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# 450 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

## The cracks in this concrete beam were

caused by tension stress, even though
the beam was subjected to both an
internal moment and shear. The stress-
transformation equations can be used
to predict the direction of the cracks,
and the principal normal stresses that
caused them.

## Substituting these trigonometric values into Eq. 91 and simplifying,

we obtain

sx + sy sx - sy 2
s1,2 = { + txy 2 (95)
2 C 2

Depending upon the sign chosen, this result gives the maximum or
minimum in-plane normal stress acting at a point, where s1 s2 . This
particular set of values are called the in-plane principal stresses, and
the corresponding planes on which they act are called the principal
planes of stress, Fig. 99. Furthermore, if the trigonometric relations
for up1 or up2 are substituted into Eq. 92, it can be seen that txy = 0;
in other words, no shear stress acts on the principal planes.

## Take a piece of blackboard chalk and

twist it. Since it is brittle, it will fail in
9 tension, caused by the principal normal
x
stress. See Example 9.5.
sy up2  up1 90

s2
txy x
s1 up1
x
sx

## In-plane principal stresses

Fig. 99
9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 451

## Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress. The orientation of an t

element that is subjected to maximum shear stress on its sides can be
determined by taking the derivative of Eq. 92 with respect to u and 2us1 sx  sy
setting the result equal to zero. This gives txy 2

## -(sx - sy)>2 2us2

s
tan 2us = (96)
txy sx  s y
txy

2
The two roots of this equation, us1 and us2, can be determined from the
shaded triangles shown in Fig. 910. By comparison with Eq. 94, tan 2us
is the negative reciprocal of tan 2up and so each root 2us is 90 from 2up,
Fig. 910
and the roots us and up are 45 apart. Therefore, an element subjected to
maximum shear stress will be 45 from the position of an element that
is subjected to the principal stress.
Using either one of the roots us1 or us2, the maximum shear stress can
be found by taking the trigonometric values of sin 2us and cos 2us from
Fig. 910 and substituting them into Eq. 92. The result is

sx - sy 2
t max
in@plane
= C + txy 2 (97)
2

## The value of t in@plane

max as calculated from this equation is referred to as
the maximum in-plane shear stress because it acts on the element in
the xy plane.
Substituting the values for sin 2us and cos 2us into Eq. 91, we see that
there is also an average normal stress on the planes of maximum in-plane
shear stress. We get
sx + sy
savg = (98)
2
Like the stress-transformation equations, it may be convenient to
program Eqs. 94 through 98 for use on a pocket calculator.

Important Points
9
The principal stresses represent the maximum and minimum
normal stress at the point.
When the state of stress is represented by the principal stresses,
no shear stress will act on the element.
The state of stress at the point can also be represented in terms of
the maximum in-plane shear stress. In this case an average normal
stress will also act on the element.
The element representing the maximum in-plane shear stress
with the associated average normal stresses is oriented 45 from
the element representing the principal stresses.
452 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

EXAMPLE 9.3
The state of plane stress at a failure point on the shaft is shown on the
element in Fig. 911a. Represent this stress state in terms of the
principal stresses.

SOLUTION
From the established sign convention, we have
sx = -20 MPa sy = 90 MPa txy = 60 MPa
Orientation of Element. Applying Eq. 94,
Notice how the failure plane is at an angle
(23.7) due to tearing of the material, Fig. 911c. txy 60
tan 2up = =
90 MPa (sx - sy)>2 ( -20 - 90)>2
Solving, and referring to this root as up2, as will be shown below, yields
60 MPa
2up2 = -47.49 up2 = -23.7

20 MPa Since the difference between 2up1 and 2up2 is 180, we have
2up1 = 180 + 2up2 = 132.51 up1 = 66.3
Recall that u must be measured positive counterclockwise from the
x axis to the outward normal (x  axis) on the face of the element,
and so the results are shown in Fig. 911b.
(a) Principal Stress. We have
x
sx + sy sx - sy 2
s1,2 = { B + txy 2
y y 2 2
66.3
x -20 + 90 -20 - 90 2
= { a b + (60)2
2 B 2
x = 35.0 { 81.4
23.7
s1 = 116 MPa Ans.
x
s2 = -46.4 MPa Ans.
The principal plane on which each normal stress acts can be
9 (b)
s1  116 MPa determined by applying Eq. 91 with, say, u = up2 = -23.7. We have
B up1  66.3
sx + sy sx - sy
sx = + cos 2u + txy sin 2u
2 2
-20 + 90 -20 - 90
= + cos 2( -23.7) + 60 sin 2( -23.7)
2 2
up2  23.7 = -46.4 MPa
A s2  46.4 MPa
Hence, s2 = -46.4 MPa acts on the plane defined by up2 = -23.7,
whereas s1 = 116 MPa acts on the plane defined by up1 = 66.3. The
(c)
results are shown on the element in Fig. 911c. Recall that no shear
Fig. 911 stress acts on this element.
9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 453

EXAMPLE 9.4
The state of plane stress at a point on a body is represented on the 90 MPa
element shown in Fig. 912a. Represent this stress state in terms of the
maximum in-plane shear stress and associated average normal stress. 60 MPa

SOLUTION 20 MPa
Orientation of Element. Since sx = -20 MPa, sy = 90 MPa, and
txy = 60 MPa, applying Eq. 96, we have
-(sx - sy)>2 -(-20 - 90)>2
tan 2us = =
txy 60

## 2us1 = 180 + 2us2 us1 = 111.3 x

y
Note how these angles are formed between the x and x axes, Fig. 912b.
They happen to be 45 away from the principal planes of stress, which
were determined in Example 9.3. 111.3
x
Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress. Applying Eq. 97, x
21.3
x
sx - sy 2
-20 - 90 2 y
t in@plane
max = + txy 2 = a b + (60)2 81.4 MPa
C 2 B 2
= {81.4 MPa Ans.
The proper direction of t in@plane
max on the element can be determined by (b)
substituting u = us2 = 21.3 into Eq. 92. We have
35 MPa
s x - sy 81.4 MPa
txy = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u
2 B
35 MPa
21.3
-20 - 90
= -a b sin 2(21.3) + 60 cos 2(21.3)
2 A

= 81.4 MPa 9

## This positive result indicates that t in@plane

max = txy acts in the positive
y  direction on this face (u = 21.3) Fig. 912b. The shear stresses (c)
on the other three faces are directed as shown in Fig. 912c. Fig. 912
Average Normal Stress. Besides the maximum shear stress, as
calculated above, the element is also subjected to an average normal
stress determined from Eq. 98; that is,
s x + sy -20 + 90
savg = = = 35 MPa Ans.
2 2
This is a tensile stress. The results are shown in Fig. 912c.
454 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

EXAMPLE 9.5
When the torsional loading T is applied to the bar in Fig. 913a,
it produces a state of pure shear stress in the material. Determine
(a) the maximum in-plane shear stress and the associated average
T
T normal stress, and (b) the principal stress.

SOLUTION
t
From the established sign convention,

sx = 0 sy = 0 txy = -t

(a) Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress. Applying Eqs. 97 and 98, we have

sx - sy 2
t in@plane
max = C + txy 2 = 2(0)2 + (-t)2 = {t Ans.
2

sx + sy 0 + 0
savg = = = 0 Ans.
2 2
Thus, as expected, the maximum in-plane shear stress is represented
by the element in Fig. 913a.

NOTE: Through experiment it has been found that materials that are
ductile will fail due to shear stress. As a result, if the bar in Fig. 913a is
made of mild steel, the maximum in-plane shear stress will cause it to
y x fail as shown in the adjacent photo.
s2  t
45
x Principal Stress. Applying Eqs. 94 and 95 yields
txy -t
tan 2up = = , up = 45, up1 = -45
(sx - sy)>2 (0 - 0)>2 2
s1  t
sx + sy sx - sy 2
(b) s1, 2 = { a b + txy 2 = 0 { 2(0)2 + t2 = {t Ans.
2 B 2
9 Fig. 913
If we now apply Eq. 91 with up2 = 45, then
s x + sy s x - sy
sx = +
cos 2u + txy sin 2u
2 2
= 0 + 0 + (-t) sin 90 = -t
Thus, s2 = -t acts at up 2 = 45 as shown in Fig. 913b, and s1 = t
acts on the other face, up1 = -45.

NOTE: Materials that are brittle fail due to normal stress. Therefore,
if the bar in Fig. 913a is made of cast iron it will fail in tension at a
45 inclination as seen in the adjacent photo.
9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 455

EXAMPLE 9.6
When the axial loading P is applied to the bar in Fig. 914a, it P
produces a tensile stress in the material. Determine (a) the principal
stress and (b) the maximum in-plane shear stress and associated
average normal stress.

SOLUTION P
From the established sign convention,
s
sx = s sy = 0 txy = 0
(a)
Principal Stress. By observation, the element oriented as shown
in Fig. 914a illustrates a condition of principal stress since no
shear stress acts on this element. This can also be shown by direct
substitution of the above values into Eqs. 94 and 95. Thus,
s1 = s s2 = 0 Ans.
NOTE: Experiments have shown that brittle materials will fail due to
normal stress. Thus if the bar in Fig. 914a is made of cast iron, it will
cause failure as shown in the adjacent photo.

Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress. Applying Eqs. 96, 97, and 98,
we have
-(sx - sy)>2 -(s - 0)>2
tan 2us = = ; us1 = 45, us2 = -45 x
y
txy 0 s
s savg 
savg  2
sx - sy 2
s - 0 2 s
2
t max = + txy 2 = a b + (0)2 = { Ans. 45
in@plane C 2 B 2 2 tin-plane  s x
max
2
sx + sy s + 0 s
savg = = = Ans.
2 2 2
To determine the proper orientation of the element, apply Eq. 92. (b)

sx - sy 9
s - 0 s Fig. 914
txy = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u = - sin 90 + 0 = -
2 2 2
This negative shear stress acts on the x  face, in the negative y 
direction as shown in Fig. 914b.

NOTE: If the bar in Fig. 914a is made of a ductile material such as mild
steel then shear stress will cause it to fail. This can be noted in the
adjacent photo, where within the region of necking, shear stress has
caused slipping along the steels crystalline boundaries, resulting in
a plane of failure that has formed a cone around the bar oriented at
approximately 45 as calculated above.
456 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

PRELIMINARY PROBLEMS

P91. In each case, the state of stress sx, sy, txy produces sy
normal and shear stress components along section AB of the
element that have values of sx = -5 kPa and txy = 8 kPa
txy A A
when calculated using the stress transformation equations. A
Establish the x and y axes for each segment and specify the
angle u, then show these results acting on each segment. sx

40
B
B B

(c)

P91

sy

A A
A txy
20

sx

## P92. Given the state of stress shown on the element, find

B
B B s avg and tmax and show the results on a properly oriented
in@plane
element.

(a)

9
4 MPa
sy

B
B txy B
30
4 MPa
A sx A
A

(b)
P92
9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 457

FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS

F91. Determine the normal stress and shear stress F94. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an
acting on the inclined plane AB. Sketch the result on the element at the same point that represents the maximum
sectioned element. in-plane shear stress at the point.

700 kPa

B
500 kPa
30 100 kPa
A

## F91 400 kPa

F94
F92. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an F95. The beam is subjected to the load at its end.
element at the same point oriented 45 clockwise with Determine the maximum principal stress at point B.
respect to the element shown.

400 kPa
B

30 mm 2m

300 kPa
4 kN 60 mm

F92
2 kN

F95

F93. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an F96. The beam is subjected to the loading shown.
9
element at the same point that represents the principal Determine the principal stress at point C.
stresses at the point. Also, find the corresponding orientation
75 mm
of the element with respect to the element shown. C
75 mm

8 kN/m
150 mm
30 kPa

80 kPa
A C B

3m 3m

F93 F96
458 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

PROBLEMS

91. Prove that the sum of the normal stresses *94. Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting
sx + sy = sx + sy is constant. See Figs. 92a and 92b. on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the
method of equilibrium described in Sec. 9.1.
92. The state of stress at a point in a member is shown on
the element. Determine the stress components acting on 95. Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting
the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the method on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the
of equilibrium described in Sec. 9.1. stress transformation equations. Show the results on the
sectional element.

15 ksi
8 ksi B

B
5 ksi

40
60
A
A 6 ksi
3 ksi

Prob. 92
Probs. 94/5

## 93. The state of stress at a point in a member is shown on

96. Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting
the element. Determine the stress components acting on
on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the
the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the method
method of equilibrium described in Sec. 9.1.
of equilibrium described in Sec. 9.1.
97. Determine the normal stress and shear stress acting
on the inclined plane AB. Solve the problem using the
stress transformation equations. Show the result on the
9 sectioned element.
A 400 psi

B
45 MPa
650 psi
60 80 MPa

45

B A

## Prob. 93 Probs. 96/7

9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 459

*98. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an 913. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an the
element at the same point oriented 30 clockwise with respect element if it is oriented 30 clockwise from the element
to the element shown. Sketch the results on the element. shown. Use the stress-transformation equations.

## 99. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an element

at the same point oriented 30 counterclockwise with respect 300 psi
to the element shown. Sketch the results on the element.
75 MPa 950 psi

100 MPa

Prob. 913

Probs. 98/9 914. The state of stress at a point is shown on the element.
Determine (a) the principal stress and (b) the maximum
910. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an element
in-plane shear stress and average normal stress at the point.
at the same point oriented 60 clockwise with respect to the
Specify the orientation of the element in each case. Show
element shown. Sketch the results on the element.
the results on each element.
911. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an element
at the same point oriented 60 counterclockwise with respect
to the element shown. Sketch the results on the element.

## 100 MPa 30 ksi

75 MPa
12 ksi
150 MPa Prob. 914

## 915. The state of stress at a point is shown on the element.

Determine (a) the principal stress and (b) the maximum
in-plane shear stress and average normal stress at the point.
Specify the orientation of the element in each case.
9
Probs. 910/11
60 MPa
*912. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an
element if it is oriented 50 counterclockwise from the
element shown. Use the stress-transformation equations. 30 MPa

45 MPa

10 ksi

16 ksi

## Prob. 912 Prob. 915

460 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

*916. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an 919. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an element
element at the point which represents (a) the principal at the same point which represents (a) the principal stress, and
stresses and (b) the maximum in-plane shear stress and the (b) the maximum in-plane shear stress and the associated
associated average normal stress. Also, for each case, average normal stress. Also, for each case, determine the
determine the corresponding orientation of the element corresponding orientation of the element with respect to the
with respect to the element shown and sketch the results on element shown and sketch the results on the element.
the element.

25 MPa

100 MPa

50 MPa

15 MPa
Prob. 919
Prob. 916

## *920. Planes AB and BC at a point are subjected to the

917. Determine the equivalent state of stress on an
stresses shown. Determine the principal stresses acting at
element at the same point which represents (a) the principal
this point and find sBC.
stress, and (b) the maximum in-plane shear stress and the
associated average normal stress. Also, for each case,
determine the corresponding orientation of the element
A
with respect to the element shown. Sketch the results on 5 ksi 15 ksi
each element.

75 MPa
45 B

6 ksi
125 MPa
sBC
C

## 921. The stress acting on two planes at a point is indicated.

Prob. 917 Determine the shear stress on plane aa and the principal
stresses at the point.
918. A point on a thin plate is subjected to the two
9
successive states of stress shown. Determine the resultant b
state of stress represented on the element oriented as a
shown on the right.

sy 80 ksi
60 MPa ta
85 MPa
txy
45 90
45
60 ksi
 30  sx
60
a

85 MPa b

## Prob. 918 Prob. 921

9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 461

925. The wooden block will fail if the shear stress acting
The following problems involve material covered in Chapter 8.
along the grain is 550 psi. If the normal stress sx = 400 psi,
922. The grains of wood in the board make an angle of determine the necessary compressive stress sy that will
20 with the horizontal as shown. Determine the normal cause failure.
and shear stress that act perpendicular and parallel to the
grains if the board is subjected to an axial load of 250 N.
sy

300 mm
60 mm
250 N 250 N 58 sx  400 psi
20 25 mm

Prob. 922

Prob. 925
923. The wood beam is subjected to a load of 12 kN. If a
grain of wood in the beam at point A makes an angle of 25
with the horizontal as shown, determine the normal and
926. The bracket is subjected to the force of 3 kip.
shear stress that act perpendicular and parallel to the grain
Determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane
shear stress at point A on the cross section at section aa.
Specify the orientation of this state of stress and show the
results on elements.
12 kN 927. The bracket is subjected to the force of 3 kip.
2m 1m 4m Determine the principal stress and maximum in-plane
shear stress at point B on the cross section at section aa.
A 300 mm Specify the orientation of this state of stress and show the
results on elements.
25
75 mm 200 mm

Prob. 923
3 kip a 3 in. 3 kip

## *924. The wood beam is subjected to a load of 12 kN. 9

Determine the principal stress at point A and specify the
orientation of the element. a 0.25 in.
A

## 0.25 in. 2 in.

12 kN
2m 1m 4m
B
0.25 in.
1 in.
A 300 mm

25
75 mm 200 mm Section a a

## Prob. 924 Probs. 926/27

462 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

*928. The 25-mm thick rectangular bar is subjected to 930. The state of stress at a point in a member is shown
the axial load of 10 kN. If the bar is joined by the weld, on the element. Determine the stress components acting
which makes an angle of 60 with the horizontal, determine on the plane AB.
the shear stress parallel to the weld and the normal stress
perpendicular to the weld.
A
50 MPa

28 MPa
30

10 kN
10 kN
100 MPa
60

80 mm B

## 931. Determine the principal stress at point A on the

cross section of the arm at section aa. Specify the orientation
of this state of stress and indicate the results on an element
at the point.
*932. Determine the maximum in-plane shear stress
developed at point A on the cross section of the arm at
929. The 3-in. diameter shaft is supported by a smooth section aa. Specify the orientation of this state of stress
thrust bearing at A and a smooth journal bearing at B. and indicate the results on an element at the point.
Determine the principal stresses and maximum in-plane
shear stress at a point on the outer surface of the shaft at
section aa.
7.5 mm

7.5 mm 50 mm

9 7.5 mm
20 mm
A Section a a

D
a
60 a
500 lbft
a B
500 lbft B C
a
0.35 m
0.15 m 0.15 m
3 kip 500 N

## Prob. 929 Probs. 931/32

9.3 PRINCIPAL STRESSES AND MAXIMUM IN-PLANE SHEAR STRESS 463

933. The clamp bears down on the smooth surface at E by 935. The square steel plate has a thickness of 10 mm and
tightening the bolt. If the tensile force in the bolt is 40 kN, is subjected to the edge loading shown. Determine the
determine the principal stress at points A and B and show the maximum in-plane shear stress and the average normal
results on elements located at each of these points. The cross- stress developed in the steel.
sectional area at A and B is shown in the adjacent figure.
50 N/m

200 mm 50 N/m

300 mm

50 mm
200 mm
30 mm A
100 mm B Prob. 935
B
A 25 mm
100 mm
*936. The square steel plate has a thickness of 0.5 in. and
E
principal stresses developed in the steel.

16 lb/in.

Prob. 933

16 lb/in.
4 in.

## 934. Determine the principal stress and the maximum

in-plane shear stress that are developed at point A in the 4 in.
2-in.-diameter shaft. Show the results on an element located
at this point. The bearings only support vertical reactions. Prob. 936

## 937. The shaft has a diameter d and is subjected to the 9

maximum in-plane shear stress that is developed at point A.
The bearings only support vertical reactions.

P
300 lb

3000 lb A 3000 lb F F
A

L L
24 in. 12 in. 12 in. 2 2

## Prob. 934 Prob. 937

464 CHAPTER 9 S T R E S S TR A N S F O R M A T I O N

938. A paper tube is formed by rolling a paper strip in 942. The drill pipe has an outer diameter of 3 in., a wall
a spiral and then gluing the edges together as shown. thickness of 0.25 in., and a weight of 50 lb>ft. If it is subjected
Determine the shear stress acting along the seam, which is to a torque and axial load as shown, determine (a) the
at 30 from the vertical, when the tube is subjected to an principal stresses and (b) the maximum in-plane shear
axial force of 10 N. The paper is 1 mm thick and the tube stress at a point on its surface at section a.
has an outer diameter of 30 mm.
939. Solve Prob. 938 for the normal stress acting
perpendicular to the seam. 1500 lb

800 lbft

30 20 ft

10 N 10 N
a
30 mm
20 ft
Probs. 938/39

## *940. The wide-flange beam is subjected to the 50-kN

force. Determine the principal stresses in the beam at Prob. 942
point A located on the web at the bottom of the upper
flange. Although it is not very accurate, use the shear
formula to calculate the shear stress.
941. Solve Prob. 940 for point B located on the web at 943. The nose wheel of the plane is subjected to a design
the top of the bottom flange. load of 12 kN. Determine the principal stresses acting on
the aluminum wheel support at point A.

150 mm
9 50 kN
A 30 mm
20 mm
60 A
A
20 mm
B 300 mm
1m 3m

A
12 mm
10 mm
250 mm
B
12 mm
175 mm
200 mm 12 kN

## Probs. 940/41 Prob. 943

9.4 MOHRS CIRCLEPLANE STRESS 465

## 9.4 Mohrs CirclePlane Stress

In this section, we will show how to apply the equations for plane stress y
transformation using a graphical solution that is often convenient to use and
easy to remember. Furthermore, this approach will allow us to visualize x
tx y
how the normal and shear stress components sx and txy vary as the plane sx
on which they act is oriented in different directions, Fig. 915a. u
If we write Eqs. 91 and 92 in the form sx x

sx + sy sx - sy
sx - = cos 2u + txy sin 2u (99) txy
2 2
sx - sy sy
txy = - sin 2u + txy cos 2u (910)
2
then the parameter u can be eliminated by squaring each equation and (a)
adding the equations together. The result is
Fig. 915
sx + sy 2 sx - sy 2
Jsx - R + t2xy = + t2xy
2 2
For a specific problem, sx , sy , txy are known constants. Thus the above
equation can be written in a more compact form as

## (sx - savg)2 + t2xy = R 2 (911)

where
sx + sy
savg =
2
sx - sy 2
R = + t2xy (912)
C 2
If we establish coordinate axes, s positive to the right and t positive
downward, and then plot Eq. 911, it will be seen that this equation
represents a circle having a radius R and center on the s axis at point
C(savg, 0), Fig. 915b. This circle is called Mohrs circle, because it was
developed by the German engineer Otto Mohr. 9

sx  sy
2

s
C
txy

sx  s y
savg  P
2 sx  sy 2
sx R 2  txy2

t
(b)