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An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges,
debated the proper degree of government activism, and sought to define its international role.

Directions: Please read chapters 2730 of The American Pageant, 13th Edition. As you read,
In mind the key concepts, themes, terms, and essential questions listed below.

Reading: The American Pageant, 13th Edition [pgs. 626 719]

Chapter 27: Empire and Expansion, 1890 1909
Chapter 28: Progressivism and Republican Roosevelt, 1901 1912
Chapter 29: Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912 1916
Chapter 30: The War to End War, 1917 1918

The American Spirit, Volume II: Since 1865, 11th Edition [pgs. 171 264] Haiku PDF
Chapters 27 30: Review the primary source documents associated with each chapter.

Select ONE primary source document from each chapter. Complete a SOAPSTone
analysis chart for each primary source using the template available on Haiku.

Key Concepts:

7.1 Governmental, political, and social organizations struggled to address the effects of large-
scale industrialization, economic uncertainty, and related social changes such as urbanization
and mass migration.
I. The continued growth and consolidation of large corporations transformed American society and the
nations economy, promoting urbanization and economic growth, even as business cycle fluctuations
became increasingly severe. (WOR3) (ID7) (WXT3) (WXT5) (POL3)
II. Progressive reformers responded to economic instability, social inequality, and political corruption by
calling for government intervention in the economy, expanded democracy, greater social justice, and
conservation of natural resources. (WXT6) (WXT7) (WXT8) (POL3) (ENV5) (CUL5)

7.3 Global conflicts over resources, territories, and ideologies renewed debates over the nations
values and its role in the world while simultaneously propelling the United States into a
dominant international military, political, cultural, and economic position.
I. Many Americans began to advocate overseas expansionism in the late 19th century, leading to new
territorial ambitions and acquisitions in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific. (WOR6) (WOR7)
(ENV5) (POL6)

Throughout this unit, you will analyze and evaluate each of the following themes that focus on the:

changing role of the United States in world affairs

contradictory elements of idealism and realism in American expansionism
call of progressives to use the government as an agent of change
progressive era solutions to Gilded Age problems
causes and results of World War I and failure of Neutrality
treaty negotiations and the Senate rejection of the Treaty of Versailles

Write a brief, one or two sentence description for 75 of the terms. You should be prepared to explain the
significance of each term in our class discussions and in your written responses.

For each term, you should be able to answer the following questions:
[1] What is the actual description of the term? [2] Why is this term included in this unit of study? [3] What
effect does this term have within its immediate historical context AND as it relates to the broader themes of
U.S. history?

Chapter 27 Chapter 28
1 William McKinley 26 Puerto Rico 51 Theodore Roosevelt
2 William Jennings Bryan 27 Foraker Act of 1900 52 Henry Demarest Lloyd
3 Mark Hanna 28 Insular Cases 53 Thorstein Veblen
4 election of 1900 29 Philippines 54 Jacob Riis
5 Alfred Thayer Mahan 30 Anti-imperialism 55 Theodore Dreiser
6 Valeriano Weyler 31 John Hay 56 Muckrakers
7 George Dewey 32 Teller Amendment 57 Ida Tarbell
8 James G. Blaine 33 Platt Amendment 58 Lillian Wald
9 Dupuy de Lome 34 spheres of influence 59 Lincoln Steffens
10 Emilio Aguinaldo 35 Root-Takahira Agreement 60 Elkins Act
11 Richard Olney 36 William Howard Taft 61 Upton Sinclair The Jungle
12 Theodore Roosevelt 37 Philippine insurrection 62 Louis Brandeis
13 jingoism 38 Open Door notes 63 Muller v. Oregon
14 imperialism 39 Big-Stick diplomacy 64 Lochner v. New York
15 Pan American Conference 40 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 65 Northern Securities Case
16 Rough Riders 41 Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 66 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
17 Yellow journalism 42 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty 67 Theodore Roosevelt
18 Joseph Pulitzer 43 Panama Canal 68 conservation
19 William Randolph Hearst 44 Roosevelt Corollary 69 national forest
20 Josiah Strong 45 Portsmouth Conference 70 Ida Tarbell
21 McKinley Tariff 46 Great White Fleet 71 David G. Phillips
22 Henry Cabot Lodge 47 Gentlemans Agreement 72 Robert La Follette
23 Hawaii 48 Americanization 73 Populists
24 Cuba 49 Big Brother 74 Progressives
25 The Maine 50 yellow peril 75 Socialists

76 rule of reason 101 Federal Reserve Act, 1913 126 suffrage movement
77 Old Guard Republicans 102 Federal Trade Commission, 1914 127 Food Administration
78 Australian ballot 103 Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914 128 doughboys
79 17th Amendment 104 Danbury Hatters case 129 Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act
80 Ballinger-Pinchot Affair 105 Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916 130 Draft Act
81 Dollar Diplomacy 106 White House Conference 131 Bolshevik Revolution
82 William Howard Taft 107 Victoriano Huerta 132 Henry Cabot Lodge
83 Louis Brandeis 108 election of 1916 133 Big Four
84 Eugene V. Debs 109 Charles Evans Hughes 134 David Lloyd George
85 W.C.T.U. Chapter 30 135 George Clemenceau
86 Square Deal 110 unrestricted submarine warfare 136 Vittorio Orlando
87 election of 1904 111 Zimmerman note 137 William Borah & Hiram Johnson
88 election of 1908 112 Central Powers/Allies 138 Peace without victory
89 Hiram Johnson 113 George Creel 139 Fourteen Points
90 Charles Evans Hughes 114 Committee on Public Info. 140 League of Nations
Chapter 29 115 wartime mobilization 141 Treaty of Versailles
91 Progressives 116 Over There 142 election of 1920
92 Woodrow Wilson 117 Eugene V. Debs 143 Herbert Hoover
93 Bull Moose 118 Espionage Act, 1917 144 Marshal Foch
94 Herbert Croly 119 Sedition Act, 1918 145 James M Cox
95 Socialism 120 Industrial Workers of the World 146 Alvin York
96 New Freedom 121 Schenck v. U.S., 1919 147 Bernard Baruch
97 election of 1912 122 AFL v. IWW 148 entangling alliance
98 Eugene V. Debs 123 race riots 149 National War Labor Board
99 Underwood Tariff Bill 124 labor strikes 150 War Industries Board
100 Sixteenth Amendment, 1913 125 Carrie Chapman Catt

Essential Questions (EQs):

Answer each question and provide evidence to support your conclusions. Limit your responses one well-
developed paragraph [a maximum of 8 sentences] for each question. Think about these questions before,
during, and after reading the text, the supplementary articles, and the primary source documents. If you
understand their complexity and feel confident in using information from the text and the supplementary
reading in answering these very general questions, you should have a solid understanding of this historical

Remember to support your generalizations with specific evidence!

1. What were the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War? How was American
expansionism overseas similar to previous continental expansion westward, and how was it different?

2. What were the elements of idealism and realism in American expansionism in the late 1890s?
How have Americans incorporated both of these seemingly contradictory philosophies in their foreign

3. What were the racial elements in American foreign policy during this time period? Was there a shift
in American ideology or simply a continuation of long-standing sentiments?

4. Assess the effectiveness of Theodore Roosevelts aggressive foreign policy in Latin America and
around the world. What were the benefits of TRs activism and what were its liabilities?

5. To what extent did Progressivism build on the demands made earlier by the Populists?

6. It has been said that the 20th Century actually began when Theodore Roosevelt became President of
the United States? To what extent is this statement true?

7. The Civil War, the most traumatic event in American history, produced three Amendments to the U.S.
Constitution. The Progressive Era produced four. What was it about this time period that demanded
such drastic and permanent changes in the basic structure of American society?

8. To what extent did women play a significant role in the societal changes that characterized this time

9. The period 1901-1920 can be characterized as a long argument between interventionism and
isolationism. To what extent is this true?

10. Woodrow Wilson is generally listed as one of the near great Presidents of the United States. Is this
assessment justified? Why or why not?

11. What was the fundamental reason America failed to join the League of Nations?

12. Was it really necessary to suppress dissent in order to win the war?

13. Why did Wilson fail in his attempt to develop a more moral, less imperialistic policy
in Latin America? Were his involvements really an attempt to create a new mutual
relationship between the United States and the neighboring republics, or was it just an
alternative form of American domination?