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PART 5

ENERGY RELAXED
NETWORKS. PINCH METHOD
APPROACH
ENERGY RELAXATION
Energy relaxation is a name coined for the
procedure of allowing the energy usage to
increase in exchange for at least one of the
following effects :

a) a reduction in area
b) a reduction in the number of heat exchangers
c) a reduction in complexity (typically less
splitting)
ENERGY RELAXATION
In the original PDM an energy relaxation
procedure was proposed.

This procedure has as goal to increase


heating utility and in exchange reduce the
number of units.
ENERGY RELAXATION
LOOP: A loop is a circuit through the
network that starts at one exchanger and
ends in the same exchanger

PATH: A path is a circuit through the


network that starts at a heater and ends at
a cooler
ENERGY RELAXATION
Illustration of a Loop

175 0C 125 0C
FCp=0.010 H1 C

280
FCp=0.040 H2
65 0C

155 0C 20 0C C1
FCp=0.020 H

360 500 1840


40 0C C2
FCp=0.015
112 0C
560 520

(*) Heat exchanger loads are in kW


ENERGY RELAXATION
Illustration of a Path

175 0C 125 0C
FCp=0.010 H1 C
280
FCp=0.040 H2
65 0C

FCp=0.020 155 0C 20 0C
H C1

360 500 1840


FCp=0.015
40 0C C2
112 0C
560 520
(*) Heat exchanger loads are in kW
ENERGY RELAXATION
Procedure : Find a loop and move around heat from
exchanger to exchanger until one exchanger is eliminated.
175 0C 125 0C
H1 C
280
H2
65 0C

155 0C
20 0C
H C1

360 500 -X 1840 +X

40 0C C2
112 0C

560 -X 520 +X

If one wants to eliminate one exchanger: X=500. Note that X


could have been negative, but we chose the smallest possible in
absolute value.
ENERGY RELAXATION
Result: Notice that the result is infeasible!!!
73 0C

H1 175 0C 45 0C
C

65 0C 280
H2 65 0C
65 0C

155 0C 20 0C C1
H

360 2340
0C
112 40 0C C2

60 1020

108 0C

This exchanger is in
violation of the
minimum approach
ENERGY RELAXATION
We use a path to move heat around to restore feasibility
73 0C

H1 175 0C 45 0C
C
65 0C 280 +X
H2 65 0C
65 0C

+X
155 0C 20 0C C1
H

360 2340 -X
112 0C
40 0C C2

60 +X 1020 -X

108 0C

The value of X needed to restore feasibility is X=795


ENERGY RELAXATION
Final Network
H1 175 0C 45 0C
C
65 0C 1075
H2 65 0C
65 0C

155 0C 20 0C C1
H

1155 1545
112 0C
40 0C C2

855 225

55 0C