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code-switching

Code-Switching Cyprus has supplied several texts that either use


the two varieties of Greek which were diffused
The juxtaposition within the same speech on the island (Cypriot and Koine; Cypriot) and
exchange of passages of speech belonging to two Phoenician or Egyptian (Greek and Egyptian)
different grammatical systems or subsystems or Eteocypriot.
(Gumperz 1982:59) or code-switching (CS), To conclude, from the analysis of the above
without taking into consideration the degree of text types, three CS varieties emerge:
diversity of the language systems involved, is the
outcome of language contact and bilingual- a.within a sentence, as in IG V 1,301, where the
ism. The analysis of a vast repertory of ancient first part of a sentence is in Laconian and
Greek texts provides two types of CS: the first the second part in the Koine, ...so and so
pertains to the language domain of Greece and and Nikephoros, children of Nikephoros, hav-
concerns varieties of Greek dialects and their ing won the hunt and the competition, under
relation to the Hellenistic Koine; the second the patronage of Marcus Aurelius Sosinikos #
type is a result of the external contacts that the dedicated to Athemis Orthia... (# indicates
Greek language had during the course of its long the point of switch);
history with other languages of the Mediterra- b.between clauses, as in the inscription from
nean basin. Language repertoires which exhibit southern Phrygia (Haas 1966, n 96), where
CS phenomena belonging to the first type are the protasis is in Greek and the apodosis
characterized by diglossia (i.e., bidialectism in Phrygian: Whoever damages this tomb
or the use of two functional varieties of the or does anything against previous orders, #
same language, vs. bilingualism which involves shall be inflicted with infamy by the gods and
two different languages). In fact, the Hellenistic by men;
Koine is a proper standard language, which was c.between different sections of a text, as in
promoted and diffused by the Macedonian mon- the two Thessalian and Boeotian inscriptions
archy at the supra-regional and international mentioned above.
levels, assuming thus a privileged position in
relation to various ancient dialects connected
with individual city-states. On the other hand, Bibliography
the second type of CS phenomena is character- Brixhe, Claude and Guy Vottro. 2004. Lalternance codique
ou quand le choix du code fait sens. In: Hodot 2004, 740.
ized by bi- or plurilingualism, not necessarily by Bubenik, Vt. 1989. Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a socio-
diglossia. linguistic area. Amsterdam Philadelphia.
Examples of the first type are encountered Consani, Carlo. 1988. Bilinguismo, diglossia e digrafia nella
Grecia antica. Le iscrizioni bilingui di Cipro. In: Bilin-
in two long inscriptions that alternate between guismo e biculturalismo nel mondo antico, ed. by Campa-
Thessalian and the Koine (IG IX 2, 517) and nile, E., G.R. Cardona and R. Lazzeroni, 3560. Pisa.
between Boeotian and the Koine (IG VII, . 2004. Changements et mlanges de codes dans le grec
3172). The one is characterized by a noticeable des premiers sicles de lre vulgaire: le cas de la Sicile.
In: Hodot 2004, 4561.
capacity to maintain the two separate codes dis- Gumperz, John J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge.
tinct, while the other shows frequent instances Haas, Otto. 1966. Die phrygischen Sprachdenkmler. Sofia.
of code-mixing. An interesting instance of Hodot, Ren (ed.) 2004. La koin grecque antique V. Alter-
CS is found in the proxeny decrees from Olus nances codiques et changements de codes. Nancy Paris.
Milroy, L. and P. Muysken (eds.). 1995. One speaker, two lan-
(IC I, XXII, 4a), dated to the 3rd c. BCE, which guages. Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching.
display several code alternations in correspon- Cambridge.
dence with the provenance of the proxenos who
was to be honored. The second type is found in Carlo Consani
numerous inscriptions that alternate between
Greek and Latin which come from Greece
as well as from other Mediterranean countries, Cognitive Linguistics and Greek
and in inscriptions from Anatolia that alternate
between Greek and various local languages, e.g. 1.Cognitive Linguistics
Pisidian and Phrygian (Greek and Phrygian).
Given the presence of diverse ethnic groups The term Cognitive Linguistics (CL) designates
and their geographical distribution, the island of a cluster of broadly comparable approaches
cognitive linguistics and greek 309
(Geeraerts & Cuyckens 2007b:3) to natural lan- similar representations of categorical structure
guage based on the assumption that linguistic such as radial sets, Lakoff 1987) are also used as
structures are not autonomous, as postulated powerful representational tools for grammatical
by formal approaches to language, but rather and lexical polysemy;
depend on general conceptual organization, (b)conceptual metonymy and metaphor
categorization principles, processing mecha- (Metaphor; Metaphor, Ancient Theories of).
nisms, and experiential and environmental These two terms are not used in the classi-
influences (Geeraerts & Cuyckens 2007b:3). In cal way to refer to figures of speech (Fig-
all those approaches, the human capacity to ures (skhmata), Ancient Theories of), but are
produce and process language is intended as meant to designate two conceptual phenomena
closely intertwined with other basic cognitive which play a role in the organization of meaning.
abilities (perception, memory, attention) and Metonymy is to be regarded as a cognitive pro-
is determined at the same time by the per- cess in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle,
ceptual apparatus (including the sensorimotor provides mental access to another conceptual
system) of the speaker/hearer and by the way entity, the target, within the same cognitive
they interact with the environment. Being based model (Radden & Kvecses 1999:21; e.g. Down-
on the assumption that linguistic meaning is ing Street has agreed to meet the delegation),
not autonomous, CL is broadly compatible with and the relation between the metonymic source
other functional approaches to language and and the metonymic target is contingent, i.e., it
with linguistic typology, although the respec- does not exist by conceptual necessity (Panther
tive spheres of action may be quite divergent & Thornburg 2002), although the strength of
from one another (Functional Grammar and the metonymic association may depend on the
Greek). The foci of interest of Cognitive Linguis- conceptual distance between the source and the
tics include: target and there can be more or less occasional
metonymies which are perfectly motivated in
(a)linguistic categorization (and the related a given context but are far from general (e.g.
notions of prototype and schematic networks; The ham sandwich left without paying, said by
Langacker 1987; Taylor 2003): based on pioneer- a waiter to another in a restaurant). Concep-
ing work in psychology (Rosch 1973; Rosch & tual metaphor differs from metonymy in that it
Mervis 1975), a prototype-based conception implies a link across different domains or cogni-
of semantic structure has been developed in tive models. According to the theory of concep-
CL according to which (1) categories are not tual metaphor, developed by Lakoff & Johnson
always defined by means of a set of necessary in their seminal 1980 book, we conceptualize
and sufficient features and (2) membership in abstract semantic domains in terms of more
a category is graded. Thus, a category such as concrete domains tied to our everyday bodily
BIRD has rigid boundaries but robins are bet- experience: in other words, we think metaphori-
ter exemplars of BIRD than, for instance, bats cally and this is systematically reflected in the
or penguins, whereas a category such as OLD language. For instance, the metaphor anger is
PERSON has no rigid boundaries and depends heat (heat being a concrete domain tied to our
on a complex cluster of (mostly culture- or con- everyday physical experience) is at the basis of
text-dependent) factors; the ability to extract expressions such as hes a real hothead;
schemas (i.e., generalized representations) from (c)the notions of image schemas and Ideal-
the observation of reality, on the other hand, is ized Cognitive Models. Image schemas can be
said to be one of the most fundamental cogni- intended as distillers of spatial and temporal
tive abilities and to affect linguistic behavior too. experiences (Oakley 2007:215), i.e., as schematic
Schematic networks are representations of cat- representations of perceptual experience that
egories whose members are connected by links emerge as meaningful structures for us chiefly
of schematization and links of extension: the at the level of our bodily movements through
former are vertical links between subordinate space, our manipulations of objects, and our
and superordinate nodes, whereas the latter are perceptual interactions (Johnson 1987:29). Ide-
horizontal similarity relations in which abstract alized Cognitive Models, on the other hand, are
schemas extracted from a node are extended to ways of organizing knowledge, not necessarily as
another. Schematic networks (along with other a reflection of an objective situation in the world,
310 cognitive linguistics and greek
but according to certain cognitive structuring metaphoric extension (based on the metaphor
principles. Lakoff (1987), for instance, shows that beneficiaries are destinations) from the original
the definition of a word such as bachelor in terms allative meaning of eis (to(wards)) while the
of semantic traits ([human], [male], [adult], and use of hup + dative and/or hup + genitive as
[never married]) is unsatisfactory because bach- an Agent phrase (Agency and Causation) in
elor presupposes an Idealized Cognitive Model passive constructions (Passive (syntax)) arises
of the world in which certain expectations hold from the original locative meaning (under) of
(e.g. opposite-sex partnership, typical marriage- the preposition on the basis of the metaphor
able age, etc.); having control is up; being subject to control is
(d)the notions of embodiment, construal and down.
perspectivization. The key concept of embodi- (b)Polysemy of grammatical categories:
ment lies at the very heart of cognitive seman- Allan (2003) applies the notion of prototype to
tics: roughly speaking, this concept captures the transitivity in Ancient Greek and proposes an
fact that our bodily apparatus crucially affects analysis of the middle voice (Mediopassive) as
our perception and our categorization (Lakoff & a grammatical strategy used to signal departure
Johnson 1980:112; Rohrer 2007). Embodiment is from prototypical transitivity. Middle voice is
also involved in metaphorical activity, as con- defined as a complex polysemous network of
ceptual metaphors are primarily based on source interrelated uses along the lines of Langackers
domains tied to bodily experience. The notions Complex Network Category Model (Langacker
of construal and perspectivization, on the other 1987): the semantic property of subject-affect-
hand, capture those aspects of human categori- edness can be considered the abstract schema
zation and conceptualization that do not depend of the Ancient Greek middle voice, while the
on the object of conceptualization but rather various uses of the middle can be seen as elabo-
on its subject, i.e., the speaker/conceptual- rations of this schema. Allan also argues that
izer: languages provide various and alternative the mental process middle (e.g. phobomai
ways of conceptualizing the same state of affairs, I fear) can be considered the category pro-
and thus it is the speaker/conceptualizer that totype, whereas the body motion middle (e.g.
chooses the construal that s/he deems more strphomai I turn around), the spontaneous
appropriate to the discourse context (Langacker process middle (e.g. apllumai I die/perish),
1990) (Discourse Analysis and Greek). and the indirect reflexive middle (Reflexives)
(e.g. ap olurn poientai sita [The Egyptians]
2.Cognitive Linguistics and make their bread / make bread for themselves
Ancient Greek from spelt, Hdt. 2.36.2) can be seen as second-
ary prototypes within the schematic networks
Overall, there has not been much work so far (i.e., they serve as bases for further extensions to
on Ancient Greek within the framework of CL. other middle-marked situation types).
There are, however, a handful of studies in which (c)Studies of culturally salient concepts and
Ancient Greek data are described and analyzed symbols: Rademaker (2005) analyzes the clus-
with the help of the theoretical and representa- ter of uses of the terms sphrosn, sphrn,
tional apparatus of CL; hence, a few areas which and sphronen from Homer onwards and pro-
have successfully been investigated by means of poses an account of the polysemy of this fam-
CL insights can be singled out: ily of related words in terms of a network of
related senses revolving around the basic sense
(a)Polysemy of cases and prepositions: in of sphrn with a normal, properly functioning
various studies, Luraghi (2000; 2003; 2005; 2010; mind. Rademaker also shows that this basic
2012) addresses the question of the polysemy sense, though historically prior, does not rep-
of cases (Case (including Syncretism); Case resent the prototypical sense of this family of
Syncretism (Morphological Aspects of)) and terms: rather, the basis for further extensions
prepositions (Adpositions (Prepositions)) and of their meaning is the moral sense to wisely
accounts for their semantics in terms of mean- refrain from acts that are harmful to oneself or
ing extensions based on conceptual metaphors: others. Pgan Cnovas (2011) discusses the sym-
for instance, the use of the preposition eis + bol of the arrows of love in Greek mythology and
accusative to encode beneficiaries represents a describes the conceptual structure at the basis of
cognitive linguistics and greek 311
this symbol, showing that the arrows of love are Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors we live
the result of a process of conceptual integration, by. Chicago. (2nd ed., Chicago 2003).
Langacker, Ronald W. 1987. Foundations of cognitive gram-
taking place probably through several centuries mar, vol. 1: Theoretical prerequisites. Stanford, CA.
of Greek culture (Pgan Cnovas 2011:573). In . 1990. Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of
particular, the arrow metaphor is shown to derive grammar. Berlin.
from a blend between two conceptual structures: Louden, Bruce. 1996. Epeios, Odysseus, and the Indo-
European metaphor for poet, JIES 24:277304.
one represents Apollo as a personification of the Luraghi, Silvia. 2000.Spatial metaphors and agenthood in
abstract cause for death and illness, the other Ancient Greek. In: 125 Jahre Indogermanistik in Graz, ed.
conceptualizes love as illness. Both conceptual by Christian Zinko and Michaela Ofitsch, 283298. Graz.
. 2003. On the meaning of prepositions and cases: the
structures are well-documented in the history expression of semantic roles in Ancient Greek. Amsterdam
of Greek, and their blend offers a simple and Philadelphia.
cohesive spatial schema grounded in embodied . 2005. Paths of semantic extension. From Cause to
cognition and compresses the multiple causes, Beneficiary and Purpose. In: Historical linguistics 2003,
ed. by Michael Fortescue, Eva Skafte Jensen, Jens Erik
effects, and participants of the erotic experience Mogensen, Lene Schsler, 141157. Amsterdam Phila-
into a clear story of divine emission (Pgan delphia.
Cnovas 2011:574). Georgakopoulos and Piata . 2010. Where do beneficiaries come from and how do
(2012) deal with the semantics of the polysemous they come about?. In: Historical cognitive linguistics, ed.
by Margaret E. Winters et al., 93131. Berlin New York.
lexeme khrnos across various stages of Ancient . 2012. The spatial meaning of di with the accusative
Greek, and show that its earliest attested mean- in Homeric Greek, Mnemosyne 65:357386.
ing is duration, from which all other meanings Oakley, Todd. Image schemas. In Geeraerts and Cuyckens
are historically derived: this original meaning 2007:214235.
Pgan Cnovas, Cristbal. 2011. The genesis of the arrows of
also corroborates the experiential grounding of love: diachronic conceptual integration in Greek mythol-
linguistic meaning given that duration (i.e., the ogy, AJPh 132:553579.
succession of bounded intervals) is considered Panther, Klaus-Uwe and Linda Thornburg. 2002. The roles
to be the primary experience of time by humans. of metaphor and metonymy in English -er nominals. In:
Metaphor and metonymy in comparison and contrast, ed.
Other studies concerned with culturally signifi- by Ren Dirven and Ralf Prings, 279319. Berlin.
cant metaphors are Giannakis (1998 and 1999) Radden, Gnter and Zoltn Kvecses. 1999. Towards a
analysis of the system of Homeric metaphors in theory of metonymy. In: Metonymy in language and
thought, ed. by Klaus-Uwe Panther and Gnter Radden,
which human life is likened to a thread spun by 1759. Amsterdam.
a superhuman force, Loudens (1996) analysis of Rademaker, Adriaan. 2005. Sophrosyne and the rhetoric of
the metaphor a poet is a carpenter, and Griffiths self-restraint. Leiden.
(1995) (Poetic Language) reconstruction of the Rohrer, Tim. Embodiment and experientialism. In Geer-
aerts and Cuyckens 2007:2547.
Homeric metaphor cluster in which teeth are a Rosch, Eleanor. 1973. Natural categories, Cognitive Psychol-
fence, tongue is a cage door and words are caged ogy 4:328350.
birds (Metaphor). Rosch, Eleanor and Carolyn B. Mervis. 1975. Family resem-
blances, Cognitive Psychology 7:573605.
Taylor, John R. 2003. Linguistic categorization: prototypes in
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