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CORPORATE FINANCE

where

CFt = after-tax cash flow at time, t.

r = required rate of return for the investment. This is the firms cost of capital adjusted

for the risk inherent in the project.

Outlay = investment cash outflow at t = 0.

AAR =

Average book value

Profitability Index

PI = = 1 +

Initial investment Initial investment

Where:

wd = Proportion of debt that the company uses when it raises new funds

rd = Before-tax marginal cost of debt

t = Companys marginal tax rate

wp = Proportion of preferred stock that the company uses when it raises new funds

rp = Marginal cost of preferred stock

we = Proportion of equity that the company uses when it raises new funds

re = Marginal cost of equity

CORPORATE FINANCE

Valuation of Bonds

where:

P0 = current market price of the bond.

PMTt = interest payment in period t.

rd = yield to maturity on BEY basis.

n = number of periods remaining to maturity.

FV = Par or maturity value of the bond.

Dp

Vp =

rp

where:

Vp = current value (price) of preferred stock..

Dp = preferred stock dividend per share.

rp = cost of preferred stock.

re = RF + i[E(RM) - RF]

where

[E(RM) - RF] = Equity risk premium.

RM = Expected return on the market.

i = Beta of stock . Beta measures the sensitivity of the stocks returns to

changes in market returns.

RF = Risk-free rate.

re = Expected return on stock (cost of equity)

where:

P0 = current market value of the security.

D1= next years dividend.

re = required rate of return on common equity.

g = the firms expected constant growth rate of dividends.

CORPORATE FINANCE

Rearranging the above equation gives us a formula to calculate the required return on equity:

=

premium spread Annualized standard deviation of sovereign

bond market in terms of the developed market

currency

Break point =

Proportion of new capital raised from the component

DOL =

Percentage change in units sold

CORPORATE FINANCE

Q (P V)

DOL =

Q (P V) F

where:

Q = Number of units sold

P = Price per unit

V = Variable operating cost per unit

F = Fixed operating cost

Q (P V) = Contribution margin (the amount that units sold contribute to covering fixed

costs)

(P V) = Contribution margin per unit

DFL =

Percentage change in operating income

DFL = =

[Q(P V) F C](1 t) [Q(P V) F C]

where:

Q = Number of units sold

P = Price per unit

V = Variable operating cost per unit

F = Fixed operating cost

C = Fixed financial cost

t = Tax rate

DTL =

Percentage change in the number of units sold

Q (P V)

DTL =

[Q(P V) F C]

where:

Q = Number of units produced and sold

P = Price per unit

V = Variable operating cost per unit

F = Fixed operating cost

C = Fixed financial cost

CORPORATE FINANCE

Break point

PQ = VQ + F + C

where:

P = Price per unit

Q = Number of units produced and sold

V = Variable cost per unit

F = Fixed operating costs

C = Fixed financial cost

F+C

QBE =

PV

PQOBE = PV + F

F

QOBE =

PV

CORPORATE FINANCE

CORPORATE FINANCE

% Discount =

Price

365

Inventory turnover

Accounts payable

Number of days of payables =

Average days purchases

Accounts payable 365

=

Purchases / 365 Payables turnover

CORPORATE FINANCE

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

Pt Pt-1 + Dt P Pt-1 D

R= = t + t = Capital gain + Dividend yield

Pt-1 Pt-1 Pt-1

PT + DT

= -1

P0

where:

Pt = Price at the end of the period

Pt-1 = Price at the beginning of the period

Dt = Dividend for the period

where:

R1, R2,..., Rn are sub-period returns

1/n

R = {[(1 + R1) (1 + R2) .... (1 + Rn)] } 1

Annualized Return

n

rannual = (1 + rperiod) - 1

where:

r = Return on investment

n = Number of periods in a year

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

Portfolio Return

Rp = w1R1 + w2R2

where:

Rp = Portfolio return

w1 = Weight of Asset 1

w2 = Weight of Asset 2

R1 = Return of Asset 1

R2 = Return of Asset 2

T

2

(R - )

t=1

t

2

=

T

where:

Rt = Return for the period t

T = Total number of periods

= Mean of T returns

2

(R - R)

t=1

t

2

s =

T-1

where:

R = mean return of the sample observations

2

s = sample variance

T T

(R - )

t=1

t

2

(R - R)

t=1

t

2

= s=

T T-1

N

2

=

P w w Cov(R ,R )

i,j = 1

i j i j

N N

2

=

P w Var(R ) +

i=1

2

i i

i,j = 1, i j

wiwjCov(Ri,Rj)

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

Utility Function

2

U = E(R) A

2

where:

U = Utility of an investment

E(R) = Expected return

2

= Variance of returns

A = Additional return required by the investor to accept an additional unit of risk.

The CAL has an intercept of RFR and a constant slope that equals:

2 2 2 2 2

= w1 f + (1 - w1) m + 2w1(1 - w1)Cov(Rf,Rm)

Equation of CML

E(Rm) - Rf

E(Rp) = Rf + p

m

where:

y-intercept = Rf = risk-free rate

E(Rm) - Rf

slope = = market price of risk.

m

PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

Return-Generating Models

k k

j=1

ij j i1 m f

j=2

ij j

Ri = i + iRm + ei

Calculation of Beta

i = 2

= 2

=

m m m

Sharpe ratio

Rp Rf

Sharpe ratio =

p

Treynor ratio

Rp Rf

Treynor ratio =

p

2

M-squared (M )

2 m

M = (Rp Rf) Rm Rf

p

Jensens alpha

Ri RfiiRm Rf)

EQUITY

EQUITY

The price at which an investor who goes long on a stock receives a margin call is calculated

as:

(1 - Initial margin)

P0

(1 Maintenance margin)

N

nP

i=1

i i

VPRI =

D

where:

VPRI = Value of the price return index

ni = Number of units of constituent security i held in the index portfolio

N = Number of constituent securities in the index

Pi = Unit price of constituent security i

D = Value of the divisor

Price Return

VPRI1 VPRI0

PRI =

VPRI0

where:

PRI = Price return of the index portfolio (as a decimal number)

VPRI1 = Value of the price return index at the end of the period

VPRI0 = Value of the price return index at the beginning of the period

Pi1 Pi0

PRi =

Pi0

where:

PRi = Price return of constituent security i (as a decimal number)

Pi1 = Price of the constituent security i at the end of the period

Pi0 = Price of the constituent security i at the beginning of the period

EQUITY

The price return of the index equals the weighted average price return of the constituent

securities. It is calculated as:

where:

PRI = Price return of the index portfolio (as a decimal number)

PRi = Price return of constituent security i (as a decimal number)

wi = Weight of security i in the index portfolio

N = Number of securities in the index

Total Return

TRI =

VPRI0

where:

TRI = Total return of the index portfolio (as a decimal number)

VPRI1 = Value of the total return index at the end of the period

VPRI0 = Value of the total return index at the beginning of the period

IncI = Total income from all securities in the index held over the period

TRi =

P0i

where:

TRi = Total return of constituent security i (as a decimal number)

P1i = Price of constituent security i at the end of the period

P0i = Price of constituent security i at the beginning of the period

Inci = Total income from security i over the period

The total return of the index equals the weighted average total return of the constituent

securities. It is calculated as:

where:

TRI = Total return of the index portfolio (as a decimal number)

TRi = Total return of constituent security i (as a decimal number)

wi = Weight of security i in the index portfolio

N = Number of securities in the index

EQUITY

Given a series of price returns for an index, the value of a price return index can be calculated

as:

where:

VPRI0 = Value of the price return index at inception

VPRIT = Value of the price return index at time t

PRIT = Price return (as a decimal number) on the index over the period

where:

VTRI0 = Value of the index at inception

VTRIT = Value of the index at time t

TRIT = Total return (as a decimal number) on the index over the period

Price Weighting

Pi

wiP = N

P

i=1

i

Equal Weighting

1

wiE =

N

where:

wi = Fraction of the portfolio that is allocated to security i or weight of security i

N = Number of securities in the index

Market-Capitalization Weighting

QiPi

wiM = N

QP

j=1

j j

where:

wi = Fraction of the portfolio that is allocated to security i or weight of security i

Qi = Number of shares outstanding of security i

Pi = Share price of security i

N = Number of securities in the index

EQUITY

fiQiPi

wiM = N

fQP

j=1

j j j

where:

fi = Fraction of shares outstanding in the market float

wi = Fraction of the portfolio that is allocated to security i or weight of security i

Qi = Number of shares outstanding of security i

Pi = Share price of security i

N = Number of securities in the index

Fundamental Weighting

Fi

wiF = N

F

j=1

j

where:

Fi = A given fundamental size measure of company i

where:

Pt-1 = Purchase price at time t 1

Pt = Selling price at time t

Dt = Dividends paid by the company during the period

NIt NIt

ROEt = =

Average BVEt (BVEt + BVEt-1)/2

EQUITY

where:

Pn = Price at the end of n years.

1 2 3

D0 (1 + gc) D0 (1 + gc) D0 (1 + gc) D0 (1 + gc)

PV0 = 1 + 2 + 3 +...+

(1 + ke) (1 + ke) (1 + ke) (1 + ke)

1

D0 (1 + gc) D1

PV = 1 =

(ke - gc) ke - g c

gc = RR ROE

where:

Dn+1 = First dividend of the constant growth period

EQUITY

Analysts may calculate the intrinsic value of the companys stock by discounting their

projections of future FCFE at the required rate of return on equity.

FCFEt

V0 = (1 + k )

t=1 e

t

When preferred stock is non-callable, non-convertible, has no maturity date and pays dividends

at a fixed rate, the value of the preferred stock can be calculated using the perpetuity formula:

D0

V0 =

r

For a non-callable, non-convertible preferred stock with maturity at time, n, the value of the

stock can be calculated using the following formula:

n Dt F

V0 = (1 + r)

t=1

t

+

(1 + r)

n

where:

V0 = value of preferred stock today (t = 0)

Dt = expected dividend in year t, assumed to be paid at the end of the year

r = required rate of return on the stock

F = par value of preferred stock

Price Multiples

P0 D1/E1

=

E1 r-g

Price to cash flow ratio =

Cash flow per share

Price to sales ratio =

Net sales per share

Price to sales ratio =

Total net sales

EQUITY

P/BV =

Book value per share

P/BV =

Book value of common shareholders equity

where:

Book value of common shareholders equity =

(Total assets - Total liabilities) - Preferred stock

EV/EBITDA

where:

EV = Enterprise value and is calculated as the market value of the companys common stock

plus the market value of outstanding preferred stock if any, plus the market value of debt,

less cash and short term investments (cash equivalents).

FIXED INCOME

FIXED INCOME

Bond Coupon

Coupon = Coupon rate Par value

Coupon Rate = Reference rate + Quoted margin

Coupon rate = K L (Reference rate)

Price of a callable bond = Value of option-free bond Value of embedded call option

Price of a putable bond = Value of option-free bond + Value of embedded put option

Dollar Duration

Dollar duration = Duration Bond value

Nominal spread

Nominal spread (Bond Y as the reference bond) = Yield on Bond X Yield on Bond Y

Yield on Bond X Yield on Bond Y

Relative yield spread =

Yield on Bond Y

Yield Ratio

Yield on Bond X

Yield ratio =

Yield on Bond Y

After-Tax Yield

After-tax yield = Pretax yield (1- marginal tax rate)

Taxable-Equalent Yield

Tax-exempt yield

Taxable-equivalent yield =

(1 marginal tax rate)

FIXED INCOME

Bond Value

Maturity value

Bond Value =

(1+i) years till maturity 2

where i equals the semiannual discount rate

w=

Days in coupon period

where:

w = Fractional period between the settlement date and the next coupon payment date.

Present value t =

(1 + i) t 1 + w

Current Yield

Annual cash coupon

Current yield =

Bond price

Bond Price

Bond price

where:

Bond price = Full price including accrued interest.

CPNt = The semiannual coupon payment received after t semiannual periods.

N = Number of years to maturity.

YTM = Yield to maturity.

2

Annual-pay yield = 1 + ( Yield on bond equivalent basis

2

-1 ]

Formula to Convert Monthly Cash Flow Yield into BEY

BEY = [(1 + monthly CFY)6 1] 2

360

d = (1-p)

N

FIXED INCOME

Z-Spread

Z-spread = OAS + Option cost; and OAS = Z-spread - Option cost

Duration

V- - V+

Duration =

2(V0)(y)

where:

y = change in yield in decimal

V0 = initial price

V- = price if yields decline by y

V+ = price if yields increase by y

Portfolio Duration

Portfolio duration = w1D1 + w2D2 + ..+ wNDN

where:

N = Number of bonds in portfolio.

Di = Duration of Bond i.

wi = Market value of Bond i divided by the market value of portfolio.

Percentage change in bond price = duration effect + convexity adjustment

= {[-duration (y)] + [convexity (y)2]} 100

where:

y = Change in yields in decimals.

Convexity

V+ + V- - 2V0

C= 2

2V0(y)

Price value of a basis point = Duration 0.0001 bond value

DERIVATIVES

DERIVATIVES

FRA Payoff

Floating rate at expiration FRA rate (days in floating rate/ 360)

1 + [Floating rate at expiration (days in floating rate/ 360)

Numerator: Interest savings on the hypothetical loan. This number is positive when the floating rate

is greater than the forward rate. When this is the case, the long benefits and expects to receive a payment

from the short. The numerator is negative when the floating rate is lower than the forward rate. When this

is the case, the short benefits and expects to receive a payment from the long.

Denominator: The discount factor for calculating the present value of the interest savings.

DERIVATIVES

Intrinsic value of call = Max [0, (St - X)]

DERIVATIVES

Option Premium

Option premium = Intrinsic value + Time value

Put-Call Parity

C0 + X = P0 + S0

T

(1 + RF)

call long bond (1 + RF)T put underlying asset

call call call underlying asset - X/(1+RF)T

+ short bond

put put underlying asset +X/(1+RF)T

+ long bond

underlying underlying underlying + long bond + X/(1+RF)T

asset asset asset + short put - P0

bond bond (1 + RF)T bond underlying asset - C0

+ short call

Option Minimum Value Maximum Value

American call ACt 0 ACt St

European put EPt 0 EPt X/ (1 + RFR)T

American put APt 0 APt X

DERIVATIVES

= Max (0, Underlying rate at expiration - Exercise rate) (Days in underlying Rate) NP

360

where: NP = Notional principal

= Max (0, Exercise rate Underlying rate at expiration) (Days in underlying rate) NP

360

where:

NP = Notional principal

where:

NP equals the notional principal.

DERIVATIVES

Call Put

CT = max(0,ST - X) PT = max(0,X - ST)

Value at expiration = CT Value at expiration = PT

Profit: CT - C0 Profit: PT - P0

Holder Maximum profit = Maximum profit = X - P0

Maximum loss = C0 Maximum loss = P0

Breakeven: ST* = X + C0 Breakeven: ST* = X - P0

Value at expiration = CT Value at expiration = PT

Writer Profit: CT - C0 Profit: PT - P0

Maximum profit = C0 Maximum profit = P0

Maximum loss = Maximum loss = X - P0

Breakeven: ST* = X + C0 Breakeven: ST* = X - P0

P0, PT = price of the put option at time 0 and time T

X = exercise price

S0, ST = price of the underlying at time 0 and time T

V0, VT = value of the position at time 0 and time T

profit from the transaction: VT - V0

r = risk-free rate

Covered Call

Profit: VT - S0 + C0

Maximum profit = X - S0 + C0

Maximum loss = S0 - C0

Breakeven: ST* = S0 - C0

Protective Put

Profit: VT - S0 - P0

Maximum profit =

Maximum loss = S0 + P0 - X

Breakeven: ST* = S0 + P0

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