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Name: _________________________

1.4.9 Human Impact on an Ecosystem 3


Waste Management Worksheet

Waste Management
What is waste management?
Waste management is the ________________, __________________, ____________________,
__________________ or ________________ of waste materials, produced by ______________
______________, in an effort to reduce their effect on _________________________ or local
____________________ or ____________________.
It also tries to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to
recover resources from them.

Waste Management
Urban rubbish is mostly
_________________________________________________________.

Traditional disposal has been to _________________________________ or


_______________.

Landfill operation

The area being filled has a rubberized landfill liner is in


place (exposed on the left).
This prevents _________________________ migrating
downward through the underlying rock.

One of the following is necessary


Waste management in:
Agriculture
OR
Fisheries
OR
Forestry

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Waste Management in Agriculture


The main problems here are the waste products from farms i.e.

___________________________________

___________________________________

_______________ / ____________________ use of chemical fertilisers and animal manures


- excess of these may ___________________________ and cause _________________________
and _____________________________.

Agriculture solution
Spreading the slurry on the land as a fertiliser. This must be ______________________________ in
order to ______________________________________________________ for crop production
and __________________________________________________________________________.
Soil Nutrient Programmes aim to ensure _________________________________ and __________
___________________________________ by avoiding pollution from agriculture.

Soil Nutrient Programme


The amounts of fertiliser applied _____________________________________________________
_____________________________ environmental damage.
When devising a fertiliser programme the ______________________________________________
on foot of regular soil testing.
There must be ___________________________________________________________________,
both organic and inorganic.
_________________________________________ is very important to help __________________
______________________________ in the soil.

Plastics on the farm


Plastic bags from fertiliser and plastic silage wrap strewn all around a farm is becoming _________
__________________________________.
Legislation on _______________________________________________________ ensures that the
______________________________________________________ and dealt with appropriately.

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Name: _________________________

Waste Management in Fisheries


Fish waste from ______________________________ is a major pollutant of marinas and harbours.
Accumulated fish waste leads to:

- ___________________________________

- Infestations of _________________

- _____________________________

- Low O2 levels in the harbour water due to


____________________________________________

Waste Management in Fisheries


Solid organic by-products of the fishing industry ________________________________________.
This has been ______________________________ by recent legislation and dumping at sea is not
an option (EU regulation).
New projects are testing various methods of management of fish wastes e.g. __________________,
________________________________, ________________ of protein/oil etc.

Animal feeds and Oils


Fish offal is converted to _________________ and this is sold on as animal feed for e.g. chickens,
pigs.
Some _____________________________ from the waste during the process and this is _________
for further refining and then ____________________________________ supplements.

Ensiling
The fish waste is _______________ and _______________________, then ___________________
is added to it.
The resulting _______________________ can be used for fertiliser.

Fish waste Composting


Composting of fish waste is becoming more popular now and it results in a ___________________
____________________ that is odour free, stable and easily stored.
This will probably become the favoured option for the industry in the near future.
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Name: _________________________

Waste Management in Forestry


Leaves from coniferous trees should
________________________________________________ make the water acidic

____________________ and _______________________ should not be allowed run off


into waterways - __________________________ and ________________________

When trees are harvested only bare poles are removed so a lot of ___________________
(called __________ ) and the stumps are left behind

Forestry solutions
Waste Management in the forestry sector is
__________________________________________.

When the trees are harvested _________________________________________ are left


behind.

The stumps are sprayed with a ________________________________ which


_______________ the decomposition process and

Forestry solutions
The brash is either ___________________________ on the forest floor or collected and
_______ as a fuel source.

In some of the larger sites the ______________________________ on for conversion to


fibreboard e.g. MDF

Problems with Waste disposal


Availability of _____________________________________________

The toxic or polluting content of fumes from __________________________ (CO2, other


acidic oxides and dioxins produced from burning plastic)

Decaying waste produces _____________________ which contributes to the greenhouse


gases

Harmful substances may leak into ______________________________ (wells, lakes,


reservoirs)
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Plants and animals in rivers and lakes are killed through direct _____________ or
eutrophication

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Possible solutions
_____________________________ and _____________________ programmes for all ages
are needed to _____________________________ to littering and waste minimisation and disposal

Use micro-organisms to ____________________________ the rubbish and produce fuel


pellets

______________ the use of paper and ________________ more paper

________________________________ (e.g. paper bags) should be used in place of plastic


ones.

Possible solutions
____________ has been placed on plastic bags in shops

______________________________________ makes disposal more efficient e.g.


householders could separate metals, paper, plastic, glass for recycling and vegetable waste for
composting

___________________________________________ to avoid _______________


production and fit ___________________________________ inside chimneys

Suggestions for waste minimisation


____________ use less, minimise waste.

____________ use again, without changing but maybe for a different purpose.

____________ change, recover some material and use again.

Role of micro-organisms in Waste Management


__________________ is an _______________ process during which micro-organisms decompose
organic matter into a stable substance called compost which
_______________________________ ________________ required for plant growth.
Since it is aerobic the organic waste mixture must be _____________________________________.
This increases the size and number of air pores.

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Name: _________________________

Micro-organisms in Waste Management


________________ break down the tougher materials in the waste such as _____________ and
__________________.
Their filamentous structure penetrates the composting material and helps to ___________________
and __________________ in the compost heap.
Temperatures within a compost heap can reach ___________ as the bacteria and fungi work to
breakdown the material.

Micro-organisms in Waste Management


________________ e.g. human viruses and infectious bacteria, are _______________________ at
_________________________________________
Because the temperature at the outside of the heap is cooler than in the centre it is important to
____________________________________________ pathogen and weed seed kill.
If the pile is unventilated the ___________________________________ and the composting
micro-organisms themselves are unable to survive.

Vermicomposting
This is another method of recovering the nutrients from organic waste, uses _______________ to
consume the __________________ and utilizes the __________________________ as compost.

Role of micro-organisms in Pollution Control


Composting can reduce ___________________________________ caused by ________________
of _______________________ in landfills and streams or by ____________________.
______________________________ break down organic matter into compost that recycles all the
nutrients required for plant growth.

Need to know
State problems associated with waste management & disposal.

Explain the importance of waste minimisation.

Explain the role of microorganisms in waste management and pollution control.

END

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