPaddressasa32bitvalue,IPv6addresseshaveasizeof
128bits.Therefore,IPv6hasavastlyenlargedaddressspacecomparedtoIPv4.

Contents
1 Addressingmethods
2 Addressformats
2.1 Unicastandanycastaddressformat
2.2 Multicastaddressformat
3 Representation
3.1 Recommendedrepresentationastext
3.2 Networks
3.3 Addressblocksizes
3.4 LiteralIPv6addressesinnetworkresourceidentifiers
3.5 LiteralIPv6addressesinUNCpathnames
4 Addressscopes
5 Addressspace
5.1 Generalallocation
5.2 Specialallocation
5.3 Reservedanycastaddresses
6 Specialaddresses
6.1 Unicastaddresses
6.1.1 Unspecifiedaddress
6.1.2 Defaultroute
6.1.3 Localaddresses
6.1.4 Uniquelocaladdresses
6.1.5 TransitionfromIPv4
6.1.6 Specialpurposeaddresses
6.1.7 Documentation
6.1.8 Discard
6.1.9 Deprecatedandobsoleteaddresses
6.2 Multicastaddresses
6.2.1 Solicitednodemulticastaddress
7 Statelessaddressautoconfiguration
7.1 ModifiedEUI64
7.2 Duplicateaddressdetection
7.3 Addresslifetime
7.4 Temporaryaddresses
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8 Defaultaddressselection
9 Linklocaladdressesandzoneindices
10 DomainNameSystem
10.1 Transitionchallenges
11 Historicalnotes
11.1 Deprecatedandobsoleteaddresses
11.2 Miscellaneous
12 References
13 Externallinks

Addressingmethods
IPv6addressesareclassifiedbytheprimaryaddressingandroutingmethodologiescommoninnetworking:unicast
addressing,anycastaddressing,andmulticastaddressing.[1]

Aunicastaddressidentifiesasinglenetworkinterface.TheInternetProtocoldeliverspacketssenttoaunicast
addresstothatspecificinterface.
Ananycastaddressisassignedtoagroupofinterfaces,usuallybelongingtodifferentnodes.Apacketsenttoan
anycastaddressisdeliveredtojustoneofthememberinterfaces,typicallythenearesthost,accordingtotherouting
protocolsdefinitionofdistance.Anycastaddressescannotbeidentifiedeasily,theyhavethesameformatasunicast
addresses,anddifferonlybytheirpresenceinthenetworkatmultiplepoints.Almostanyunicastaddresscanbe
employedasananycastaddress.
Amulticastaddressisalsousedbymultiplehosts,whichacquirethemulticastaddressdestinationbyparticipating
inthemulticastdistributionprotocolamongthenetworkrouters.Apacketthatissenttoamulticastaddressis
deliveredtoallinterfacesthathavejoinedthecorrespondingmulticastgroup.

IPv6doesnotimplementbroadcastaddressing.Broadcast'straditionalroleissubsumedbymulticastaddressingtotheall
nodeslinklocalmulticastgroupff02::1.However,theuseoftheallnodesgroupisnotrecommended,andmostIPv6
protocolsuseadedicatedlinklocalmulticastgrouptoavoiddisturbingeveryinterfaceinthenetwork.

Addressformats
AnIPv6addressconsistsof128bits.[1]Foreachofthemajoraddressingandroutingmethodologies,variousaddress
formatsarerecognizedbylogicallydividingthe128addressbitsintobitgroupsandestablishingrulesforassociatingthe
valuesofthesebitgroupswithspecialaddressingfeatures.

Unicastandanycastaddressformat

Unicastandanycastaddressesaretypicallycomposedoftwologicalparts:a64bitnetworkprefixusedforrouting,anda
64bitinterfaceidentifierusedtoidentifyahost'snetworkinterface.

Generalunicastaddressformat(routingprefixsizevaries)
16(or
bits 48(ormore) 64
fewer)
field routingprefix subnetid interfaceidentifier

Thenetworkprefix(theroutingprefixcombinedwiththesubnetid)iscontainedinthemostsignificant64bitsofthe
address.Thesizeoftheroutingprefixmayvaryalargerprefixsizemeansasmallersubnetidsize.Thebitsofthesubnet
id(entifier)fieldareavailabletothenetworkadministratortodefinesubnetswithinthegivennetwork.The64bitinterface
identifieriseitherautomaticallygeneratedfromtheinterface'sMACaddressusingthemodifiedEUI64format,obtained
fromaDHCPv6server,automaticallyestablishedrandomly,orassignedmanually.

Alinklocaladdressisalsobasedontheinterfaceidentifier,butusesadifferentformatforthenetworkprefix.
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Linklocaladdressformat
bits 10 54 64
field prefix zeroes interfaceidentifier

Theprefixfieldcontainsthebinaryvalue1111111010.The54zeroesthatfollowmakethetotalnetworkprefixthesame
foralllinklocaladdresses(fe80::/64linklocaladdressprefix),renderingthemnonroutable.

Multicastaddressformat

Multicastaddressesareformedaccordingtoseveralspecificformattingrules,dependingontheapplication.

Generalmulticastaddressformat
bits 8 4 4 112
field prefix flg sc groupID

Theprefixholdsthebinaryvalue11111111foranymulticastaddress.

Currently,3ofthe4flagbitsintheflgfieldaredefined[1]themostsignificantflagbitisreservedforfutureuse.

Multicastaddressflags[2]
bit flag Meaningwhen0 Meaningwhen1
8 reserved reserved reserved
9 R(Rendezvous)[3] Rendezvouspointnotembedded Rendezvouspointembedded
10 P(Prefix)[4] Withoutprefixinformation Addressbasedonnetworkprefix
11 T(Transient)[1] Wellknownmulticastaddress Dynamicallyassignedmulticastaddress

The4bitscopefield(sc)isusedtoindicatewheretheaddressisvalidandunique.

Therearespecialmulticastaddresses,likeSolicitedNode.

SolicitedNodemulticastaddressformat
bits 8 4 4 79 9 24
field prefix flg sc zeroes ones unicastaddress

Thesc(ope)fieldholdsthebinaryvalue0010(linklocal).Solicitednodemulticastaddressesarecomputedasafunctionof
anode'sunicastoranycastaddresses.Asolicitednodemulticastaddressiscreatedbycopyingthelast24bitsofaunicast
oranycastaddresstothelast24bitsofthemulticastaddress.

Unicastprefixbasedmulticastaddressformat[3][4]
bits 8 4 4 4 4 8 64 32
field prefix flg sc res riid plen networkprefix groupID

Linkscopedmulticastaddressesuseacomparableformat.[5]

Representation
AnIPv6addressisrepresentedaseightgroupsoffourhexadecimaldigits,eachgrouprepresenting16bits(twooctets).
Thegroupsareseparatedbycolons(:).AnexampleofanIPv6addressis:

2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334

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Thehexadecimaldigitsarecaseinsensitive,butIETFrecommendationssuggesttheuseoflowercaseletters.Thefull
representationofeight4digitgroupsmaybesimplifiedbyseveraltechniques,eliminatingpartsoftherepresentation.

Leadingzeroesinagroupmaybeomitted,buteachgroupmustretainatleastonehexadecimaldigit.[1]Thus,theexample
addressmaybewrittenas:

2001:db8:85a3:0:0:8a2e:370:7334

Oneormoreconsecutivegroupofzerovaluemaybereplacedwithasingleemptygroupusingtwoconsecutivecolons
(::),[1]butthesubstitutionmayonlybeappliedonceintheaddress,becausemultipleoccurrenceswouldcreatean
ambiguousrepresentation.Thus,theexampleaddresscanbefurthersimplified:

2001:db8:85a3::8a2e:370:7334

Thelocalhost(loopback)address,0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1,andtheIPv6unspecifiedaddress,0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0,arereducedto::1
and::,respectively.

DuringthetransitionoftheInternetfromIPv4toIPv6,itistypicaltooperateinamixedaddressingenvironment.Forsuch
usecases,aspecialnotationhasbeenintroduced,whichexpressesIPv4mappedandIPv4compatibleIPv6addressesby
writingtheleastsignificant32bitsofanaddressinthefamiliarIPv4dotdecimalnotation,whereasallprecedingonesare
writteninIPv6format.Forexample,theIPv4mappedIPv6address::ffff:c000:0280iswrittenas::ffff:192.0.2.128,thus
expressingclearlytheoriginalIPv4addressthatwasmappedtoIPv6.

Recommendedrepresentationastext

InanattempttosimplifyIPv6addresses,thestandardsprovidesflexibilityintheirrepresentation.However,thisalso
complicatesseveralcommonoperations:searchingforaspecificaddressinatextfileorstream,andcomparingtwo
addressestodeterminetheirequivalence.Tomitigatetheseproblems,theIETFhasproposedastandardinRFC5952fora
canonicalformatforrenderingIPv6addressesintext.Itsspecificrecommendationsare:

Leadingzerosineach16bitfieldaresuppressed.Forexample,2001:0db8::0001isrenderedas2001:db8::1,though
anyallzerofieldthatisexplicitlypresentedisrenderedas0.
"::"isnotusedtoshortenjustasingle0field.Forexample,2001:db8:0:0:0:0:2:1isshortenedto2001:db8::2:1,but
2001:db8:0000:1:1:1:1:1isrenderedas2001:db8:0:1:1:1:1:1.
Representationsareshortenedasmuchaspossible.Thelongestsequenceofconsecutiveallzerofieldsisreplaced
bydoublecolon.Iftherearemultiplelongestrunsofallzerofields,thenitistheleftmostthatiscompressed.E.g.,
2001:db8:0:0:1:0:0:1isrenderedas2001:db8::1:0:0:1ratherthanas2001:db8:0:0:1::1.
Hexadecimaldigitsareexpressedaslowercaseletters.Forexample,2001:db8::1ispreferredover2001:DB8::1.

Networks

AnIPv6networkusesanaddressblockthatisacontiguousgroupofIPv6addressesofasizethatisapoweroftwo.The
leadingsetofbitsoftheaddressesareidenticalforallhostsinagivennetwork,andarecalledthenetwork'saddressor
routingprefix.

NetworkaddressrangesarewritteninCIDRnotation.Anetworkisdenotedbythefirstaddressintheblock(endinginall
zeroes),aslash(/),andadecimalvalueequaltothesizeinbitsoftheprefix.Forexample,thenetworkwrittenas
2001:db8:1234::/48startsataddress2001:db8:1234:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000andendsat
2001:db8:1234:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.

TheroutingprefixofaninterfaceaddressmaybedirectlyindicatedwiththeaddressbyCIDRnotation.Forexample,the
configurationofaninterfacewithaddress2001:db8:a::123connectedtosubnet2001:db8:a::/64iswrittenas
2001:db8:a::123/64.

Addressblocksizes

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Thesizeofablockofaddressesisspecifiedbywritingaslash(/)followedbyanumberindecimalwhosevalueisthe
lengthofthenetworkprefixinbits,ratherthanbyexplicitlyspecifyingwhichaddressesareintheblock.Forexample,an
addressblockwith48bitsintheprefixisindicatedby/48.Suchablockcontains212848=280addresses.Thesmallerthe
valueofthenetworkprefix,thelargertheblock:a/21blockis8timeslargerthana/24block.

LiteralIPv6addressesinnetworkresourceidentifiers

Colon(:)charactersinIPv6addressesmayconflictwiththeestablishedsyntaxofresourceidentifiers,suchasURIsand
URLs.Thecolonhastraditionallybeenusedtoterminatethehostpathbeforeaportnumber.[6]Toalleviatethisconflict,
literalIPv6addressesareenclosedinsquarebracketsinsuchresourceidentifiers,forexample:

http://[2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348]/

WhentheURLalsocontainsaportnumberthenotationis:

https://[2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348]:443/

LiteralIPv6addressesinUNCpathnames

InMicrosoftWindowsoperatingsystems,IPv4addressesarevalidlocationidentifiersinUniformNamingConvention
(UNC)pathnames.However,thecolonisanillegalcharacterinaUNCpathname.Thus,theuseofIPv6addressesisalso
illegalinUNCnames.Forthisreason,MicrosoftimplementedatranscriptionalgorithmtorepresentanIPv6addressinthe
formofadomainnamethatcanbeusedinUNCpaths.Forthispurpose,Microsoftregisteredandreservedthesecond
leveldomainipv6literal.netontheInternet(althoughtheygaveupthedomaininJanuary2014[7]).IPv6addressesare
transcribedasahostnameorsubdomainnamewithinthisnamespace,inthefollowingfashion:

2001:db8:85a3:8d3:1319:8a2e:370:7348

iswrittenas

2001db885a38d313198a2e3707348.ipv6literal.net

ThisnotationisautomaticallyresolvedbyMicrosoftsoftwarewithoutanyqueriestoDNSnameservers.IftheIPv6
addresscontainsazoneindex,itisappendedtotheaddressportionafteran's'character:

fe801s4.ipv6literal.net

Addressscopes
EveryIPv6address,excepttheunspecifiedaddress(::),hasa"scope",[8]whichspecifiesinwhichpartofthenetworkitis
valid.

Intheunicastaddressingmethod,linklocaladdressesandtheloopbackaddresshavelinklocalscope,whichmeansthey
aretobeusedinadirectlyattachednetwork(link).Allotheraddresses(exceptUniquelocaladdresses)haveglobal(or
universal)scope,whichmeanstheyaregloballyroutable,andcanbeusedtoconnecttoaddresseswithglobalscope
anywhere,oraddresseswithlinklocalscopeonthedirectlyattachednetwork.

Uniquelocaladdressesarenotgloballyroutable,sotheirscopeislimitedtotheextentofthenetwork(s)inwhichtheyare
used.Theseaddresseswillonlyberoutedbyroutersortunnelswhoseroutingtableshavebeenspecificallyconfiguredto
allowit.

Thescopeofananycastaddressisdefinedidenticallytothatofaunicastaddress.

Formulticasting,thefourleastsignificantbitsofthesecondaddressoctetofamulticastaddress(ff0s::)identifythe
addressscope,i.e.thespanoverwhichthemulticastaddressispropagated.Currentlydefinedscopes[1]are:
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Scopevalues
Value Scopename Notes
0x0 reserved
interface Interfacelocalscopespansonlyasingleinterfaceonanode,andisusefulonlyforloopback
0x1
local transmissionofmulticast.
Linklocalandsitelocalmulticastscopesspanthesametopologicalregionsasthe
0x2 linklocal
correspondingunicastscopes.
RealmlocalmulticastscopeisoriginallydefinedinRFC7346,largerthanlinklocal,
0x3 realmlocal
automaticallydeterminedbytopologyandmustnotbelargerthanthefollowingscopes.[9]
Adminlocalscopeisthesmallestscopethatmustbeadministrativelyconfigured,i.e.,not
0x4 adminlocal automaticallyderivedfromphysicalconnectivityorother,nonmulticastrelated
configuration.
Linklocalandsitelocalmulticastscopesspanthesametopologicalregionsasthe
0x5 sitelocal
correspondingunicastscopes.
organization
0x8 Organizationlocalscopeisintendedtospanmultiplesitesbelongingtoasingleorganization.
local
0xe global
0xf reserved

Addressspace
Generalallocation

ThemanagementofIPv6addressallocationprocessisdelegatedtotheInternetAssignedNumbersAuthority(IANA)[10]
bytheInternetArchitectureBoardandtheInternetEngineeringSteeringGroup.Itsmainfunctionistheassignmentof
largeaddressblockstotheregionalInternetregistries(RIRs),whichhavethedelegatedtaskofallocationtonetwork
serviceprovidersandotherlocalregistries.TheIANAhasmaintainedtheofficiallistofallocationsoftheIPv6address
spacesinceDecember1995.[11]

OnlyoneeighthofthetotaladdressspaceiscurrentlyallocatedforuseontheInternet,2000::/3,inordertoprovide
efficientrouteaggregation,therebyreducingthesizeoftheInternetroutingtablestherestoftheIPv6addressspaceis
reservedforfutureuseorforspecialpurposes.TheaddressspaceisassignedtotheRIRsinlargeblocksof/23upto
/12.[12]

TheRIRsassignsmallerblockstolocalInternetregistriesthatdistributesthemtousers.Thesearetypicallyinsizesfrom
/19to/32.[13][14][15]Theaddressesaretypicallydistributedin/48to/56sizedblockstotheendusers.[16]

GlobalunicastassignmentrecordscanbefoundatthevariousRIRsorotherwebsites.[17]

IPv6addressesareassignedtoorganizationsinmuchlargerblocksascomparedtoIPv4addressassignmentsthe
recommendedallocationisa/48blockwhichcontains280addresses,being248orabout2.8 1014timeslargerthanthe
entireIPv4addressspaceof232addressesandabout7.2 1016timeslargerthanthe/8blocksofIPv4addresses,whichare
thelargestallocationsofIPv4addresses.Thetotalpool,however,issufficientfortheforeseeablefuture,becausethereare
2128(exactly340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456)orabout3.4 1038(340trilliontrilliontrillion)
uniqueIPv6addresses.

EachRIRcandivideeachofitsmultiple/23blocksinto512/32blocks,typicallyoneforeachISPanISPcandivideits
/32blockinto65 536/48blocks,typicallyoneforeachcustomer[18]customerscancreate65 536/64networksfromtheir
assigned/48block,eachhaving264(18,446,744,073,709,551,616)addresses.Incontrast,theentireIPv4addressspacehas

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only232(exactly4,294,967,296orabout4.3 109)addresses.

Bydesign,onlyaverysmallfractionoftheaddressspacewillactuallybeused.Thelargeaddressspaceensuresthat
addressesarealmostalwaysavailable,whichmakestheuseofnetworkaddresstranslation(NAT)forthepurposesof
addressconservationcompletelyunnecessary.NAThasbeenincreasinglyusedforIPv4networkstohelpalleviateIPv4
addressexhaustion.

Specialallocation

Toallowforproviderchangeswithoutrenumbering,providerindependentaddressspaceassigneddirectlytotheenduser
bytheRIRsistakenfromthespecialrange2001:678::/29.

InternetExchangePoints(IXPs)areassignedspecialaddressesfromtherange2001:7f8::/29forcommunicationwiththeir
connectedISPs.[19]Rootnameservershavebeenassignedaddressesfromthesamerange.

Reservedanycastaddresses

Thelowestaddresswithineachsubnetprefix(theinterfaceidentifiersettoallzeroes)isreservedasthe"subnetrouter"
anycastaddress.[1]Applicationsmayusethisaddresswhentalkingtoanyoneoftheavailablerouters,aspacketssentto
thisaddressaredeliveredtojustonerouter.

The128highestaddresseswithineach/64subnetprefixarereservedtobeusedasanycastaddresses.[20]Theseaddresses
usuallyhavethe57firstbitsoftheinterfaceidentifiersetto1,followedbythe7bitanycastID.Prefixesforthenetwork,
includingsubnets,arerequiredtohavealengthof64bits,inwhichcasetheuniversal/localbitmustbesetto0toindicate
theaddressisnotgloballyunique.Theaddresswithvalue0x7einthe7leastsignificantbitsisdefinedasamobileIPv6
homeagentsanycastaddress.Theaddresswithvalue0x7f(allbits1)isreservedandmaynotbeused.Nomore
assignmentsfromthisrangearemade,sovalues0x00through0x7darereservedaswell.

Specialaddresses
ThereareanumberofaddresseswithspecialmeaninginIPv6:[21]

Unicastaddresses

Unspecifiedaddress

::/128Theaddresswithallzerobitsiscalledtheunspecifiedaddress(correspondingto0.0.0.0/32inIPv4).
Thisaddressmustneverbeassignedtoaninterfaceandistobeusedonlyinsoftwarebeforetheapplicationhas
learneditshost'ssourceaddressappropriateforapendingconnection.Routersmustnotforwardpacketswiththe
unspecifiedaddress.
Applicationsmaybelisteningononeormorespecificinterfacesforincomingconnections,whichareshownin
listingsofactiveinternetconnectionsbyaspecificIPaddress(andaportnumber,separatedbyacolon).Whenthe
unspecifiedaddressisshownitmeansthatanapplicationislisteningforincomingconnectionsonallavailable
interfaces.

Defaultroute

::/0Thedefaultrouteaddress(correspondingto0.0.0.0/0inIPv4)coveringalladdresses(unicast,multicastand
others).

Localaddresses

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::1/128Theloopbackaddressisaunicastlocalhostaddress.Ifanapplicationinahostsendspacketstothis
address,theIPv6stackwillloopthesepacketsbackonthesamevirtualinterface(correspondingto127.0.0.1/8in
IPv4).
fe80::/10Addressesinthelinklocalprefixareonlyvalidanduniqueonasinglelink.Withinthisprefixonlyone
subnetisallocated(54zerobits),yieldinganeffectiveformatoffe80::/64.Theleastsignificant64bitsareusually
chosenastheinterfacehardwareaddressconstructedinmodifiedEUI64format.Alinklocaladdressisrequiredon
everyIPv6enabledinterfaceinotherwords,applicationsmayrelyontheexistenceofalinklocaladdresseven
whenthereisnoIPv6routing.Theseaddressesarecomparabletotheautoconfigurationaddresses169.254.0.0/16of
IPv4.

Uniquelocaladdresses

fc00::/7Uniquelocaladdresses(ULAs)areintendedforlocalcommunication.Theyareroutableonlywithinaset
ofcooperatingsites.[22]Theblockissplitintotwohalves,theupperhalf(fd00::/8)isusedfor"probabilistically
unique"addressesinwhicha40bitpseudorandomnumberisusedtoobtaina/48allocation.Thismeansthatthere
isonlyasmallchancethattwositesthatwishtomergeorcommunicatewitheachotherwillhaveconflicting
addresses.Noallocationmethodforthelowerhalfoftheblock(fc00::/8)iscurrentlydefined.Theseaddressesare
comparabletoIPv4privateaddresses(10.0.0.0/8,172.16.0.0/12and192.168.0.0/16)

TransitionfromIPv4

::ffff:0:0/96ThisprefixisdesignatedasanIPv4mappedIPv6address.Withafewexceptions,thisaddresstype
allowsthetransparentuseoftheTransportLayerprotocolsoverIPv4throughtheIPv6networkingapplication
programminginterface.Serverapplicationsonlyneedtoopenasinglelisteningsockettohandleconnectionsfrom
clientsusingIPv6orIPv4protocols.IPv6clientswillbehandlednativelybydefault,andIPv4clientsappearasIPv6
clientsattheirIPv4mappedIPv6address.Transmissionishandledsimilarlyestablishedsocketsmaybeusedto
transmitIPv4orIPv6datagram,basedonthebindingtoanIPv6address,oranIPv4mappedaddress.(Seealso
Transitionmechanisms.)
::ffff:0:0:0/96AprefixusedforIPv4translatedaddresseswhichareusedbytheStatelessIP/ICMPTranslation
(SIIT)protocol.
64:ff9b::/96The"WellKnown"Prefix.AddresseswiththisprefixareusedforautomaticIPv4/IPv6
translation.[23]

2002::/16Thisprefixisusedfor6to4addressing.Here,anaddressfromtheIPv4network192.88.99.0/24isalso
used.

Specialpurposeaddresses

IANAhasreservedasocalled'SubTLAID'addressblockforspecialassignments[24][25]whichconsistsof64
networkprefixesintherange2001:0000::/29through2001:01f8::/29.Threeassignmentsfromthisblockhavebeen
made:

2001::/32UsedforTeredotunneling(whichalsofallsintothecategoryofIPv6transitionmechanisms).
2001:2::/48AssignedtotheBenchmarkingMethodologyWorkingGroup(BMWG)[26]forbenchmarkingIPv6
(correspondingto198.18.0.0/15forbenchmarkingIPv4).Note:RFC5180specifiedtheprefix2001:0200::/48,
whichisnotpartoftheRFC4773pool.[27]
2001:20::/28ORCHIDv2(OverlayRoutableCryptographicHashIdentifiers).[28]ThesearenonroutedIPv6
addressesusedforCryptographicHashIdentifiers.

Documentation

2001:db8::/32Thisprefixisusedindocumentation.[29]TheaddressesshouldbeusedanywhereanexampleIPv6
addressisgivenormodelnetworkingscenariosaredescribed(correspondingto192.0.2.0/24,198.51.100.0/24,and
203.0.113.0/24inIPv4.)[30]

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Discard

0100::/64Thisprefixisusedfordiscardingtraffic.[31]

Deprecatedandobsoleteaddresses

Multicastaddresses

Themulticastaddressesff0X::whereXisanyhexadecimalvaluearereserved[1]andshouldnotbeassignedtoany
multicastgroup.TheInternetAssignedNumbersAuthority(IANA)managesaddressreservations.[32]

SomecommonIPv6multicastaddressesarethefollowing:

Address Description AvailableScopes


Availableinscope1(interfacelocal)and2(link
local):
Allnodesaddress,identifythegroupof
ff0X::1
allIPv6nodes ff01::1Allnodesintheinterfacelocal
ff02::1Allnodesinthelinklocal

Availableinscope1(interfacelocal),2(linklocal)
and5(sitelocal):

ff0X::2 Allrouters ff01::2Allroutersintheinterfacelocal


ff02::2Allroutersinthelinklocal
ff05::2Allroutersinthesitelocal

ff02::5 OSPFIGP 2(linklocal)


ff02::6 OSPFIGPDesignatedRouters 2(linklocal)
ff02::9 RIPRouters 2(linklocal)
ff02::a EIGRPRouters 2(linklocal)
ff02::d AllPIMRouters 2(linklocal)
ff02::1a AllRPLRouters 2(linklocal)
ff0X::fb mDNSv6 Availableinallscopes
AllNetworkTimeProtocol(NTP)
ff0X::101 Availableinallscopes
servers
ff02::1:1 LinkName 2(linklocal)
ff02::1:2 Alldhcpagents 2(linklocal)
ff02::1:3 LinklocalMulticastNameResolution 2(linklocal)
ff05::1:3 Alldhcpservers 5(sitelocal)
Solicitednodemulticastaddress.See
ff02::1:ff00:0/104 2(linklocal)
below
ff02::2:ff00:0/104 NodeInformationQueries 2(linklocal)

Solicitednodemulticastaddress

Theleastsignificant24bitsofthesolicitednodemulticastaddressgroupIDarefilledwiththeleastsignificant24bitsof
theinterface'sunicastoranycastaddress.TheseaddressesallowlinklayeraddressresolutionviaNeighborDiscovery
Protocol(NDP)onthelinkwithoutdisturbingallnodesonthelocalnetwork.AhostisrequiredtojoinaSolicitedNode

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multicastgroupforeachofitsconfiguredunicastoranycastaddresses.

Statelessaddressautoconfiguration
Onsystemstartup,anodeautomaticallycreatesalinklocaladdressoneachIPv6enabledinterface,evenifglobally
routableaddressesaremanuallyconfiguredorobtainedthrough"configurationprotocols"(seebelow).Itdoesso
independentlyandwithoutanypriorconfigurationbystatelessaddressautoconfiguration(SLAAC),[33]usingacomponent
oftheNeighborDiscoveryProtocol.Thisaddressisselectedwiththeprefixfe80::/64.

InIPv4,typical"configurationprotocols"includeDHCPorPPP.AlthoughDHCPv6exists,IPv6hostsnormallyusethe
NeighborDiscoveryProtocoltocreateagloballyroutableunicastaddress:thehostsendsroutersolicitationrequestsand
anIPv6routerrespondswithaprefixassignment.[34]

Thelower64bitsoftheseaddressesarepopulatedwitha64bitinterfaceidentifierinmodifiedEUI64format.This
identifierisusuallysharedbyallautomaticallyconfiguredaddressesofthatinterface,whichhastheadvantagethatonly
onemulticastgroupneedstobejoinedforneighbordiscovery.Forthis,amulticastaddressisused,formedfromthe
networkprefixff02::1:ff00:0/104andthe24leastsignificantbitsoftheaddress.

ModifiedEUI64

A64bitinterfaceidentifierismostcommonlyderivedfromits48bitMACaddress.AMACaddress00:0C:29:0C:47:D5
isturnedintoa64bitEUI64byinsertingFF:FEinthemiddle:00:0C:29:FF:FE:0C:47:D5.WhenthisEUI64isusedto
formanIPv6addressitismodified:[1]themeaningoftheUniversal/Localbit(the7thmostsignificantbitoftheEUI64,
startingfrom1)isinverted,sothata1nowmeansUniversal.TocreateanIPv6addresswiththenetworkprefix
2001:db8:1:2::/64ityieldstheaddress2001:db8:1:2:020c:29ff:fe0c:47d5(withtheunderlinedU/L(=Universal/Local)bit
invertedtoa1,becausetheMACaddressisuniversallyunique).

Duplicateaddressdetection

TheassignmentofaunicastIPv6addresstoaninterfaceinvolvesaninternaltestfortheuniquenessofthataddressusing
NeighborSolicitationandNeighborAdvertisement(ICMPv6type135and136)messages.Whileintheprocessof
establishinguniquenessanaddresshasatentativestate.

Thenodejoinsthesolicitednodemulticastaddressforthetentativeaddress(ifnotalreadydoneso)andsendsneighbor
solicitations,withthetentativeaddressastargetaddressandtheunspecifiedaddress(::/128)assourceaddress.Thenode
alsojoinstheallhostsmulticastaddressff02::1,soitwillbeabletoreceiveNeighborAdvertisements.

Ifanodereceivesaneighborsolicitationwithitsowntentativeaddressasthetargetaddress,thenthataddressisnot
unique.Thesameistrueifthenodereceivesaneighboradvertisementwiththetentativeaddressasthesourceofthe
advertisement.Onlyafterhavingsuccessfullyestablishedthatanaddressisuniquemayitbeassignedandusedbyan
interface.

Addresslifetime

EachIPv6addressthatisboundtoaninterfacehasafixedlifetime.Lifetimesareinfinite,unlessconfiguredtoashorter
period.Therearetwolifetimesthatgovernthestateofanaddress:thepreferredlifetimeandthevalidlifetime.[35]
Lifetimescanbeconfiguredinroutersthatprovidethevaluesusedforautoconfiguration,orspecifiedwhenmanually
configuringaddressesoninterfaces.

Whenanaddressisassignedtoaninterfaceitgetsthestatus"preferred",whichitholdsduringitspreferredlifetime.After
thatlifetimeexpiresthestatusbecomes"deprecated"andnonewconnectionsshouldbemadeusingthisaddress.The
addressbecomes"invalid"afteritsvalidlifetimealsoexpirestheaddressisremovedfromtheinterfaceandmaybe
assignedsomewhereelseontheInternet.

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Note:Inmostcases,thelifetimedoesnotexpirebecausenewRouterAdvertisements(RAs)refreshthetimers.Butifthere
arenomoreRAs,eventuallythepreferredlifetimeelapsesandtheaddressbecomesdeprecated".

Temporaryaddresses

ThegloballyuniqueandstaticMACaddresses,usedbystatelessaddressautoconfigurationtocreateinterfaceidentifiers,
offeranopportunitytotrackuserequipmentacrosstimeandIPv6networkprefixchangesandsousers.[36]Toreduce
theprospectofauseridentitybeingpermanentlytiedtoanIPv6addressportion,anodemaycreatetemporaryaddresses
withinterfaceidentifiersbasedontimevaryingrandombitstrings[37]andrelativelyshortlifetimes(hourstodays),after
whichtheyarereplacedwithnewaddresses.

Temporaryaddressesmaybeusedassourceaddressfororiginatingconnections,whileexternalhostsuseapublicaddress
byqueryingtheDomainNameSystem.

NetworkinterfacesconfiguredforIPv6usetemporaryaddressesbydefaultinOSXLionorlaterApplesystems,andin
WindowsVista,Windows2008ServerorlaterMicrosoftsystems.

Defaultaddressselection
IPv6enablednetworkinterfacesusuallyhavemorethanoneIPv6address,forexample,alinklocalandaglobaladdress,
andpermanentversustemporaryaddresses.IPv6introducestheconceptsofaddressscopeandselectionpreference,
yieldingmultiplechoicesforsourceanddestinationaddressselectionsincommunicationwithanotherhost.

Thepreferenceselectionalgorithm,[38]whichselectsthemostappropriateaddresstouseincommunicationswitha
particulardestination(includingtheuseofIPv4mappedaddressesindualstackimplementations),isbasedonauser
customizablepreferencetablethatassociateseachroutingprefixwithaprecedencelevel.Thedefaulttableisas
follows:[38]

Prefix Precedence Label Usage


::1/128 50 0 Localhost
::/0 40 1 Defaultunicast
::ffff:0:0/96 35 4 IPv4mappedIPv6address
2002::/16 30 2 6to4
2001::/32 5 5 Teredotunneling
fc00::/7 3 13 Uniquelocaladdress
::/96 1 3 IPv4compatibleaddresses(deprecated)
fec0::/10 1 11 Sitelocaladdress(deprecated)
3ffe::/16 1 12 6bone(returned)

ThedefaultconfigurationplacespreferenceonIPv6,ratherthanIPv4,andondestinationaddresseswithinthesmallest
possiblescope,sothatlinklocalcommunicationispreferredovergloballyroutedpathswhenotherwiseequallysuitable.
Theprefixpolicytableissimilartoaroutingtable,withtheprecedencevalueservingastheroleofalinkcost,where
higherpreferenceisexpressedasalargervalue.Sourceaddressesarepreferredtohavethesamelabelvalueasthe
destinationaddress.Addressesarematchedtoprefixesbasedonthelongestmatchingmostsignificantbitsequence.
Candidatesourceaddressesareobtainedfromtheoperatingsystemandcandidatedestinationaddressesmaybequeriedvia
theDomainNameSystem(DNS).

Linklocaladdressesandzoneindices

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Becausealllinklocaladdressesinahosthaveacommonprefix,normalroutingprocedurescannotbeusedtochoosethe
outgoinginterfacewhensendingpacketstoalinklocaldestination.Aspecialidentifier,knownasazoneindex,[8]is
neededtoprovidetheadditionalroutinginformationinthecaseoflinklocaladdresses,zoneindicescorrespondto
interfaceidentifiers.

Whenanaddressiswrittentextually,thezoneindexisappendedtotheaddress,separatedbyapercentsign(%).Theactual
syntaxofzoneindicesdependsontheoperatingsystem:

theMicrosoftWindowsIPv6stackusesnumericzoneindices,e.g.,fe80::3%1.Theindexisdeterminedbythe
interfacenumber
mostUnixlikesystems(e.g.,BSD,Linux,OSX)usetheinterfacenameasazoneindex:fe80::3%eth0.
alternatively,onBSDbasedoperatingsystems(includingOSX),anumericzoneindexcanbeusedinthesecond
16bitword,e.g.:fe80:1::3

Zoneindexnotationscausesyntaxconflictswhenusedinuniformresourceidentifiers(URI),sothe'%'charactermustbe
escapedviapercentencoding:[39]http://[fe80::3%25eth0]

DomainNameSystem
IntheDomainNameSystemhostnamesaremappedtoIPv6addressesbyAAAAresourcerecords,socalledquadA
records.ForreverselookuptheIETFreservedthedomainip6.arpa,wherethenamespaceishierarchicallydividedbythe
1digithexadecimalrepresentationofnibbleunits(4bits)oftheIPv6address.ThisschemeisdefinedinRFC3596.

AsinIPv4,eachhostisrepresentedintheDNSbytwoDNSrecords:anaddressrecordandareversemappingpointer
record.Forexample,ahostcomputernamedderrickinzoneexample.comhastheUniqueLocalAddress
fdda:5cc1:23:4::1f.ItsquadAaddressrecordis

derrick.example.com.INAAAAfdda:5cc1:23:4::1f

anditsIPv6pointerrecordis

f.1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.4.0.0.0.3.2.0.0.1.c.c.5.a.d.d.f.ip6.arpa.INPTRderrick.example.com.

Thispointerrecordmaybedefinedinanumberofzones,dependingonthechainofdelegationofauthorityinthezone
d.f.ip6.arpa.

TheDNSprotocolisindependentofitsTransportLayerprotocol.QueriesandrepliesmaybetransmittedoverIPv6or
IPv4transportsregardlessoftheaddressfamilyofthedatarequested.

AAAArecordfields
NAME Domainname
TYPE AAAA(28)
CLASS Internet(1)
TTL Timetoliveinseconds
RDLENGTH LengthofRDATAfield
RDATA 128bitIPv6address,networkbyteorder

Transitionchallenges

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Asof2009,manyDNSresolversinhomenetworkingNATdevicesandroutersstillhandleAAAArecordsimproperly.[40]
SomeofthesesimplydropDNSrequestsforsuchrecords,insteadofproperlyreturningtheappropriatenegativeDNS
response.Becausetherequestisdropped,thehostsendingtherequesthastowaitforatimeouttotrigger.Thisoftencauses
aslowdownwhenconnectingtodualstackIPv6/IPv4hosts,astheclientsoftwarewillwaitfortheIPv6connectiontofail
beforetryingIPv4.UseoftheHappyEyeballsalgorithmbyclientsoftwarecanmitigatethisproblem,bytryingbothIPv6
andIPv4connectionssimultaneously,thenusingwhicheverconnectsfirst.

Historicalnotes
Deprecatedandobsoleteaddresses

Thesitelocalprefixfec0::/10specifiesthattheaddressisvalidonlywithinthesitenetworkofanorganization.It
waspartoftheoriginaladdressingarchitecture[41]inDecember1995,butitsusewasdeprecatedinSeptember
2004[42]becausethedefinitionofthetermsitewasambiguous,whichledtoconfusingroutingrules.Newnetworks
mustnotsupportthisspecialtypeofaddress.InOctober2005,anewspecification[43]replacedthisaddresstypewith
uniquelocaladdresses.
Theaddressblock0200::/7wasdefinedasanOSINSAPmappedprefixsetinAugust1996,[44][45]butwas
deprecatedinDecember2004.[46]
The96bitzerovalueprefix::/96,originallyknownasIPv4compatibleaddresses,wasmentionedin1995[41]but
firstdescribedin1998.[47]ThisrangeofaddresseswasusedtorepresentIPv4addresseswithinanIPv6transition
technology.SuchanIPv6addresshasitsfirst(mostsignificant)96bitssettozero,whileitslast32bitsaretheIPv4
addressthatisrepresented.InFebruary2006,theInternetEngineeringTaskForce(IETF)hasdeprecatedtheuseof
IPv4compatibleaddresses.[1]TheonlyremaininguseofthisaddressformatistorepresentanIPv4addressina
tableordatabasewithfixedsizemembersthatmustalsobeabletostoreanIPv6address.
Addressblock3ffe::/16wasallocatedfortestpurposesforthe6bonenetworkinDecember1998.[47]Priortothat,
theaddressblock5F00::/8wasusedforthispurpose.BothaddressblockswerereturnedtotheaddresspoolinJune
2006.[48]

Miscellaneous

IPv6addresseswereoriginallyregisteredintheDomainNameSystem(DNS)intheip6zoneundertheinttoplevel
domainforreverselookups.In2000,theInternetArchitectureBoard(IAB)revertedtheirintentionstoretirearpa,
anddecidedin2001thatthearpatopleveldomainshouldretainitsoriginalfunction.Domainsinip6.intshouldbe
movedtoip6.arpa.[49]Theip6.intzonewasofficiallyremovedon6June2006.
InMarch2011,theIETFrefinedtheirrecommendationsforallocationofaddressblockstoendsites.[16]Insteadof
assigningeithera/48,/64,or/128(accordingtoIAB'sandIESG'sviewsof2001),[50]Internetserviceproviders
shouldconsiderassigningsmallerblocks(forexamplea/56)toendusers.TheARIN,RIPE&APNICregional
registries'policiesencourage/56assignmentswhereappropriate.[16]

References

1.RFC4291,IPVersion6AddressingArchitecture,R.Hinden,S.Deering(February2006)
2.SilviaHagen(May2006).IPv6Essentials(Seconded.).O'Reilly.ISBN9780596100582.
3.RFC3956,EmbeddingtheRendezvousPoint(RP)AddressinanIPv6MulticastAddressP.Savola,B.Haberman(November
2004)
4.RFC3306,UnicastPrefixbasedIPv6MulticastAddresses,B.Haberman,D.Thaler(August2002)
5.RFC4489,AMethodforGeneratingLinkScopedIPv6MulticastAddresses,JS.Park,MK.ShinHJ.Kim(April2006)
6.RFC3986,UniformResourceIdentifier(URI):GenericSyntax,T.BernersLee,R.Fielding,L.Masinter(January2005)
7."ipv6literal.netDomainHistory".who.is.Retrieved20October2014.
8.RFC4007,IPv6ScopedAddressArchitecture,S.Deering,B.Haberman,T.Jinmei,E.Nordmark,B.Zill(March2005)
9.RFC7346,IPv6MulticastAddressScopes,RDroms(August2014)
10.RFC1881,IPv6AddressAllocationManagement,InternetArchitectureBoard(December1995)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6_address 13/15
12/17/2016 IPv6addressWikipedia

11.IPv6addressspaceatIANA(http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6addressspace).Iana.org(20101029).Retrievedon201109
28.
12.IPv6unicastaddressassignments(http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6unicastaddressassignments/ipv6unicastaddressassign
ments.xhtml),IANA
13.DETELEKOM20050113(http://www.db.ripe.net/whois?form_type=simple&full_query_string=&searchtext=DETELEKOM20
050113&do_search=Search).Db.ripe.net.Retrievedon20110928.
14."ARINNumberResourcePolicyManual:InitialallocationtoISPs".
15."RIPENCCIPv6AddressAllocationandAssignmentPolicy:Minimumallocation".
16.RFC6177,IPv6AddressAssignmenttoEndSites,T.Narten,G.Houston,L.Roberts,IETFTrust,(March2011).
17.forexample(http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6unicastaddressassignments/ipv6unicastaddressassignments.xml).Iana.org.
Retrievedon20110928.
18."IPv6AddressingPlans".ARINIPv6Wiki.Retrieved20100818."Allcustomersgetone/48unlesstheycanshowthatthey
needmorethan65ksubnets.[...]Ifyouhavelotsofconsumercustomersyoumaywanttoassign/56stoprivateresidencesites."
19."AddressSpaceManagedbytheRIPENCC".Retrieved20110522.
20.RFC2526,ReservedIPv6SubnetAnycastAddresses,D.Johnson,S.Deering(March1999)
21.RFC5156,SpecialUseIPv6Addresses,M.Blanchett(April2008)
22.RFC1918,AddressAllocationforPrivateInternets,Y.Rekhter,B.Moskowitz,D.Karrenberg,G.J.DeGroot,E.Lear(February
1996)
23.RFC6052,"IPv6AddressingofIPv4/IPv6Translators",C.Bao,C.Huitema,M.Bagnulo,M.Boucadair,X.Li,(October2010)
24.RFC4773,AdministrationoftheIANASpecialPurposeIPv6AddressBlock,G.Huston(December2006)
25.RFC2928,InitialIPv6SubTLAIDAssignments,R.Hinden,S.Deering,R.Fink,T.Hain(September2000)TheInternetSociety
26.RFC5180,IPv6BenchmarkingMethodologyforNetworkInterconnectDevices,C.Popoviciu,A.Hamza,G.VandeVelde,D.
Dugatkin(May2008)
27.RFC5180Errata,RFCEditor,M.Cotton,R.Bonica,(April2009)
28.RFC7343AnIPv6PrefixforOverlayRoutableCryptographicHashIdentifiersVersion2(ORCHIDv2)
29.RFC3849,IPv6AddressPrefixReservedforDocumentation,G.Huston,A.Lord,P.Smith(July2004)
30.RFC5737,IPv4AddressBlocksReservedforDocumentation,J.Arkko,M.Cotton,L.Vegoda(January2010),ISSN20701721
(https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:20701721)
31.RFC6666,ADiscardPrefixforIPv6,N.Hilliard,D.Freedman(August2012)
32.IANAInternetProtocolVersion6MulticastAddresses(http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6multicastaddresses).
33.RFC4862,IPv6StatelessAddressAutoconfiguration,S.Thomson,T.Narten,T.Jinmei(September2007)
34.RFC4861,NeighborDiscoveryforIPversion6(IPv6),T.Narten,E.Nordmark,W.Simpson,H.Holiman(September2007)
35.IljitschvanBeijnum(2006)."IPv6Internals".TheInternetProtocolJournal.9(3).pp.1629.
36.TheprivacyimplicationsofstatelessIPv6addressing(http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1852723&dl=GUIDE&coll=GUIDE&
CFID=103687796&CFTOKEN=17254293).Portal.acm.org(20100421).Retrievedon20110928.
37.RFC4941,PrivacyExtensionsforStatelessAddressAutoconfigurationinIPv6,T.Narten,R.Draves,S.Krishnan(September
2007)
38.RFC6724,DefaultAddressSelectionforInternetProtocolVersion6(IPv6),D.Thaler,Ed.,R.Draves,A.Matsumoto,T.
Chown,TheInternetSociety(September2012)
39.RepresentingIPv6ZoneIdentifiersinAddressLiteralsandUniformResourceIdentifiers(http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6874).
Tools.ietf.org.Retrievedon20130709.
40.RFC4074CommonMisbehaviorAgainstDNSQueriesforIPv6Addresses,Y.Morishita,T.Jinmei.May2005.
41.RFC1884,IPVersion6AddressingArchitecture,R.Hinden,S.Deering(December1995)
42.RFC3879,DeprecatingSiteLocalAddresses,C.Huitema,B.Carpenter(September2004)
43.RFC4193,UniqueLocalIPv6UnicastAddresses,R.Hinden,B.Haberman(October2005)
44.RFC4147,ProposedChangestotheFormatoftheIANAIPv6Registry,G.Houston(August2005)
45.RFC1888,OSINSAPsandIPv6,J.Bound,B.Carpenter,D.Harrington,J.Houldsworth,A.Lloyd(August1996)
46.RFC4048,RFC1888IsObsolete,B.Carpenter(April2005)
47.RFC2471,IPv6TestingAddressAllocation,R.Hinden,R.Fink,J.Postel(December1998)
48.RFC3701,6bone(IPv6TestingAddressAllocation)Phaseout,R.Fink,R.Hinden(March2004)
49.RFC3152,DelegationofIP6.ARPA,R.Bush(August2001)
50.RFC3177,"IAB/IESGRecommendationsonIPv6AddressAllocationstoSites",IAB,IESG,(September2001).

Externallinks
IPVersion6multicastaddresses(https://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6multicastaddresses)
Beijnum,van,Iljitsch(2005).RunningIPv6.ISBN1590595270.
Elz,Robert(19960401)."ACompactRepresentationofIPv6Addresses(RFC1924)".IETF."RepresentanyIPv6
addressin20octets."ThishumorousRFCspecifiesanalternativewayofrepresentingIPv6addresses,usingabase
85encoding.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6_address 14/15
12/17/2016 IPv6addressWikipedia

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Categories: IPv6 IPaddresses

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