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StanfordGSBWalkthrough

IntheField:EnergyAuditsandLEED

BenjaminWelle,P.E.,C.E.M.,LEEDAP
PhDStudent,CIFE
CEEDepartment
StanfordUniversity
RelevantLEEDCreditsNewConstrucLonandExisLngBuilding
LEED-NC LEED-EB
Energy & Atmosphere 17 Points Energy & Atmosphere 23 Points

Prereq 1 Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems Required Prereq 1 Existing Building Commissioning Required
Prereq 2 Minimum Energy Performance Required Prereq 2 Minimum Energy Performance - Energy Star 60 Required
Prereq 3 Fundamental Refrigerant Management Required Prereq 3 Ozone Protection Required
Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance 1 to 10 Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance 1 to 10
10.5% New Buildings or 3.5% Existing Building Renovations 1 Energy Star Rating - 63 1
14% New Buildings or 7% Existing Building Renovations 2 Energy Star Rating - 67 2
17.5% New Buildings or 10.5% Existing Building Renovations 3 Energy Star Rating - 71 3
21% New Buildings or 14% Existing Building Renovations 4 Energy Star Rating - 75 4
24.5% New Buildings or 17.5% Existing Building Renovations 5 Energy Star Rating - 79 5
28% New Buildings or 21% Existing Building Renovations 6 Energy Star Rating - 83 6
31.5% New Buildings or 24.5% Existing Building Renovations 7 Energy Star Rating - 87 7
35% New Buildings or 28% Existing Building Renovations 8 Energy Star Rating - 91 8
38.5% New Buildings or 31.5% Existing Building Renovations 9 Energy Star Rating - 95 9
42% New Buildings or 35% Existing Building Renovations 10 Energy Star Rating - 99 10
Credit 2 On-Site Renewable Energy 1 to 3 Credit 2.1 Renewable Energy - On-site 3% / Off-site 15% 1
2.5% Renewable Energy 1 Credit 2.2 Renewable Energy - On-site 6% / Off-site 30% 1
7.5% Renewable Energy 2 Credit 2.3 Renewable Energy - On-site 9% / Off-site 45% 1
12.5% Renewable Energy 3 Credit 2.4 Renewable Energy - On-site 12% / Off-site 60% 1
Credit 3 Enhanced Commissioning 1 Credit 3.1 Building Operation & Maintenance - Staff Education 1
Credit 4 Enhanced Refrigerant Management 1 Credit 3.2 Building Operation & Maintenance - Building Systems Maintenance 1
Credit 5 Measurement & Verification 1 Credit 3.3 Building Operation & Maintenance - Building Systems Monitoring 1
Credit 6 Green Power 1 Credit 4 Additional Ozone Protection 1
Credit 5.1 Performance Measurement - Enhanced Metering (4 specific actions) 1
Credit 5.2 Performance Measurement - Enhanced Metering (8 specific actions) 1
Credit 5.3 Performance Measurement - Enhanced Metering (12 specific actions) 1
Credit 5.4 Performance Measurement - Emission Reduction Reporting 1

Indoor Environmental Quality 15 Points Indoor Environmental Quality 22 Points

Prereq 1 Minimum IAQ Performance Required Prereq 1 Outside Air Introduction & Exhaust Systems Required
Prereq 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Required Prereq 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Required
Credit 1 Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring 1 Prereq 3 Asbestos Removal or Encapsulation Required
Credit 2 Increased Ventilation 1 Prereq 4 PCB Removal Required
Credit 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan, During Construction 1 Credit 1 Outside Air Delivery Monitoring 1
Credit 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan, Before Occupancy 1 Credit 2 Increased Ventilation 1
Credit 4.1 Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives & Sealants 1 Credit 3 Construction IAQ Management Plan 1
Credit 4.2 Low-Emitting Materials, Paints & Coatings 1 Credit 4.1 Documenting Productivity Impacts - Absenteeism & Healthcare Cost Impacts 1
Credit 4.3 Low-Emitting Materials, Carpet Systems 1 Credit 4.2 Documenting Productivity Impacts - Other Productivity Impacts 1
Credit 4.4 Low-Emitting Materials, Composite Wood & Agrifiber Products 1 Credit 5.1 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control - Reduce Particulates in Air System 1
Credit 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control 1 Credit 5.2 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control - Isolation of High Volume Copy/Print/Fax Room 1
Credit 6.1 Controllability of Systems, Lighting 1 Credit 6.1 Controllability of Systems - Lighting 1
Credit 6.2 Controllability of Systems, Thermal Comfort 1 Credit 6.2 Controllability of Systems - Temperature & Ventilation 1
Credit 7.1 Thermal Comfort, Design 1 Credit 7.1 Thermal Comfort - Compliance 1
Credit 7.2 Thermal Comfort, Verification 1 Credit 7.2 Thermal Comfort - Permanent Monitoring System 1
Credit 8.1 Daylight & Views, Daylight 75% of Spaces 1 Credit 8.1 Daylight & Views - Daylight for 50% of Spaces 1
Credit 8.2 Daylight & Views, Views for 90% of Spaces 1 Credit 8.2 Daylight & Views - Daylight for 75% of Spaces 1
Credit 8.3 Daylight & Views - Views for 45% of Spaces 1
Credit 8.4 Daylight & Views - Views for 90% of Spaces 1
Credit 9 Contemporary IAQ Practice 1
Credit 10.1 Green Cleaning - Entryway Systems 1
Credit 10.2 Green Cleaning - Isolation of Janitorial Closets 1
Credit 10.3 Green Cleaning - Low Environmental Impact Cleaning Policy 1
Credit 10.4 Green Cleaning - Low Environmental Impact Pest Management Policy 1
Credit 10.5 Green Cleaning - Low Environmental Impact Pest Management Policy 1
Credit 10.6 Green Cleaning - Low Environmental Impact Cleaning Equipment Policy 1
HVACFundamentalsChillersandBoilers
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1

Chillersmakecoldwaterandboilers
Chiller
makehotwater.

Thechilleristypicallythemostenergy
intensivepieceofequipmentintheplant
aswellasthemostwasteful.
RefrigeraLon
Cycle
Mostcontrolsequencesarenot
opLmized.

HugesavingpotenLal! Boiler
HVACFundamentalsPumps
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5
EBEAPr2,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1

PumpsmovetheCHWandHW
throughoutthebuilding(viapipes)by
Pump
converLngelectricalenergytopressure Curve
energy.

Mostpumpsareconstantspeed.

PumpLawsThepowerthepump
Pump
consumesvaries(theoreLcally)byacubed Curvevs.
relaLonshiptotheow.Actually,itvaries System
Curve
tothe2.7power.

Centrifugal
Pump
Pump
Laws
HVACFundamentalsFans
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5
EBEAPr2,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1

Fansmoveairthroughoutthebuilding(viaducts) Typical
AHU
byconverLngelectricalenergytopressureenergy.

Mostfansareconstantspeedor2speed.Flowis
regulatedbyeitherinletguidevanes,discharge
dampers,orvariablefrequencydrives.Thela`eris Typical
themostecient. Centrifugal
Fan

FanLawsThepowerthepumpconsumesvaries
(theoreLcally)byacubedrelaLonshiptotheairow.
Actually,itvariestothe2.7power.

PartLoad
Fan FanE.
Laws
HVACFundamentalsVAVBoxes,DiusersandCoolingTowers
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr2,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

VAVboxescontrolthevolumeofairsuppliedtoa
spaceandperimeterVAVboxesfrequentlyhave
reheat.

Diuserperformanceisextremelyimportantandis
quiteocendesignedpoorly(dump,Coandaeect,
shortcircuiLng)

Coolingtowersrejecttheheatremovedfromthe
buildingandcreatedbythechillercompressor.Most
fansareconstantspeedor2speed.Inmostcases,
thecoolingtowershouldhaveaVSD.
HVACFundamentalsWatersideSystems
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr2,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

CentralplantwatersidedistribuLonsystemsvarywidely.Belowaretwoofthemost
commontypesofsystems.Variablesecondarysystemsarethemostcommon,and
arethemostreliable.However,theydontmaximizetheenergyperformanceatpart
loadcondiLons.Variableprimarysystemsarethemostecienttypeofsystem.

Primary Variable
Secondary Primary
HVACFundamentalsAirSideSystems
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

ThebasicairsidedistribuLonsystemisshownto
theright,andisfrequentlyreferredtoasthe
ASHRAEH.

Theoutsideairdampersfrequentlyhave
economizercontrols,whichallowsforfreecooling.

Manysystemsdonotrequiredreturnfans.

Fanenergyisminimizedbygoodductdesign.
ASHRAEH
HVACFundamentalsSensibleandLatentLoads
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

Air Airow ChangeinTemperature(F)

Qsensible(Btu/hr)=1.08xCFMxT
Qlatent(Btu/hr)=0.67xCFMxG

Water Grainsofmoisture(7000Gr/lbofwater)

Qsensible(Btu/hr)=500xGPMxT
WaterFlow
HVACFundamentalsPsychrometrics
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

AirpsychrometricsisthestudyofmoistandhumidairandthechangeinaircondiLons.AtypicalHVACprocessis
shownbelow.
HVACExisLngGSBSystem

TheexisLngGSBHVACsystemisshownontheright,withthe
appropriatepsychrometricprocessesshownbelowit.

ChilledwaterisprovidedbythecentralUniversityplant.Hot
wateriscreatedviaasteamtohotwaterheatexchanger.The
steamisprovidedbytheUniversitycentralplantaswell.

ThebuildingisservedbyanumberofmulLzone(MZ)variableair
volume(VAV)systems.Somehavevariablefrequencydrives.
Otherssimplyhavedischargedampers.Thereisahotdeckanda
colddeckthataremixedattheunit.Oneductthenprovidesthe
condiLonedairtothespace,whichiscontrolledwithaVAVbox.

ThesystemiscontrolledbytheUniversityenergymanagement
system(EMS),aswellasthespaces.
HVACMeasures
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

GeneralHVACMeasures(ExisLng):
CHW/HWrest
SchedulemodicaLon/setback
InstallVFDs
ChangedeltaTs
InstallBAS/EMS/DDC OpportuniLeslimited
Replaceoldmotors
Installeconomizers sinceservedby
Reducecondenserwatertemperature
Insulatepipingandductwork centralUniversity
GeneralHVACMeasures(New): plant!
AllaboveEEMs
Higheciencychillers(withVFD)andcondensingboilers
Minimizeductandpiperuns

GSBHVACMeasures:
InstallVFDsonallremainingsupplyfans
HWreset
PossibleoperaLonalmodicaLons
BuildingCommissioning
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

Buildingcommissioningisoneofthehighestvalueaddedenergyeciency
measuresforexisLngbuildingsornewconstrucLon,ifnotthehighest.

EveninnewlydesignedbuildingsthereremainsaHUGEdisconnectbetween
thebuildingdesign/construcLonandmaintenanceandoperaLon.

Improperuseofthebuildingsenergymanagementsystemnotonlynegates
thebenetsofanenergyecientdesign,itcanalsocauseenergyconsumpLon
GREATERthanaproperlyoperaLngbuildingwithoutdatedpneumaLccontrols.
ManyO&Mmanagerssimplyhavenoideawhattheirsystemisdoing.

Ifyoucantgureitout,justdisconnectitmentallypervasivethroughout
thebuildingindustry.

AddiLonalCommissioningLEEDcreditisusuallypursued(andrighqullyso).
LighLngBackground
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQCr6.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQCr6.1,IEQCr8

T12svs.T8svs.T5sT8saretypicallybest,T5siftherearehigh
operaLnghours,thoughcostsaredecreasing.

Incandescentvs.compactuorescentlighLng(CFL)Alwaysbe`erto
replaceincandescentbulbswithCFLs.Color,rendering,andsocket
compaLbilitynotmuchofanissueanymore.Retailisthetoughestsell.
Youcanfrequentlybuythemfor3040%retailprice.Paybackis
negligible(dontforgettheHVACsavings!).

LEDsYouseetheseinexitsigns,stoplights,andmanydisplaysigns.
Thistechnologyisrapidlydevelopingandmaysoonreplacemany
uorescentapplicaLons.

LighLngcontrolsOccupancysensors,dimmableballasts,and
photosensorsarewidelyapplicable.Veryshortpayback.

Thisisthelowhangingfruit.
LighLngMeasures
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQCr6.1
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQCr6.1,IEQCr8

GeneralMeasures(ExisLng):
ReplaceT12swithT8sorT5s
ReplaceInc.withCFLs
InstallLEDexitsigns
Installoccupancysensors Alongwithbuilding
Installphotosensorsanddimmableballastsfor
perimeterzones commissioning,
Delampandinstallspecularreectors
InstallphotocellsorLmeclocksonoutdoorlighLng lighLngretrotshold
GeneralMeasures(New):
thegreatestenergy
AllaboveEEMs eciencypotenLal
OpLmizelighLngdesign/indirectlighLng
OpLmizenaturaldaylighLng forexisLngbuildings
GSBMeasures: worldwide.
ReplaceInc.withCFLs
InstallLEDexitsigns
Installoccupancysensors
Possiblydelamp(wewillseeforourselves!)
EnvelopeWindows
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,IEQCr6.1,IEACr7.1,IEQCr8
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr8

WindowsarethemostproblemaLcenvelopecomponentof
exisLngbuildings.

Manypeoplearequicktosayinstalllowedoublepane
windowsasaretrot,butitrarelypaysback.Windowlmis
amuchmoreviableopLon(southfacingfacades).Inextreme
weatherlocaLons,windowreplacementmaybejusLed.

Fornewbuildings,spectrallyselecLvecoaLngs,lowebeing
onetype,areverydesirable.Itallowsunlighttopassthrough
whileminimizingIRheatgain.Coatedglasstypicallybe`er
thanLntedglass.

AvoidaluminumframesorensureexcepLonalthermal
breaks.

Howmuchdierencecanawindowlm
makeonanexisLngbuilding?
EnvelopeMeasures
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,IEQPr1,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr8
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr8

GeneralMeasures(ExisLng):
AddinsulaLon
Installecientwindows(doublepane,lowe)
Installwindowlm

GeneralMeasures(New):
AllaboveEEMs
OpLmizesiteorientaLon,windowplacement(daylighLng)
OpLmizebuildingfootprint
Superinsulate(downsizeoreliminateHVACsystem)
Installair/vaporbarriers
Minimizethermalbreaks
DesignfornaturalvenLlaLon(pureorhybrid)

GSBMeasures:
Installwindowlmonsouthfacingwindows(maybe)
EnergyCodeImpactonLEEDCredits
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,IEQPr1,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr8
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,IEQPr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr8

Title24aggregatesgasandelectricityuse(Btu/c2).ASHRAE90.11999usedtheEnergyCost
Budgetmethod($/c2).LEEDtakesintoaccounttherelaLvecostoffuels,whichmeansthemost
desirablecreditsvarybyregion,basedupontherelaLvegasandelectricityprices.

LEED2.2isbasedonASHRAE90.12004,whichdidnotregulateprocessandreceptacleloads.Title
242005isnolongerconsideredmorestringentthan90.12004,sotherequirementsarethesame.
90.12004usesaPerformanceRaLngMethod(PRM),whichagainuses$$$$asthebenchmark.It
includesprocessandreceptacleloads,elevators,sitelighLngandnoncondiLonedlighLng.

25%ofbaselineisplugload,andisxed,makingitmorediculttoachieveLEEDpoints,though
thereareworkarounds.

Anygoodengineerwillalwaysusedtheperformancebasedcompliancemethod,notthe
prescripLve.
ThermalComfort
NCEAPr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr4,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2

Thermalcomfortisphysiologicalandpsychological
(subjecLve).Awelldesignedbuildingisonly
acceptableto80%oftheoccupants(bydeniLon).
ASHRAE55governsthermalcomfort.

MajorVariablesInuencingThermalComfort:

1.Airtemperature
2.AcLvitylevel
3.Humidity
ComfortZone
4.Clothing
5.AirVelocity
6.Meanradianttemperature

Thermalcomfortisamajorprobleminbuildingsbuiltpriorto1995.
Canyouguesswhy?
DaylighLng
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr6.1,IEQCr8
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EQCr1,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQCr4,IEQCr6.1,IEQ8

DaylightandViewscreditsdicultto
achieve.

SynergybetweenfootprintreducLonandD&V
credits.TradeowithconstrucLoncosts,zoning
requirements,andthermalperformanceofthe
building.

SeveralspectrallyselecLvecoaLngsreduce
visiblesunlightsignicantly.

DiculttoincorporateintoexisLngbuildings.
Whatsthereiswhatstheretypically.Controls
canbeinstalledtoopLmizelighLng.
IndoorAirQualityEnergyConservaLonandIAQ
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr4,IEQCr9

Discomfortisoneofthekeyriskfactorsforindoorairquality
complaints.

Thecostofcomfortcontrolfortheaveragebuilding(i.e.heaLng,
coolingandvenLlaLng)is$2$5/squarefoot/year.

Thecostoflaborfortheaveragebuildingis$200$300/squarefoot/
year.

Itisnotuncommonthatcomfortissacricedforenergy
conservaLonbutthismaynotmakeverygoodeconomicsense.
IndoorAirQuality
CommonFeaturesinIAQComplaintBuildings
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4

Newbuildingorrecentlyremodeled(6monthsofogassing)

Evidenceofwaterintrusionorreportsofwater/excessivemoisture
inoccupiedspaces

Signicantoutdoorpollutantsentrainedintotheoccupiedspaces

Limited(orno)outdoorairsuppliedtotheoccupiedspaces

Reportsofreoccurringdiscomfortcomplaints
IndoorAirQuality
PotenLalRiskstoBuildingOccupantsandBuildingOwners
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr9

Toemployers:

Healthandcomfortcomplaintsleadingtoconcernaboutbuildingsafety,aswellas
disharmonyanddistrust
Increasedabsenteeism
LossofproducLvity
WorkercompensaLonclaims
InvesLgaLngandresolvingthecomplaints

Tobuildingowners:

Theprocessofrespondingtoandresolvingthecomplaints
Disharmonywiththetenant,andpossiblelossoftenant
ThepossiblesLgmaofasickbuilding
StressonbuildingmanagementandfaciliLespersonnel
PotenLalfortortliabilityclaimsandlawsuits
IndoorAirQuality
CategoriesofIndoorHealthComplaints
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr9

Commonhealthcomplaintsreportedbybuildingoccupants:
SickBuildingSyndrome(SBS)
BuildingRelatedIllnesses(BRI)

Reportsofindooraircontaminants(e.g.odors,chemicals,duston
surfaces,appearanceofmoldstains)

ReportsofuncomfortablecondiLons,suchasuncomfortable
temperatures,dracs,stuycondiLons,badodors,highorlow
humidity
IndoorAirQualitySickBuildingSyndrome
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr9

Symptoms:

Characterizedasaclusterofcommoncomplaints.
CommonfeaturesincludesymptomsonlyexperiencedacersomeperiodofLmeinthebuilding,typicallydaily,onsomedaysworse
thanothers.
Generalcomplaintsareheadache,faLgue,andsleepiness.
Mucusmembranecomplaintsarefortheeye,nose,throatirritaLon,nasalblockage,congesLon,sinuscomplaints,hoarsevoice,skin
discomfort,andbreathingdiculLes.
SymptomsareusuallysubjecLve,withnoorlimitedclinicalsigns.
Notanuncommontypeofcomplaintpa`ern,withsomespeculaLonthatperhaps50%ofallbuildingswillbereportedwithsuch
occupantcomplaintsduringtheirlifeLme.

Causes(speculated):

VolaLleOrganicCompounds(VOCs),e.g.solventvapors,frombuildingmaterials,furnishingsandxturesogassingthesechemicals.
Inadequateoutdoorairsupply,whichallowpollutantstoaccumulate.
Microorganismssuchasfungalspores
PercepLonorbeliefthatthereissomethingwrongwiththebuilding.

Commoncharacteris>csofSBSbuildings:

Morecommoninneworrecentlyremodeledbuildings(withinthelastveyears).
Energyecientdesigns,withrestrictedOAandnooperablewindows.
Comfortcomplaintsusuallyaccompanyhealthcomplaints.
Womenreporthealthanddiscomfortcomplaintsattwicetheratethatmenreport.Thisisobservedwhenotherfactorsare
controlled(salary,prevalenceofwomen/meninthespace,posiLonwithintheorganizaLon).
IndoorAirQualityBuildingRelatedIllnesses
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2
EBEAPr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr9

ThesearediagnosableillnessesusuallywithidenLable
environmentalcauses.Someareseriouspublichealthissues.

ExamplesincludeLegionnairesdisease,hypersensiLvity
pneumoniLs,andallergicrhiniLs.

Thecausesarethepresenceofbiologicalagentsfrequently
associatedwithimpropertreatmentsystems,waterintrusionand
inltraLon.

TrueBRIsarerareascomparedtoSBScomplaints.
GSBExisLngThermalComfort/IAQIssues

Manycomfortissues:inadequatecapacityandimproperzoning(zoneoverlap,loadprolevariaLon)theprimary
cuplrits.

Airbalanceissuesproblemscausingodorsinsouthelevatorlobby.

Mensandwomensbathroomdontgetexhaustwhensupplyfanshutso,thoughused24hours/day.

InadequatevenLlaLoninmanyspaces(VAVsystemsarenotoriousforthis).

Sensorsincorrectlyplaced.

NovenLlaLoninArbuckleLounge(somepassivevenLlaLon,thoughnotenough).

LackofreheatcoilsinmanyVAVboxes(perimeter).

Windowsareold,leaky,singlepane,resulLnginT(op)issues.

AHUsarebeyondtheirusefullife.Majorrepairrequired.

ExisLngcontrolsarepneumaLc.ThesecontrolstrytotalkeecLvelywiththecentralDDCsystem,butfailtodo
so.
ThermalComfort/IAQMeasures
NCEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3,EACr5,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7.1,IEQCr7.2,IEQCr8
EBEAPr1,EAPr2,EACr1,EACr3.2,EACr3.3,EACr5.1,IEQPr1,IEQCr1,IEQCr2,IEQCr3,IEQCr4,IEQCr6.2,IEQCr7,IEQCr8,IEQCr9

GeneralMeasures(ExisLng):
Enhancedmaintenanceprogram
IncreaseOA
InstallDemandControlledVenLlaLon(DCV)
Cleanducts(orreplace)
ProvidelocalthermalandlighLngcontrols
AdjustairvelocityandRH
InstallDDCEMS
Rezonethespace
Mostofthemeasures
GeneralMeasures(New):
fortheGSBwontpay
AllaboveEEMs
DesignfornaturalvenLlaLon(carefulwiththisone)
backsoonenough!
Uselowemixngmaterials
GoodconstrucLonIAQmanagementplan

GSBMeasures:
Rezone
Upgradeequipmentandcontrols
Commissionbuilding
Windowlmonsouthfacingwindows