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2013 HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION MOCK-UP

Biology 456
Centre Number
Section I (continued)

Part B 55 marks
Attempt Questions 2130
12345678 Student Number
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Question 21 (5 marks)

You performed a first-hand investigation to estimate the size of blood cells.

(a) How did you estimate the size of the cells? 2

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(b) Draw a scaled diagram that shows the features of both a red blood cell and a 3
white blood cell.
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Question 22 (7 marks)

Students in a class conducted a first-hand investigation to test the hypothesis that if


CO2 were continually bubbled in water then the pH would decrease over time.

One student presented the data in the graph, as shown.

8.0
7.0


6.0
5.0
pH 4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

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0 2 5 10 20
Time (min)

(a) Present these data in a table. 2

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Question 22 (continued)

(b) On the grid below, plot the data from the table in part (a) and draw a curve of 3
best fit.

pH
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(c) Why is it better to represent these results as a curve of best fit rather than as a 2
column graph?
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Question 23 (5 marks)

A non-infectious disease was observed in a mother and her four sons who live with
her. She has no daughters. The father of these children does not have the disease and
does not live with them. The womans parents and her two sisters who live overseas
do not have the disease.

(a) Her doctor suspects that the disease is NOT inherited. Identify data that could be 1
collected to investigate a non-inheritable cause of the disease.


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(b) A geneticist suspects that the disease is inherited.

(i) Draw the family pedigree for this disease. 2

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(ii) From the evidence, what indicates that the disease could be the result of 2
a recessive allele and not be sex linked?
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Question 24 (5 marks)

You conducted first-hand investigations to test the effects of temperature, pH and


substrate concentration on enzyme activity.

(a) Complete the following table by identifying the variables for ONE of your 1
investigations.

Independent variable Dependent variable Kept constant


pH,
substrate concentration,
.................................... .................................... enzyme concentration

(b) Outline how you measured the activity of an enzyme in your investigation. In 2
your answer, name the enzyme.

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(c) Describe how a condition needed for optimal enzyme activity would be 2
expected to vary between endotherms and ectotherms.

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Question 25 (6 marks)

Beadle and Tatums experiment involved the analysis of bread mould growth. Bread
mould uses an enzyme to make the amino acid arginine.

The diagram shows bread mould growth after culturing on two different media. In one
part of the experiment, the bread mould had been irradiated before culturing.

Without irradiation With irradiation


Key
Bread mould
growth

Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal


medium medium medium medium
+ arginine + arginine

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(a) How do these results support the one gene one protein hypothesis? 4

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(b) Justify the types of secondary sources that would be acceptable to use to 2
research Beadle and Tatums experiment.

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Question 26 (5 marks)

A scientist performed an epidemiological study to investigate the cause and effect 5


relationship of smoking and lung cancer as follows:
1. Handed out a scientifically valid questionnaire to all colleagues (n = 144) at
work
2. Checked that there were an equal number of male and female respondents
3. Discovered that there were more non-smoking respondents than smoking

respondents. Removed some of the non-smokers until both groups had equal
numbers
4. Checked that all the respondents had a medical check-up in the past year
5. Analysed data, wrote the paper and published it in a scientific blog.

From the information provided, analyse the methodology used by this scientist.
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Question 27 (4 marks)

During a major international horse event in Australia, a group of horses, including 4


some from overseas, is discovered to be infected by a deadly virus. This virus is only
found in Australia.

Give reasons for strategies that could be carried out to control this disease outbreak.

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Question 28 (5 marks)

Explain the relationship between replication of DNA and evolution. 5

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Question 29 (5 marks)

(a) Complete the following diagram to show the process by which gametes are 3
formed.


A
A

B
B
a
a

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b
b

A A b
a B B a b

a A
B B

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Question 29 (continued)

(b) How does the segregation of chromosomes during meiosis lead to a wide variety 2
of gametes being produced?

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Question 30 (8 marks)

Explain how the contributions of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and MacFarlane Burnet 8
have increased our understanding of the nature and prevention of infectious disease.

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Section I Part B Extra writing space

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Section I Part B Extra writing space

If you use this space, clearly indicate which question you are answering.

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24 Board of Studies NSW 2013


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