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Name: _________________________

1.4.9 Human Impact on an Ecosystem 3

Waste Management Worksheet

Waste Management
What is waste management?
Waste management is the ________________, __________________, ____________________,
__________________ or ________________ of waste materials, produced by ______________
______________, in an effort to reduce their effect on _________________________ or local
____________________ or ____________________.
It also tries to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to
recover resources from them.

Waste Management
Urban rubbish is mostly

Traditional disposal has been to _________________________________ or


Landfill operation

The area being filled has a rubberized landfill liner is in

place (exposed on the left).
This prevents _________________________ migrating
downward through the underlying rock.

One of the following is necessary

Waste management in:

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Waste Management in Agriculture

The main problems here are the waste products from farms i.e.



_______________ / ____________________ use of chemical fertilisers and animal manures

- excess of these may ___________________________ and cause _________________________
and _____________________________.

Agriculture solution
Spreading the slurry on the land as a fertiliser. This must be ______________________________ in
order to ______________________________________________________ for crop production
and __________________________________________________________________________.
Soil Nutrient Programmes aim to ensure _________________________________ and __________
___________________________________ by avoiding pollution from agriculture.

Soil Nutrient Programme

The amounts of fertiliser applied _____________________________________________________
_____________________________ environmental damage.
When devising a fertiliser programme the ______________________________________________
on foot of regular soil testing.
There must be ___________________________________________________________________,
both organic and inorganic.
_________________________________________ is very important to help __________________
______________________________ in the soil.

Plastics on the farm

Plastic bags from fertiliser and plastic silage wrap strewn all around a farm is becoming _________
Legislation on _______________________________________________________ ensures that the
______________________________________________________ and dealt with appropriately.

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Waste Management in Fisheries

Fish waste from ______________________________ is a major pollutant of marinas and harbours.
Accumulated fish waste leads to:

- ___________________________________

- Infestations of _________________

- _____________________________

- Low O2 levels in the harbour water due to


Waste Management in Fisheries

Solid organic by-products of the fishing industry ________________________________________.
This has been ______________________________ by recent legislation and dumping at sea is not
an option (EU regulation).
New projects are testing various methods of management of fish wastes e.g. __________________,
________________________________, ________________ of protein/oil etc.

Animal feeds and Oils

Fish offal is converted to _________________ and this is sold on as animal feed for e.g. chickens,
Some _____________________________ from the waste during the process and this is _________
for further refining and then ____________________________________ supplements.

The fish waste is _______________ and _______________________, then ___________________
is added to it.
The resulting _______________________ can be used for fertiliser.

Fish waste Composting

Composting of fish waste is becoming more popular now and it results in a ___________________
____________________ that is odour free, stable and easily stored.
This will probably become the favoured option for the industry in the near future.
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Waste Management in Forestry

Leaves from coniferous trees should
________________________________________________ make the water acidic

____________________ and _______________________ should not be allowed run off

into waterways - __________________________ and ________________________

When trees are harvested only bare poles are removed so a lot of ___________________
(called __________ ) and the stumps are left behind

Forestry solutions
Waste Management in the forestry sector is

When the trees are harvested _________________________________________ are left


The stumps are sprayed with a ________________________________ which

_______________ the decomposition process and

Forestry solutions
The brash is either ___________________________ on the forest floor or collected and
_______ as a fuel source.

In some of the larger sites the ______________________________ on for conversion to

fibreboard e.g. MDF

Problems with Waste disposal

Availability of _____________________________________________

The toxic or polluting content of fumes from __________________________ (CO2, other

acidic oxides and dioxins produced from burning plastic)

Decaying waste produces _____________________ which contributes to the greenhouse


Harmful substances may leak into ______________________________ (wells, lakes,

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Plants and animals in rivers and lakes are killed through direct _____________ or

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Possible solutions
_____________________________ and _____________________ programmes for all ages
are needed to _____________________________ to littering and waste minimisation and disposal

Use micro-organisms to ____________________________ the rubbish and produce fuel


______________ the use of paper and ________________ more paper

________________________________ (e.g. paper bags) should be used in place of plastic


Possible solutions
____________ has been placed on plastic bags in shops

______________________________________ makes disposal more efficient e.g.

householders could separate metals, paper, plastic, glass for recycling and vegetable waste for

___________________________________________ to avoid _______________

production and fit ___________________________________ inside chimneys

Suggestions for waste minimisation

____________ use less, minimise waste.

____________ use again, without changing but maybe for a different purpose.

____________ change, recover some material and use again.

Role of micro-organisms in Waste Management

__________________ is an _______________ process during which micro-organisms decompose
organic matter into a stable substance called compost which
_______________________________ ________________ required for plant growth.
Since it is aerobic the organic waste mixture must be _____________________________________.
This increases the size and number of air pores.

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Micro-organisms in Waste Management

________________ break down the tougher materials in the waste such as _____________ and
Their filamentous structure penetrates the composting material and helps to ___________________
and __________________ in the compost heap.
Temperatures within a compost heap can reach ___________ as the bacteria and fungi work to
breakdown the material.

Micro-organisms in Waste Management

________________ e.g. human viruses and infectious bacteria, are _______________________ at
Because the temperature at the outside of the heap is cooler than in the centre it is important to
____________________________________________ pathogen and weed seed kill.
If the pile is unventilated the ___________________________________ and the composting
micro-organisms themselves are unable to survive.

This is another method of recovering the nutrients from organic waste, uses _______________ to
consume the __________________ and utilizes the __________________________ as compost.

Role of micro-organisms in Pollution Control

Composting can reduce ___________________________________ caused by ________________
of _______________________ in landfills and streams or by ____________________.
______________________________ break down organic matter into compost that recycles all the
nutrients required for plant growth.

Need to know
State problems associated with waste management & disposal.

Explain the importance of waste minimisation.

Explain the role of microorganisms in waste management and pollution control.


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