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Ron Blank & Associates, Inc.

2012
2001 Rexford Road
Charlotte, NC 28211
704-365-7300
ngcaia@nationalgypsum.com

Abuse and Impact Resistant Gypsum:


Stronger and Safer Walls

Please note: you will need to complete the conclusion quiz online at RonBlank.com to receive credit

Course #: NGC09K
An AIA Continuing Education Program
Credit for this course is 1 AIA HSW CE Hour
An American Institute of Architects (AIA) Continuing
Education Program

Approved Promotional Statement:


Ron Blank & Associates, Inc. is a registered provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education System. Credit earned upon completion of this
program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion
are available for all course participants upon completion of the course conclusion quiz
with +80%.

Please view the following slide for more information on Certificates of Completion
through RBA

This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional


education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or
construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA or Ron Blank &
Associates, Inc. of any material of construction or any method or manner of
handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
An American Institute of Architects (AIA) Continuing
Education Program

Course Format: This is a structured, web-based, self study course with a final
exam.
Course Credit: 1 AIA Health Safety & Welfare (HSW) CE Hour
Completion Certificate: A confirmation is sent to you by email and you can print
one upon successful completion of a course or from your RonBlank.com
transcript. If you have any difficulties printing or receiving your Certificate please
send requests to certificate@ronblank.com

Design professionals, please remember to print or save your certificate of completion after
successfully completing a course conclusion quiz. Email confirmations will be sent to the email
address you have provided in your RonBlank.com account.
Course Description

Analyze the different types of gypsum technologies in terms of


composition, characteristics, and testing. Discover the benefits
of impact resistant gypsum in terms of performance, application,
and cost.
Learning Objectives

Define key terms associated with gypsum and wall surfaces.


Discuss ASTM C 1629 classification system for abuse resistant
panels and ASTM test methods.
Compare and contrast the performance of different gypsum
board technologies.
Discuss the installation process, performance features, various
applications, and cost benefits of impact resistant gypsum.
Definition and Product Types
Win or Lose

Can the walls take the team?


Introduction

Abuse and Impact Resistant products were


introduced in mid-90s as a lower cost alternative
to Cement Masonry Units (CMU).
Enhancements such as mold and moisture
resistance were added in 2004.
In school districts across the country , these
products have replaced CMU for most walls.
Architects Still Ask

Whats the difference


between abuse and
impact resistance?
Definitions

Abuse Resistance
Designed for use in wall assembly areas
where surface abrasion is a concern
-Surface of the board

Impact Resistance
Designed for use where abuse and impact
resistance is needed
-Surface of the board
-Intrusion into the wall cavity
Types of Damage

Surface damage:
Abrasion or scuffing due to high
traffic during standard use and
indentation of the wall surface from
low-energy or occasional impact

Penetration:
Damage due to high-energy
or continual impact that
breaks into the stud cavity
Understand the Products
Three different types of gypsum board discussed here:

Abuse Impact
Standard Resistant Resistant
Gypsum Gypsum Gypsum

Regular Gypsum Fiberboard Gypsum Fiberboard


with Fiberglass Mesh
5/8 Type X Enhanced Paper -
(baseline) Enhanced Gypsum Enhanced Paper -
Core Enhanced Gypsum
Core with Fiberglass
Fiberglass faced
Mesh
Enhanced Core
Fiberglass faced
Enhanced Core
Abuse Resistant (AR) Gypsum

Used where surface damage is a concern

Gypsum Fiberboard
Enhanced with manufacturers
proprietary slurry of gypsum particles
and cellulose fibers

Abuse Resistant Gypsum


Abuse-resistant gypsum wallboard
features an enhanced gypsum core
wrapped with heavy abrasion -
resistant paper or abrasion resistant
fiberglass facing
Impact Resistant (IR) Gypsum

Used where damage of the cavity is a concern

Gypsum Fiberboard
Enhanced with manufacturers
proprietary slurry of gypsum particles
and cellulose fibers and reinforced with Fiberglass Mesh
fiberglass mesh

Impact Resistant Gypsum


Impact-resistant gypsum wallboard
features an enhanced gypsum core
wrapped with heavy abrasion -
resistant paper or abrasion resistant
Fiberglass Mesh
fiberglass facing and reinforced with
fiberglass mesh
ASTM C 1629
Standard Classification for Abuse-Resistant Non-decorated Interior
Gypsum Panel Products and Fiber-Reinforced Cement Panels
Issued in January 2006
ASTM C 1629
This standard consists of four testing methods

ASTM D 4977 ASTM D 5420


Surface Abrasion Gardner Impact Surface
Indentation Resistance

Applicable
only on
Impact
Resistant
products
ASTM E 695 Annex A1
Soft Body Impact Test Hard Body Impact Test
ASTM C 1629
- Classifications and Performance Requirements
ASTM D 4977 ASTM D 5420 ASTM E 695 Annex A1
Surface Abrasion Surface Indentation Soft Body Impact Hard Body Impact
Resistance

Classification Abraded Depth Indentation Impact Impact


Level Maximum Maximum Minimum Minimum

1 0.126" 0.150" 90 ft-lbs 50 ft-lbs

2 0.059" 0.100" 195 ft-lbs 100 ft-lbs

3 0.010" 0.050" 300 ft-lbs 150 ft-lbs


See next slide for description
ASTM C 1629
- Classifications and Performance Requirements

Each classification level is based on specific minimum or maximum


results depending on the test.
A product may meet Level 1 on one type of test and Level 3 on
another test.
Each performance characteristic should be specified based upon the
desired classification level.

Note:
The minimum level for the Hard Body Test is not a lot better than
standard gypsum (35 lbs). A Level 1 result on the Hard Body Test is not
a very impact resistant product.
ASTM C 1629 - Classification Levels

Each abuse/impact property of abuse resistant wall panels is divided into


three classification levels.
Level 1: Minimum performance that meets the standard
Level 2: Mid-range performance
Level 3: Highest performance
The test methods specified are utilized to establish the abuse-resistance
classification of an abuse resistant wall panel. Each classification level
requires a minimum overall specified performance. Any classified abuse
resistant wall panel can be used at a classification level which is rated
lower than the highest level qualified.

This standard will enable manufacturers to quantify their products' performance.


-Robert Wessel
ASTM C11 member and assistant executive director,
Gypsum Association
ASTM C 1629
Test Methods and
Performance Comparisons
Surface Abrasion - ASTM D 4977

Purpose:
Measure the ability of a wall system to withstand
scuffs and abrasions
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results

5/8 (15.9mm) Type X Gypsum Board


Surface Abrasion - ASTM D 4977

Abraded Depth
0.126

5/8
0.576

0.126 - Classification Level 1 maximum


0.576 - Type X gypsum board

Over 1/2 is worn away on a 5/8 thick board


Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results

Abuse Resistant Products

Fiberglass Faced Enhanced Paper


Type X Gypsum Gypsum
Enhanced Enhanced
Board Fiberboard
Gypsum Core Gypsum Core

Result 0.576 0.009 0.284 0.009


Classification NA 3 NA 3
Level 1 maximum abraded depth = 0.126
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Note that the Gypsum Fiberboard does perform much better than Type X, it does not meet the
minimum for Level 1.
ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion Results

Impact Resistant Products


Surface Indentation Resistance
- ASTM D 5420 Gardner Impact

Purpose:
Measure gypsum boards resistance to dents
ASTM D 5420 Surface Indentation Results

Abuse Resistant Products

Fiberglass Faced Enhanced Paper


Type X Gypsum Gypsum
Enhanced Enhanced
Board Fiberboard
Gypsum Core Gypsum Core

Result 0.230 0.132 0.11 0.132


Classification NA 1 1 1
Note: Level 1 maximum indentation = 0.150
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
ASTM D 5420 Surface Indentation Results

Impact Resistant Products

Fiberglass Faced Enhanced Paper


Gypsum Fiberboard
Type X Gypsum Enhanced Gypsum Enhanced Gypsum
with Fiberglass
Board Core with Fiberglass Core with Fiberglass
Mesh
Mesh Mesh

Result 0.230 0.129 0.11 0.129


Classification NA 1 1 1
Note: Level 1 maximum indentation = 0.150
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Soft Body Impact Test - ASTM E 695

Purpose:
Measure the ability of a wall system to withstand single
impact force from a small object
ASTM E 695 Soft Body Impact Results

Abuse Resistant Products

Fiberglass Faced Enhanced Paper


Type X Gypsum Gypsum
Enhanced Enhanced
Board Fiberboard
Gypsum Core Gypsum Core

Result 120 ft - lbs 270 ft - lbs 180 ft - lbs 210 ft - lbs


Classification 1 2 1 2
Level 1 Soft Body Minimum = 90 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
ASTM E 695 Soft Body Impact Results

Impact Resistant Products

Fiberglass Faced Gypsum Enhanced Paper


Enhanced Fiberboard with Enhanced
Type X Gypsum
Gypsum Core Fiberglass Mesh Gypsum Core
Board with Fiberglass with Fiberglass
Mesh Mesh

Result 120 ft - lbs >540ft - lbs 210 ft - lbs >540 ft - lbs


Classification 1 3 2 3
Level 1 Soft Body Minimum = 90 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Hard Body Impact Test - Annex A1

Purpose:
Measure resistance to penetration by a hard
object, such as a baseball bat or a boot heel
Hard Body Impact -Annex 1 Results

Abuse Resistant Products

Type X Gypsum Fiberglas Faced Gypsum Enhanced Paper


Board Enhanced Fiberboard Enhanced
Gypsum Core Gypsum Core

Result NA NA NA NA
Classification NA NA NA NA
Hard Body Impact Test - Not applicable to Abuse Resistant products.
Some manufacturers will test and publish a result for abuse resistant products. This is not part the test
standard.
Hard Body Impact -Annex 1 Results

Impact Resistant Products

Type X Gypsum Fiberglass Faced Gypsum Enhanced Paper


Board Enhanced Fiberboard with Enhanced
Gypsum Core Fiberglass Mesh Gypsum Core
with Fiberglass with Fiberglass
Mesh Mesh

Result 35 ft - lbs 115 ft - lbs 175 ft - lbs 175 ft - lbs


Classification NA 2 3 3
Level 1 Hard Body Minimum = 50 ft-lbs
Third Party Testing by H.P. White Laboratory and Timber Products Inspection
Fiberglass mesh increases performance on this test.
Abuse Resistant Comparison

ASTM D 4977 ASTM D 5420 ASTM E 695 Annex A1


Surface Abrasion Surface Indentation Soft Body Impact Hard Body Impact
Resistance Test Test
Classification
Level

Abraded Depth Indentation


Impact Minimum Impact Minimum
Maximum Maximum

5/8" Type X
N/A N/A 1 N/A
Gypsum Board
Gypsum
N/A 1 1 N/A
Fiberboard
Enhanced
3 1 2 N/A
Gypsum Core
Impact Resistant Comparison

ASTM D 4977 ASTM D 5420 ASTM E 695 Annex A1


Surface Abrasion Surface Indentation Soft Body Impact Hard Body Impact
Resistance Test Test

Classification Level

Abraded Depth Indentation Impact Impact


Maximum Maximum Minimum Minimum

5/8" Type X Gypsum


N/A N/A 1 N/A
Board
Gypsum Fiberboard
N/A 1 3 3
w/ Fiberglass Mesh
Enhanced Gypsum
Core w/ Fiberglass 3 1 2-3 3
Mesh
Frequently Asked Questions
Frequently Asked Questions

Why specify abuse and impact resistant products?

How does it install?

What other properties are important?

Where do I specify these products?

How do I specify these products?

How much does it cost?


Why Specify?

Lower cost alternative to CMU and OSB

Speed of construction

Lighter weight construction

More decorative finish options

Use conventional building materials

Ease of maintenance
Installation and Finishing Guidelines

Gypsum Fiberboard Enhanced Core Products


Control joints required No control joints needed when
when adjacent to regular adjacent to regular gypsum
gypsum board board
Setting type joint Drying type joint compound can
compounds required be used
Skim coat required Finishes like regular gypsum
/suggested board
Skim coat required/suggested
for fiberglass faced products
Paper or Fiberglass Faced?

Paper Faced Fiberglass Faced


Not warranted for pre-rock Warranted for pre-rock
installations installations
No exposure warranty 12 month exposure
Skim coat not required warranty
Skim coat required/
suggested

Pre-rock is a term contractors use when interior gypsum


products are installed prior to the building being dried in.
High Performance Features

Many abuse and impact resistant products offer


additional features.

Fire Rated Assemblies

Indoor Air Quality


Paper Tape (without any
enhanced mold resistance)
can be used in conjunction
Mold Resistance per ASTM D 3273 with a mold resistant gypsum
board and a mold resistant
joint compound to achieve a
mold resistant system. Check
with the manufacturer as to
whether a tested system is
available.
Abuse Resistant Applications

Areas prone to surface abrasion and indentation

Residential: Institutional: Commercial:


Stairwells Hospital observation Corridors
Garages rooms Public areas
Operating rooms Lobbies
Cafeterias Entries
Dormitories
Day care centers
Impact Resistant Applications

Areas prone to stud cavity penetration

Residential: Institutional: Commercial:


Multi-family housing Classrooms Mailrooms
Stairwells Correctional Facilities Loading areas
Heavily trafficked
Corridors Gymnasiums corridors
Psychiatric wards Public areas
Workshops
Impact Resistant Shaft Wall

On August 26, 2006, the City of New York amended Section 1 of the building
code. The new section amended title 1 of the Rules of the City of New York,
section 32-05 Impact Resistant Stair and Elevator Enclosures. This new
section was a direct result of the lessons learned after the World Trade
Center disaster.
The New York City Department of Buildings developed the requirement, and
in 2009 the International Building Code (IBC) adopted a similar requirement,
Section 403.2.3 Structural Integrity of exit enclosures and elevator hoist
way enclosures.

For more detailed design and code information, please refer to the
appropriate sections of the IBC Code or the building code that governs
your project. The code requirement pertains to specific building types
and sets forth minimum design criteria for shaftwall impact-resistance.
This is based on performance testing per ASTM C 1629 and C 1629M
Standard Classification for Abuse Resistant Non-Decorated Interior
Gypsum Panel Products and Fiber Reinforced Cement Panels. In 2006,
the gypsum industry adopted ASTM C 1629 as the testing standard for
measuring the performance of all abuse and impact panels.
Impact Resistant Shaft Wall

4 20 Gauge J-Track

4 20 Gauge C-T Stud

1 Type X Shaftliner

Base Layer
5/8 Type X Impact Resistant
Gypsum Board
1 Screws spaced 14 o.c.

Face Layer
5/8 Type X Gypsum Board
1 5/8 Screws spaced 12 o.c.
How to Specify

Specs should include separate sections


Abuse Resistant Gypsum
Impact Resistant Gypsum

Specify Classification Level for each ASTM test


Abuse Resistant section should not include
Hard Body Impact test
May include other performance characteristics, such
as mold resistance or GREENGUARD certification
Specify by ASTM C 1629 Classification Level

TEST DESCRIPTION ABUSE IMPACT

ASTM D 4977 Surface Abrasion 13 13

ASTM D 5420 Surface Indentation 1 1

ASTM E695 Soft Body Impact 12 23

ASTM C 1629 Hard Body Impact NA 23

Products are classified on each test result and may have varying levels of performance
Selector Guide

Activity Level Type of Damage Suggested Product

Moderate Standard Type X -


Incidental surface and indentation damage.
Duty Abuse Resistant

Medium Resistance to surface damage from people Abuse Resistant


Duty and objects. Usually unintentional. Impact Resistant

Resistance to heavy surface, indentation


Heavy Duty and penetration damage form people and Impact Resistant
objects. Usually intentional.

Extreme Extreme levels of surface and impact Double Layer Impact


Duty damage. Usually intentional. Resistant
Extreme Duty

Hard Body Impact Test


Level 3 = 150 ft. lbs Steel Studs
Type S Screws
Double Layer
Impact Resistant
>260 ft. lbs. Gypsum Board

Impact Resistant
Gypsum Board
Cost Comparison

$10.00
$9.00
$8.00
$7.00

Type X & Plywood


$6.00

AR Fiberglass Type X

IR Fiberglass Type X
$5.00
$4.00
5/8 Type X

AR Type X

$3.00

IR Type X

8 CMU
6 CMU
$2.00
$1.00
$0.00

Gypsum walls based on 3 5/8 20 gauge Level 4 Finish


CMU ( hollow core) wall, tooled joints, not reinforced
Level 5 finish recommended for optimal appearance on fiberglass faced products

Source: RS Means 2011 Cost Data and manufacturers average sales price for various gypsum products
Abuse Resistant Options

Indentation Surface Abrasion


Gypsum Fiberboard Abuse-Resistant
Abuse-Resistant Gypsum
Gypsum
Impact Resistant Options

Resist Stud Cavity Surface Abrasion


Penetration
Gypsum Fiberboard with Abuse and Impact Resistant
Fiberglass Mesh Gypsum Wallboard with
Abuse and Impact Resistant Fiberglass Mesh
Gypsum Wallboard with
Heavy Abrasion Enhanced Mold and
Fiberglass Mesh Mold and Moisture Resistant Moisture Resistant
Face Paper Type X Core

Fiberglass Mesh Heavy Mold and Moisture Fiberglass Mesh


Reinforcement Resistant Back Paper Reinforcement

Note: For metal studs, specify a minimum of 20 gauge spaced a maximum of 16" on center.
Test results based on vertical installation.
Course Summary

Define key terms associated with gypsum and wall surfaces.


Discuss ASTM C 1629 classification system for abuse resistant
panels and ASTM test methods.
Compare and contrast the performance of different gypsum
board technologies.
Discuss the installation process, performance features, various
applications, and cost benefits of impact resistant gypsum.
Ron Blank & Associates, Inc. 2012
2001 Rexford Road
Charlotte, NC 28211
704-365-7300
ngcaia@nationalgypsum.com

Abuse and Impact Resistant Gypsum:


Stronger and Safer Walls

Please note: you will need to complete the conclusion quiz online at RonBlank.com to receive credit

Course #: NGC09K
An AIA Continuing Education Program
Credit for this course is 1 AIA HSW CE Hour