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TERM PAPER ON CONSTRUCTION OF 12 VOLTS POWER SUPPLY

WRITTEN BY ADIE UNIMKE CHINONSO

14/ENG05/029

MECHATRONICS GROUP B2

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEEERING

THEORY ON 12VOLTS POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT What is a power supply?

A power supply is a device which delivers an exact voltage to another device as per its needs.

There are many power supplies available

today

in

the market like

regulated, unregulated, variable etc, and the decision to pick the correct one depends entirely on what device you are trying to operate with the

power supply. Power supplies, often called power adapters, or simply adapters, are available in various voltages, with varying current capacities, which is nothing but the maximum capacity of a power supply to deliver current to a load (Load is the device you are trying to supply power to).

What is a power supply circuit?

A power supply circuit is basically a circuit designed for the sole purpose of supplying power. In this case, power is supplied from a voltage source. This voltage is stepped down using a transformer. Of course, the input voltage is alternating, hence the use of rectifiers is employed in this circuit. The rectifier convert this alternating voltage to unidirectional voltage, but this conversion is not 100%. The power supply circuit makes use of capacitors. These capacitors smooth the output of power supplies. The variable resistor is used to directly control significant power (more than a watt), since the power dissipated in the variable resistor would be comparable to the power in the controlled load. The transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power.

AC Input: Coming from the wall, the AC alternates from a minimum to a maximum voltage at a frequency of 60Hz (in the US and other 60Hz countries). That is what powers all of the AC appliances in your house and shop, and it looks like the following graph. After the transformer, the graph is similar, except the sine wave has a smaller amplitude.

power supply. Power supplies, often called power adapters, or simply adapters, are available in various voltages,

AC Power Graph

Rectification:

The

first stage

of

this

power supply

is

a rectifier.

The

rectifier is an arrangement of diodes that only allows current to flow in one

direction. Think of a one way check valve for water. Because of the arrangement of diodes in the full wave rectifier used in this design, the positive part of the AC signal passes unimpeded and the negative part of the AC signal is actually inverted and added back into the output signal from the rectifier. Now our signal looks like this:

Rectification: The first stage of this power supply is a rectifier. The rectifier is an arrangement

AC Power Rectified Graph

Smoothing:

Now we have at least consistently positive voltage levels,

but they still dip down to zero 120 times per second. A large capacitor,

which can be thought of like a battery over very short time periods, is installed across the circuit to even out these rapid fluctuations in power. The capacitor charges when the voltage is high and discharges as the voltage is low. With the help of the capacitor, the voltage curve looks like this:

Rectification: The first stage of this power supply is a rectifier. The rectifier is an arrangement

AC Power Smoothed Graph

Regulation:

At this point, we use an integrated circuit to consistently

regulate the voltage to exactly the desired level. It is important in sizing the components for all of the previous stages to drive this IC with a voltage level sufficiently higher than the regulated voltage such that the remaining dips 120 times per second will not drop below the required

minimum input value. However, you do not want to drive it with too high a

voltage, as that excess

power will be dissipated as

heat. The voltage

curve at this point is (ideally) a DC signal at the desired voltage; a horizontal line.

Regulation: At this point, we use an integrated circuit to consistently regulate the voltage to exactly

DC Power Graph

ANALYSIS OF THE POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Regulation: At this point, we use an integrated circuit to consistently regulate the voltage to exactly

Fig 1.0: 12V power supply circuit schematic diagram

The power supply circuit works under different principles of electrical engineering. Initially, it makes use of a transformer, T X which produces the initial AC input to the circuit. This alternating current is transferred to the

circuit, but first, it passes through a bridge rectifier. This connection is made via the use of jumper wires. The bridge rectifier comprises of four diodes D 1 – D 4 , which convert the AC to DC. Now, the current entering the remaining circuit is DC. This current is not totally DC, therefore a capacitor is connected in parallel with the rectifier which performs the operation of smoothening the DC waveform.

The transistor T 1 , amplifies and switches electronic signals and electrical power. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Next up, the variable resistor V R is used to vary resistance in the circuit, to give required output current and voltage. The capacitor C 2 makes further smoothening of the waveform. The final DC output can be detected by the light emitting diode

Components required

  • 1. Jumper wires, with mains

at least

1A current carrying capacity for AC

  • 2. 220V Step Down Transformer T X

  • 3. Bridge rectifier D 1 – D 4

  • 4. 470µF Capacitor C 1

  • 5. 10µF Capacitor C 2

  • 6. 5kΩ Variable Resistor V R

  • 7. LM317 Transistor T 1

  • 8. LED (for indication)

  • 9. 120Ω Resistor R 1

    • 10. 10Ω Resistor R 2

    • 11. General Purpose PCB

    • 12. Adapter jack

    • 13. Breadboard

    • 14. Soldering iron Solder

    • 15. Piece of veroboard

Functions of components

Jumper Wires: A jump wire, is a short electrical wire with a solid tip at each end (or sometimes without them, simply "tinned"), which is normally used to interconnect the components in a breadboard among others, they are used to transfer electrical signals from anywhere on the breadboard to the input/output pins of a microcontroller.

Jumper Wires : A jump wire, is a short electrical wire with a solid tip atelectromagnetic induction . Commonly, transformers are used to increase or decrease the voltages of alternating current in electric power applications. Transformer A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks. Bridge Rectifier : A rectifier is an electrical device that converts direction, to alternating direct current current (AC), which (DC), which flows in periodically reverses only one direction. The process is known as rectification . " id="pdf-obj-5-6" src="pdf-obj-5-6.jpg">

Jumper Wires

Transformer: A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Commonly, transformers are used to increase or decrease the voltages of alternating current in electric power applications.

Jumper Wires : A jump wire, is a short electrical wire with a solid tip atelectromagnetic induction . Commonly, transformers are used to increase or decrease the voltages of alternating current in electric power applications. Transformer A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks. Bridge Rectifier : A rectifier is an electrical device that converts direction, to alternating direct current current (AC), which (DC), which flows in periodically reverses only one direction. The process is known as rectification . " id="pdf-obj-5-18" src="pdf-obj-5-18.jpg">

Transformer

A varying current in the transformer's

primary winding creates a

varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding. Making use of Faraday's Law in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can thus be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks.

Bridge

Rectifier:

A

rectifier

is

an

electrical

device

that

that <a href=converts direction, to " id="pdf-obj-5-69" src="pdf-obj-5-69.jpg">

direction, to

(AC),

which

(DC), which flows

in

periodically

reverses

only one direction. The

process is known as

rectification.

Bridge Rectifier C apacitor : A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a <a href=passive terminal electrical used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field . Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analogue filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies . In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies . In electric systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow. C apacitor Variable Resistor: A variable resistor informally is a three- terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider . Only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper. Variable resistors are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Variable resistors are operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers , for example, in a joystick . Variable resistors are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt ), since the power dissipated in the variable resistor would be comparable to the power in the controlled load. " id="pdf-obj-6-2" src="pdf-obj-6-2.jpg">

Bridge Rectifier

Capacitor: A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is

a passive terminal

electrical used

to

an electric field. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for

blocking direct

current while allowing alternating current to pass.

In analogue filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow.

Bridge Rectifier C apacitor : A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a <a href=passive terminal electrical used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field . Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analogue filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies . In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies . In electric systems, they stabilize voltage and power flow. C apacitor Variable Resistor: A variable resistor informally is a three- terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider . Only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper. Variable resistors are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Variable resistors are operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers , for example, in a joystick . Variable resistors are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt ), since the power dissipated in the variable resistor would be comparable to the power in the controlled load. " id="pdf-obj-6-53" src="pdf-obj-6-53.jpg">

Capacitor

Variable

Resistor:

A

variable

resistor

informally

is

a three-

with

a

sliding

or

rotating

contact

that

forms an

adjustable

<a href=voltage divider . Only two terminals are used, one end and the " id="pdf-obj-6-116" src="pdf-obj-6-116.jpg">

voltage divider. Only two terminals are used, one end and the

wiper. Variable resistors are commonly used to control electrical devices

such as volume controls on audio equipment. Variable resistors are

operated by a mechanism can be used as position

example, in a

joystick. Variable resistors are rarely used to directly control

significant power (more than a

watt), since the power dissipated in the

variable resistor would be comparable to the power in the controlled load.

Variable Resistor Resistor : A resistor is a <a href=passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, terminate transmission lines among other uses. Resistor Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . " id="pdf-obj-7-2" src="pdf-obj-7-2.jpg">

Variable Resistor

Resistor: A

resistor

is

a

Variable Resistor Resistor : A resistor is a <a href=passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, terminate transmission lines among other uses. Resistor Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . " id="pdf-obj-7-16" src="pdf-obj-7-16.jpg">

that

as a circuit element. Resistors act to

reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels

within circuits. In electronic circuits resistors are used to limit current flow,

to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, terminate transmission lines among other uses. Resistor Transistor: A
to adjust
signal
levels, bias active
elements,
terminate transmission
lines among other uses.
Resistor
Transistor:
A
transistor is
a semiconductor
device used

to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits.

Transistor LED : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is aelectronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non- conductive substrate . PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi- layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-through holes called vias . Advanced PCBs may contain components - capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate. " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">

Transistor

LED: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light when activated. When a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the colour of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.

Transistor LED : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is aelectronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non- conductive substrate . PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi- layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-through holes called vias . Advanced PCBs may contain components - capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate. " id="pdf-obj-8-13" src="pdf-obj-8-13.jpg">

light-emitting diode (LED)

PCB: A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non- conductive substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi- layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain components - capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate.

Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs require the additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated

Adapter Jack: An adapter Jack used to provide the output voltage to a device with a particular socket

Breadboard:

A breadboard is

a

construction

base

for prototyping of electronics. Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering, it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design.

Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs includewire wrap and point-to-point construction . PCBs require the additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated Adapter Jack : An adapter Jack used to provide the output voltage to a device with a particular socket Breadboard : A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics . Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering , it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. Breadboard Difference between a veroboard and Circuit Board) a PCB (Printed 1. Veroboard 2. PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Veroboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board. " id="pdf-obj-9-35" src="pdf-obj-9-35.jpg">

Breadboard

Difference

between a veroboard and

Circuit Board)

a

PCB

(Printed

Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs includewire wrap and point-to-point construction . PCBs require the additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated Adapter Jack : An adapter Jack used to provide the output voltage to a device with a particular socket Breadboard : A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics . Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering , it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. Breadboard Difference between a veroboard and Circuit Board) a PCB (Printed 1. Veroboard 2. PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Veroboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board. " id="pdf-obj-9-51" src="pdf-obj-9-51.jpg">
Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. Alternatives to PCBs includewire wrap and point-to-point construction . PCBs require the additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Manufacturing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods as components are mounted and wired with one single part. Furthermore, operator wiring errors are eliminated Adapter Jack : An adapter Jack used to provide the output voltage to a device with a particular socket Breadboard : A breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics . Because the solderless breadboard does not require soldering , it is reusable. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. Breadboard Difference between a veroboard and Circuit Board) a PCB (Printed 1. Veroboard 2. PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Veroboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board. " id="pdf-obj-9-53" src="pdf-obj-9-53.jpg">

1. Veroboard

2. PCB (Printed Circuit Board)

Veroboard is a widely-used type of electronics prototyping board characterized by a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) regular (rectangular) grid of holes, with wide parallel strips of copper cladding running in one direction all the way across one side of the board.

In using the board, breaks are made in the tracks, usually around holes, to divide the strips into multiple electrical nodes. With care, it is possible to break between holes to allow for components that have two pin rows only one position apart such as twin row headers for IDCs.

All versions of veroboard have copper strips on one side. Some are made using printed circuit board etching and drilling techniques, although some have milled strips and punched holes.

Veroboard holes are drilled on 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) centers. This spacing allows components having pins with a 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) spacing to be inserted. Compatible parts include DIP ICs, sockets for ICs, some types of connectors, and other devices.

PCB- A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). Printed circuit boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially-produced electronic devices.

PCBs are inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire wrap or point-to-point construction, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production; the production and soldering of PCBs can be done by totally automated equipment.

Soldering and desoldering techniques Soldering techniques

Soldering: Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. In brazing, the filler metal melts at a higher temperature, but the work piece metal does not melt. In the past, nearly all solders contained lead, but environmental concerns have increasingly dictated use of lead-free alloys for electronics and plumbing purposes.

Solder General soldering technique Soldering is used in plumbing, electronics, and metalwork from flashing to jewellery.
Solder General soldering technique Soldering is used in plumbing, electronics, and metalwork from flashing to jewellery.

Solder

General soldering technique

Soldering is used in plumbing, electronics, and metalwork from flashing to jewellery.

Soldering provides reasonably permanent but reversible connections between copper pipes in plumbing systems as well as joints in sheet metal objects such as food cans, roof flashing, rain gutters and automobile radiators.

Electronic soldering connects electrical wiring and electronic components to printed circuit boards (PCBs). Soldering methods are broadly divided into two types:

Partial heating method

Total heating method.

Partial heating method: Heat is applied to the package leads and/or PWB in a localized manner. Partial heating involves less heat stress on the device and printed wiring board, but is unsuitable for large volume production. Therefore, this method is mainly used to correct soldering or for devices with a low heat resistance.

Total heating method: Heat is applied to the entire package and/or PWB. Because of excellence in productivity and running cost,

these types are widely used. However, this method can place considerable heat stress on the semiconductor device and board.

Desoldering techniques

Desoldering: In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit board for troubleshooting, repair, replacement, and salvage.

Desoldering with a desoldering gun Desoldering using a vacuum plunger (on the right) and a soldering iron

these types are widely used. However, this method can place considerable heat stress on the semiconductor

gun.

these types are widely used. However, this method can place considerable heat stress on the semiconductor

Desoldering with a desoldering

Desoldering using a vacuum plunger (on the right) and a soldering iron.

Etching Developing PCB using etching

Etching is usually done with ammonium persulfate or ferric chloride. For PTH (plated-through holes), additional steps of electroless deposition are done after the holes are drilled, then copper is electroplated to build up

the thickness, the boards are screened, and plated with tin/lead. The tin/lead becomes the resist leaving the bare copper to be etched away.

The simplest method, used for small-scale production and often by hobbyists, is immersion etching, in which the board is submerged in etching solution such as ferric chloride. Compared with methods used for mass production, the etching time is long. Heat and agitation can be applied to the bath to speed the etching rate. In bubble etching, air is passed through the etchant bath to agitate the solution and speed up etching. Splash etching uses a motor-driven paddle to splash boards with etchant; the process has become commercially obsolete since it is not as fast as spray etching. In spray etching, the etchant solution is distributed over the boards by nozzles, and recirculated by pumps. Adjustment of the nozzle pattern, flow rate, temperature, and etchant composition gives predictable control of etching rates and high production rates

As more copper is consumed from the boards, the etchant becomes saturated and less effective; different etchants have different capacities for copper, with some as high as 150 grams of copper per litre of solution. In commercial use, etchants can be regenerated to restore their activity, and the dissolved copper recovered and sold. Small-scale etching requires attention to disposal of used etchant, which is corrosive and toxic due to its metal content.

The etchant removes copper on all surfaces exposed by the resist. "Undercut" occurs when etchant attacks the thin edge of copper under the resist; this can reduce conductor widths and cause open-circuits. Careful control of etch time is required to prevent undercut. Where metallic plating is used as a resist, it can "overhang" which can cause short-circuits between adjacent traces when closely spaced. Overhang can be removed by wire-brushing the board after etching.

Chemicals used for etching

There are two major types of etching chemicals

1. Wet etching chemicals: These chemicals have High Quality (Low containing of metal, impurity), improved permeability, reduced particle adhesion and suppressed etching rate change. Examples include: Aqueous Hydrofluoric Acid (HF), Ammonium Fluoride (NH4F), Buffered Hydrogen Fluoride (BHF), Buffered Hydrogen Fluoride with Surface-active Agent (BHF-U), Zielex Buffered Hydrogen Fluoride (Zielex BHF).

2. Dry etching agents: In dry etching, plasmas or etchant gasses remove the substrate material. The reaction that takes place can be done utilizing high kinetic energy of particle beams, chemical reaction or a combination of both. They generally have high-Purity (More than 99.999 %). Examples include: PFC-14(CF4), PFC- 116(C2F6), PFC-C318(C4F8), HFC-23(CHF3), HFC-32(CH2F2).