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The Philippine Revolution Pandacan, Navotas, Candaba, Cuyo and

Resistance against Spanish Rule
17th century-
By: Agoncillo and Guerrero
two rebellions of a religious nature occurred
The Spaniards, however, invariably in the Visayas.
triumphed because the native institution ,
skills and ideas which the people employed
to resist them were pathetically inadequate a native priest or babaylan called, Tamblot
against the latters military superiority and rallied hundreds of Boholanos to his cause. A
political organization . Spanish expedition from Cebu, consisting of
no more than 50 Spanish soldiers, ably aided
The miserable conditions brought about by
by more than 1,500 Filipinos, subdued the
Spanish political and economic politics
threw the natives into rebellion against the
ruling power.
Dagohoy, angered and humiliated by the
19th century -
refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian
agitation against Spanish rule, however grew burial to his brother; incited the natives of
in intensity with the development of national Bohol to revolt.
B. Opositon to Spanish Impositions
Uprising Against Spain: Causes
-when a Spanish demands and exactions
-in the early decades of Spanish rule against became intolerable, some of these
Spain had been sparked by native chieftains manifestations of discontent, though in the
and religious leaders. beginning unusually uneventful, crossed the
Luzon and the Visayas and spread like
brushfires. It was in this manner that the
revolts of Magalat (1596); Sumoroy (1649-
-the native priests, who had controlled the
1650); the pampango-Pangasinan-Ilokos
craft of magic and idolatry, lost most of their
uprising (1660-1661); the Palaris (1742-
powers to the Christian missionaries.
1764); and the Diego Silang revolt (1762-
A. Personal Grievances 1763) took place.

-the uprising led by Lakan Dula and 1596

Sulayman (1574), the conspiracy of 1587-
- arbitrary and illegal collection of the tribute,
1588 as well, as the revolts of tamblot (1621-
among other objectionable aspects of
1622) and Bankaw (1621 or 1622)
Spanish rule, caused the revolt that Magalat
1587 fomented in Cagayan.

Martin Pangan and Agustin de Legaspi, 1650

relatives of Lakan Dula, led a conspiracy to
- a government expedition composed of
overthrow Spanish sovereignty in the
Spaniards and native mercenary soldiers
Philippines. Among those who joined the
captured the leaders of the movement in the
attempt to regain the freedom and lordship
mountains of Samar, after which they easily
which their fathers had enjoyed before them
suppressed the revolt.
were the former rulers of Tondo, Polo,
*in the middle of the 17th century, uprisings The death of Silang weakened but did not
took place almost simultaneously in the end the revolt because his wife, Gabriela, and
provinces of Pampanga, Pangasinan and his uncle Nicolas Carino, continued the
Ilokos. resistance.

Francisco Maniago C. Religious Uprisings-

-led the natives of the province in a revolt 1601-

against the government practice of forcing
them to cut timber and hauling them to The Ilongots revolted against the insistent
Cavite for construction of the galleons. Spanish attempts to convert them to
Andres Malong
-in the Cagayan Valley (1625 and 1627) and
headed the uprising in Pangasinan, which Oton, Iloilo (1663) on the other hand, the
soon spread to Pampanga, Ilokos, Zambales Spaniards assisted by native volunter
and Cagayan. soldiers, suppressed attempts of the natives
to found a new religion.
- the natives of Binaongan, Pangasinan ,
taking advantage of the situation, broke out The Dominicans refused to accept Apolinario
in the revolt, demanding the abolition of the de la Cruz, who wanted to pursue a priestly
tribute and the removal of Joaquin Gamboa, vocation under the religious order, on the
alcalde mayor of the province who had been ground that he was a native,
committing irregularities in tribute collection.

Diego Silang
- He also established a religious brotherhood
take advantage of the Spanish preoccupation called the Cofradia de San Jose in Tayabas
with the British in Maynila,he started the (now Quezon province).
revolt in Vigan, Ilokos Sur and extended it to
as far Pangasinan and the Cagayan Valley. - De la Cruz also called Hermano Pule
sought the recognition of the brotherhood
-while collecting a massive force in but the Spaniards respond by arresting
Pampanga that would be sent against Silang, hundreds of his followers.
Governor Simon de Anday Salazar issued an
ultimatum to the rebel leader. 1841-

Bishop Ustariz De la Cruz and his followers took up arms in

Tayabas and murdered the provincial
virtually a prisoner in Vigan, issued an governor. The Spaniards, however, eventually
interdict over Silang and his followers and overwhelmed the rebels, captured de la Cruz
exhorted the people to stop supporting the and executed him publicly.
rebel leader.
D. Agrarian Complaints
-with the obvious approval of the Bishop,
Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who wished - Growing agrarian distress found
to take revenge against Silang, and Pedro expression in sporadic revolts, which
Becbec, and old friend and trusted aid of became increasingly frequent as large
Silang conspired to assassinate the rebel estates passed from the
leader. encomenderos to the religious orders.
- The absence of a proper land title most important prerequisite to the formation
system aggravated the problem of the of national consciousness, indeed the sine
ignorant Filipinos who fell easy prey to qua non to the development of national
the surveyors of the government and identities.
the religious orders.
As a historical development, it is relatively
Juan Matienza- new concept, a product of ferment and
political upheavals of the18th century and a
Under his leadership, the natives of Lian and child of the French Revolution, which was
Nasugbu in Batangas raised the standard of exported to the other nations of Europe
revolt in protest against the unconditional during the Napoleonic Wars and later, by war
appropriation of their land to the Jesuits. and commerce, by colonialism itself, to other
-During the 18th century, the Dominicans and parts of the world.
Augustians also increased the acreage of The different ethnic groups in the country
their estates by arbitrary alienation of land shared the same basic elements of
occupied by hundreds of farmers in Bulacan nationalism such as similarities in racial and
Pedro Calderon Enriquez cultural features, but Spanish colonial policy
as well as certain national barriers retarded
- A solicitor oidor of the Real Audiencia, who the development of nationalistic feelings
was sent to investigate agrarian conditions in among the Filipinos.
the province, required religious orders to
present titles to their estates. The Filipinos from different parts of the
country, therefore, failed to realize the
E. Consequences of Fragmented similarities of the grievance and the
Resistance existence of a common source of suffering
and misery.
- Revolts and peasant outbursts of
violence were the principal actions Linguistic differences and the absence of a
engaged by the Filipinos to protest common language, aggravated by the
their economic exploitation and social deliberate refusal of the Spaniards to
degradation. propagate the Spanish language, weighed
heavily in fomenting regionalism and
- The Spaniards possessed not only a prevented the people from developing a
superior military technology and national language that would have unified
strategy, but they also employed them.
native volunter or mercenary soldiers
from one part of the country to Filipino Nationalism: Contributory Factors
suppress the rebels in another.
The transformation of the Philippine economy
- Until 1896, the Spaniards numbered, into a raw material market for Europe
they were able to maintain Spanish unavoidably brought the Filipinos in touch
sovereignty in the colony. with the intellectual tradition of the West,
particularly those liberal and revolutionary
CONTRIBUTARY FACTORS to the ideas that had earlier changed the face of
DEVELOPMENT of PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM Europe. Improved economic conditions broke
down the walls of isolation among the
Belated Development of Philippine
Filipinos and increase their contract with the
outside world.
Cause. Nationalism or devotion or advocacy
of national unity and independence is the
A. Opening of the Philippines to International bourgeoisie with open contempt and
Trade scornfully labeled them bestias cargadas de
oro or beasts loaded with gold.
The opening of several ports in the
Philippines between 1834 and 1873 The middle class became increasingly critical
stimulated the commercial cultivation of of the superciliousness of the friar curate, the
certain export crops to the world market. The importunities and excesses of the
application of increased capital-including bureaucrats, both high and low, but they
British and American - and scientific particularly resented the governments
techniques to agricultural production and the deliberate policy of awarding colonial
increasing demand of these products brought appointments only to fill-blooded Spaniards,
prosperity to the hitherto sequestered colony. more particularly to those born in Spain.

The growth of commerce and industry, C. Impact of European Liberalism

therefore, fostered alteration of the native
social hierarchy with the principalia or the The political fortunes of the adherents of
political and social aristocracy constituting liberalism were sometimes reflected in the
the upper class, the masses which occupied appointment of liberal governors and
the lowest rung of the social ladder and the bureaucrats when the liberals in Spain won
new middle class intermediate between these in their see-saw struggle with the
two classes. conservatives, sometimes in the exodus of
the Spanish liberals when the conservatives
The term middle class, however, as applied gained ascendancy.
to this emergent stratum in Filipino society
differs in meaning and significance from that These liberal bureaucrats and refugees, along
of the European middle class, or for the with other European and American liberals,
matter, the French bourgeoisie. no doubt influenced Filipinos from the ranks
of the middle class with their thought and
The opening of the Suez Canal and the orientation.
subsequent shortening of the route between
the Philippine and Europe enabled many New political ideas, products of intense
Europeans of liberal orientation to come to intellectual ferment, humanitarianism and
the Philippines and come into contract with cosmopolitanism in Europe during 17th and
some Filipinos who had been educated in 18th centuries, trickled into the archipelago.
Europe. Ideas as well as woks of well-known The appeal of the enlightenment
liberal thinkers and philosophers trickled into philosophers, notably John Locke in his Two
the colony. Treatises of Government and Jean Jacques
B. Rise of the Middle Class Rousseau in his Le Contrat Social (The
Social Contract), proved particularly strong to
The middle class or the Filipinos who the educated Filipinos.
participated in agricultural production and
commerce acquired not only wealth and Both thinkers maintained that no government
property but also improved their social is legitimate unless it represents and
status. They sent their children to enforces the absolute and inalienable will of
educational institutions which before were the people.
close to them and when possible even to The ideas of masonry- free thinking, anti-
colleges in Spain. clerical, and humanitarian- also influenced
The Spaniards and the old aristocratic members of the middle class and enabled
families looked down on the emergent them to meet on common grounds for
propaganda purposes.
The French Revolution on the other hand, exist, an incomplete whole, a confusion of
provided one of the intellectual bases of sentiments, instincts, desires, energies,
Filipino nationalism. passions, colors that crowd each other
without forming a single particular one.
The situation of France in 1789 closely
paralleled the conditions prevailing in the The prejudiced notion that the Filipinos were
Philippines in 1896. The upper classes held a impossible to expose to curiosity and
monopoly of political and administrative philosophical studies justified the policy of
powers and refused to acknowledge and depriving them of education and
existence of a growing bourgeoisie, which, in enlightenment.
18th century, chafed at the refusal of the
authorities to grant it political and social The constant insinuation at the racial and
representation. cultural inferiority of the Filipinos constrained
Rizal to prepare a new edition of Antonio
The church owned vast tracks of lands, Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas which,
controlled education and even commerce, with his copious annotations and criticisms,
exercised excessive power throughout debunked the allegations of the Spaniards
Europe and sometimes directed all internal that the Filipinos were savages and no culture
political administration. The masses, on other before the advent of the conquerors.
hand, continued to bear the crushing burden
of taxation and other imposition of Church Racial prejudice may have wrought
and Government. irreparable damage upon the mentality of the
Filipinos, who began to regard Western
The ilustrados, who formed the vanguard of culture as completely superior to their own,
the Propaganda Movement, exposed the but it also proved to be unifying factor among
great spiritual crisis that engulfed the the geographically separated and
Filipinos and attempt to convince the Spanish linguistically divergent groups of Filipinos.
authorities of the imperative need for far
reaching reforms to avert the outbreak of E. Secularization Controversy
revolution. When these were not forthcoming, The conflict between the Spanish clerics
the revolutionist inspired no less by the trying to protect their position as the peoples
French Revolution, launched the struggle for religious caretakers and the Filipino priest
freedom and independence. agitating for an equitable representation in
D. Racial Prejudice parish administration provided the Filipinos
ample proof that the Filipinos were denied
The Spaniards regarded the Filipinos as social and political equality not because of
belonging to the inferior races and could their alleged congenital inferiority and lack of
not possibly be expected to rise beyond the training, but because they were natives.
limited intelligence nature has endowed
them. the term Filipino, which referred to the Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Spaniards born in the Philippines, was applied State that the secular priests be appointed to
to the natives only very much later. administer the new parishes. Owing to the
In the 19th century, the Spaniards waged a scarcity of the secular priests, however, Pope
campaign of open vilification against the Pius V issued in 1567, upon the request of
Filipinos. Journalist like Pablo Feced, Francisco King Philip II, the Exponi Nobis, an apostolic
Caamaque, and W. E. Retena, and others brief that allowed regulars to serve as parish
paid hacks of the friars, took turns in priests without diocesan authorization and
debasing the Filipino who was described as a exempted them from the bishops authority
machine that walks, eat, sleeps and simply and jurisdiction.
The appointment of regular priests to the parishes in Mindanao which the Jesuits held
Philippine parishes brought them into conflict before their expulsion be returned to them.
with the archbishop and the bishops. The
latter maintained that they were responsible The friars engaged the Filipino priests in a
for the proper administration of parishes and better fight over two of the richest benefices
such as they should be given commensurate in the country, the shrine of Antipolo and the
power and authority over the friar curate or curacy of San Miguel, Bulacan, which had a
curra parroco, as the regular serving as long been administered by Filipino secular
parish priests was popularly known. priests. The curacy of Antipolo, regarded as
the pearl of Philippine curacies, was a very
In the 18th century, however, Archbishop rich parish the collection of May alone when
Basilio Santa Justa, determined to assert thousands of pilgrims visited the shrine,
diocesan supremacy over the friar curates, provided the parish more then enough
accepted the resignation of the regular income to support it for the rest of the year.
priests and appointed secular priests to the
vacated parishes. When the parish priest of Antipolo died in
1862, Father Pedro Pelaez, the ecclesiastical
The death of seculars impelled Santa Justa to governor of the archdiocese of Manila,
ordain Filipino secular seminarians and appointed Francisco Campmas, a Filipino
appoint them as parish priests. A royal secular priest to succeed him.
decree promulgated on November 9, 1774
ordering the secularization of parishes (or the In 1869, the parish of San Rafael, Bulacan,
turnover of the parishes administered by friar also became vacant.
curates to the seculars ) sanctioned Santa The government cancelled the competitive
Justa's campaign. examination for which 17 Filipino priests had
The Spaniards continued to make the qualified because the Recollects, invoking the
parishes the exclusive reserved of the 1861 decree, claimed that the parish should
regulars and in the 19th century, in the be given to them. The native clergy protested
complete disregard of the injunction of the in vain. They lost in similar disputes with the
decree of 1776 , adopted a policy of regulars the rich parishes in Bataan,
despoliation or desecularization. Zambales and Pampanga.

The influx of many religious priests in the Father Pelaez wrote a memorial to the Queen
colony, encouraged by the opening of the of Spain protesting the decree of 1861 as
Suez Canal in 1869 and the growing illegal because it violated the provisions of
liberalism and revolutionary sentiments that the Council of Trent and was extremely
had destroyed their power in Spain, was prejudicial to the interests of the native
made to justify such a policy. clergy.

A decree enacted in 1825 deprived many He launched a spirited campaign for the
secular priests of parishes, which they had secularization of the Philippine parishes, and
held for nearly fifty years. Another decree in edited, with several others, El Eco Filipino, a
1849 gave seven curacies in Cavite, which newspaper that worked for justice and equal
were administered by the secular clergy, to representation for Filipino priests.
the friars. The archbishop of Manila, Gregorio Meliton
The return of the Jesuits in1859 was also Martinez, and the prelates of Cebu and Nueva
made to justify the policy of despoliation at Caceres, on the other hand, supported the
the expense of well-qualified Filipino secular beleaguered native clergy.
priests. The authorities ordered that the
Archbishop Martinez, in particular, sent a De la Torre antagonized the friars, particularly
memorial to the Queen Regent in December, so when he implemented the educational
1871 in which he advocated the repeal of the decrees of 1870 which provided for the
decree of 1861 and the establishment of a limited secularization of education and
definite program of training seminarians for government-controlled University of the
Philippine parishes. Philippines.

Secularization had been going on since the The Moret Decree provided for the fusion of
time of Anda, encouraging many Filipinos to certain sectarian schools run by the Jesuits
join the priesthood in increasing numbers. and Dominicans, among them the Ateneo de
Many native priests had proved their Manila, the colleges of San Juan de Letran
capabilities by passing rigid competitive and San Jose into one school called the
examinations for parishes and at the turn of Philippine Institute. The decrees proposed to
the 19th century, many qualified Filipino improved the standard of education in the
priests were running parishes in Pampanga, Philippines by requiring the teaching
the Tagalog provinces and the archdiocese of positions in such schools to be filled by
Manila. competitive examinations.

Father Pedro Pelaez, a Spanish mestizo, The Natives become Filipinos

became Vicario captitular of the Manila
Cathedral and for three years was virtually July 7,1892 - Andres Bonifacio formed a
archbishop of Manila, wielding ecclesiastical secret society to liberate the Philippines from
prerogatives until the arrival of Archbishop Spanish rule. Along with Valentin
Meliton Martinez. Diaz,Teodoro Plata,Ladislaw Diwa and
Deodato Arellano and a few others to form
1898 the Kataastaasan,Kagalang-galangang
Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Most
The friars occupied 817 parishes out of the Exalted and Most Respected Society of the
967 in the entire colony. Sons of the People) .
LATE 19th Century Emilio Jacinto - Bonifacios trusted adviser
The religious ceased to be one of the - commonly referred to as the Brain of the
secularization and became one of Katipunan
- took charge of the recruitment of members
F. Liberal Regime of Carlos Ma de la Torre and assisted Bonifacio in the organization of
(1869-1871 the secret society .
Carlos Ma. De la Torre arrived in 1869 to Three governing bodies :
become the most liberal and most loved
governor-general of the Philippines. a. Kataastaasang Sanggunian or the
Supreme Court
He dismissed his bodyguards and walked
about the city in mufti, mingling with the b. Sangguniang Bayan or Provincial Court
natives and mestizos. He entertained the
Filipinos in receptions in his official residence c. Sangguniang Balangay or Popular Court
and in one such party he said to have The Discovery of the Katipunan
encouraged the agitation of the native clergy,
led by Father Burgos, Gomez and Zamora for The nightly meetings of a great number of
the secularization of the parishes. Filipinos from various secret places in the
suburbs of Manila aroused the suspicionof the *Andres Bonifacio, the contemporary
Spanish authorities particularly the friars. Supremo (supreme leader) of the Katipunan
presided over the election. He secured the
Father Mariano Gil the Augustinian parish unanimous approval that the decision would
priest of Tondo. not be questioned.
August 19,1896 - marked the discovery of the *Aguinaldo, who was busy at a military front
Katipunan and the beginning of an open in Imus, won the election. Bonifacio's position
struggle for liberation . fell to Director of the Interior.
Teodoro Patio - the loose-tongued member Bonifacio,who was not formally educated,
of the Katipunan . accepted the decision but not before insisting
- revealed everything he knew about the on a recount of the votes. However, Daniel
secret society to Father Mariano Gil. Tirona, a native of Cavite, objected that the
post should not be occupied by a person
The discovery of the Katipunan has without a lawyer's diploma.
brought tension and terror to the
archipelago as the Spanish civil He suggested a Caviteo lawyer, Jose del
authorities arrested, imprisoned, Rosario, for the position . Bonifacio, clearly
deported and executed suspected insulted, demanded that Tirona retract the
Katipuneros. remark.

The Cry of Pugad Lawin In an attempt to unify the revolutionary

forces, Aguinaldo attempted to persuade
The Cry of Pugad Lawin , alternately and Bonifacio to cooperate with the newly
originally referred to as the Cry of Balintawak constituted government that he led .
(Filipino: Sigaw ng Balintawak, Spanish: Grito
de Balintawak) symbol of defiance of the Unfortunately, Bonifacio refused and
Spanish rule and separation from Spain, proceeded to Limbon,Indang with the
Bonifacio ordered his men to tear their intention of returning back to Manila to run
cedulas . his government .

Emilio Aguinaldo the young mayor of the Upon the suggestion of his advisers,
town of Kawit ,led the attack on the Spanish Aguinaldo ordered the arrest of Bonifacio.
headquarters and succeeded in routing the May 4, 1897 - Andres and Procopio were
defenders, who were taken by complete found guilty of treason and sedition .
May 8,1987 - Emilio Aguinaldo commuted the
-born on March 22,1869 in Kawit,Cavite. death sentence to banishment . Out of fear
The Katipuneros in Cavite were divided into that Bonifacio was a threat to the unity of the
two factions : revolutionary forces , Generals Mariano Noriel
and Pio del Pilar rushed to Aguinaldo.
the Magdalo faction - led by Baldomero
May 10,1897 the two brothers were brought
Aguinaldo, the cousin of Emilio .
out from jail and shot at Mount Buntis,a small
the Magdiwang faction led by Mariano mountain near Maragondon .
Alvarez , the uncle of Gregoria de Jesus .
The Campaign for Reform
Tejeros Convention
The unjust execution of the three Filipino
- it was a meeting held between the priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and
Magdiwang and Magdalo factions . Jacinto Zamora was a turning point in the
Philippine history, for it ushered in a new era- were called Filipinos. Before 1898, then, the
the reform movement. Filipinos were called indios and the insulares
Realizing the danger for their cause on the
home front, the sons of the wealthy and well- The chance of the middle class to show their
to-do Filipino families migrated to Europe to political color came when General Carlos
breathe the free atmosphere of the Old Maria de la Torre became governor in 1869.
World. Identified with the revolutionary forces in
Spain, de la Torre showed his democratic
These they initiated a sustained campaign for tendencies when he dismissed the palace
reforms for the administration of the halberdiers, live simply within his means,
Philippines. walked the streets in mufti, and abolished
The unjust execution of the three Filipino flogging as punishments.
priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and The natives, on the other hand, were
Jacinto Zamora was a turning point in the invariably Indios. It was not until Governor
Philippine history, for it ushered in a new era- General Basilio Agustin called for the loyalty
the reform movement. and aid of the Indios in 1898 that the latter
Realizing the danger for their cause on the were called Filipinos. Before 1898, then, the
home front, the sons of the wealthy and well- Filipinos were called indios and the insulares
to-do Filipino families migrated to Europe to Filipinos.
breathe the free atmosphere of the Old The chance of the middle class to show their
World. political color came when General Carlos
These they initiated a sustained campaign for Maria de la Torre became governor in 1869.
reforms for the administration of the Identified with the revolutionary forces in
Philippines. Spain, de la Torre showed his democratic
tendencies when he dismissed the palace
The role of the Middle Class halberdiers, live simply within his means,
walked the streets in mufti, and abolished
The rise of the Filipino middle class, flogging as punishments.
composed of Spanish and Chinese mestizos,
rose to a position of power in the Filipino From then on, the middle class led the reform
community and eventually became leaders in movement, which was temporarily silenced
finance and education. during the decade from 1872 to 1882, when
the Filipino intelligentsia, a segment of the
The Spanish authorities looked down upon middle class, took over the leadership from
them, for they did not belong to the inner the wealthy segment.
circle of peninsulares- Spaniards born to
Spain- whose prerogative it was to rule and The Nature of the Reform Movement
govern. This attitude was not surprising, for
Spanish society in the Philippines was a sort The dissatisfaction of the Filipino men of
of caste of consisting of two well-defined wealth and intellect was centered around the
classes: the peninsulares or Spaniards born in abuses of the Spanish authorities, civil as
Spain and insulares or Spaniards born in the well as clerical.
Philippine. From then on, the middle class led the reform
The natives, on the other hand, were movement, which was temporarily silenced
invariably Indios. It was not until Governor during the decade from 1872 to 1882, when
General Basilio Agustin called for the loyalty the Filipino intelligentsia, a segment of the
and aid of the Indios in 1898 that the latter
middle class, took over the leadership from expression in the works of Lopez Jaena, Rizal,
the wealthy segment. Del Pilar, Eduardo de Lete, Pedro Govantes
and others, who left the Philippines in search
The Nature of the Reform Movement of freedom elsewhere.
The dissatisfaction of the Filipino men of With the arrival of Marcelo H. del Pilar in
wealth and intellect was centered around the Barcelona on New Years Day, 1889, the
abuses of the Spanish authorities, civil as founding of the Filipino organ gained
well as clerical. acceptance from all Filipinos in Spain.
The assimilation of the Philippines to Spain, On February 15,1889, the first number of La
that is to say, the transformation of the Solidaridad came out in Barcelona. The paper
Philippines to a province of Spain and making was a fortnightly dedicated to the expositions
the Filipino fellows- Spaniards, was to be of the conditions in the Philippines, the
accomplished in a peaceful manner. defense of the Filipinos against the malicious
The rich and intellectuals then, were and slanderous attacks of the hired writers of
reformers, not revolutionist, for they believed the friars, and the publication of studies
in the power of words, and not of the sword, about the Philippines and the Filipinos.
to achieve their purpose. The first editor of the Soli was Lopez Jaena,
La Salidaridad but he turned over the management to del
Pilar in December 1889. the news of the birth
The last two decades of the 19 th century were of the Soli reached the Philippines within two
characterized by political activities never months and soon the nationalists began
before witnessed among the Filipinos. It was sending their contributions to Spain.
an era of growing social and political
consciousness and discontent which found In the writing of the Soli, the Filipino
expression in the works of Lopez Jaena, Rizal, reformists used pen names for obvious
Del Pilar, Eduardo de Lete, Pedro Govantes reasons. Rizal used Dimas Alang and Laong
and others, who left the Philippines in search Laan; Mariano Ponce hid under the pen
of freedom elsewhere. names Tikbalang; Naning and Kalipulako;
Antonio Luna used Taga-Ilog; Marcelo H. del
La Salidaridad Pilar hid under the pen name Plaridel; and
Jose Ma. Panganiban wrote as Jomapa.
The last two decades of the 19 th century were
characterized by political activities never The Soli may not have succeeded in
before witnessed among the Filipinos. It was influencing the peninsular Government to
an era of growing social and political grant the reforms demanded by the Filipinos,
consciousness and discontent which found for it was not disposed, in the first place to
expression in the works of Lopez Jaena, Rizal, humor them, but in its more than six years of
Del Pilar, Eduardo de Lete, Pedro Govantes existence the Sol represented the ideals of
and others, who left the Philippines in search the Filipino reformist group.
of freedom elsewhere.
At the same time, it also succeeded in
La Salidaridad exposing the evils in Philippine society and in
belying the claims put forth by such anti-
The last two decades of the 19 th century were Filipino writers as Wenceslao E. Retena,
characterized by political activities never Vicente Barrantes, and Pablo Feced that the
before witnessed among the Filipinos. It was Filipinos had no civilization before the coming
an era of growing social and political of the Spaniards. Thus , when Barrantes
consciousness and discontent which found claimed that the Filipinos had no theater,
Rizal, writing in the Sol, ridiculed him and of agricultural banks (8) the initiation of
exposed not only his prejudice, but also is reforms in the public administration; and (9)
profound ignorance. The Soli, then construction of good roads and railways.
represented in the age the spirit of the
Filipinos. Having played its role creditably, The concerted campaigns of the Hispano-
the newspaper bowed out of existence in Filipino Association resulted in the passage of
Madrid with its last number dated November laws in the Cortes which would have been of
15, 1895. benefit to the Filipinos had they been carried
The Hispano-Filipino Association
It was this society, which urged no less than
At first the reformist worked individually, but 52 Spanish towns to petition the Cortes to
later on, realizing the advantages of pooling favor parliamentary representation of the
their resources and efforts in the campaign to Philippines. The petition was presented to the
have their own voices heard by the Cortes by Representative Emilio Junoy on
Peninsular Government, they banded February 21, 1895, but nothing came out of
together to form a society. The society, it.
conceived as early as July 1888, was
inaugurated on January 12, 1889 in Madrid. The society also secured the passage of the
Since it was composed of Filipinos and Maura Law in 1893; the law for the
Spaniards who favored the granting of compulsory teaching of Spanish; and the laws
reforms in the colony the society was called proving for the initiation of reforms in the
Hispano-Filipino Association. Prominent judiciary.
among the Spanish members of the society La Liga Filipina
were Miguel Morayta, professor of history at
the University Central of Madrid. And Felipe Almost simultaneously with the introduction
de La Corte, author of the several works on of Masonry in the Philippines, a civic society
the Philippines. called La Propaganda was established.

Morayta was elected President of the society. Its members, composed mostly, if not
To make the propaganda work effective, the exclusively, of the middle class, contributed
society was divided into three sections: the money to defray the expenses of the Filipino
political section under Marcelo H. del Pilar; reformers in Spain who were waging a
the literary section under Mariano Ponce; and campaign to obtain political concessions from
the sports section under Tomas Arejola. The the Mother Country.
Central Directorate of the association
outlined the reforms needed in the (4)Capital shall be loaned to the members
Philippines, among the most important which who shall need it for an industry or
were (1) the compulsory teaching of Spanish agriculture;
in all schools (2) the suppression of inhuman
(5)The introduction of machines and
punishments in all jails and tribunals of
industries, new or necessary in the country,
justice; (3) the establishment of the civil
shall be favored; and
register and the register of deeds; (4) the
abolition of the diezmos prediales and the (6)Shop, stores, and establishments shall be
sanctrum; opened, where the members may be
accommodated more economically than
(5) the establishments of secondary schools
in two or three provinces of the archipelago;
(6) reforms in the University of Santo Tomas Innocent as the society was the Spanish
in order to raise it to the rank of the authorities considered it dangerous and on
universities in Spain; (7) the establishments
the night of July 6, 1892, Rizal was secretly the members of the middle class were
arrested. conservatives and lacked the courage and
vigorous hope necessary to continue an
The Liga languished for a while, but some unequal struggle. Hence, the failure of the
members continued to support it. The aims peaceful campaign for reforms.
remained the same. But it was agreed that all
should contribute toward the support of La The Founding of the Katipunan
Solidaridad in Spain.
The abject failure of the Filipino reformist,
The Liga was first active, but later on its most of whom were expatriates, to bring
members tired of paying their dues, alleging about the desired changes in the social,
that the Spanish government did not heed political, and economic patterns in the
the La Solidaridad, which they were Philippines led a segment of the people to
financing. The middle class members of the believed that the peaceful propaganda was
society believed that something could be useless.
done by La Solidaridad in its campaigns for
reforms. The poor members led by Andres Marcelo H. del Pilar, Jose Rizal, the Luna
Bonifacio thought that there was no hope of brothers, Jose Panganiban, Mariano Ponce
reforms. and others utilized their organ La Solidaridad
to focus the so called Philippine problem to
The Failure of the Reform Movement the attention of the authorities in the
The intensive campaign of La Solidaridad for
reforms did not yield any tangible result in But the Spanish friars used their power and
the form of changes in the administration of money to offset the propaganda activities of
the Philippines. the Filipino expatriates by paying the likes of
Deseganos (Wencelo Emilio Retena) and
Then, too, the friars were too powerful even Quicquiap (Pablo Feced) to carry on a
in Spain to be sidetracked by the Spanish campaign of vilification against the Filipinos
authorities, so that, whatever good and their leaders.
impressions the Sol had created in the minds
of the Spain were counteracted by the The status quo had to be preserve at all
influential and powerful newspaper of the costs, and the friars did not count the costs
friars, La Politica de Espena en Filipinas. to preserved it against the inroads of what
was then termed as Protestant ideas.
In the second place, the society established
in the Philippines whose purpose was to Rizal, tired and disillusioned, decided to
campaign for reforms did not have sufficient return to the Philippines and offered himself
means with which to carry out their aims. as sacrificial lamb to the authorities to stop
the persecution of the innocent members of
Some of the members of these societies his family and his friends.
realized the futility of the peaceful
propaganda, considering that in its more than He founded the idealistic but innocuous La
six years of existence the Sol had not Liga Filipina in 1892 with purely civic alms.
succeeded in convincing the government of But the Spanish authorities, goaded by the
Spain to grant the needed reforms in the friars, saw in, the Liga the germ of a
administration of the colony. subversive movement.

In the third place, the propagandists were On July 6, 1892, Ramon Despujol, Governor-
divided against themselves by petty General Eulogio; Despujols nephew, politely
jealousies. The result was the weakening of asserted Rizal to Fort Santiago.
the ties that bound them together. Most of
The following day, the Governor-General and the policy of character , and the policy of
issued a decree deporting Rizal to one of obscurantism.
the islands in the south and prohibiting
the introduction and circulation in the The Katipunan was thus a plebian
Archipelago of all the works of said author, organization, for its charter members
whether they be proclamations or flying belonged to the lowest stratum of society.
sheets which directly or indirectly assail the Throughout its history, the Katipunan had
Catholic religion or the national unity. been dominated and moved by the masses
and their leadres.
In the flickering light of a table lamp, the men
performed the ancient blood compact and Realizing the danger of discovery, Bonifacio
signed their membership papers with their and his men recruited members through the
own blood. circuitous method known as triangle. So
clumsy was this method that in October 1892
Six important points were approved: the Katipunan decided to junk it and to allow
the members to take into the brotherhood as
(1) the establishment of a secrete society to many persons as they could get.
be known as Kataastaasang Kagalang-
galangan na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng When the membership of the Katipunan
Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable reached 100 or more the first Supreme
Society of the Sons of the People); Council was established with Deodato
Arellano as president, Andres Bonifacio as
(2) recruiting members through the method inventor, Ladislao Diwa as Fiscal, Teodoro
known as the triangle; Plata as secretary, and Valentin Diaz as
(3) the payment of an entrance fee of one treasurer.
real fuerto (approximately twenty-five In February 1893, Bonifacio deposed Arellano
centavos), and monthly due of a medio and installed Roman Basa as president.
Bonifacio, then from the inception of the
(4) the establishment of a balangay or a Katipunan to March 1897, was the guiding
chapter in each district of the city; spirit of the Katipunan, through Rizal, without
(5) the prosecution of the societys aim by his knowledge, was its rallying cry.
concerted effort and; Unashamed apologists of the friars believe
that Rizal was the guiding spirit of the
(6) agreement by those present to all Katipunan, thereby making Rizal guilty of
reforms based on the societys aims. having been directly responsible for the
outbreak of the Revolution and therefore,
The three-cardinal objectives were laid down meriting death.
by Bonifacio to be pursued by all members of
the society: This indeed, is a subtle way of vilifying Rizal
even beyond his grave.
(1) Political: to seek separation from Spain
if the latter continued to resist the clamor for Liken Masonry, from which the Katipunan
the expulsion of the friars; borrowed its ceremonial rites, the Society
divided its member into grades.
(2) Civic: to help and defend the poor and
the oppressed and; (1) Katipon (member) : wore a black
hood in all meetings. The hood had a
(3) Moral: to teach good manners, hygiene, triangle of white ribbons, inside of
and democratic morality: and to fight which were the letters Z, Ll, B., the
religious fanaticism, weakness of character, Katipunan characters corresponding to
the Roman A ng B, meaning Anak ng As to the second question, the answers was
Bayan (Son of the People) the that the so-called friar missionaries had done
password of the Katipon. nothing more than teach the forms of
Catholicism in its shallow trappings. Blinding
(2) Kawal (soldier) : wore a green hood the Filipinos with the apparatus of
with a triangle composed of white magnificent religious festivals, which cost
lines. At the three angles were the them so much and benefit only the friars.
letters Z, Ll, B. that is Z in one angle, Ll
in another, and B in the third. The third answer is that with faith, courage
and constancy, all the brutalities and
Suspended from the neck of a Kawal was a iniquities of the Spanish authorities will be
green ribbon with a medal at the remedied in time and freedom will be
end, the letter K in the ancient Tagalog redeemed.
syllabary appearing in the middle of the
medal. The password was Gom-Bur-Za, taken The dangers that faced the Katipuneros led
from the names of the martyred priest the leaders to evolved a system of writing
Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora. that would lessen, if not totally remove the
risk of discovery by the authorities.
(3) (3) Bayani (patriot) : wore a red
mask and sash with green borders, When the Katipunan was discovered and its
symbolizing courage and hope. The alphabetical key decoded. Bonofacio, in a
front mask had white borders that signed statement dated at Balintawak on
formed a triangle with the three Ks August 21, 1896, ordered that, From now on
arranged as if occupying the angels of all papers shall not be written in cipher
a triangle within the first triangle. At (alphabetical) but in numbers.
the letters base the letter Z, Ll. B.,
were placed in a horizontal row, thus. This key was again changed after the
tumultuous Tajeros Convention of March 22,
The Kawal became a Bayani upon becoming 1897 when the rivalry between the two
an officer of the Katipunan. It is known when factions of the Katipunan in Cavite reached
this method of dividing the members into the serious proportions.
three grades came to end, but in January
1896 the system was no longer in vogue. At the top of the organization was the
Supreme Council composed of a president, a
The neophyte is then seated near a small secretary, a fiscal, a treasurer, and six
dimly lighted table on which are a revolver, a members of councilors. In every province a
bolo, a skull and a formulary containing three popular council (sangguniang bayan) was
question that he must answer satisfactory. established, while in every town a section
The question were: First, What was the (sarigguniang balangay) was organized. Both
condition of the Philippines in early times? had the same set of officers as the Supreme
Second, What is the condition today? Third, Council.
What will be the condition in the future?
In every province, moreover, there was a sort
Coached previously by his sponsor, the of provincial court, called sangguniang
neophyte answers that the Filipinos before hukuman, upon which the popular councils
the coming of the Spaniards had their own and sections depended and had, as its names
civilization and political liberty, their own connotes, the attributes of a judiciary that
religion and alphabet, and had commercial passed judgment on questions arising
and diplomatic intercourse with the nations of between the members.
Asia. In a word, the Filipinos were happy and
With a sort of government machinery But from the middle of March to outbreak of
compete, the Katipunan turned its attention the Revolution, the membership soared to
to the symbol of its authority. A flag was about 30,000. the Kalayaan had done its
made by Benita Rodriguez, with the help of best, and the people were now prepared for
Gregoria de Jesus. The flag consisted of a red the supreme sacrifice.
rectangular piece of cloth with three white
Ks arranged horizontally at the center. The A Republic Is Born
first was, however, the one sanctioned as the The Tejeros Convention
official banner of the Katipunan.
On March 22 at the state house of Tejeros, a
General Mariano Llanera of Nueva Ecija used convention was held which was presided by
a black banner with a skull above two-cross Bonifacio. The members present agreed to
bones and letter-X, all in white. Bonifacio form a new government.
humorously called this banner Llaneras
skull. Bonifacio himself had his own flag Officials of this government were to be
distinguished from the rest by having a white elected by those present in the convention. It
sun with an indefinite number of rays in red was also agreed that unanimously that
field. Below the sun were the three Ks, also whoever would be elected would be
arranged horizontally. respected by all.

When the revolution flared, the Magdalo The result of this election was:
rebels of Cavite made their own flag. It was a
rectangular banner, with a white K in the President- Emilio Aguinaldo
ancient script in the center of a sun,
Vice president- Mariano Trias
represented by a white circle, with an
indefinite number of white rays. Captain-general- Artemio Ricarte
Later on, the rays were limited to eight to Director of War- Emiliano Riego de Dios
represent the first eight provinces that took
up arms against the Spaniards. In the Naik Director of the interior Andres
Assembly of March 17, 1897, the military Boniface
leaders again decided the change the design
of the revolutionary flag. It was agreed to The biyak-na-bato republic
adopt the Magdalo banner with the addition
The filipinos were tired of spanish
of a sun with eyes, nose, mouth and
promises. For more than three hundred
eyebrows. This flag became the first official
years, they heard nothing but
flag of the Filipinos.
promises. They now wanted to live a
About the end of March 1896, when copies of new life.
the Kalayaan had been distributed far and
Before july or early in july, aguinaldo
wide, hundreds of people nightly joined the
established a republican government
Katipunan in the municipalities of San Juan
at biyak-na-bato. The constitution on
del Monte, San Felipe Neri, Pasig, Pateros,
its preamble, declared the aim of the
Marikina, Kalookan, Malabon and other
Revolution as the separation of the
philippines from spain. Provided that
The people became conscious of the rights Tagalog shall be the official language
and their duty to their country. The arm of the of the republic.
Katipunan was extended to the provinces of
November 02, 1897, the rebels elected
Batangas, Cavite, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija,
their officials:
Pampanga and Laguna.
Emilio Aguinaldo, president having been established, they enjoyed
themselves by attending horse and
Mariano Trias , vice president boat races, and by going to the
Antonio Montenegro, secretary of
foreign affairs Meanwhile, the filipino military officers
left at biyak-na-bato to attend to the
Isabelo artancho, secretary of the
surrender of firearms.
The Spanish American War 1898
Emilio riego de dios, secretary of war
The SpanishAmerican War was a conflict
Baldomero Aguinaldo, secretary of the
in 1898 between Spain and theUnited States,
treasury effectively the result of American intervention
The truce of biyak-na-bato in the ongoingCuban War of Independence.

Pedro A. Paterno Philippine declaration of independence

The Philippine Declaration of

>a filipino of chinese blood, offered himself
as mediator. He was negotiating with the two independence was proclaimed on
camps on how to end the bloody struggle. June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo
(present-day Kawit,
Resulting the truce of the biyak-na-bato Cavite), Philippines. With the public
had three documents signed reading of theAct of the Declaration of
independence (Spanish: Acta de la
on november 18, 1897, provided for proclamacin de independencia del
the surrender of the rebels weapons, pueblo Filipino), Filipino revolutionary
particularly rifles, and the grants of forces under General Emilio
amnesty to those who would lay down Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty
their arms. and independence of the Philippine
Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
The second document, known as the
programme, signed on December 24, Treaty of Paris
provided for the schedule of
Aguinaldo's departure for hongkong. Negotiated on terms favorable to the
U.S., which allowed temporary
The third document, signed on American control of Cuba and,
December 15, provided for the following their purchase from Spain,
payment to Aguinaldo of the sum indefinite colonial authority
400,00 upon his departure for over Puerto Rico, Guam, and
hongkong, another 400,000 to be paid the Philippines.
by government only on the condition
of the agreement being fulfilled on the
other part, and 900,0000 to be paid
to those Filipinos , not engaged in
warfare against the Spaniards, who
suffered the evils of war.

Failure of the truce

The month of january 1898 was a

happy one for the spaniards. Peace